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					                                                                                                             8
                      PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT
                             IN EARLY CHILDHOOD
Answer: A      1.     The sense of self, or the knowledge of who we are and whom we want to be, is
Page: 269             called
Guidepost: 1          A. self-concept
Type: F               B. self-awareness
                      C. self-definition
                      D. ideal self

Answer: B      2. .   What children incorporate into their self-image is their growing understanding of
Page: 269             how others see them they are experiencing
Guidepost: 1          A. cognitive development
Type: C               B. social development
                      C. physical development
                      D. psychological development

Answer: A      3.     When a 4-year-old boy is asked to describe himself, he will typically tell you about
Page: 270             his
Guidepost: 1          A. relational self
Type: C               B. real self
                      C. descriptive self
                      D. ideal self

Answer: B      4.     In neo-Piagetian terminology, this is the first stage in development of self-definition,
Page: 270             in which children describe themselves in terms of individual, unconnected
Guidepost: 1          characteristics and in all-or-nothing terms.
Type: F               A. deductive
                      B. single representations
                      C. representational mappings
                      D. ideal self

Answer: C      5.     Which of the following is a part of self-definition?
Page: 270             A. recognizing oneself
Guidepost: 1          B. parental values
Type: C               C. developing a concept of the ideal self
                      D. developing a concept of self-centeredness

Answer: D      6.     Understanding their emotions helps children to do all of the following except
Page: 270             A. guide their behavior in social situations
Guidepost: 1          B. control the way they show their feelings
Type: C               C. allows them to talk about their feelings
                      D. allows them to control all social situations

Answer: D      7.     According to research on children’s understanding of emotions, how do 4-year-olds
Page: 271             feel about themselves if they do something that has been forbidden by their parents?
Guidepost: 1          A. They feel shame whether or not their parents see them perform the forbidden
Type: C                    act.
                      B. They feel shame only if their parents see them perform the forbidden act.
                      C. They feel shame only if their parents punish them for performing the forbidden
                           act.
                      D. They feel no shame, even if their parents saw them perform the forbidden act.


                                                136
Answer: B      8.    At what age do children first begin to take pride in their accomplishments even when
Page: 271            no one is around to see them doing something well?
Guidepost: 1         A. 4 to 5 years
Type: F              B. 7 to 8 years
                     C. 10 to 12 years
                     D. 13 to 15 years

Answer: A      9.    According to the text, which of the following is a reason for the difficulty that 5-
Page: 271            year-olds have in understanding their own emotions?
Guidepost: 1         A. They do not recognize that they can experience different emotions at the same
Type: F                  time.
                     B. They only experience strong emotions when others around them show emotions.
                     C. They don’t realize that anyone besides them actually has emotions.
                     D. They do not understand that emotions depend on innate, temperamental factors.

Answer: B      10.   Only after children gain self-awareness and accept the behavior their parents have
Page: 271            set will they begin to develop all but which of the following emotions?
Guidepost: 1         A. guilt
Type: C              B. love
                     C. shame
                     D. pride

Answer: C      11.   According to Erikson, which of the following is the central issue of early childhood?
Page: 271            E. trust versus mistrust
Guidepost: 1         F. autonomy versus shame and doubt
Type: F              G. initiative versus guilt
                     H. identity versus role confusion

Answer: A      12.   According to Erikson, the conflict between young children’s urge to pursue goals
Page: 272            and their moral judgements about those urges is
Guidepost: 2         A. initiative versus guilt
Type: F              B. autonomy versus shame and doubt
                     C. industry versus inferiority
                     D. identity versus role confusion

Answer: B      13.   Four-year-old Marcie has decided that she would like to hide her little brother’s toys
Page: 272            in the basement. However, she realizes her brother will cry, and she wonders if she
Guidepost: 2         will feel bad about this. According to Erikson, Marcie is experiencing the conflict of
Type: C              A. identity versus role confusion
                     B. initiative versus guilt
                     C. purpose versus will
                     D. industry versus inferiority

Answer: B      14.   The virtue acquired through successful resolution of Erikson’s third developmental
Page: 272            crisis (initiative versus guilt) is
Guidepost: 2         A. hope
Type: F              B. purpose
                     C. trust
                     D. will

Answer: D      15.   According to Erikson, a child who feels comfortable trying new things, without
Page: 272            excessive guilt or fear, is said to have acquired
Guidepost: 2         A. virtue of will
Type: F              B. virtue of hope
                     C. virtue of trust
                     D. virtue of purpose



                                              137
Answer: C       16.   The judgment young children make about their self worth is called
Page: 272             A. self-concept
Guidepost: 2          B. self-definition
Type: F               C. self-esteem
                      D. self-recognition

Answer: C       17.   According to research, at age would one expect a young child’s self-esteem to be
Page: 272             based on a somewhat realistic appraisal
Guidepost: 2          A. before 5 years of age
Type: C               B. before 7 years of age
                      C. before 9 years of age
                      D. before 11 years of age

Answer: A       18.   When personal self-esteem is               , a child is motivated to achieve.
Page: 273             A. high
Guidepost: 2          B. low
Type: F               C. medium
                      D. absent

Answer: D       19.   Children with high self-esteem
Page: 273             A. attribute failure to themselves
Guidepost: 2          B. attribute disappointments to their own choices
Type: C               C. move on when they fail and do something different
                      D. persevere and develop strategies that will provide success

Answer: B       20.   Gender refers to
Page: 273             A. role-learning
Guidepost: 3          B. what it means to be male or female
Type: F               C. identification with parents
                      D. friendship patterns between males and females

Answer: B       21.   Psychological or behavioral differences between males and females are
Page: 273             A. sex differences
Guidepost: 3          B. gender differences
Type: F               C. gender stereotypes
                      D. noticeable only after 3 years of age

Answer: A       22.   Measureable differences between males and females include
Page: 273-274         A. Females have a biological advantage
Guidepost: 3          B. Females are more physically vulnerable
Type: C               C. Females are more reactive to stress
                      D. Females are more active in utero than males


Answer: D       23.   All but which of the following gender differences have been found by research?
Page: 273-274         A. Boys are more aggressive.
Guidepost: 3          B. Girls are more empathetic.
Type: F               C. Girls are more cooperative.
                      D. Girls know more about taking care of babies.

Answer: D       24.   The absence of problem behavior among girls until adolescence is probably due to
Page: 273-274         all of the following except
Guidepost: 3          A. Girls demonstrate lower reactivity to stress
Type: F               B. Girls talk more about their problems
                      C. Girls are more cooperative.
                      D. Girls seem unaware of how their actions affect others



                                              138
Answer: A      25.   Behaviors considered appropriate for males and females in a given culture are
Page: 275            A. gender roles
Guidepost: 3         B. biologically determined
Type: F              C. fairly easy to change
                     D. learned in school

Answer: D      26.   Mike is becoming aware that he is a boy and that boys play with trucks and trains.
Page: 275            He is developing
Guidepost: 3         A. gender identity
Type: C              B. a gender role
                     C. gender-typing
                     D. all of the above

Answer: C      27.   Learning one’s gender role is called
Page: 275            A. achieving gender identity
Guidepost: 3         B. gender conservation
Type: F              C. gender-typing
                     D. gender stereotyping

Answer: B      28.   Katie is 4 years old, and has begun to worry that she not dress “like a boy,” and
Page: 275            talks about being “a wife and mommy” when she grows up. Stephanie is engaged in
Guidepost: 3         the process of
Type: C              A. sex-typing
                     B. gender-typing
                     C. sexism-generalizing
                     D. conflict-resolution

Answer: A      29.   At preschool, Mark plays with trucks and Mary plays with dolls. They are
Page: 275            A. undergoing gender-typing
Guidepost: 3         B. acquiring gender stereotypes
Type: C              C. learning the sexism schema
                     D. becoming androgynous

Answer: A      30.   Gender stereotypes are
Page: 275            A. preconceived generalization, about male and female behavior
Guidepost: 3         B. often a result of gender conservation and identity
Type: F              C. based on myths about sex differences
                     D. all of the above

Answer: D      31.   Gender differences are believed to be influenced by
Page: 275            A. hormones
Guidepost: 3         B. parents
Type: F              C. the media
                     D. all of the above

Answer: C      32.   Research on biological bases of gender differences in humans
Page: 275            A. establishes that hormone factors play the primary role in shaping behavior
Guidepost: 3         B. shows that males and females have very different brain functioning
Type: F              C. has been inconclusive
                     D. has found larger statistical differences in behavior between the sexes than within
                         either sex




                                              139
Answer: C      33.   Research has linked aggressive behavior in certain animals to prenatal exposure to
Page: 275            the hormone
Guidepost: 3         A. estrogen
Type: F              B. progesterone
                     C. testosterone
                     D. adrenaline

Answer: A      34.   A male rat has been given an injection of testosterone. Which of the following
Page: 275            behaviors is likely to increase as a consequence?
Guidepost: 3         A. aggressive behavior
Type: C              B. maternal behavior
                     C. nonspecific gender behavior
                     D. all of the above

Answer: C      35.   When a baby boy had reconstructive surgery to have a damaged penis removed he
Page: 276            was raised as a girl. Rejecting this female role as a teenager demonstrates that
Guidepost: 3         A. gender identity requires more counseling
Type: C              B. gender assignment works when the social support is increased
                     C. gender identity may be rooted in chromosomal structure
                     D. gender identity occurs in early childhood

Answer: B      36.   Renee has a condition called congenital adrenal hyperplasia, which has caused her
Page: 276            to
Guidepost: 3         A. prefer the gender specific behavior of other girls
Type: C              B. prefer rough and tumble play activities
                     C. show decreased spatial skill orientation
                     D. seek out female playmates

Answer: C      37.   According to Freud, the adoption of the characteristics, values, and behaviors of the
Page: 277            parent of the same sex is
Guidepost: 3         A. gender identity
Type: F              B. gender-typing
                     C. identification
                     D. androgyny

Answer: A      38.   Jessica imitates her mother’s gestures, speech, and behaviors. Which of the
Page: 277            following terms describes this?
Guidepost: 3         A. identification
Type: C              B. reinforcement
                     C. role conflict
                     D. gender constancy

Answer: C      39.   According to Kohlberg, children learn their gender through
Page: 277            A. identification
Guidepost: 3         B. imitation of adult models, reinforcement, and punishment
Type: F              C. their own active mental classification and organization of behavior
                     D. maturation

Answer: B      40.   Shelly becomes upset because a stranger mistakes her for a boy. Kohlberg would
Page: 277            say that she has developed
Guidepost: 3         A. gender conservation
Type: C              B. gender constantcy
                     C. penis envy
                     D. cognitive awareness




                                              140
Answer: C      41.   Tina realizes that she will never be a boy. According to Kohlberg, she has
Page: 277            developed
Guidepost: 3         A. identification
Type: C              B. gender identity
                     C. gender constancy
                     D. penis envy

Answer: B      42.   Danielle becomes angry when she is told that she cannot grow up to be a father. “I
Page: 277            will, too!” she cries. According to cognitive-developmental theory, she has not yet
Guidepost: 3         achieved
Type: C              A. gender identity
                     B. gender constancy
                     C. penis envy
                     D. Electra complex

Answer: D      43.   Which of the following behavior patterns is inconsistent with Kohlberg’s views
Page: 277            regarding the acquisition of gender roles?
Guidepost: 3         A. A young boy has acquired gender constancy, and refuses to play dolls with his
Type: C                  sister.
                     B. A young girl has not yet achieved gender constancy, and claims to want to be a
                         daddy when she grows up.
                     C. A young boy has not yet achieved gender identity, and when asked if he is a boy
                         or girl, he says he doesn’t know.
                     D. A young boy who has not yet achieved gender constancy asks to be given only
                         toys for boys and no girl toys for his birthday.

Answer: D      44.   According to Sandra Bem’s gender-schema theory, children adopt gender-
Page: 278            appropriate behavior
Guidepost: 3         A. through identification with same-sex parent after resolution of sexual conflict
Type: F              B. as a result of imitation and reinforcement
                     C. after achieving gender constancy
                     D. by socializing themselves to their gender roles

Answer: D      45.   Marilyn knows that she is a girl, and by watching what other girls do, she is learning
Page: 279            how she is expected to behave. Which theory would hold that gender-typing is
Guidepost: 3         acquired in this way?
Type: C              A. Freudian
                     B. Eriksonian
                     C. cognitive-developmental
                     D. cognitive-social

Answer: C      46.   Martin is beginning to understand how his culture classifies males and females.
Page: 278            Based upon this knowledge, Martin is developing patterns of behavior based upon
Guidepost: 3         his organized knowledge of male-appropriate and female-appropriate behavior.
Type: C              According to Bem, the patterns of behavior that Martin is beginning to develop are
                     organized around
                     A. sexism schema
                     B. gender constancy
                     C. gender schema
                     D. gender identity




                                              141
Answer: A      47.   According to traditional social learning theory, children acquire gender roles by
Page: 279            observing models. Children then
Guidepost: 3         A. pick models that are powerful and nurturing
Type: C              B. always pick the same sex parent
                     C. never pattern themselves after peers
                     D. focus only on indirect teaching by parents

Answer: C      48.   Social-learning theory holds that a child identifies with a parent
Page: 279;           A. as a consequence of the phallic stage
Table 8-1            B. after resolving the Electra or Oedipus complex
Guidepost: 3         C. through observation and imitation
Type: F              D. because of guilt

Answer: C      49.   Some studies have found that parents affect children’s knowledge about gender more
Page: 279            than their
Guidepost: 3         A. gender identity
Type: C              B. gender schemas
                     C. gender behavior
                     D. gender constancy

Answer: C      50.    Billy sees his father working with power tools. As a consequence, Billy grows up
Page: 279            enjoying work with power tools himself, and perceives this kind of work to be
Guidepost: 3         “masculine.” The sequence of events is consistent with the        theory of
Type: C              identification.
                     A. psychoanalytic
                     B. gender-constancy
                     C. social-learning
                     D. conflict-resolution

Answer: D      51.   According to social-learning theory, which of the following is not a way in which
Page: 279            boys come to identify with their fathers?
Guidepost: 3         A. They notice physical similarities between themselves and their fathers.
Type: F              B. They imitate the father’s behavior.
                     C. They are praised when they act like their fathers.
                     D. They resolve the fear felt toward the aggressor.

Answer: C      52.   With regard to social-learning theory, research has indicated that
Page: 279            A. boys do not imitate their mothers
Guidepost: 3         B. most parents punish fighting and reward helpfulness in girls but not in boys
Type: F              C. children imitate their parents as well as many other adults
                     D. children are more similar to their parents than to other adults

Answer: B      53.   In socializing children, parents generally
Page: 279            A. treat boys and girls about the same until age 2 or 3
Guidepost: 3         B. give girls more latitude than boys with regard to gender roles
Type: C              C. show less tolerance for “tomboys” than for “sissies”
                     D. have little influence on gender-role development

Answer: B      54.                 are most likely to encourage               to engage in gender-typed
Page: 279            activities appropriate for their sex.
Guidepost: 3         A. Mothers; sons
Type: C              B. Fathers; sons
                     C. Mothers; daughters
                     D. Fathers; daughters




                                              142
Answer: C      55.   Which of the following preschool children is most likely to show strong gender-
Page: 279            typing?
Guidepost: 3         A. Leila, whose mother works full time outside the home.
Type: C              B. Jim, who lives with his divorced mother.
                     C. Jacob, whose father becomes upset when he plays with dolls.
                     D. Marla, whose father lets his wife make all major decisions.
                     E.

Answer: A      56.   In egalitarian households the _____________ role in gender socialization seems
Page: 280            especially girls
Guidepost: 3         A. father’s
Type: C              B. mother’s
                     C. parent’s
                     D. none of the above

Answer: B      57.   Which of the following statements about the images of males and females on
Page: 280            television is true?
Guidepost: 3         A. More females are shown than males.
Type: F              B. Gender stereotypes are more pronounced on television than in real life.
                     C. Gender-typing on television approximates real-life gender roles.
                     D. Gender stereotyping on television has been largely eliminated in recent years.

Answer: B      58.   Frankie is a second born sibling in a family of four. Frankie gender development
Page: 280            will likely
Guidepost: 3         A. become more like his mothers
Type: F              B. become more like his fathers
                     C. become more like his older siblings
                     D. be a combination of all family members

Answer: A      59.   Social-learning theory would predict that watching current television programs will
Page: 280            A. increase gender-typing
Guidepost: 3         B. decrease gender-typing
Type: F              C. eliminate gender-typing
                     D. have no impact on gender-typing, because children tend to watch programs that
                         conform to their gender roles

Answer: A      60.   In regards to the influence of his peers, social-learning theory would predict that
Page: 280            Brian’s peers will provide
Guidepost: 3         A. reinforcement for gender-typed behavior
Type: F              B. inconsistency in gender behavior
                     C. approval of opposite sex gender-typed behavior
                     D. have no impact on gender-typing

Answer: D      61.   Social cognitive theory sees which of the following as influencing socialization?
Page: 280            A. Parents are the reinforcers of children’s behavior
Guidepost: 3         B. Parents and peers in combination influence socialization
Type: C              C. Children only learn socialization after the begin school
                     D. Socialization is a complex system involving parents, peers and other agents.

Answer: C      62.   Young children do all except which one while engaged in play, the work of the
Page: 281            young?
Guidepost: 4         A. stimulate their senses
Type: F              B. coordinate sight with movement
                     C. practice being quiet
                     D. acquire new skills



                                              143
Answer: A      63.   Play that involves repetitive muscular movements involving gross motor skills is
Page: 281            called
Guidepost: 4         A. functional play
Type: F              B. constructive play
                     C. pretend play
                     D. generic play

Answer: B      64.   Pedro spends a considerable amount of his play time making things out of blocks,
Page: 281            coloring and painting, and making art projects. Pedro is engaged in
Guidepost: 4         A. functional play
Type: F              B. constructive play
                     C. pretend play
                     D. generic play

Answer: D      65.   Tory and Tanika enjoy organized games, play hours of Monopoly and have become
Page: 281            champions at marbles. The girls are engaged in
Guidepost: 4         A. functional play
Type: F              B. constructive play
                     C. pretend play
                     D. cognitive play


Answer: A      66.   What may a high level of solitary play indicate about a child?
Page: 281            A. maturity
Guidepost: 4         B. physical disability
Type: F              C. possible child abuse
                     D. pasitivity

Answer: B      67.   According to the text, which of the following statements regarding solitary play is
Page: 281            true?
Guidepost: 4         A. Children in the 1920s exhibited more solitary play than children do today.
Type: C              B. Solitary play seems associated with independence and maturity.
                     C. Children who engage in solitary play are at greater risk for social problems.
                     D. Children who engage in solitary play are less mature than children who engage
                          only in social play.

Answer: B      68.   Several children are playing in the same area. Each child plays with blocks in a
Page: 282;           different way, without any attempt to alter the others’ play. They are engaged in
Table 8-2            which kind of play?
Guidepost: 4         A. associative
Type: C              B. parallel
                     C. solitary
                     D. cooperative

Answer: B      69.   Because Carmen and Donita spend most of their preschool time in pretend play we
Page: 282            can expect them to exhibit all but which of the following behaviors?
Guidepost: 4         A. Increased understanding of other people’s viewpoints
Type: C              B. Inability to construct an accurate image of the social world
                     C. Tendency to cooperate more with other children
                     D. Be more popular than those that don’t

Answer: B      70.   The tendency toward sex segregation in play seems to be
Page: 283            A. cultural
Guidepost: 4         B. universal
Type: F              C. uncommon
                     D. decreasing



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Answer: D        71.    Which of the following was not encouraged in Anglo-American preschools?
Page: 283-284           A. independent thinking
Guidepost: 4            B. problem solving
Type: F                 C. active involvement in learning
                        D. academic skills development

Answer: B        72.    Discipline refers to methods of teaching children all but which one of the following?
Page: 284               A. development
Guidepost: 5            B. cognitive skills
Type: F                 C. self-control
                        D. acceptable behavior

Answer: A        73.    If punishment is used, it is best administered
Page: 284               A. as soon as the unacceptable behavior begins
Guidepost: 5            B. only after an unacceptable behavior has been completed
Type: F                 C. only after the behavior has been repeated several times
                        D. by someone the child has little contact with

Answer: C         74.    If punishment is used, it is more effective
Page: 284                A. without any explanation
Guidepost: 5             B. with a full explanation
Type: F                  C. with a short explanation
                         D. if an explanation is postponed, so that the child will have time to think about it

Answer: A         75.   Linda has been caught throwing rocks at a neighbor’s house. Her parents wish to
Page: 284               stop this behavior through punishment. To be most effective, which of the
Guidepost: 5            following people would be best to have administer the punishment?
Type: C                 A. The mother, who is usually nurturing and affectionate toward the child.
                        B. The father, who is cold and distant toward the child.
                        C. A relative who is kind, but is unfamiliar to the child.
                        D. Punishment would be equally effective from all three people.

Answer: D         76.    Punishment that is consistent, immediate, and related to the offense is called
Page: 284                      punishment.
Guidepost: 5             A. prudent
Type: F                  B. imprudent
                         C. appropriate
                         D. effective

Answer: C         77.   In a study cited in your textbook, those adults who recalled being spanked or
Page: 286-287;          slapped as a child, were more likely to report all but which of the following?
Box 1                   A. anxiety disorders
Guidepost: 5            B. alcohol problems
Type: F                 C. change of behavior
                        D. antisocial behavior

Answer: A         78.   Ellen has just run across the street against her parents’ wishes. Her parents firmly
Page: 285               explain to her that she must not do that again because she could get hurt. Ellen’s
Guidepost: 5            parent’s are using                     as a form of discipline.
Type: C                 A. inductive techniques
                        B. power assertion
                        C. withdrawal of love
                        D. external reinforcement




                                                 145
Answer: B      79.   Demands, threats, denial of privileges and spanking are considered _____forms of
Page: 285            discipline.
Guidepost: 5         A. a withdrawal of love
Type: F              B. a power assertive
                     C. an inductive
                     D. a negative reinforcing

Answer: C      80.   According to the textbook, the choice and effectiveness of a disciplinary strategy
Page: 285            will depend on all but which of the following?
Guidepost: 5         A. personality of the parent
Type: C              B. personality and age of the child
                     C. type of infraction
                     D. quality of relationship between parent and child

Answer: A      81.   An important goal of parental discipline is to help the child develop self-discipline.
Page: 285            The most effective disciplinary strategy to achieve this goal is
Guidepost: 5         A. induction
Type: F              B. power assertion
                     C. withdrawal of love
                     D. physical punishment

Answer: A      82.   Which kind of parental style emphasizes control and unquestioning obedience?
Page: 288            A. authoritarian
Guidepost: 5         B. permissive
Type: F              C. authoritative
                     D. egalitarian

Answer: B      83.   When Barbara asks her father why she is not allowed to play in the street, he says,
Page: 288            “Because I say so, and if you don’t do what I say, you will get a spanking.” This
Guidepost: 5         illustrates the      style of parenting.
Type: C              A. permissive
                     B. authoritarian
                     C. authoritative
                     D. longitudinal

Answer: B      84.   Which kind of parent tends not to set rules, but allows children to monitor their
Page: 288            own behavior?
Guidepost: 5         A. authoritarian
Type: F              B. permissive
                     C. authoritative
                     D. egalitarian

Answer: B      85.   Five-year-old Tommy’s parents let him go to bed whenever he chooses. He can
Page: 288            explore the neighborhood and go to anyone’s house anytime he wishes. Which
Guidepost: 5         style of parenting is this?
Type: C              A. authoritarian
                     B. permissive
                     C. authoritative
                     D. egalitarian

Answer: A      86.   Authoritative parents
Page: 288            A. allow children to make judgments about proper behavior
Guidepost: 5         B. rely on strict rules
Type: F              C. never impose punishment
                     D. rely on children’s fear of losing their love



                                             146
Answer: C       87.    Research suggests that the most self-reliant, self-controlled, and contented children
Page: 288              have parents who are
Guidepost: 5           A. authoritarian
Type: F                B. permissive
                       C. authoritative
                       D. egalitarian

Answer: B       88.   The parenting style in African American families that combines warmth and
Page: 289             affection with firm parental control is called     parenting.
Guidepost: 5          A. authoritarian
Type: F               B. no nonsense
                      C. authoritative
                      D. do what I say

Answer: A      89.    Prosocial behavior is
Page: 290             A. motivated by concern for another person
Guidepost: 6          B. motivated by reward and punishment
Type: F               C. a form of social learning
                      D. the main goal of socialization

Answer: C      90.    Factors that have consistently been related to prosocial behavior include
Page: 290             A. gender of the child
Guidepost: 6          B. parent’s income
Type: F               C. age of the child
                      D. social status of the family

Answer: C      91.    Jenny offered to share her peanut butter and jelly sandwich (her favorite kind) with
Page: 290             another child who had no lunch. Jenny is most likely to be
Guidepost: 6          A. at least 6 years old
Type: C               B. from a high-income family
                      C. advanced in moral reasoning
                      D. a very thoughtful child

Answer: C      92.    A cognitive capability that is related to the occurrence of prosocial behavior is
Page: 290             A. obedience
Guidepost: 6          B. detachment
Type: C               C. empathy
                      D. gender identity

Answer: C      93.    Parents of prosocial children tend to do all of the following except
Page: 290             A. encourage reflection on actions
Guidepost: 6          B. emphasize ethical principles
Type: F               C. emphasize obedience
                      D. set high standards

Answer: B      94.    In addition to modeling altruistic behavior themselves, prosocial parents encourage
Page: 290             their children to watch television programs that model cooperation, sharing,
Guidepost: 6          empathy, generosity, and helpfulness, such as
Type: F               A. Mr. Rogers Neighborhood
                      B. Barney and his Friends
                      C. Sesame Street
                      D. Wishbone




                                               147
Answer:A       95.    Parents of prosocial children tend to discipline them by
Page: 290             A. reasoning
Guidepost: 6          B. scolding
Type: F               C. spanking
                      D. withdrawing affection

Answer: D      96.    Which method of discipline seems to promote prosocial behavior in children?
Page: 290             A. power assertion
Guidepost: 6          B. withdrawal of love
Type: C               C. proactive
                      D. inductive

Answer: A      97.    Todd knocks over another child while running to the street to see a circus parade.
Page: 290             Todd is displaying
Guidepost: 6          A. instrumental aggression
Type: C               B. classical aggression
                      C. displaced aggression
                      D. hostile aggression

Answer: B      98.    Nia’s little sister has repeatedly knocked down a tower of blocks she has carefully
Page: 291             constructed. Finally, Nia grabs her little sister’s hair and twists it until she cries.
Guidepost: 6          Nia is displaying
Type: C               A. regressive aggression
                      B. hostile aggression
                      C. displaced aggression
                      D. operational aggression

Answer:A       99.    Hostile aggression is
Page: 290             A. seldom seen in infants
Guidepost: 6          B. often unintentional
Type: F               C. used as an instrument to attain a goal
                      D. hard to provoke

Answer: C      100.   Which of the following statements about aggression in early childhood is not true?
Page: 291             A. It usually centers on disputes about toys and control of space.
Guidepost: 6          B. It surfaces mostly during social play.
Type: F               C. It increases between the ages of 2 and 5.
                      D. It gradually shifts from physical to verbal conflict.

Answer: D      101.   Two-year-olds who show the most aggression are
Page: 291             A. the least sociable
Guidepost: 6          B. the least competent
Type: F               C. the most empathetic
                      D. likely to be the most aggressive at age 5

Answer: C      102.   John and Mary are the parents of a normally aggressive 2-year-old. What can John
Page: 291             and Mary expect over the next 3 years regarding future levels of aggression in their
Guidepost: 6          child?
Type: C               A. A steady increase in the level of aggression until about 5, then a rapid decline in
                           aggression.
                      B. The level of aggression will remain constant over the next 3 years.
                      C. The level of aggression will gradually decline.
                      D. The level of aggression will decline rapidly at 3 years, but then the level will
                           abruptly increase between 4 and 5 years.




                                                148
Answer: B      103.   Most children become less aggressive as they become more cooperative, less
Page: 291             egocentric, more empathetic, and communicate better, all of which occurs at about
Guidepost: 6          age
Type: F               A. 5 or 6
                      B. 6 or 7
                      C. 7 or 8
                      D. 8 or 9

Answer: D      104.   A more subtle kind of aggression, called covert, indirect, or psychological
Page: 291             aggression, and more likely practiced by girls, involves all but which of the
Guidepost: 6          following?
Type: F               A. spreading rumors
                      B. name-calling
                      C. withholding friendship
                      D. hair-pulling

Answer: B      105.   In a study cited in the textbook, children from which culture showed more anger,
Page: 292             more aggressive behavior and language, and less control of emotions?
Guidepost: 6          A. Japanese
Type: F               B. United States
                      C. Russian
                      D. Chinese

Answer: C      106.   Fears in early childhood
Page: 293             A. are abnormal
Guidepost: 6          B. are more common in boys than girls
Type: F               C. usually eventually disappear
                      D. should be treated as symptoms of a deeper problem

Answer: D      107.   Fears develop during early childhood because young children
Page: 293             A. are developing inner conflicts and anxieties
Guidepost: 6          B. have trouble separating reality from fantasy
Type: C               C. are learning that there are many things to be afraid of
                      D. all of the above

Answer: A      108.   Which of the following helps children deal with their fears?
Page: 294             A. instilling a sense of trust and normal caution
Guidepost: 6          B. ridicule
Type: F               C. coercion
                      D. logical persuasion

Answer: B      109.   A young child has been left alone without food in an unheated apartment for several
Page: 294             days. This is
Guidepost: 7          A. abuse
Type: F               B. neglect
                      C. failure to thrive
                      D. battered child syndrome

Answer: B      110.   A neglectful parent is most likely to be
Page: 295             A. hostile
Guidepost: 7          B. apathetic
Type: F               C. out of control
                      D. psychotic




                                               149
Answer: A      111.   More than half of the reported victims of child abuse or neglect are       years of
Page: 294             age or younger.
Guidepost: 7          A. 7
Type: F               B. 8
                      C. 9
                      D. 10

Answer: B      112.   The people most likely to abuse or neglect a child are the child’s
Page: 294             A. siblings
Guidepost: 7          B. parents
Type: F               C. grandparents
                      D. relatives

Answer: C      113.   __________________ is a major cause of death among young children; an estimated
Page: 295             1,100 children died as a result of this.
Guidepost: 7          A. accidents
Type: F               B. cancer
                      C. maltreatment
                      D. neglect

Answer: B      114.   What proportion of abused children become abusive parents?
Page: 295             A. one-fourth
Guidepost: 7          B. one-third
Type: F               C. one-half
                      D. two-thirds

Answer: A      115.   Abusive families tend to have all but which of the following characteristics?
Page: 295             A. fewer children than average
Guidepost: 7          B. disorganized households
Type: F               C. marital fights
                      D. isolation from outsiders

Answer: B      116.   When a child is removed from an abusive home situation, the most common
Page: 298             alternative is
Guidepost: 7          A. living with another family member
Type: F               B. foster care in another home
                      C. living in an institution
                      D. living in a homeless shelter

Answer: C      117.   Children’s growing sense of capability to master challenges and achieve their goals
Page: 298             is referred to as self-
Guidepost: 8          A. concept
Type: F               B. esteem
                      C. efficacy
                      D. confidence

Answer: D      118.   The earliest, most frequent, and most intense disputes among siblings are over
Page: 298             A. relationships with parents
Guidepost: 8          B. bedtime rituals
Type: F               C. territoriality
                      D. property rights




                                               150
Answer: B      119.   The main pattern of relationships between brothers and sisters early in life is
Page: 298             A. one of conflict and rivalry
Guidepost: 8          B. one of affection, interest, and companionship
Type: F               C. one of each tending to their own self-interests
                      D. one of constant squabbling

Answer: B      120.   As younger children reached the          birthday, the siblings became less physical
Page: 298             and verbal in their relationships.
Guidepost: 8          A. fourth
Type: F               B. fifth
                      C. sixth
                      D. seventh

Answer: C      121.   According to research, which of the following statements about siblings in
Page: 298             early childhood is not true?
Guidepost: 8          A. The older sibling tends to be the initiator of aggressive behavior.
Type: F               B. The younger sibling tends to be to imitator.
                      C. Siblings get along better when their mother is with them.
                      D. When siblings are close in age, the elder initiates more prosocial behavior.

Answer: D      122.   A statistical analysis of studies of only children shows that they tend to be
Page: 299             A. spoiled
Guidepost: 8          B. lonely
Type: F               C. weaker academically than students with siblings
                      D. better students than children with siblings

Answer: C      123.   Which of the following does not describe only children?
Page: 299             A. they are more mature
Guidepost: 8          B. they are more motivated to achieve
Type: F               C. they are better adjusted socially
                      D. they have higher self-esteem

Answer: B      124.   Which country has mandated that families have only one child?
Page: 299             A. Japan
Guidepost: 8          B. China
Type: F               C. Korea
                      D. India

Answer: B      125.   Children begin to have friends at about age
Page: 299             A. 2
Guidepost: 9          B. 3
Type: F               C. 5
                      D. 7

Answer: A      126.   Children tend to like and seek out other children who
Page: 299             A. are more verbal
Guidepost: 9          B. are quiet and shy
Type: F               C. tell the teacher when other children are misbehaving
                      D. do not live too close to them

Answer: D      127.   In a study cited in the text, young children rated all of the following as important
Page: 299             features of friendship except
Guidepost: 9          A. doing things together
Type: F               B. sharing or helping
                      C. living in the same neighborhood
                      D. getting to play with the friend’s toy

                                                151
Answer: B               128.     Generalizing from the text, an important characteristic of young children who are
Page: 300                        popular with their peers is
Guidepost: 9                     A. their tendency to stay on the sidelines and watch other children socialize
Type: C                          B. their ability to control the expression of anger
                                 C. their tendency to have more toys and other material possessions than less
                                    popular children
                                 D. their tendency to report the misdeeds of others to an adult

Answer: C               129.     Mandy is popular with her peers. Her parents are most likely to be
Page: 301                        A. authoritarian
Guidepost: 9                     B. permissive
Type: C                          C. authoritative
                                 D. egalitarian


Answer: D               130.     Adults can help young children’s relationships with peers by doing all but which
Page: 301                        activity?
Guidepost: 9                     A. getting them together with other children
Type: F                          B. monitoring their play with peers
                                 C. suggesting strategies to use in relating to other children
                                 D. punishing them for inappropriate social behavior


Essay Questions
131.       Paulo is in the initiative vs guilt stage of development. Erikson suggests that this is the chief
           developmental crisis of early childhood.
          Make the necessary distinctions between the term self-concept and self-esteem.
          Give examples to illustrate how caregivers can facilitate the development of both of these areas with Paulo.
          Include in your answer the ideal-self vs the real-self and the concept of representational mapping in early
           childhood.

132.       Zeda likes dressing like her brother and plays more often with his toys instead of her own “gender specific”
           toys. Gender identity is a main aspect in the development of the self-concept.
          Describe how children develop gender roles.
          Identify each of the four major perspectives on gender identity and describe the various viewpoints.
          Explain how the more recent theories of cognitive-developmental theory and gender-schema theory add to
           the information we already have about gender development.

133.       Parents exhibit several kinds of parenting techniques in their role as parents. Often through they can be
           classified into a certain “type” of parent based on Baumrind’s childrearing styles.
          List each of Baumrind’s parenting styles
          Describe each of these parenting styles and demonstrate how each one may provide a different outcome in
           a child’s development.




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