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Adventure Education Outdoor Pursuits

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					Adventure Education &
Outdoor Pursuits
  Special Populations
STUDENTS WITH DISABILITIES

   Participation in adventure education
           programs can increase:

               Self Image

         Sense of responsibility

          Cooperative learning
               (Herbert, 1996)
POSITIVE OUTCOMES

    Engage participants cognitively and affectively
     (McAvoy, 1992)
    Help achieve personal goals (Holman & McAvoy,
     2005)
    Develop relationships with others (Holman &
     McAvoy, 2005)
  Increase outdoor skills (Rynders & Schleien, 1992)
  Develop social skills (Rynders & Schleien, 1992)
  Increase self-concept (Rynders & Schleien, 1992)
DEFINITION OF TERMS
           Adventure Recreation:
            a subjective challenging
            experience that occurs in
            the outdoors which
            contains actual or
            perceived danger (Dalttilo &
             Murphy, 1987)


            SENSE OF CHALLENGE
             IN THE PRESENCE OF
                     RISK
Terms

 Integrated adventure
   program:
   an adventure
   program that
   includes persons
   with and without
   disabilities (Holman,
   Goldenberg, McAvoy &
   Rynders, 2003)
Terms

 Adventure-based counseling:
  a treatment intervention for rehabilitation
  clients which is used in addition to other
  rehabilitation efforts for the purpose of
  creating individual change (Herbert, 1996)
RESEARCH
  McAvoy did a study on benefits of integrated outdoor
   education and adventure programs and found:

     Increase in social interaction between children with
      and without disabilities
     Increase in understanding capabilities and needs of
      persons with disabilities
     Positive change in attitudes of the children without
      disabilities toward the children with disabilities
     Persons with disabilities can successfully acquire
      leisure outdoor skills
RESEARCH
 Herbert did a study on attitudes and perceptions
   concerning persons with disabilities and found:

    Staff attitudes are generally positive toward people
     with disabilities
    Programs that include both persons with and without
     disabilities are therapeutically better than programs
     that include persons of similar disabilities only
    Programs are perceived to be accessible
    Staff training and consultation on disability issues
     could be improved
RESEARCH
 Farnham & Mutrie did a study on
    the potential benefits of
    outdoor development for
    children with special needs
    and found:

    Decrease in tension and
     anxiety levels over the four
     day trip
    Increase in group cohesion
     over the four days
    Increase in participant self-
     confidence
    Increase in self-motivated
     behavior
RESEARCH
 Holman & McAvoy did a study on transferring benefits of participation in an
    integrated wilderness adventure program to daily life and found that
    participants:
  Value developing relationships with others
  Increase understanding of themselves
  Gain awareness and appreciation for nature
  Value having a new opportunity
  Value learning new skills


 Participants transferred the benefits of the experience to their lives in the
    following areas:
  Self-awareness & self-confidence
  Succeeding at a personal challenge
  Establishing warm relationships with others
  Increasing coping/transition skills
  Higher levels of motivation
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS

 Common benefits of participation in
  adventure-based outdoor programs:

  Increased self-confidence
  Increased self-awareness
  Increased self-motivated behavior
  Increased success in completing
   personal challenges
Summary continued…


                     Benefits of integrated
                       programs:

                      Increase in social
                       interaction and group
                       cohesion
                      Increase in
                       understanding of
                       disabilities by non-
                       disabled participants
REFERENCES
Carlson, J. & Evans, K. (2001). Whose choice is it? Contemplating challenge-by-choice and diverse-
    abilities. The Journal of Experiential Education, 24(1), 58-63.
Dattilo, J. & Murphy, W. (1987). Facilitating the challenge in adventure recreation for persons with
    disabilities. Therapeutic Recreation Journal, 3, 14-20.
Farnham, M. & Mutrie, N. (1997). The potential benefits of outdoor development for children with
    special needs. British Journal of Special Education, 24 (1), 31-38.
Herbert, J. T. (1997). Attitudes and perceptions concerning persons with disabilities: Potential for
    growth. AEE International Conference Proceedings, (pp. 147-153).
Herbert, J. T. (1996). Use of adventure-based counseling programs for persons with disabilities.
    Journal of Rehabilitation, 62(4),3-8.
Holman, T., Goldenberg, M., McAvoy, L., & Rynders, J. (2003). Outcomes-Consequences-Values of
    an integrated wilderness adventure program. The Journal of Experiential Education, 25(3), 353.
Holman, T. & McAvoy, L. (2005). Transferring benefits of participation in an integrated wilderness
    adventure program to daily life. Journal of Experiential Education, 27(3), 322-325.
McAvoy, L. (1992). Benefits of integrated outdoor education and adventure. Impact, 4(4), 3.
McCleary, I. & Chesteen, S. (1990). Changing attitudes of disabled persons through outdoor
    adventure programmes. International Journal of Rehabilitation Research, 13, 321-324.
Rodgers, D. (2000). To the top. Parks & Recreation, 35(3), 76-87.
Rose, S. & Jones, P. (date). Adventure for all: Disability is no handicap. The Journal of Adventure
    Education and Outdoor Leadership, 12(3), 16-17.
Rynders, J. E. & Schleien, S. J. (1992). How to integrate successfully: Promoting positive interactions.
    Impact, 4(4), 11.
Schlaefer, M. & Stark, G. (1992). Participant comments from integrated outdoor adventures. Impact,
    4(4), 3.

				
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