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Games people play


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									                                   Games people play
7.1. A circular arrangement is less aggressive and therefore less likely to produce
confrontation than a layout where the governing party and main opposition party face each
other directly.

layout noun - arrangement or plan: order, formation
/’leiaut/ [countable]
1. the way in which something such as a town, garden, or building is arranged
layout of
the layout of the park
All the flats in the building had the same layout.
2. the way in which writing and pictures are arranged on a page
layout of
the layout of a business letter
page layout software
a computer program to help you design page layout
He was one of the architects who planned the layout of the hospital.
Many of the golfers complained about the course layout.

The most misused of these is page makeup or page layout software while the second is just
described as desktop publishing software.
A brief discussion of how to control the page layout and how to avoid widow and orphan line
is provided below.
Its basic approach is to use frames to hold the various elements of a page layout.
Fortunately, WordPerfect will do most of the page layout work for you-it calculates the
appropriate sizes of columns and margins.
The page layout software and the laser printer make the big difference compared with
traditional methods.
Lineup table a table with an illuminated top used for preparing and checking alignment of
page layouts and paste-ups.
No attempt is made to hyphenate, justify or show the final page layout.
Try to be consistent about page layout within a Web site.

confrontation noun /,konfrən’teiŚən $ ,ka:n-/ [countable,uncountable ]
1. a situation in which there is a lot of angry disagreement between two people or groups:
She had stayed in her room to avoid another confrontation.
confrontation with/between
an ideological confrontation between conservatives and liberals
2. a fight or battle
military/violent/armed confrontation
Japan seemed unlikely to risk military confrontation with Russia.

venue noun /’venju:/ [countable] - Glossary p. 175 a location/place where an organized event
(meeting, concert etc) takes place
sporting/conference/concert etc venue
The first thing to do is book a venue.
The band will play (=perform at) as many venues as possible.
venue for
the venue for the latest round of talks
Most conference venues fall down on the little matters of personal caring.
One session will look at the role of cities as major providers of huge new leisure facilities and
sporting venues.
Seating 500 it provides a centre of services of all denominations and a concert venue.
Time allowed 00:21 Read in studio One of the country's best-known concert venues is up for
Voice over Meanwhile, sporting venues across the region have disappeared in the deluge.
Working closely with Merseyside Conference Bureau, Lauren has helped to promote the area
as a main conference venue.
p. 159/160


*chips AmE = crisps (BrE)

chip noun /tŚip/ [countable]
1. (food)
a) British English [usually plural] a long thin piece of potato cooked in oil [= French fry
American English]
fish and chips
a bag of chips
b) American English [usually plural] a thin flat round piece of food such as potato cooked in
very hot oil and eaten cold [= crisp British English]
a bag of potato chips

crisp noun /krisp/ [countable] British English
a very thin flat round piece of potato that is cooked in oil and eaten cold [↪ chip; = potato
chip AmE]
a packet of crisps

negotiate verb /ni’gouŚieit $ -‘gou-/ Glossary p.172 to attempt to arrive at an agreement
through discussion and compromise
1 [intransitive and transitive] to discuss something in order to reach an agreement, especially
in business or politics

negotiable adjective /ni’gouŚiəbəl, -Śə- $ -’gou-/ Glossary p.172
1. an offer, price, contract etc that is negotiable can be discussed and changed before being
agreed on [≠ non-negotiable]:
Part-time barman required. Hours and salary negotiable.
The price is not negotiable.
2. a road, path etc that is negotiable can be travelled along:
The road is only negotiable in the dry season.
3. technical a cheque that is negotiable can be exchanged for money
Bank charges for loans are often negotiable.
The offer is negotiable, so feel free to suggest changes.
We are looking for an experienced journalist to join the news team. The salary is negotiable.
The fact is everything is negotiable in business, not simply the price.
negotiation Glossary p.172 the process of negotiating

negotiator Glossary p.172 the person involved in negotiation

compromise noun /’komprəmaiz $ ’ko:m-/ Glossary p. 170 an agreement acceptable for
both sides, where you accept less then you originally hoped for; the settlement of a
disagreement by each side making concessions
to reach a compromise
1. [uncountable and countable] an agreement that is achieved after everyone involved accepts
less than what they wanted at first, or the act of making this agreement:
Compromise is an inevitable part of marriage.
To stop the argument they decided on a compromise.
compromise with
Fresh attempts at compromise with the legislature were also on the agenda.
compromise between
a compromise between government and opposition
If moderates fail to reach a compromise, the extremists will dominate the agenda.
Be prepared tomake compromises.
2. [countable] a solution to a problem in which two things or situations are changed slightly
so that they can exist together
compromise between
a happy compromise between the needs of family and work
Decisions came only after a long process of compromise.
Officials hope to find a compromise between Britain and other EU members.
But whether the compromise bolsters the prospects for permanent peace in Bosnia is another
The compromise provides aid for children and gives counties the option of providing parents
with employment or other services.
The centre stands for compromise between president and parliament - and compromise no
longer seems a solution to their bitter war.
The defence minister, General Pavel Grachev, called for a compromise and promised that the
army would stay out of the dispute.
There is a necessary compromise which can only be arrived at in the context of a particular

*** to reach a compromise
After several hours of discussions, they managed to reach a compromise.
Talks are continuing in the hope that the two factions will reach a compromise.
As for smoking, we reached a compromise.
Failure to reach compromises on spending in 1995 and 1996 triggered two partial government
If moderates fail to reach a compromise, or even to talk, the extremists on both sides will
dominate the agenda.
It's hoping to meet the shopkeepers and reach a compromise.
Republicans said they see little chance of reaching a compromise this year.
Within a few months, they made the triumphant proclamation that they had reached a
compromise all sides could live with.

overcome Glossary p. 173 to succeed in finding a solution to a problem or difficulty
overcome an objection: satisfactorily answer an expression of opposition

overcome verb /’əuvə’k۸m $ ,ouvër-/ past tense overcame /-‘keim/ past participle overcome
1. to successfully control a feeling or problem that prevents you from achieving something:
He struggled to overcome his shyness.
Her financial problems could no longer be overcome.
Each situation brought about problems for me to overcome.
The communication problem can be overcome in part through the use of interpreters.
Of course there are problems, but look at the past and at the problems we have already
If you have been made redundant or have been unemployed for a long time you have two
additional problems to overcome.
And finally, I will explore some suggestions about how such problems may be overcome.
Thus the practical and ethical difficulties can be overcome.
However, these difficulties were overcome by the efforts of devoted officers.
It could be argued that to a large extent such fears are unfounded or else that the difficulties
have been overcome.

objection noun /əb’džekŚən/
1. [uncountable and countable] a reason that you have for opposing or disapproving of
something, or something you say that expresses this

raise/voice/make an objection (to something)
have no objection (to something)
strong objection
moral objection
religious objection
do something over the objections of somebody (=do something despite someone's objections)

Her objection was that he was too young.
objection to
Lawyers raised no objections to the plan.
Normally he would have no objection to the whole world knowing his business.
Local residents raised strong objections to the building application.
He had moral objections to killing animals for food.
the religious objections of some parents
The bill was passed over the objections of many Democrats.
2. objection! spoken formal         said by lawyers to a judge in a court when they think that what another
lawyer has just said should not be allowed

beat (someone) down Glossary p.169 to persuade someone to reduce the price of goods after
a lot of forceful argument
beat verb /bi:t/ past tense beat past participle beaten
beat somebody down British English to persuade someone to reduce a price
beat somebody down to
He wanted £4500 for the car but I beat him down to £3850.
... a customer will always try to beat you down on price
*beat verb /bi:t/ past tense beat past participle beaten
Brazil were beaten, 2-1. [= defeat]
Labour easily beat the Conservatives in the last election.
for the sake of it if you do something for the sake of it, you do it because you want to and not
for any particular reason:
She likes spending money just for the sake of it.

immediate adjective /i’mi:diət/
2. [only before noun] existing now, and needing to be dealt with quickly:
Let's try and solve the most immediate problem.
There is an immediate danger of war.

outcome Glossary p. 172 – the end result of something
outcome noun /’autk۸m/ [countable]- final result [ +effect, consequence, implications,
upshot, end result, net result/effect, after-effect]
the final result of a meeting, discussion, war etc - used especially when no one knows what it
will be until it actually happens [= result]
outcome of
It was impossible to predict the outcome of the election.
People who had heard the evidence at the trial were surprised at the outcome.
At this point, I wouldn't even try to predict the outcome, but we're hoping for the best.
It's impossible to say for sure what the outcome of the election will be.
The negotiations are continuing, and we are hoping for a positive outcome.
The patient's general health and fitness can also affect the outcome of the disease.
The talks had a better outcome than we had originally hoped.
Whatever the outcome, I hope we remain friends.
A win-win outcome is where all parties involved are successful in achieving their objectives.
The campaign is still young, and the outcome could change drastically as it did four years ago.

after-effect noun British English , aftereffect American English /’a:ftərifekt $ ’æf-/
[countable usually plural]
a bad effect that continues for a long time after the thing that caused it
the after-effects (of something)
the after-effects of his illness

upshot noun /’۸špŚot $ -Śo:t/
the upshot (of something) the final result of a situation:
The upshot was that after much argument they all agreed to help her.

talk somebody into something phrasal verb - to persuade someone to do something
talk somebody into doing something
My husband talked me into going skiing.

rotate verb /rəu’teit $ ’routeit/ Glossary p. 174 to move from one person or company to
another in order to give each one a turn
[intransitive and transitive] if a job rotates, or if people rotate jobs, they each do a particular
job for a particular period of time:
The chairmanship of the committee rotates annually.
Employers may rotate duties to give staff wider experience.
cosy adjective British English ; cozy American English /’kəuzi $ ’kouzi/ - comfortable and
1. a place that is cosy is small, comfortable, and warm:
The living room was warm and cosy.

Being prepared: you must know what is negotiable and the most you can allow the other
Price: the customer always tries to get the lowest price possible. Never go under what you
had previously decided. Aim to arrive at a price you’re both satisfied with.
Winning or losing a negotiation: you shouldn’t aim to ’win’ or ’lose’ but reach a deal which
suits both sides.
Short-and long-term aims: it’s better to aim for long-term benefits than short-term profit and
to develop a comfortable relationship of trust with your negotiating partner.


first and foremost - used to emphasize the most important quality, purpose, reason etc:
Dublin is thought of first and foremost for its literary heritage.
First and foremost, they are looking for ways to save money.
Mayor Agnos is a conservative Christian, but he considers himself first and foremost an
What children need first and foremost from their parents is a sense of security.
And Mr Hemsley is first and foremost a producer-not a commodity trader.
Friends say that this was the demand she put first and foremost on the list of what she wanted
to achieve.
However my worry is not first and foremost a medical one but a spiritual one.
I really think that first and foremost this one's down to the board.
It has been established that such items as these were employed first and foremost as musical
It is a film first and foremost about loss.
My other travelling companion, John Lawrence, would describe himself first and foremost as
a writer.
This meant, first and foremost, following Bacon in the making of natural histories.

foremost adjective /’fo:məust $ ’fo:rmoust/
1. the best or most important [= leading, top]:
one of the country's foremost authorities on chemical warfare
Rostropovich was long considered the world's foremost cellist.
2. in a leading position among a group of people or things
foremost among/amongst
Sharpton was foremost among the protesters.
Economic concerns are foremost on many voters' minds.

first, first of all, firstly, at first
Use first, first of all, or firstly to introduce the first item in a list of two or more points,
instructions etc
• First, make sure the screws are securely fixed in position. Then attach the wire.
• The plan was not practical, firstly because of the cost, and secondly because local people did
not support it.
Use first or first of all to say what happens first in a series of actions
• First I fed the baby. Then I made myself a sandwich.
Use at first to say what happened at the beginning of a period of time, when this changed later
• At first I was nervous, but I soon started to relax

insight noun /’insait/ Glossary p. 172- a deep understanding of what someone or something is
really like
2. [uncountable] the ability to understand and realize what people or situations are
really like [comprehension, understanding]
a woman of great insight
1. [countable]    a sudden clear understanding of something or part of something, especially a complicated
situation or idea
insight into
The article gives us a real insight into the causes of the present economic crisis.
The research provides new insights into the way we process language.
You learn as you give, gaining new insight into the lives and needs of poor communities.
Its modest size appeals to visitors who gain an unusual insight into the domestic life of the
One way to gain insight into these issues is to view them through the work of some of the
main protagonists.
An up-front market study can provide valuable insights and provide sharper focus for the
subsequent search.
An examination of some of the reasons may provide an insight into the sources of a modern
Prime Minister's power.
Subsequently the highly rated manager develops creative solutions and provides new insights
into problems.
The results will provide deeper insight into the impact of external constraints and competing
functional goals upon the firm's marketing effectiveness.
Second, the handling of humour in the book provides valuable insights.
Working independently, J. Havelock Fidler came up with original and valuable insights into
the operation of earth energy.
If we recognize this possibility we may gain much valuable insight into the complex forces
acting in the real world.

initiative noun /i’niŚətiv/ Glossary p. 172 personal quality of accepting responsibility and
take decisions without help or approval
1. decisions [uncountable] the ability to make decisions and take action without waiting for
someone to tell you what to do:
I wish my son would show more initiative.
Don't keep asking me for advice. Use your initiative.
Lt. Carlos was not obeying orders. He acted on his own initiative (=he was not told what to
*** to take initiative: to be the first to take action
Everyone was standing around in silence, so I took the initiative and tried to explain why we
had come.
It is, however, NOW that the defender should take the initiative in the further handling of the
Several times Robbie considered taking the initiative, but each time she thought better of it.
The leader has taken the initiative, perhaps he knows more about the field.
They take the initiative, come up with technological and organizational innovations, devise
new solutions to old problems.
You think he wants me to take the initiative?
Admittedly, these subordinates had to show some personal initiative to upgrade their skills.
He is expected to be resourceful, not to show initiative.
What does this show about my ability to show initiative and organizational skills?
It was nearly always organised by a government, although some torturers acted on their own

persuasive adjective Glossary p. 173 has the ability to make people do or believe something
persuasive adjective /pə’sweisiv $ pər-/good at persuading people: forceful, pushy, smooth-
talking, slick
able to make other people believe something or do what you ask:
Trevor can be very persuasive.
persuasive argument/evidence [= convincing, compelling]

a persuasive argument against capital punishment
—persuasively adverb
—persuasiveness noun [uncountable]

persuade verb /pə’sweid $ pər-/ [transitive] talk somebody into, get somebody to do
something, influence, encourage, put somebody up to
1. to make someone decide to do something, especially by giving them reasons why they
should do it, or asking them many times to do it
persuade somebody to do something
I finally managed to persuade her to go out for a drink with me.
persuade somebody into doing something
Don't let yourself be persuaded into buying things you don't want.
try/manage/fail to persuade somebody
I'm trying to persuade your dad to buy some shares.
attempt/effort to persuade somebody
Leo wouldn't agree, despite our efforts to persuade him.
little/a lot of/no persuading
He took a lot of persuading to come out of retirement (=it was hard to persuade him).
He was fairly easily persuaded.

overall adjective /,əuvər’o:l $ ,ouvər’o:l/ [only before noun]- total/complete, all-embracing
considering or including everything:
The overall cost of the exhibition was £400,000.
The overall result is an increase in population.
An overall winner and a runner-up were chosen.
We don't want all the details now, just the overall picture.
! Do not say 'in the overall' or 'on the overall'. Say: on the whole: In spite of the film's many
faults, on the whole it's worth seeing.

 on the table - an offer, idea etc that is on the table has been officially suggested and someone
is considering it:
The offer on the table is a 10% wage increase.
Kelly hopes to have a proposal on the table within four months.
We also came up with a laundry list of key issues that had always been there but never put on
the table.

go for somebody/something phrasal verb
3. (choose) British English to choose something:
I think I'll go for the chocolate cake.

quiet adjective /’kwaiət/
1. (no noise) not making much noise, or making no noise at all:
We'll have to be quiet so as not to wake the baby.
It's a nice car. The engine's really quiet.
I'll be as quiet as a mouse (=very quiet).
2. not speaking
a) not saying much or not saying anything:
You're very quiet, Mom - is anything the matter?
I didn't know anything about it so I just kept quiet.

! quite predeterminer, adverb /kwait/
1. especially American English very, but not extremely [↪ pretty]:
The food in the cafeteria is usually quite good.
His hair is quite thin on top now.
Amy's at college, and she's doing quite well.
2. especially British English fairly, or to a small extent, but not very [↪ pretty]:
The film was quite good, but the book was much better.
I got a letter from Sylvia quite recently.
quite like/enjoy
I quite like Chinese food.

rapport noun /ræ’po: $ -o:r/ [singular, uncountable] Glossary p. 173 a close relationship
friendly agreement and understanding between people [↪ relationship]
rapport with/between
He had an excellent rapport with his patients.
build (up)/establish/develop (a) rapport - Glossary p. 173 – develop a close relationship
He built up a good rapport with the children.
This makes it much easier to integrate teaching and assessment, as well as helping us to build
up a rapport with our trainees.
Try to build up a rapport with the judge.
Alison and Johnny had an easy rapport that was clear to everyone.
Before you do business with someone, it is important to establish a rapport.
You are lucky to have such a good rapport with your boss.
His rapport is instantaneous: this big, good-looking black man, kind of funny, kind of smart.
The other one thought the most important thing was good communications and rapport.
Third, and most important for the success of the networking, concerned the establishment of
personal rapport between fieldworker and informant.

get round it - a way round a difficult situation or problem is a way to solve it or avoid it:
strategies to get round (=solve) the problem
She's going to have to buy a car. I can't see any other way round it.

build on something - to use your achievements as a base for further development:
The new plan will build on the success of the previous programme.

aggressive adjective/ə’gresiv/- offensive, attacking

to feel insecure: to feel unsure of yourself

to lose face - Glossary p. 173 to be in a situation where you appear foolish and experience
a loss of honour or status
if you lose face, you do something which makes you seem weak, stupid etc, and which makes
people respect you less; to suffer disgrace, humiliation, embarrassment:
He doesn't want to back down (=accept defeat in an argument) and risk losing face.
It was impossible to apologize publicly without losing face.
A settlement was reached in which neither side lost face.
He thinks he would lose face if he admitted the mistake.  face: respect and honour of
to lose face ≠ to gain face

recognition noun /,rekog’niŚən/ : special notice or attention
- acknowledgment of right to be heard or given attention: The chairman refused recognition
to any delegate until order could be restored.
- public respect and thanks for someone's work or achievements:
He has achieved recognition and respect as a scientist.
The importance of voluntary organizations in the economy still needs to be given recognition.

Good practice involves careful listening, giving recognition, with patience.
Female managers are also about 15 percent more likely to give recognition for good work.
Every time you meet some one, they give you rank and recognition according to what you say
and how you say it.
We would give that some recognition.
Both parties will give rank and recognition according to individual beliefs and values.
There are some places where this is done: too few, and far too seldom given recognition.

reassurance noun /,ri:ə’Śuərəns $ -‘Śur-/
[uncountable and countable] something that is said or done which makes someone feel calmer
and less worried or frightened about a problem:
Parents are looking for reassurance about their children's safety.
give/offer/provide reassurance
They are offering practical help and reassurance.
reassurance that
We have been given reassurances that the water is safe to drink.

upset verb /,۸p’set/
past tense and past participle upset, present participle upsetting [transitive]
1. make somebody unhappy to make someone feel unhappy or worried:
Don't do anything that would upset him.
—upsetting adjective
upset adjective /,۸p’set/
2. be upset with somebody            if you are upset with someone, you are angry and annoyed with them:
You're not still upset with me, are you?
1. [not before noun] unhappy and worried because something unpleasant or disappointing has happened
upset by/about/at etc
She was really upset about the way her father treated her.
upset that
Debbie was upset that he didn't spend more time with her.
upset noun ۸’/pset/
1. [uncountable and countable] worry and unhappiness caused by an unexpected problem:
If you are the victim of a burglary, the emotional upset can affect you for a long time.
2. [countable]     when a person or team defeats an opponent who is considered to be much better than them:
There was a major upset when the young skater took the gold medal .

lose your temper – get angry, blow your top/hit the roof/go crazy/go nuts/have a fit, go
ballistic/go bananas/go berserk, get stroppy
to suddenly become very angry so that you cannot control yourself:
I've never seen Vic lose his temper.
lose your nerve (=suddenly become very nervous so that you cannot do what you intended to
Jensen would've won if he hadn't lost his nerve

burst into tears – start crying

confrontation noun [countable,uncountable ] /,konfrən’teiŚən $ ,ka:n-/ an aggressive position
against the other side
1. a situation in which there is a lot of angry disagreement between two people or groups:
She had stayed in her room to avoid another confrontation.
confrontation with/between
an ideological confrontation between conservatives and liberals

1. He/she should be a good listener, have psychology skills and understand ‘buy signs’.
2. It’s not as important as the facts and figures being persuasive.
3. Quiet ones and aggressive ones.
4. The quiet ones because it’s difficult to build a rapport with them.
5. With the quiet ones he leaves gaps in his presentation to get them to communicate by
questioning. With the aggressive ones he builds up their ego.
6. He stays very controlled and very calm.


incentive = sweetener
incentive- Glossary p. 171 – an extra benefit that aims to encourage someone to buy
something, e.g. a discount, or that encourages someone to work harder, e.g. a bonus
sweetener- Glossary p. 174 something extra offered as an incentive to make a deal or
offer more acceptable to someone

incentive noun /in’sentiv/ [uncountable and countable] = sweetener, carrot, inducement
(podsticaj, podstrek, olakšica, stimulans)
something that encourages you to work harder, start a new activity etc:
As an added incentive, there's a bottle of champagne for the best team.
create/provide/give somebody an incentive
Awards provide an incentive for young people to improve their skills.
incentive to do something
Farmers lack any incentive to manage their land organically.
economic/financial/tax etc incentives
a recycling drive backed with financial incentives

The government is offering special tax incentives to people wanting to start up small
The new plan will provide strong incentives for young people to improve their skills.
Problems have also been experienced with providing cost-centre managers with sufficient
incentives to manage resources economically, efficiently and effectively.

+incentive payment/remuneration- ri,mju:nə’reiŚən/wage system – stimulativno
export incentives – mere stimulisanja izvoza, izvozne stimulacije

contribute verb /kən’tribju:t/
1. [intransitive and transitive] to give money, help, ideas etc to something that a lot of other
people are also involved in
contribute to/towards
City employees cannot contribute to political campaigns.
contribute something to/towards something
The volunteers contribute their own time to the project.

give-and-take noun [uncountable]
a willingness between two people or groups to understand each other, and to let each other
have or do some of the things they want:
In any relationship there has to be some give-and-take.

abuse noun /ə’bju:s/ - bad treatment
2. [uncountable and countable] the use of something in a way that it should not be used [=
A self-monitoring tax system is clearly open to abuse (=able to be used wrongly).
abuse of
government officials' abuse of power
alcohol/drug abuse (=the practice of drinking too much or taking illegal drugs)

abuse verb /ə’bju:z/ [transitive]
2. to deliberately use something for the wrong purpose or for your own advantage:
Williams abused his position      as Mayor to give jobs to his friends.
Morris abused the trust the firm had shown in him.
people who abuse the      system
abuse alcohol/drugs
The proportion of drinkers who abuse alcohol is actually quite small.

concession noun /kən’seŚən/- Glossary p. 170- an agreement to do something you did not
intend to do as the result of a discussion or negotiation; make a concession
1. something you allow somebody [countable] something that you allow someone to have in
order to end an argument or a disagreement [↪ concede]
concession to
a policy of no concessions to terrorists
The British were not prepared to make any concessions.
concession on
his readiness to make concessions on many of the issues raised
concession from
We will try to force further concessions from the government.
major/important/substantial concession
The committee has won a number of major concessions from the prison authorities.

But to succeed he will have to make some concessions.
However, when the unions proved reluctant to make concessions, the employers would have
to contemplate the possibility of a lockout.
Pensioners and disabled people get special concessions on buses and trains.
Still, executives and union leaders would surely protest such a plan and claim that such a plan
would require unacceptable concessions.

strings attached: hidden, unfavourable conditions
strings - conditions or limitations on a proposal: a generous offer with no strings attached.
no strings (attached) having no special conditions or limits on an agreement, relationship
The policy offers 15% interest with no strings attached.
Howard's agreed to lend me the money with no strings attached.
A boyfriend offered me a weekend in Amman, with no strings attached.
How he must have wished to have been in the puppet's place, no policies, work and no strings
It's found money, no strings attached.
She reminded me that we both knew the deal - no strings.
We have freedom and no strings attached.
But they attached strings to the aid.

flexible adjective /’fleksibəl/ - not rigid, able to be changed
1. a person, plan etc that is flexible can change or be changed easily to suit any new situation
[≠ inflexible]:
We can be flexible about your starting date.
extremely/highly/fairly etc flexible
Our new computer software is extremely flexible.
The government needs a more flexible approach to education.

harvest noun /’ha:vist $ ‘ha:r-/ the gathering of agricultural crops, e.g. potatoes
1. [uncountable and countable] the time when crops are gathered from the fields, or the act of
gathering them
at harvest/at harvest time
every year at harvest time
wheat/rice/grape etc harvest
It rained for the potato harvest.
2. [countable] the crops that have been gathered, or the amount and quality of the crops
good/bumper harvest (=a lot of crops)
Plum growers are expecting a bumper harvest this year.
poor/bad harvest (=few crops)
3. reap a harvest to get good or bad results from your actions:
The company is now reaping the harvest of careful planning.

undertake       verb /,۸ndə’teik $ -dər-/ past tense undertook /-‘tuk/ past participle undertaken
/-‘teikən/ [transitive] formal
1. to accept that you are responsible for a piece of work, and start to do it
undertake a task/a project/research/a study etc
Dr Johnson undertook the task of writing a comprehensive English dictionary.
2. undertake to do something           to promise or agree to do something:
He undertook to pay the money back in six months.
n official agreement between two or more people, stating what each will

contract = agreement
enter into/make a contract (with somebody)
sign a contract (with somebody)
agree a contract
a contract to do something
end/terminate a contract (with somebody)/ go out of the contract
break a contract (with somebody) (=do something that is not allowed by your contract)
be in breach of contract (=having done something not allowed by your contract)win/be
awarded a contract (=gain a contract to do work for someone)
renew somebody's contract (=make a new contract with someone)
fulfil British English /fulfill American English a contract (=do what you have agreed to do)
on a contract/under contract (=working for someone with whom you have a contract)
the terms of a contract
one-/two-/ten- etc year contract

1. Financial assistance with an ad campaign. Eric provided €20,000 in exchange for a larger
2. The other side can exploit you, take advantage of your position.
3. The harvest failed and he had to put up with losing almost a euro per kilo.

1. Blue stylists
2. This would depend on their bargaining power at the start of the negotiation; the red stylist
might dominate the blue if he or she is in a strong position but in balanced talks, they may not
understand or appreciate each other’s ‘game’. This could lead to misunderstandings,
suspicion, antagonism and deadlock.

antagonism noun /æ’tægənizəm/ [uncountable]
1. hatred between people or groups of people [= hostility]
antagonism between
the antagonism between the army and other military groups
2. opposition to an idea, plan etc
antagonism to/towards
his antagonism towards the press

deadlock noun /’dedlok $ -la:k/ [singular, uncountable] Glossary p. 170 negotiations which
can’t progress because neither side is prepared to compromise or make concessions
1. a situation in which a disagreement cannot be settled [= stalemate, standoff, impasse,
The talks have reached a complete deadlock.
a last-ditch effort to break the deadlock
The talks have reached a complete deadlock.
a last-ditch effort to break the deadlock
Negotiations ended in deadlock.

—deadlocked adjective: Glossary p. 170 describes negotiations which can’t progress
because neither side is prepared to compromise or make concessions
Talks between management and unions remain deadlocked.
In the same year the issue came before Parliament, but there was complete deadlock.
Syria and Israel broke a six-month deadlock in their talks when they sent peace envoys to
The deadlock over the US budget had turned away some investors.
The talks have reached a complete deadlock.
Their first trial ended in deadlock when the jury could not reach an agreement.
House, Senate also try to break deadlocks on other issues.

stalemate noun /’steilmeit/ [uncountable and countable]
1. a situation in which it seems impossible to settle an argument or disagreement, and neither
side can get an advantage [= deadlock]:
an attempt to break the stalemate
The discussions with the miners' union ended in stalemate.
2. a position in chess in which neither player can win
—stalemate verb [transitive]

impasse noun /æm’pa:s $ ‘impæs/ [singular]
a situation in which it is impossible to continue with a discussion or plan because the people
involved cannot agree
at an impasse
The political process is at an impasse.
Negotiations seemed to have reached an impasse.

opponent noun /ə’pəunənt $ ə’pou-/ [countable] component, rival
1. someone who you try to defeat in a competition, game, fight, or argument:
Graf's opponent in today's final will be Sukova.
leading/main/chief opponent
During the primary elections, McCain was Bush's leading opponent.
formidable/worthy opponent
In debate he was a formidable opponent.
He is admired even by his political opponents.

manipulative adjective /mə’nipjulətiv $ -lei-/
1. clever at controlling or deceiving people to get what you want - used in order to show
She was sly, selfish, and manipulative.
2. technical relating to the ability to handle objects in a skilful way:
Before a child can learn a musical instrument he or she first needs to acquire the necessary
manipulative skills.

bluff noun /bl۸f/ [intransitive and transitive]
1. [uncountable and countable] an attempt to deceive someone by making them think you will
do something when you do not intend to do it:
The threat was only a bluff.
Whatever you say, you must do it. This isn't a game of bluff.
➔       double bluff
work out phrasal verb
1. (plan) work something ↔ out to think carefully about how you are going to do something
and plan a good way of doing it:
UN negotiators have worked out a set of compromise proposals.
work out what/where/how etc
We need to work out how we're going to get there.
I had it all worked out (=had made very careful plans).
2. (calculate) work something ↔ out to calculate an answer, amount, price etc:
See if you can work this bill out.
work out how much/how many etc
We'll have to work out how much food we'll need for the party.

vulnerable adjective /’v۸lnərəbəl/ susceptible to, open to
1. someone who is vulnerable can be easily harmed or hurt:
He took advantage of me when I was at my most vulnerable.
We work mainly with the elderly and other vulnerable groups.
be vulnerable to something
Children are most vulnerable to abuse within their own home.
2. a place, thing, or idea that is vulnerable is easy to attack or criticize
vulnerable to
The fort was vulnerable to attack from the north.
Their theories were badly thought out and very vulnerable to ridicule.
—vulnerably adverb
—vulnerability /,v۸lnərə’biliti/ noun [uncountable]


undertake verb /,۸ndə’teik $ -dər-/ past tense undertook /-‘tuk/ past participle undertaken /-
‘teikən/ [transitive] formal
1. to accept that you are responsible for a piece of work, and start to do it
undertake a task/a project/research/a study etc
Dr Johnson undertook the task of writing a comprehensive English dictionary.
2. undertake to do something - to promise or agree to do something:
He undertook to pay the money back in six months.

come over phrasal verb
if someone comes over in a particular way, they seem to have particular qualities [= come
He didn't come over very well (=seem to have good qualities) in the interview.
come over as
She comes over as a very efficient businesswoman.
make: a concession, a deal, a difference, an agreement
settle: a deal, a difference, business
gain: a concession, the initiative, an insight, face
reach: a deal, a rapport, a compromise, an agreement
do: business
build: a rapport, an agreement
lose: a deal, business, the initiative, your temper, face
take: business, the initiative
close: a deal, an agreement

a concession: make/gain
a deal: make/settle/reach/lose/close
business: settle/do/lose/take
the initiative: gain/lose/take
the transition
a rapport: reach/build
your temper: lose
a compromise: reach
an insight: gain
a difference: make/settle
face: gain/lose
an agreement: make/reach/build/close

emphasis noun /’emfəsis/ plural emphases /-si:z/ [uncountable and countable]
1. special attention or importance
emphasis on
In Japan there is a lot of emphasis on politeness.
put/place emphasis on something
The course places emphasis on practical work.
a change of emphasis in government policy

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