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					                             E.M.O.C.
 Emergency Management on Campus:
               Student Assistance
             in University Disasters
Prepared for the Emergency Management Institute Higher Education Conference – June, 2009



              K.C. Rondello, M.D., M.P.H.
          Department of Emergency Management
                   Adelphi University
      The Campus as a Business
   Full Time/Part Time Employees
   Management Structure
   Payroll/Budget
   Accounts Payable/Accounts Receivable
   Human Resources
   Collective Bargaining/Unions
   Maintenance/Housekeeping
          The Campus as a City
   Police/Security
   Engineering/Physical Plant
   Motor Pool
   Apartment/Dormitories/Residential Life
   Hospital/Health Services
   Restaurant/Food Services
   Banking/Financial Services
   Library/Research Services
     The Campus as an Institution of
           Higher Education
   Shared Governance
       Administration, Faculty, Students, Staff
   Community mission
   Center for Research and Advancement
   Library Collections and Historic Artifacts
      “The answer lies within…”
   Campuses are communities, and must plan as a
    community would
   In a widespread disaster, available municipal
    resources will be severely limited
   Campuses must learn to maximize their internal
    resources
   Universities understand faculty/staff resources
    well, but understand student resources poorly!
      Student Majors with Possibly
     Valuable Skills/Abilities for EM
   Emergency Management
   Medical/Nursing/Public Health
   Social Work
   Education
   Engineering
   Environmental Studies
   Business
   Public Administration
   Communications/Media/Public Relations
Why students make GOOD resources
    High energy
    Flexible schedules
    Physical work (sandbagging, patient intake, etc.)
    Limited family obligations
    Limited employment obligations
    Understand the student population’s perspective
    Training as part of University's overall mission to
     educate
    Fraction of the cost of hiring staff members
    Lifelong skills that can be applied to any career path
Why students make POOR resources
    Turnover of ~25% annually
    International and Out-of-State students
    Age of population (maturity)
    Disruption of studies
Why survey students’ skills/willingness?
    Student assets are poorly understood and rarely
     quantified
    Early identification of assets allows for proactive
     organizing and training
    Gaps in abilities can be identified and addressed
    Survey itself might prompt increased student
     involvement
    Specific demographics can be targeted for
     training, organization and/or advanced education
                Adelphi University
   Founded in 1896, first institution of higher education
    on Long Island
   4 campuses:
       Garden City
       Manhattan
       Hauppauge
       Hudson Valley
   8,603 students from 40 states and 49 foreign countries:
       60% Undergraduate
       60% Full Time
       76% Female
       22% Undergraduates living on campus
     Campus Disaster Resources Survey
              for Students
   IRB approved 3 page questionnaire with 1 page informed
    consent, presented in fold-over format
   Administered September – December 2008 by graduate
    student researchers
   Approximately 10 minutes to complete
   Three sections:
       Demographics
       Abilities
       Willingness/Awareness
   Data entered and analyzed in SPSS
   Results to be published in EM and Campus Safety journals
Campus Disaster Resources Survey for Students
Campus Disaster Resources Survey for Students
         Demographic Questions
   Gender
   Age
   Ethnicity
   Full Time v. Part Time
   Class
   On v. Off Campus
   Co-inhabitants
   Employment Status
   Campus Activities
   Distance from Campus
               Abilities Questions
   Licenses/Certifications      Disaster Preparedness
       EMT/Paramedic             Training
       RN/LPN/NA                    Adelphi EM Courses
       PA/NP                        EMI Coursework
       MD/DO                    Proficiencies
       LCSW                         Computers
       OSHA/FEMA                    Media/Public Relations
   Memberships                      LOTE
       EMS/Fire Agency              Statistics
       CERT Team                    Leadership
       American Red Cross
       Salvation Army
     Willingness/Awareness Questions
   Five step Likert Scale rating both “willing to
    participate” and “able to participate” under various
    conditions:
     On campus
     Off campus, but on Long Island

     Contagious disease, with vaccination/prophylaxis

     Contagious disease, no known vaccination/prophylaxis

     With additional disaster training
Preliminary Results
      Demographics
      Abilities/Skills
Willingness and Awareness
               Survey Specifics
   Sample Size: 501 respondents
   Data Entry: January – March 2009
   Data Analysis: April – May 2009
   Analyses Performed:
     Descriptive Statistics
     Cross tabulations

     Pearson Chi-Square Tests
          Gender
           GENDER


Missing




                    male




f emale
                      Ethnicity
                        ETHNIC

Missing

multiple etnicities                  af rican american

                                  amer indian/ alaskan


                                                 asian




                                       latino/hispanic

                                   pacif islan/nativ e h

white non hispanic
Full Time vs. Part Time
            STATUSSC

Missing

part time




                       f ull time
                   Class Year
                     SCHCLASS

Missing

graduate student



senior
                                 f reshman




junior



                                sophomore
On Campus vs. Off Campus
                RESIDE


  Missing




                         on campus
  of f campus
                Co-inhabitants
                    LIVEWITH

Missing
multiple answers

liv es alone
other f amily

spouse/sig_other
children


                               roomates/non f amily




parents
      Employment Status
                     EMPLSTAT

Missing
                                 f ulltime on campus
multiple responses
                                 f ulltime off campus
not employ ed


                                part time on campus




                                part time off campus
          Student Activities
            i.e. athlete, Greek, SGA


Missing




                                       no




y es
Distance from Campus
                  FARLIVEA

Missing
> 100 miles

50 to 100 miles




                             0 to 10 miles




11 to 50 miles
Professional Certifications/Licenses

            Cert/Lic #   Cert/Lic %   Train #   Train %

EMT/Medic      11          2.20%        11      2.20%

RN              1          0.20%        38      7.60%

NP/PA           0           0%          3       0.60%

MD/DO           1          0.20%        5         1%

LCSW            0           0%          16      3.20%

LPN/NA          8          1.60%        10        2%

HAZWOPER        7          1.40%        2       0.40%
   Emergency Services Agencies


            Membership #   Membership %

Fire             9            1.80%

EMS              4            0.80%

Red Cross        42           8.40%

Other            8            1.60%
Overall Willingness and Ability
          Observations/Conclusions
   Large number of students are willing to respond
    on-campus regardless of any level of training
   No difference in willingness to train prior:
     Male vs. Female
     Ethnicity

     On Campus vs. Off Campus

   Significant difference in willingness to respond:
       Little/No Risk to Health vs. Regardless of Risk
                        Limitations

   Adelphi is not representative of all university campuses
       Size, location, demographics
   Undergraduate sample disproportionately high vs.
    graduate sample
       Difficulty in reaching out to graduate students
   Student data changes every year due to turnover
       Inherent in a university setting
   Willingness measures need to be tested
       Respondents may have the best intentions, but…
         Further Study Questions
   Similar surveys for:
     Faculty and Staff
     Adelphi’s other campuses

     Different universities

   Repeat survey administration following an
    educational initiative
   Will responses change over time given world
    events/increased awareness?
                  Thank You!
   Please hold questions/comments to the end

   Contact information:
      K.C. Rondello, M.D., M.P.H.
      Adelphi University
      1 South Avenue
      Garden City, NY 11530
      Office: 516-877-4544
      E-mail: Rondello@adelphi.edu

				
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