ENRECA - The Danish Bilateral Programme for Enhancement of Research Capacity in Developing Countries Bente Ilsøe and Erik Rüdinger StS.4, Danida, Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Copenhagen, Denmark Summary The Danish Bilateral Programme for Enhancement of Research Capacity in Developing Countries (ENRECA) supports capacity building in developing country research institutions through individual cooperative research projects carried out as "twinning arrangements" with research institutions in Denmark. Evaluation of the ENRECA programme demonstrated that it is providing valuable contributions to research capacity building in developing countries with high efficiency and a low cost/benefit ratio. Significant research results have come forth, a considerable number of postgraduate degrees have been awarded and the projects are extending the research results to the potential users. The ENRECA projects deal with a wide range of subjects within health, agricultural, technical, social, and natural sciences. Interdisciplinary research and collaboration between projects are encouraged. Background The Danish Bilateral Programme for Enhancement of Research Capacity in Developing Countries (ENRECA) supports capacity building in developing country research institutions through individual cooperative research projects carried out as "twinning arrangements" with research institutions in Denmark. The programme was created in 1988 as a result of the increasing realization that research and research trained manpower are essential for all nations, including the poorest developing countries. It was recognized that a severe deterioration of the research environment had taken place in many developing countries, and that many Danish research institutions were interested in contributing to alleviate this situation, an interest which only to a very limited extent could be accommodated within the traditional Danish bilateral programmes. The programme was placed in the Department for Evaluation and Research, Danida, the Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs. It became operational in 1989 and the first projects became active in early 1990. The daily administration of the programme was carried out by a single academic staff member. The annual budget was initially around 10,000,000 Danish Kroner. Objective The objective of the ENRECA programme is to strengthen the research capacity building in developing countries with a view to: · furthering research of significance for the social and economic development of the country in question, · improving the capacity of these countries for utilizing the results of international research, · improving the quality of the training offered at the universities and other institutions of higher learning in the countries in question, including the increase of its relevance for the surrounding society. These aims are formulated in the "Guidelines for Danida Support of Research Assistance Projects". The components which may be supported under the programme can be exchange of researchers, postgraduate education of developing country researchers, provision of research equipment, journals and literature, improvement of the means of communication and publication and dissemination of research results, both at international level and for the users at regional and local level. Administration The Danish research institutions (universities, research institutes, or private companies) function as closely cooperating partners with the developing country researchers and institutions and are responsible for the day-to-day management of the ENRECA support to the project. It is expected that the potential project partners have established some cooperation at the time of the initial application for a project, and that both parties are actively involved in the application process. Danida thus does not engage in "matchmaking" between groups of researchers. The selection and management of the projects are based on the original programme guidelines provided by Danida and on interaction with the 20 member ENRECA advisory panel and a very small administrative staff in Danida. Criteria for selection The advisory panel has approved a set of criteria which are used as basis for the appraisal of the application. These include 3 basic conditions that are necessary prerequisites for a successful project: · The contribution of the project towards creation of research capacity and competence, including the ability to provide the research training and the strengthening of the physical facilities needed for the research project. In addition, it is important that the activities primarily take place in the developing country institution. · The quality of the proposed research and of the researchers and institutions involved. · The capacity of the institutions involved to successfully carry out the specific project. The projects are approved in project phases, usually of a 3-year duration. At the end of each project phase, a new application is submitted and is appraised by the advisory panel and Danida. A set of Standard Terms for Research Assistance Projects forms the basis of the Agreements of Collaboration signed for each project phase by Danida and the scientists responsible on both sides. These terms address the issues of the administrative responsibility, reporting, budget and accounting, evaluation, ethical approval, environmental effects, liability and patenting etc. In recognition of the fact that the building of research capacity is a long-term process, the individual projects have an expected lifetime of 10-15 years. An evaluation of the programme took place in 1992 (Danida, 1992), dealing with both project design, management, and implementation, and assessing progress towards initial and final goals in the programme. The evaluation demonstrated that the ENRECA programme was providing valuable contributions to research capacity building in developing countries with high efficiency and a low cost/benefit ratio, compared with many other international efforts in the field. The projects had at that time already produced a large number of published research results and several Doctoral and Masters degrees had been awarded. Outside funding, often in support of research training, was obtained by a number of projects. It was also found that the goals were best reached if the project partners, especially on the Danish side, are highly qualified, if they communicate effectively, share managerial and other responsibilities, and if senior researchers at a high scientific level are able to spend considerable time on the cooperation. The projects are reviewed every 3 years. Visits are paid to the Danish research institution as well as to the developing country institution(s) by members of the advisory panel and representatives of the Danida administrative staff. Among the indicators used for the routine assessment of programme performance are the progress of the capacity building: the research training carried out, the output of the research projects, the dissemination of the research results and the progress towards sustainability. Interdisciplinary research and collaboration between projects are encouraged. During 1992-1995 27 projects were reviewed (some projects twice) including a number of projects in the application phase. By far the majority of the projects were found to be progressing satisfactorily. Significant research results have come forth, a considerable number of postgraduate degrees have been awarded and the projects are very much aware of the extension of the research results to the potential users. One of the most important criteria for success is the time and effort spent on the project activities by well qualified senior researchers. 35 ENRECA Projects Geographical delimitation Priority is given to projects operating in the so-called programme countries for Danish aid, but it is possible to support particularly promising activities in other least developed countries or regions. The geographical distribution of projects is dominated by African countries, while only relatively few projects are carried out in Asia or Latin America. More often than not the projects include a developing country institution obviously in need for the research capacity enhancement. However, the programme may also support the building-up of "Centres of Excellence", preferably in projects involving south-south and regional collaboration. Such projects starting in relatively well developed institutions have a shorter time frame than the 10-15 years, as it is expected that the sustainability of the capacity building is reached earlier. Sectoral delimitation The ENRECA projects deal with a wide range of subjects within health, agricultural, technical, social, and natural sciences. Rather than selecting a restricted number of priority areas, the projects have been judged on their ability to fulfil the criteria mentioned above, although preference is given to research within the priority sectors of the Danish bilateral aid. The only exception from this rule is a special call for projects within health system research carried out in 1992, resulting in the implementation of three projects in this field. The ENRECA programme does not exclude support of basic research which in the long term may improve the utilization of resources within the area in question. In practice, however, the applied sciences are dominating, focusing on subjects where the Danish researchers have a special interest in carrying out research in the developing countries (e.g. tropical diseases, tropical biology, development research etc.). The current status of the programme The ENRECA programme now (April 1995) consists of 35 projects. The budget for a 3-year project phase is typically of the order of 3-5 million DKK. The adminstration in Danida is carried out by two full time staff members. By 1996, the number of projects is expected to reach 40, which so far will be the maximum number possible to support economically as well as in terms of administrative capacity. Therefore, a stop for the submission of applications for new projects has been effected, but expressions of interest are received, and so far used for the documentation of the need for an expansion of the programme. Reference Danida, 1992. The Bilateral Programme for Enhancement of Research Capacity in Developing Countries. Evaluation Report 1992/10. Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Annex 1. List of ENRECA Projects, March 1995, listed according to starting date: 1. Isolation and Structure Elucidation of Potential Insecticides Department of Chemistry, Odense University (P. M. Boll) and Department of Chemistry, University of Delhi, India. 1990-95. 2. Natural Resources for Development - a Botanical Research Collaboration between Denmark and Ecuador Department of Systematic Botany, Institute of Biology at the University of Aarhus (Henrik Balslev), Departmento de Ciencias Biológicas at Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador (Laura Arcos Terán) , Quito and Facultad de Agronomia at the Universidad Nacional de Loja (Fransisco Vivar). 1993-95. Project phase 2. 3. Remote Sensing Unit for Environmental Monitoring Institute of Geografy, University of Copenhagen (Henrik Jeppesen) and Department of Geography, University of Ghana (George Benneh).1990-95. 4. Satellite-Based Studies of Vegetation Institute of Geography, University of Copenhagen (Kjeld Rasmussen) and Institute of Resource Assessment, University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. (A.S. Kauzeni) 1990-95. 5. Improved Ruminant Nutrition, Research Collaboration Denmark - Zimbabwe Department of Animal Science and Health, the Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University (Jørgen Madsen), the Department of Research in Cattle and Sheep, National Institute of Animal Science (Torben Hvelplund) and the Department of Animal Science, University of Zimbabwe (Modestus Gomez). 1994-1997. Project phase 2. 6. The Sudanese-Danish Research Collaboration Programme on Malaria and Leishmaniasis Centre for Medical Parasitology, Departments of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, University Hospital (Ib Bygbjerg) and Institute of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Copenhagen in cooperation with the Departments of Biochemistry and Pathology, of the University of Khartoum (Gwiria Satti). 1993-1996. Project phase 2. 7. Biomedical Research Component of Malaria Epidemiology and Control Epidemiological Research Unit at Statens Seruminstitut (Birthe Høgh) and Instituto Nacional de Saúde in Mozambique (Ricardo Thompson). 1995-97. Project phase 3. 9. Social Science Research Center for Development Research (Poul Engberg-Pedersen), Economic Research Bureau (Joseph Semboja), Institute of Development Studies (Suleiman S.A. Ngware) and Institute of Resource Assessment, University of Daar es Salaam (A.S. Kauzeni). 1994-1997. Project phase 2. 10. Rural Development African Studies Centre, University of Copenhagen (Holger Bernt Hansen) and Makerere Institute of Social Research, Makerere University, Uganda (Apolo R. Nsibambi).1990-94. 11. Tropical Marine Mollusc Programme Institute of Biological Sciences, Department of Ecology and Genetics at the University of Aarhus (Jørgen Hylleberg), Centre for Advanced Studies in Marine Biology at the Annamalai University, India (K. Ayyakkannu), Phuket Marine Biological Centre at the Prince of Songkla University of Thailand (Somkiat Khokiattiwong) and the Faculty of Fisheries at the University of Manado, Indonesia (Marthen Rondo) 1993- 95. Project phase 2. 12. Ruminant Helminth Research Project; a North-South and South-South Collaboration Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Parasitology of the Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University (Peter Nansen), Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Tanzania (A. Kassuku), and Department of Veterinary Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya (W.K. Munyua). DKK 1994- 1997. Project phase 2. 13. Political and Cultural Institutions in Development International Development Studies, Roskilde University Centre (P. Kaarsholm), Centre for Studies in Social Sciences, India, and Department of Political and Administrative Studies, University of Zimbabwe. 1991-94. 14. Strengthening Technology Assessment Capabilities in Ghana Institute of Social Sciences, Technical University of Denmark (K. E. Skouby) and Technology Transfer Centre, Ghana. 1991-95. 15. The Performance of Town and Village Planning in Tanzania Department of Human Settlements of the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts (Jørgen Andreassen) and Department of Urban and Rural Planning at the Ardhi Institute in Tanzania (Fred Lerise). 1993-1996. Project phase 2. 16. Wildlife Genetics Programme Institute of Population Biology at the University of Copenhagen (Peter Arctander) and Department of Molecular Genetics at the National Museums of Kenya (Rashid Abdi Aman). 1993-95. The project activities were discontinued in 1994. 17. Capacity Building for Research and Development in Traditional Fermented Food rocessing in Ghana Alfred Jørgensen Laboratorium A/S (Mogens Jakobsen) and Food Research Institute (FRI) in Ghana (Mary Halm), 1993-95. Project phase 2. 18. Danish Tanzanian Drinking Water Project The Center for Developing Countries at the Technical University (Eli Dahi), the Department of Civil Engineering at the University of Dar es Salaam and the Ministry of Water, Energy and Minerals, Tanzania. 1994-1997. Project phase 2. 19. Ecology and Control of Soil Borne Insect Pests with Emphasis on Termites Department of Biotechnology at the Danish Technological Institute (Christian Mosgaard) and Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (Cyrus G. Ndiritu). 1991-95. 20. Collaborative Research and Training Programme on Malaria and Lymphatic ilariasis Deparment of Infectious Diseases at Rigshospitalet (Ib C. Bygbjerg), Danish Bil-harziasis Laboratory (Niels Ørnbjerg Christensen) and Amani Medical Centre, National Institute of Medical Research, Tanzania (W. L. Kilama). 1994-97; Project phase 2. 21. Implementation of Oral Health Care Research in Madagascar The Department for Community Dentistry and Graduate Studies, School of Dentistry, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen (Poul Erik Petersen) and the Department for Community Dentistry, School of Dentistry, University of Madagascar (Noëline Razanamihaja) 1994-1995. Project phase 2. 22. Knowledge of Natural Resources in Western Sahel for Development Institute of Biological Sciences at Aarhus University (Ivan Nielsen), Faculté des Sciences at L'Université Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar, Senegal (Hamet Seydi), and Institute de Recherche de Biologie et Ecologie Tropical, Burkina Faso (Michel P. Sedogo) 1992-95. 23. Development of New Anti-viral Drugs against Hepatitis B Department of Chemistry at Odense University (Erik Bjerregaard Pedersen), Statens Seruminstitut (Bent Faber Vestergaard) and Chemistry Department and the National Institute of Liver Disease at Menoufia University, Egypt (Ibrahim Zeid; M. F. Abdel Wahab).1992-95. 24. Development of Seed Pathology Research and Training Facilities Institute of Seed Pathology for Developing Countries (S.B. Mathur) and Department of Studies in Applied Botany and Seed Pathology at teh University of Mysore, India (H. Shekara Shetty).1992-95. 25. Inactivation of Exotic Viruses in Biological Material Department of Veterinary Microbiology at the Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University (Peter Nansen & Niels Kyvsgaard), National Veterinary Institute for Virus Research (J. C. Lei), Accelerator and Research Centre at Risø (A. Miller), and Faculty of Veterinary Medicine at Sokoine University of Agricultural, Tanzania (U. M. Minga, A.D. Maeda-Machangu & P.S Gwakisa). 1993-94. 26. Ethnopharmacology of Indian Medicinal Plants The Royal Danish School of Pharmacy (Ulf Nyman) and the Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute, Trivandrum, India (P. Pushpangadan).1993-95. 27. Circulation of Nutrients The Institute of Geography, University of Copenhagen (Henrik Jeppesen) and the Department of Geography and Resource Development, University of Ghana (George Benneh). 1993-95. 28. The Malaria Research and Training Programme. A part of the Accra-Copenhagen Research Link Centre for Medical Parasitology at the University of Copenhagen (Thor Theander), Department of Organic Chemistry of the Royal Danish School of Pharmacy in cooperation with Ngouchi Memorial Institute of Medical Research, Legon (F.K. Nkrumah), and Korle-Bu University Hospital and Centre for Tropical Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics of the University of Ghana Medical School, Accra, Ghana. 1993-1996. 29. Enhancement of Research Capacity in Nepal. A Primary Health Care Project Department of Social Pharmacy at the Royal Danish School of Pharmacy (Ebba Holme Hansen), Psychological Laboratory at the University of Copenhagen (Rolf Kuschel) and Department of Health Economics at the Danish Hospital Institute (Marlene Gyldmark), in cooperation with the Institute of Medicine at Tribhuvan University, Nepal (Mathura P. Shresta). 1993-1996. 30. The Role of Small and Intermediate Sized Enterprises in African Development nd Industrialization The Centre for Development Research (Poul Ove Pedersen) and the Institute for Development Studies at the University of Nairobi (Njuguna Ng'ethe). 1994-1997. 31. Wildlife Genetics Project The Institute of Population Biology of the University of Copenhagen (Peter Arctander) and Makerere University Institute of Environment and Natural Resources, Uganda (Eldad M. Tukahirwa). 1994- 1997. 32. Community and Health System, a longitudinal study of interaction and change in Uganda. The Institute of Anthropology at the University of Copenhagen (Susan Whyte), the Institute of Epidemiology and Social Medicine at the University of Aarhus and the Child Health and Development Centre of Makerere University (Jessica Jitta). 1994-1997. 33. Food and Nutrition Security - energy and micronutrients availability in rice-based diets The Research Department of Human Nutrition of the Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University (Shakuntala Haraksingh Thilsted), the Department of Animal Physiology and Biochemistry of the National Institute of Animal Science, the Institute of Nutrition and Food Science at the University of Dhaka (Nazmul Hassan) and the Grain Quality & Nutrition Division at Bangladesh Rice Research Institute. 1994-1997. 34. Collaborative Research on Ruminant Production in Tanzania and Uganda The Department of Animal Science and Animal Health at the Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University (Poul Henning Petersen), the Department of Animal Physiology and Biochemistry and the Department for Research in Cattle and Sheep at the National Institute of Animal Science, the Department of Animal Science and Production (Lusato Revo Kurwijila), and the Department of Veterinary Physiology, Biochemistry, Pharmacology and Toxicology at Sokoine University of Agriculture, Tanzania, and the Department of Animal Science at Makerere University, Uganda (Gabriel Kiwuwa). 1994-1997. 35. Collaborative research on development in Egypt Centre for Development Research (Kirsten Westergaard) and Social Research Center at the American University i Cairo (Saad Nagi). 1994-1997. 36. Wastewater treatment in Tanzania - Waste Stabilization Ponds The Royal Danish School of Pharmacy (Svend Erik Jørgensen), The Engineering Academy of Denmark and the Faculty of Engineering, Environmental Engineering Unit, University of Dar es Salaam (Tolly A. Mbwette). 1995-1997.
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