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Deputy Chief of Staff

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									150            -UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT MANUAL

Army Civilian Personnel Program and in conjunction with the
Director of Civilian Personnel establishes policy and procedures nec-
essary to the adequate functioning of such program. In addition, he
is responsible for various economy measures and administrative serv-
ices within the Headquarters, Department of the Army. He is further
responsible for the administration of the Office, Secretary of the Army,
including comprehensive management and personnel programs as
carried on through the several divisions of the Office in direct liaison
with all components of the Department.
                Chief of Staff, United States Army
   The Chief of Staff is the principal Army adviser to the President,
to the Secretary of Defense, and to the Secretary of the Army on
the conduct of war and the principal military adviser and executive
to the Secretary of the Army on the military activities of the De-
partment of the Army. The Chief of Staff has command of all
components of the Army of the United States and of the operating
forces comprising the Army areas. He also commands the Army com-
ponent of oversea commands, and the related supply and service estab-
lishments of the Army, and is responsible to the Secretary of the
Army for their use in war and plans and preparations for their readi-
ness for war. The Chief of Staff, under the direction of the Secretary
of the Army, is responsible for the coordination and direction of the
General and Special Staffs and the Administrative and Technical
Services. The Chief of Staff, by virtue of his position, is the senior
Army officer on active duty.
                        Deputy Chief of Staff
  The Deputy Chief of Staff assists the Chief of Staff in the discharge
of the latter's duties, in his absence performs his functions, and is
charged with the establishment of policies and the supervision and
approval of budgetary and legislative matters. He also determines
questions of organization and administrative procedure for the De-
partment and the Army.
                         Chief of Information
   The Chief of Information advises the Secretary of the Army and
the Chief of Staff, United States Army, on matters of policy relating
to public information and Army information and education; legisla-
tive matters, except appropriation bills; and provides policy direction
for the Public Information Division, the Legislative _and Liaison.
Division, and the Troop Information and Education Division, Special
Staff, United States Army.
                          Army Comptroller
   The Army Comptroller is the Budget Officer (sec. 214, Budget and
 Accounting Act of 1921, 42 Stat. 23; 31 U. S. C. 22), Fiscal Director,
 and Management Engineer for the Department of the Army. As
 such he formulates, coordinates, and supervises those matters pertain-
            NATIONAL MILITARY ESTABLISHMENT-ARMY                     151
ing to budget, fiscal, statisticaland management engineering activities
of the Department of the Army.

           Secretary, General Staff, United States Army
   The Secretary of the General Staff, United States Army, adminis-
ters the immediate offices of the Chief of Staff and the Deputy Chief of
Staff ; maintains continuing liaison between the Office, Chief of Staff,
and the White House; provides the channel of communication between
the Office, Chief of Staff, and the Joint and Combined Chiefs of Staff;
reviews Department papers to be submitted to these agencies as well
as papers initiated by them -and referred to the Chief of Staff; and
prepares or supervises the preparation of correspondence to be signed
by the Chief of Staff or the Deputy Chief of Staff.

                 General Staff, United States Army
   The General Staff, jUnited States Army, under the direction of the
Chief of Staff, is responsible for the development of the Army and
insures the existence of a well-balanced and efficient military team.
It is specifically charged with the duty of.providing such broad basic
policies and pans as will enable the Chief, Army Field Forces; com-
manding generals, Army areas and oversea commands; and the heads
of Administrative and Technical Services to prepare and execute de-
tailed prograims. There are five divisions in the General Staff, each
under the immediate control of a general staff director who reports
personally to the Chief of Staff. These divisions are:
sonnel and Administration is the military personnel manager of the
Department of the Army. He has the primary General Staff interest
in manpower. He is the adviser and assistant to the Chief of Staff
on Army administrative matters and on matters relating to man-
power as a whole and to military personnel as individuals throughout
the Army. He has over-all Department of the Army responsibility
for the procurement, allocation, and reallocation of personnel in bulk
in accordance with established requirements and priorities, and for the
separation of individuals from the military service. The Director.
Women's Army Corps, prepares plans and policies and supervises
activities which relate to the WAC.
  INTELLIGENCE   DIvIsION.-The Director of Intelligence is the respon-
sible Department of the Army instrumentality for the collection and
evaluation of information and for the dissemination of intelligence
pertaining to foreign countries, their war potential and military forces.
He is responsible for the procurement of information and intelligence
relating to the activities of individuals or agencies potentially or
actually dangerous to the preservation of the military establishment
within the zone of interior, for executing counterintelligence measures,
and for the collection within the zone of interior of foreign positive
intelligence. He is responsible for meeting intelligence requirements
of continental and oversea commands and the Administrative and
Technical Services. The Director of Intelligence is also responsible
for representing the Department of the Army on intelligence and

counterintelligence matters with other Federal departments and with
foreign governments.
zation and Training exercises General Staff direction over the organi-
zation, mobilization, demobilization, and training of all components
of the Army. Except for individual training, he is primarily con-
cerned with matters relating to units as distinguished from the primary
interest of the Director of Personnel and Administration in matters
relating to individuals.
   LOGISTICS DIVISION.-The Director of Logistics is the adviser to the
Secretary of the Army and the Chief of Staff on all service, supply, and
research and development matters, and to the Assistant Secretary of
the Army on procurement and related industrial matters. He has
General Staff responsibility for logistical planning; service activities;
supply control; distribution, storage, and maintenance of supplies;
purchasing; production and other industrial matters; disposal of
surplus property; initiation, allocation, coordination, and progress of
research and development programs; conduct of research and develop-
ment activities in consonance with user interest; and for the develop-
ment of Army service, supply, procurement, research and development
plans, policies, objectives, and programs in consonance with Army-
wide plans, policies, objectives, and programs.
   PLANS AND OPERATIONS DIVISION.-The Director of Plans and Oper-
ations is responsible for the formulation, development, direction,
supervision, and coordination of strategic and operational plans, cur-
rent and future, for the Army. He exercises General Staff supervision
and direction of strategic and operational matters relating to overseas
and other commands. Without vitiating the primary interests of
other General Staff directors in their respective fields of responsibility,
he coordinates all policies and directives and changes thereto, includ-
ing allocation of resources, affecting strategic, operational, and political
matters relating to oversea and major commands. He estimates the
current situation to determine military policy, objectives, and major
elements of requirements and means. As senior Army planner, he
supervises and coordinates the war planning activities of the General
Staff and furnishes guidance on current and future plans and
operations. He develops and keeps current the future and operational
plans involving the Army in conjunction with appropriate joint
agencies. He reviews and recommends action to the Chief of Staff on
joint and combined papers and initiates Department of the Army
execution of approved papers of joint and combined agencies, the
State-Army-Navy-Air Force Coordinating Committee, the Air Co-
ordinating Committee, and other similar agencies.
                 Special Staff, United States Army
   The Special Staff, United States Army, under the general direction
of the Chief of Staff, serves in an advisory capacity to the Chief of
Staff and to the General Staff divisions on matters within the assigned
fields of interest of the Special Staff. The Special Stafl comprises
eight organizations.
            NATIONAL MILITARY ESTABLISHMENT-ARMY                    153
    PUJBLIC INFORMATION DIVISION.-The Public Information Division
 coordinates, processes, and releases all Department of the Army an-
 nouncements of public interest, including photographs and motion
 pictures, to news-gathering agencies, radio stations and networks, film
 producers, and other public and private organizations in the field of
 public information; supervises Department contacts with these agen-
 cies; and assists outside writers by gathering material and arranging
 interviews with officials within and outside the Department.
    LEGISLATIVE AND LIAISON DIVISION.-The Legislative and Liaison
 Division formulates, coordinates, and accomplishes the Department of
 the Army legislative program, except appropriations bills; participates
 in official Department contacts with the Congress and its individual
 Members, except in matters pertaining to appropriations; and co-
 ordinates contacts of other Department of the Army agencies with the
 mation and Education Division is charged with developing basic plans
 and policies for information and education activities for military
 personnel and supervises the execution of the Army information an
 education program.
    NATIONAL GUARD BUREAU.-The National Guard Bureau is the
 agency through which the Department of the Army maintains relations
 with the National Guard in the 48 States, the District of Columbia,
 Hawaii, Alaska, and Puerto Rico, and is charged with the administra-
 tion of approved Department policies, other than those relative to
 training, for the National Guard not in the service of the United
 States, and the promulgation of Department directives and regulations
 applicable to the National Guard, including those relating to training.
 Executive for Reserve and ROTC Affairs advises and assists the
 Chief of Staff in the exercise of his supervision and control of the
 Organized Reserves and the Reserve Officers' Training Corps, in-
 cluding liaison therewith, and in keeping the Secretary of the Army
 informed on Reserve and ROTC affairs. He is responsible for main-
 taining close contact, mutual understanding, and effective cooperation
between the Department of the Army and the Reserve component and
ROTC, and for necessary staff functions involved in this mission.
    OFFICE Or THE INSPECTOR GENERAL.-The Inspector General is
charged with coordinating inspector general activities throughout
the Department of the Army; assisting the Chief of Staff in keeping
the Secretary of the Army informed as to the state of the Army;
inquiring into and reporting upon matters which affect the efficiency
and economy of the Army; making inspections, investigations, surveys,
and studies as prescribed by law or regulations, or as directed by the
Secretary, Under Secretary, or Assistant Secretaries of the Army. or
the Chief of Staff.
   HISTORICAL DIvIsION.-The Historical Division is responsible for
preparing plans and policies for and exercising supervision and direc-
tion over Department of the Army and Army historical activities
other than current reports.

   CIVIL AFFAIRS DIVISION.-The Chief, Civil Affairs Division, formu-
lates policy, prepares plans, and takes action in coordination with
other Department of the Army agencies, other agencies of the Govern-
ment, and international or voluntary relief and welfare agencies on
civil affairs/military government matters, including war crimes, and
excluding those functions which are the responsibility of the Food
Administrator for Occupied Areas in the Office of the Under Secre-
tary of the Army. He insures that the Secretary of the Army, the
Un'der Secretary of the Army, the Chief of Staff, and interested Staff
divisions are properly advised on civil affairs/military government
                      Administrative Services
  ADJUTANT GENERAL'S DEPARTMENT.-The Adjutant General is           re-
sponsible for the administrative procedures and operations connected
with the procurement, appointment, assignment, promotion, transfer,
retirement, separation, casualties, decorations, and disciplinary cus-
tody of all military personnel of the Army of the United-States, the
publication of the orders and instructions of the Department of the
Army, the conduct of correspondence with the general public, the
Army postal service, Army recruiting, and the presentation and
administration of the permanent records of the Department and the
General is the chief law officer of the Department of the Army and
the chief legal adviser of the Secretary of the Army and the Depart-
ment. He is responsible for supervising the system of military justice
throughout the Army; for providing legal advice and services
through the Department; and for operating the system of appellate
review of records of general courts martial provided by Article of
War 501/2.
   CORPS OF CHAPLAINS.-The Chief of Chaplains directs matters per-
taining to moral and religious welfare of military personnel, including
the supervision of the Chaplain School.
eral is responsible for. the establishment and training of the Corps of
Military Police. He supervises the detention, care, feeding, and hous-
ing of prisoners of war and operates the Enemy and American Prisoner
of War Information Bureaus. He directs the internal security pro-
 gram of the Department of the Army and the training of officers for
military government duty.
    SPECIAL SERVICEs.-The Chief, Special Services, is charged with
 assisting commanders in developing and maintaining the mental and
physical stamina of military personnel by formulating and adminis-
 tering policies and procedures for the efficient operation of Army
 exchanges, by providing facilities and programs for recreation and
 entertainment during off-duty hours.
                         Technical Services
   FINANCE DEPARTMENT.-The Chief of Finance initiates, prescribes,
 and supervises all Department of the Army principles, practices, and
            NATIONAL MILITARY ESTABLISHMENT-ARMY                     155
procedures relating to accounting and auditing, and the receipt and
disbursement of appropriated funds. The Office of Dependency Bene-
fits, operated by the Chief of Finance, administers the payment of
family allowances and voluntary allotments of pay to dependents of
army personnel on active duty.
    CHEMICAL CORPS.-The Chief, Chemical Corps, is charged with the
investigation, development, manufacture, procurement, and supply
to the Army of all smoke and incendiary materials, toxic gases, and
gas-defense appliances, together with the training of the Army in
offensive and defensive chemical warfare.
   MEDICAL DEPABRTMENT.-The Surgeon General exercises adminis-
trative control of the Medical Department and supervises all medical
and sanitary affairs of the Army. The Department contains the
Medical Corps, the Dental Corps, the Veterinary Corps, the Medical
Administrative Corps, and the Army Nurse Corps.
   CORPS OF ENGINEERS.-The Chief of Engineers is responsible for all
Army construction, except that pertaining to the Signal Corps; for
demolition work; the reproduction and distribution of military maps;
the development, procurement, and storage of bridges and other types
of military equipment; and the supervision of investigations and of
improvements for navigation, flood control, and power development on
rivers and harbors.
  QUARTERMASTER CORPS.-The Quartermaster General is charged
 with providing food and clothing for the Army and is responsible for
 the procurement, storage, and issue of supplies common to two or more
 branches except weapons, ammunition, automotive vehicles, and signal
equipment, for the formulation of policies for the operation of mili-
tary cemeteries, and for the disposition of deceased personnel of the
Department of the Army.
   SIGNAL CORPS.-The Chief Signal Officer is responsible for all mat-
ters relating to signal communications including the development,
procurement, storage, and repair of signal equipment and supplies.
   ORDNANCE DEPARTMENT.-The Chief of Ordnance is responsible for
the design, procurement, storage, supply, and maintenance of muni-
tions and combat and transport vehicles for the Army. He prepares
the necessary information pertaining to the manufacture of weapons.
   TRANSPORTATION CoRPs.-The Chief of Transportation is charged
with the responsibility for all Department of the Army surface traffic,
inland and overseas. He is charged with all shipping overseas, and
with all inland movements and supplies moving by commercial means
and also operates all ports of embarkation.
                         Army Field Forces
   The Office, Chief, Army Field Forces, is the field operating agency
of the Department of the Army, within the continental United States,
for the general supervision, coordination, and inspection of all matters
pertaining to the training of all individuals and units utilized in a
field army. The Chief executes such other functions and responsibil-
ities as directed by Headquarters, Department of the Army. Spe-
cifically the Chief, Army Field Forces:

   Develops the organization, composition, equipment, and training of
Army combat service and administrative units (including those of the
Organized Reserve Corps and the Reserve Officers' Training Corps)
utilized in a field army.
   Supervises, coordinates, and inspects the training of all individuals
and units utilized in a field army.
   Supervises the training and inspection of all Army units of the
National Guard.
   Develops and prepares doctrine pertaining to the tactical and tech-
nical employment of individuals and units utilized in a field army, and
to the mat6riel and equipment necessary in the performance of their
   Supervises and coordinates the preparation of all literature pertain-
ino to the training of individuals and units utilized in a field army.
    upervises and coordinates at all schools all aspects of training
affecting the field armies.
   Supervises such boards as are necessary to insure continued research
and development of items of equipment in which units assigned to a
field army have a primary interest, and initiates requirements for these
   Supervises and coordinates the training of the National Security
Training Program.
   Makes recommendations concerning allotments for organization of
military and civilian overhead necessary for training.
   Conducts public relations involving the duties and missions with
which the Chief, Army Field Forces, is charged.
   Coordinates the preparation of funds necessary to insure the ful-
fillment of assigned functions and responsibilities.
                               Army Areas
   The commanding general of each of the armies and the Military
District of Washington commands all units, posts, camps, stations,
and installations within the Army areas or the Military District of
Washington, except those specifically commanded by the Chief of
Staff, United States Air Force, or a chief of a service or other Depart-
ment of the Army agency. He is responsible for the operations, train-
ing, administration, services, and supply of all units, posts, camps, and
stations of his command, and for certain activities at installations
reporting to Headquarters, Department of the Army.
        First Army               Second Army             Third Army
Headquarters at Gover-      Headquarters at Fort    Headquarters at Fort
     nor's Island, N. Y.:        George G. Meade,         McPherson, Ga.:
    Maine                        Md.:                  North Carolina
   New Hampshire               Pennsylvania            South Carolina
    Massachusetts               Maryland               Georgia
   Connecticut                 Virginia                Florida
   Rhode Island                West Virginia           Alabama
   New Jersey                  Kentucky                Mississippi
   Delaware                    Ohio                    Tennessee
   New York                    Indiana
                  NATIONAL MILITARY ESTABLISHMENT-ARMY                                             157
       Fourth Army                          Fifth Army                       Sixth Army
 Headquarters at Fort Sam            Headquarters at Chicago,           Headquarters, Presidio of
      Houston, Tex.:                        Ill.:                             San Francisco,
    Arkansas                             Michigan                            Calif.:
    Louisiana                           Wisconsin                           Montana
    Texas                               Illinois                           Washington
    Oklahoma                            Missouri                           Oregon
    New Mexico                          Iowa                               Idaho
                                        Minnesota                          Utah
                                        North Dakota                       Nevada
                                        South Dakota                       Arizona
                                        Nebraska                           California
  Military District of Washington with headquarters at Washington, D. C.,
comprises the District of Columbia and such adjacent territory as may be
prescribed from time to time.
      Territory of Hawaii-Headquarters, Fort Shafter, T. H.
      Panama Canal Zone-Headquarters, Quarry Heights, C. Z.
      Territory of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands-Headquarters, San Juan
        P. R.
      Territory of Alaska-Headquarters, Fort Richardson, Alaska.

                            United States Military Academy
                                        West Point, N. Y.
Superintendent.---------------------------                     MAJ. GEN. MAXWELL D.TATLOR
Commandant of Cadets.---------------------                     BRIG. GEN. GERALD J. HIGGINS

   The United States Military Academy is located at West Point, N. Y.
The course is of 4 Tears' duration, during which the cadets receive,
besides a general education, theoretical and practical training as junior
officers. Cadets who complete the course satisfactorily are graduated
with the rank of second lieutenant.

                                   The Panama Canal1
                         411 Tenth Street NW., Washington, D. C.
                                 REpublic 6700, Branch 75401
Officers on the Isthmus:
     Governor of the Panama Canal------.                  BRIG. GEN. FRANCIS K. NEWCOMER
     Engineer of Maintenance------.----                   COL. CHARLES G. HOLLE
Officers in Washington:
     Chief of Office and General Purchasing
        Officer--------,-------------                     BERNARD      F. BUtnDICK
      Assistant Chief of Office and Assistant
        General Purchasing Officer—-------- RALPH E. RAMSEY
     Assistant Comptroller----------------  G. G. ALLEN
   ' By Executive Order 8232, dated September 5, 1939, the administration of The Panama Canal wasplaced
for a temporary period under the direction of the Military Commander of The Panama Canal Department.

   The Panama Canal was created under authority of the Panama
Canal Act of August 24, 1912 (37 Stat. 560, 569; 48 U. S. C. 1301,
1302, 1306, 1330). Supervision of the Panama Canal organization
was placed by Executive Order 1885, dated January 27, 1914, in the
Secretary of War, now Secretary of the Army.
   The Governor of the Panama Canal, under the supervision of the
Secretary of the Army, is charged with the completion, maintenance,
and operation of the Panama Canal, and with the administration, sani-
tation, and government of the Canal Zone.
   The Panama Canal maintains departments of operation and main-
tenance, civil government, sanitation, supply and accounting on the
Isthmus, and a subordinate office in Washington for handling admin-
istration, purchasing, and accounting matters in the United States.
                                          KENNETH C. ROYALL
                                            Secretary of the Army

                               Aeronautical Board
                          Room 1052, Temporary Building T-7
                      REpublic 6700, Branches 7L434, 74987, 73238


MAJ. GEN. E. M. POWERS (Assistant Deputy Chief of Staff, Mat6riel, USAF)
BRIG. GEN. C. V. R. SCHUTLER (Plans and Operations Division, General Staff,
  United States Army)
VICE ADM. J. D. PRICE (Deputy Chief of Naval Operations, Air)
REAR ADM. THOMAS S. COMBS (Assistant Chief, Bureau of Aeronautics, Depart-
 REAR ADM. E. W. LITCH (Chief, Aviation Plans, OP-50, Department of the
 Secretariat -CAPT.                                     B. B. NICHOL, USN
                                                  LT. COL. L. J. ANDERSON, USAF
 Senior Secretaries—---        -    --       -    LT. COMDR. E. G. REED, USN
                                                   MAJ. J. R. BYRTUS, USAF

    The Aeronautical Board will investigate, study, and report upon
 all questions affecting' jointly the development of aviation of the
 Army, the Navy, and the Air Force referred to it by the Secretary of
 the Army, Secretary of the Navy, Secretary of the Air Force, Chief of
 Staff of the Army, Chief of Staff of the Air Force, Deputy Chief of
    iCreated by act of Congress or by joint agreement of the Secretary of the Army,
                                                                               of the Presi-
 Secretary of the Navy, and the Secretary of the Air Force. B? military order
                                                              its functions nnder the direc-
 dent ffective July 1, 1939, the Aeronautical Board exercises of the Armed Forces of the
 tlon and supervision of the President as Commander In Chief
     In addition to these boards from time to time the Secretaries of the Army, the Navy,
                                                                               as occasions
 and the Air Forces have created or may create other boards and committees
                   NATIONAL MILITARY ESTABLISHMENT-ARMY                         159
Naval Operations (Air), or by the Chief, Bureau of Aeronautics. It
is also charged with the duty of originating consideration of such sub-
jects when in its judgment it is deemed necessary, and of recommend-
ing such action as it considers essential to the establishment of suf-
ficiency and efficiency of cooperation and coordination of effort between
the Army, the Navy, and the Air Force as to aviation.
                                                          B. B. NICHOL
                                                          L. J. ANDERSON

                Arlington Memorial Amphitheater Commission
                     Washington Quartermaster Depot, Alexandria, Va.
                                 TEmple 6700, Branch 2
Chairman ..........................-.         KENNETH C. ROYALL (Secretary
                                                of the Army)
Mvmber ........-........            _........ JOHN L. SULLIVAN (Secretary of
                                                the Navy)
Executive and Disbursing Officer.......... COL. WILLIAM F. CAMPBELL
Chief Clerk      ........-  _.._
                           ..... .... . ...   ERNEST C. FARWELL

    The Arlington Memorial Amphitheater Commission was created
by act of Congress approved March 4, 1921 (41 Stat. 1440; 24
 l.JS. C. 291-95).
    Through the President of the United States, the Commission re-
ports annually to Congress as to what inscriptions, tablets, busts, or
other memorials (if any) shall be erected, and the bodies of what
deceased members of the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps
 (if any) shall be entombed during the next ensuing year within the
Arlington Memorial Amphitheater in Arlington National Cemetery
in Virginia. No such memorial construction or entombment may be
made without special authorization by an act of Congress. In making
its recommendations to Congress regarding memorials, the Commission
is required by law to consult with the Commission of Fine Arts on
the artistic aspects of the project under construction.
                                                    KENNETH C. ROYALL

                   Armed Services Petroleum Board
                    Room 1091, Temporary Building T-4
                        REpublic 6700, Branch 5317


Chairman     .------- -----------------      LT. GEN. H. A. CRAIG, USAF
Executive Officer----------------------      COL. G. H. VOGEL, QMC

   The Armed Services Petroleum Board is charged with a dual re-
sponsibility. It is responsible to the Secretaries of the Army, the
Navy, and the Air Force for interservice planning and coordination
of effort in matters relating to petroleum, petroleum products, con-
tainers, handling equipment and specialized transportation therefor;
and is responsible for making recommendations to and performing
 such services, duties, and functions in petroleum matters as may be
required of it by the Munitions Board, the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and
the Research and Development Board as they exercise their respective
 statutory functions for the Secretary of Defense.
                                                   H. A. CRAIG

                 Army-Navy Explosives Safety Board
                      Room 2039, Temporary Building 2
                        REpublic 6700, Branch 61641

President-------------------------------      COL. DALE C. HALL, USA
     CAPT. M. G. JOHNSON, USN             LT. COMDR. J. K. COWLING, USA
     COMDE. ROBERT DEC. BAKER, USN        F. F. DICK, Department of the Navy
     LT. COL. J. B. GOODELL, USA          J. H. GEHRING, Department of the Navy
     LT. COL. M. E. TOWNES, USA           H. M. LOVELACE, Department of the
     COAnDR. WILLIAM T.      BUTLER,             Army

  In accordance with the act of Congress approved May 29, 1928 (45
Stat. 928), the Board keeps the Secretary of the Army and the Secre-
tary of the Navy advised of storage supplies of ammunition and com-
ponents thereof for use of the Army and Navy, with special reference
to keeping such supplies properly dispersed and stored and to prevent-
ing hazardous conditions from arising to endanger life and property
within and without storage reservations.
                  NATIONAL MILITARY ESTABLISHMENT-ARMY                         161
    By authority of the Secretary of the Army and the Secretary of the
 Navy the cognizance of the Board is extended to apply wherever ex-
 plosives are handled by the Departments of the Army and the Navy
 within the continental United States and in United States Territories
 and possessions and other areas within which the United States has
 long-term rights such as the Atlantic bases which the United States
 acquired under the Base Lease Agreement.
                                                DALE C. HALL

                               Military Liaison Committee
                                          to the
                               Atomic Energy Commission
                                 1901 Constitution Avenue, NW.
                                   REpublic 6700, Branch 5634

Chairman ---------------------------                DONALD F. CARPENTER
       USA                                            USN
     COL. JOHN H. HINDS, USA                        LT. GEN. LEWIS 'H.   BRERETON,
     REAR ADM. RALPH A. OFSTIE, USN                   USAF
                                                    COL. ROSCOE C. WILSON, USAF

Executive Secretary.-...................            COMDR. FREDERICK L. ASHWORTH
Deputy Executive Secretary---..,...,.,              LT. COL. ROBERT R. PLOGER
Deputy ExecutFe Secretary-------.....--             LT. COL. WILLIAM BURKE

   The Military Liaison Committee, established by the act approved
August 1, 1946 (60 Stat. 756; 42 U. S. C. 1802), is charged by the law
to represent the Departments of the Army and Navy on matters per-
taining to the military application of atomic energy and to review
actions, proposed actions, or failure to act of the Atomic Energy Com-
mission in order to maintain the national security. To execute this
responsibility the Committee is charged to advise and consult with the
Commission on all atomic energy matters which the Committee deems
to relate to military applications, including the development, manu-
facture, use, and storage of bombs, the allocation of fissionable material
for military research, and the control -of information relatino to the
manufacture or utilization of atomic weapons. The Committee shall
also keep the Atomic Energy Commission fully informed of all atomic
energy activities of the Army and Navy.
                                                     DONALD F. CARPENTER

                       The National War College
                           Fort Lesley J. McNair
                          Fourth and P Streets SW.
                         Executive 7700, Branch 328


Commandant-VICE                                 ADM. H. W. HILL.
Deputy Commandant-MAJ.                          GEN. L. L. LEMNITZER
Deputy Commandant-MAJ.                          GEN. OTTO . WEYLAND
Deputy for Foreign Affairs-M.                  B. BARNES (Department of State)
Executive Officer-COL                           RICHARD J. WERNER

   The National War College, organized by authority of            e Joint
Chiefs of Staff, has the mission of preparing selected ground, air, and
naval officers, and officers of the State Department, for joint staff and
command duties on the highest level in behalf of the national security.
   The College devotes some four months of the academic year to a
close and systematic examination of international relations and world
affairs of the international consequences of the atomic bomb, of
United States commitments and responsibilities abroad, and of the
formulation of United States foreign policy and its implementation
through methods short of war. Instruction in this part of the course
is conducted by a small group of distinguished resident civilian in-
structors and an outstanding group ofThe                            last 6
months of the school year are devoted to the study of grand strategy,
the strategic areas of the world, and the scientific and technological
advances which have complicated the task of maintaining the national
   Certain parts of the course are held in conjunction with the Indus-
trial College of the Armed Forces, located immediately adjacent to
The National War College at Fort Lesley J. McNair.
                                                      H. W. HILL

                Industrial College of the Armed Forces
                             Fort Lesley J. McNair
                           Fourth and P Streets SW.
                          Executive 7700, Branch 460

Commandant--------------         ---------   MAJ.   GEN.    A.   W.   VANAMAN,
 Deputy Commandant-------------------        CAPT. JOSEPH    M. WORTHINGTON,

Executive --      ----------------------     COL. HAROLD P. HENNESSY
Director, Department of Instruction-------   CAPT. JOSEPH M. WORTHINGTON,

   The Industrial College of the Armed Forces is one of the two colleges
 on the highest plane of the educational system of the Armed Forces.
              NATIONAL MILITARY ESTABLISHMENT-ARMY                        163
 It prepares officers of the Army, Navy, and Air Force, and selected
 civilians, for-important command, staff, and planning assignments in
 the National Military Establishment and other Government agencies.
    Other important objectives of the College are: the conduct of study
 in all economic factors of national strategy and the interrelation of
 these economic factors to the political, military, and psychological
 factors; the conduct of study in all aspects of joint logistic planning
 and the interrelation of this planning to joint strategic planning and
 to the economy of the Nation; the promotion of understanding and
 study of all agencies and of economic and joint logistic factors which
 are important to the Nation and to the Armed Forces; the evaluation
 of the economic war potential of foreign nations and the conduct of
 study and research in those fields; and the fostering of close relations
between the Armed Forces and civilian engineering scientific, and
educational groups in the study of the social, political, and economic
impacts of war.
   The regular course extends over a period of 10 months and is con-
 ducted by using graduate school methods. It is designed to qualify
its students to hold positions of the highest responsibility in the Offices
of the various Secretaries of the Army, the Navy, and the Air Force;
Office of the Joint Staff; Office, Chief of Staff, United States Army;
Office, Chief of Naval Operations; Office, Chief of Staff, United States
Air Force; the Munitions Board and other joint Army, Navy, and Air
Force planning and logistics activities; offices of the chiefs of the vari-
ous Technical Services, Materiel Commands, and Bureaus; and directo-
rates in the Army, Navy, and Air Force.
                                                     A. W. VANAMAN

                     Armed Forces Staff College
                                 Norfolk, Va.
Commandant----.         I-----------------       LT. GEN. DELOS C. EiImAonS
Deputy Commandant-
                 ----      ---      __________   BRIG. GEN. CLYDE D. EDDLEMAN

   The mission of the Armed Forces Staff College, located in Norfolk,
 Va., is to train selected officers of the Army, Navy, and Air Force in
joint staff techniques and procedures; the organization, composition
and.functions of theaters and major task forces, and the strategical;
tactical, and logistical responsibilities of such commanders; and the
preparation for amphibious and airborne operations involving the
employment of joint forces. Graduate officers are assigned duties on
joint operations to include joint overseas expeditions and theater
                                                   DELOS C. EMMONS
                             Department of the Navy'
                    Eighteenth Street and Constitution Avenue NW.
                              REpublic 7400. Information


Secretary of the Navy_--           .----------            JOHN L. SULLIVAN
            Aide-----------------                         CAPT. FITZHUOH LEE
    Special Assistant --------------                      HENRY G. BEAUREGARD
    Special Assistant------------            ------       CAPT. RICHARD P. GLASS
    Administrative Officer --------------                 COMDR. RAYMOND P. HUNTER
Under Secretary of the Navy _------------                 W. JOHN KENNEY
    Naval Aide ----------------------                     CAPT. LEWIS S. PARKS
    Aide and Special Assistant                 ----
                                               .---——     COMDR. RANDOLPH MEADE, JR.
Assistant Secretary of the Navy for Air----               JOHN NICHOLAS BROWN
    Naval Aide --------— -- —--—----—                     CAPT. DAVID L. MCDONALD
    Special Assistant ------------------                  CHARLES 0. CARBY
     Special Assistant-----------------                    COMDR. G. D. WILLIAMS
    Special Assistant -      _- ________-_--- -_          COMDR. WILLIAM E. SWEENEY
     Special Assistant --------------------                CEDRIC R. WORTH
Assistant Secretary of the Navy---------                   MARK EDWIN ANDREWS
     Naval Aide --     --------------------               CAPT. L. H. CHAPPELL
     Aide and Special Assistant ----------                COMDR. R. H. NORTHWOOD
     Consultant ----       ----------------               WILLIAM H. MOORE
Administrative Assistant to the Secretary
  of the Navy                     .---
                        _------___--__-_                  JOHN H. DILLON
Executive Office of the Secretary:
     Administrative Office, Navy Depart-
       ment, Administrative Officer--------               J. S. DAVITT
          Deputy Administrative Officer---....            A. J. MULVANEY
     Board of Decorations and Medals:
           Senior Member----------------   REAR ADM. R. W. HAYLER
         Member and Recorder---------- CAPT. P. W. STEINHAGEN
     Board of Medical Examiners and Naval
       Examining Board (Medical), Presi-
       dent -----    --------------------- CAPT. MILLARD F. HUDSON, MC
     Board of Review, Discharges and Dis-
        missals, President-----------------               CAPT. PAUL CASSARD
      Facilities Review Board, Senior Mem-
        ber-----------------------------                     JO   KENNEY

         Chairman-                                        VCE ADM. C. H. McMORRIS
         Member -               -----            ----     REAR ADM. E. W. BURROUGH
         Member-          -----------------               REAR ADM. C. B. MOMBBN
          Member—--             --          ———           REAR ADM. H. E. REGAN
          Member -REAR                                          ADM. J. F. SHAFROTH
          Member-----                      ------         COL. R. M. PATE, USMC
          Member ---               ------          ---    CAPT. ARLEIGH A. BURKE
          Member------------------                        CAPT. LEON J. HUFFMAN
         Secretary-        --------------                 COMDR. J. M. LEE
          Administrative Officer--                        JARVIS BUTLER
      Naval Examining Board (Line), Presi-
       dent---------------------------                    VICE ADM. JOHN H. HOOVER
      Naval   Examining Board (Supply
        Corps), President            —---      -      -   REAR ADM. M. G. SLARROW, SC
      Naval Retiring Board, President------               VICE ADM. JOHN H. HOOVER

   i Organization chart on page 584.
              NATIONAL MILITARY ESTABLISHMENT-NAVY                                   165
Executive Office of the Secretary-Continued
    Naval Retiring Review Board, Presi-
      dent----------------------------        REAR ADM. R. H. CRUZEN
    Naval Sentence Review and Clemency
      Board, Senior Mebe--------.....         REAR ADM. R. H. CRHZEN
    Office of Budget and Reports, Director_ REAR ADM. H. G. HOPWOOD
    Office of the Fiscal Director, Fiscal
      Director---------------.......-- NORWOOD P. CAsSIDY
    Office of the GeneralCounselGeneral
      Counsel----------------------           HUDSON B. Cox
    Office of Industrial Relations, Chief---- REAR ADM. PAUL B. NIBECKER
    Office of Industrial Survey, Chief------ REAR ADM. JOSEPH W. FOWLER
    Office of the Management Engineer,
      Management Engineer-----------          NORMAN G. ASBURY
    Office of Naval Material:
         Chief---------------------....- VICE ADM. A. C. MILES
         Vice Chief---------------------- REAR ADM. M. L. RING
         Director, Administrative Services
            Division---------------..----- CAPT. E. C. ROGERS
         Director, Procurement Policy Divi-
           sion--.---------------.....     .. REAR ADM. J. D. BOYLE
         Director, Production Policy Divi-
           sion—-------------_______-- __ Rear ADM. C. E. BRAINE
         Director, Field Services Division-- CAPT. G. W. HENDERSON
         Director, Material Control Policy
           Division--------------------- CAPT. C. A. BAKER
    Office of Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale
      Reserves, Director---------------       COMMO. WILLIAM G. GREENMAN
    Office of Naval Research Chief------- REAR ADM. PAUL F. LEE
         Deputy and Assistant....... C         APT. CALVIN M. BOLSTER
    Office of Public Relations, Chief------- REAR ADM. E. C. EWEN
         Director, Administrative Division- CAPT. C. H. K. MILLER
         Director, Planning Division------ COL. R. C. KILMARTIN, USMC
         Director, Civil Relations Division-           CAPT. A. MACONDBAY
         Director, Public Information Divi-
           sion-— ------       --    __---_            CAPT. ERNEST M. ELLER
         Director, Naval History Division-             CAPT. JOHN B. HEFFERNAN
         Director, Aviation Division-------            CAPT. L. C. SIMPLER
         Director, Special Activities Divi-
           sion---------._.-----------                 COMDB. R. M. McILWAINE, USNR
    Requirements Review Board:
         Senior Member------------------               MARK EDWIN ANDREWS
         Secretary-----------------------              RULON A. WALKIE
Chief of Naval Operations----------------              ADM. Louis DENFELD
    Vice Chief of Naval Operations -----               VICE ADM. A. W. RADFORD
    Naval Inspector General-------------               REAR ADM. HEWLETT THEBAUD
    Deputy      Chief of        Naval Operations
      (Personnel)------------------------              VICE ADM. WILLIAM M. FECHTELEB
    Deputy      Chief of        Naval    Operations
      (Administration)—---------------- REAR ADM. C. WELLBOBN,                     JR.
        Hydrographer ------------ _.--  READ ADM. R. 0. GLOVER
         Superintendent,             Naval   Observ-
           atory------------------                —- CAPT. G. W.     CLARK
    Deputy Chief of Naval Operations
      (Operations)----------------------               VICE ADM. A. D.   STRUBLE
    Deputy Chief of Naval Operations
       (Logistics)---------------------—-              VICE   ADM. R. B. CARNEY
    Deputy Chief of Naval Operations (Air) -           VICE   ADM. J. D. PBICE
Chief, Bureau of Aeronautics ---------     _           REAR    ADM. ALFRED M. PRIDE
    Deputy and Assistant Chief--------                 REAR    ADM. T. S. COMBS
    Assistant     Chief       for    Research   and
      Development--------------------                  REAR ADM. T. C. LONNQUEST
    Assistant Chief for Design and Engi-
      neering--------------R--------                   REAR ADM. C. A. NICHOLSON
    Assistant Chief for Mat6riel and Serv-
      ices-----------C------------____--               CAPT. LLOYD HARBISON

Chief, Bureau of Medicine and Surgery, and
  Surgeon General---------------------                          REAR ADM.     CFFOD A. SWAN-
                                                                  SON, MC
    Deputy and Assistant Chief-------                           RAR ADM H. L.'PUGH, MC
    General Inspector, Medical Depart-
       ment-----------------------------                        REA ADM. J. T. BOON. MC
    General Inspector, Dental Service-----                      REAR ADM. A. W. CHANDLER, D
    Assistant Chief for Professional and
       Personnel Operations-        ---------                   REA   ADM. M. D. WILLCTTS, MC
    Assistant Chief for Planning and Logis-
       tics -----------------------------                       REAR ADM. P. M. ALBIGHT, MC
    Assistant Chief for Aviation and Opera-
       tional Medicine-                                         REAR ADM. B. GRoESBCK, MC
    Assistant Chief for Dentistry--------                       REAR ADM. C. V. RALT, DC
    Assistant Chief for Research and
       Medical Military Specialties-REAR                              ADM. C. J. BROWN, MC
    Director of Navy Nurse Corps            --                  CAPT. NELLIE J. DEWITT, NC
Chief of Naval Personnel--------------                           EAR ADM. THOMAS L. SRAGUE
    Deputy Chief-REAR                                                 ADM. JOHN W. ROPER
    Assistant Chief (Plans)-CAPT.                                     THOMAS F. DARDEN
    Assistant Chief (Operations)-REAR                                 ADM. C. C. HARTMAN
     Assistant Chief (Naval Reserves)-----                       APT. CARL K. FIN
     Assistant Chief (Training and Welfare)-                    CAPT. T. L. WATTLES
Chief, Bureau of Ordnance-REAR                                        ADM.A. G. NOBLE
     Deputy-and Assistant Chief-REAR                                  ADM. MALCOLM . SCHOEFFEL
Chief, Bureau of Ships-VICE                                          ADM. EARLE W. MILLS
     Deputy and Assistant Chief-REAR                                  ADM. C. D. WHEELOCK
     Assistant Chief for Ships-REAR                                   ADM. CHARLES L. BRAND
     Assistant Chief for Naval Shipyards-                       REAR ADM. GROVER C. KLEIN
     Assistant Chief for Electronics-CAPT.                            A. L. BECKER
     Director of Contracts-CAPT.                                      E. M. RAGSDALE
     Director of Administration---------                        CAPT. T. L. SCHMACHE
      Fiscal Director---------                                  CAPT. RALPH E. MCSHANE
      Senior    Member, Contract Settlement
       Review Board-—          ----       COMDB. J. H. BROWNFIELD
    Special Assistant to Chief-——--.—--   CAPT. STIRLING P. SMITH
    Special Assistant to Chief----------- A. BRICE BIGGERS
Chief, Bureau of Supplies and Accounts----REAR ADM. E. D FOSTER SC
      Deputy and Assistant Chief—--------REAR ADM. C. W. Fox,                          s6
      General Inspector, Supply Corps---- REAR ADM. M. G. SLARROW, SC
      Director of Material and Supply, and
         Assistant Chief of Bureau---------                     REAR ADM. H.    C. LASSITER, SC
      Assistant Chief for Administration and
         Planning----            ---------------                CAPT. G. W. BABUERNSCHMIDT,     SC
      Fiscal Director and Assistant Chief of
        Bureau—- ——-        ————-                               CAPT. W. W. HONAKER, SC
 Chief, Bureau of Yards and Docks ------                        REAR ADM. JOHN J. MANNING,

     Deputy Chief---------------------                          REAR ADM. J. F. JELLEY, CEC
 Judge Advocate General of the Navy-——                          REAR ADM. G. L. RUSSELL
      Assistant Judge Advocate General----- CAPT. E. E. WOODS
 Commandant, United States Marine Corps--                        GEN. CLIFTON B. CATES, USMC
    Assistant Commandant-       -----                            MAJ. GEN. OLIVER P.      SMITH,
      Director of Personnel -             ----         -       - BRIG. GEN.   ROBERT H.     PEPPER,
      Quartermaster General -MAJ.                  -                  GEN. W. P. T. HILL, USMC
      Inspector General-.-     --                          -   - BRIG. GEN. ROBERT BLAKE, USMO

   CREATION AND AUTHORITY.-The Department of the Navy and the
 office of the Secretary of the Navy were established by act of Congress
 approved April 30, 1798 (1 Stat. 553; 5 U. S. C. 411-12). For 9 years
            NATIONAL MILITARY ESTABLISHMENT-NAVY                   167
 prior to that date by provision of act of Congress, April 7, 1789, the
 conduct of naval affairs was under the Secretary for the Department
 of War.
    The Board of Navy Commissioners (consisting of three members)
 was created by the act of February 7, 1815.
    The act of August 31, 1842 (5 Stat. 579; 5 U. S. C. 429), abolished
 the Board of Navy Commissioners and established the Bureau of
 Navy Yards and Docks, Bureau of Construction, Equipment, and
 Repair, Bureau of Provisions and Clothing, Bureau of Ordnance and
 hydrography, and Bureau of Medicine and Surgery.
    The act of July 5, 1862 (12 Stat. 510; 5 U. S. C. 429), established
 the following organizations: Bureau of Yards and Docks, Bureau
 of Equipment and Recruiting (later changed to Bureau of Equipment
 and still later abolished), Bureau of Navigation (now Bureau of
 Naval Personnel), Bureau of Ordnance. Bureau of Construction and
 Repair, Bureau of Steam Engineering (later changed to Bureau of
 Engineering, which, with Bureau of Construction and Repair, was
 abolished on June 20, 1940, when their respective functions were re-
 assigned to the newly established Bureau of Ships), Bureau of Pro-
visions and Clothing (later changed to Bureau of Supplies and Ac-
 counts), and Bureau of Medicine and Surgery.
    The Office of Chief of Naval Operations was established by the
 act of March 3, 1915 (38 Stat. 929; 5 U. S. C. 422).
    The Bureau of Aeronautics was established by the act of July 12
1921 (42 Stat. 140; 5 U. S. C. 439).
   The Department of the Navy was incorporated in the National
Military Establishment by the National Security Act of 1947 (Public
Law 253, 80th Cong. 1st sess.).
   PURPOSE.-It is the purpose of the Department to supervise and
maintain a naval establishment in readiness for the performance of
such duties as the President, who is Commander in Chief, may
   It is fundamental naval policy to "maintain the Navy as a
thoroughly integrated entity in sufficient strength on the sea and in
the air to uphold, in conjunction with our other armed forces our
national policies and interests, to support our commerce and our inter-
national obligations, and to guard the United States including its
overseas possessions and dependencies."

              The Executive Office of the Secretary

  The Administrative Office, Navy Department, is responsible to the
Secretary for the general administration and business management of
the Department, and administers certain appropriations and manage-
ment programs applying to the Naval Establishment.
  It is responsible for departmental civilian personnel administration
and for departmental management services, including building space

and maintenance, security of buildings and grounds, mail, telephone,
office equipment and supplies, warehousing, duplicating, civilian pa
rolls, transportation, and employee health and welfare activities. It
also provides personnel, administrative, and general office services for
the Secretary's Office and the Executive Office of the Secretary.
   Appropriations assigned for fiscal administration include those for
travel of civilians, pay of civilian employees in Naval Districts, news-
papers and periodicals, postage, microfilming, departmental office sup-
plies and equipment, printing and binding, contingencies of the Navy,
and civilian salaries in the Secretary's Office and Executive Office of
the Secretary.
    Management programs administered for the Naval Establishment
include the reduction and control of reports, forms control, corre-
 spondence and records management, records disposal, use and appli-
 cation of microphotography, staff assistance on office systems and pro-
cedures, and printing and publications control. It also operates micro-
 filming plants, records management centers, district records manage-
 ment offices, district publications and printing offices, and regional
publications distribution centers.

   The Board of Decorations and Medals makes recommendations to
the Secretary of the Navy on the bestowal of honors of all types
within the naval service not awarded by delegated authority; on the
legislation, Executive orders, and general orders pertaining to decora-
tions, awards, and campaign medals; and on retirement benefits to
personnel with previous commendations. The design of medals and
the definition of policies come within the Board's purview.
                     BOARD OF MEDICAL EXAMINERS

   The Board of Medical Examiners conducts the physical examina-
tions of officers of the line and staff corps, U. S. Navy and Naval
Reserve, to determine their physical qualifications for promotion,
appointment, and advancement.

  The Navy Department Board of Review, Discharges and Dismissals,
was established pursuant to Section 301 of the Servicemen's Read-
justment Act of 1944, approved June 22, 1944 (58 Stat. 286), for the
purpose of reviewing discharges and dismissals of former personnel
of the Navy to determine whether such actions were in conformity
with reasonable standards of naval law and discipline, and where
appropriate, making recommendations to the Secretary of the Navy
for modification.
                        FACILITIES REVIEW BOARD

  The Board, established November 21, 1945, reviews and approves
or disapproves all requests for approval of new facilities projects for
continental and overseas shore establishments. The Board may in-
vestigate any phase of the operating procedure of the shore establish-
            NATIONAL MILITARY ESTABLISHMENT-NAVY                     169
ments to insure more efficient use of facilities and may issue orders
necessary or appropriate as a result of such investigation. Orders of
the Board shall be construed as emanating from the Secretary of the
                             GENERAL BOARD
   The General Board acts in an advisory capacity to the Secretary of
the Navy, considering and reporting upon such subjects as the Secre-
tary may submit to it.
                    NAVAL EXAMINING BOARD (LINE)
   The Naval Examining Board conducts the professional examina-
tions of line officers, including warrant and chief warrant officers of
the U. S. Navy for promotion, and for appointment, transfer, and
promotion of the U. S. Naval Reserve; competitive examinations of
warrant and chief warrant officers for appointment to commissioned
ranks of ensign, lieutenant (junior grade), and lieutenant of the
regular Navy; competitive examinations of enlisted personnel for ap-
pointment to warrant ranks of the regular Navy; and examinations
of records of chief warrant officers, regular Navy and Naval Reserve
for Certificates of Creditability of Record.
   The Naval Examining Board (Medical) conducts the professional
examinations of Medical Corps officers of the U. S. Navy and Naval
Reserve for promotion to the grades of commander and captain, Medi-
cal Corps. The examinations of officers for promotion to the grade of
rear admiral, Medical Corps, are customarily conducted by a special
examining board composed of officers of the grade of rear admiral,
of which the President of this Board is a member, and the examination
records are handled by this office.

  This Board conducts examinations of candidates for original ap-
pointment to the Supply Corps of the United States Navy and the
United States Naval Reserve, and for appointment as acting pay clerk
and pay clerk, United States Navy.
                        NAVAL RETIRING BOARD

   The,. Naval Retiring Board conducts the examinations of such offi-
cers of the line and staff corps of the U. S. Navy and Naval Reserve
as may be ordered to appear before it, or whose cases may be referred
to it by the Secretary of the Navy, to determine their -physical fitness
to perform all the duties appropriate to their respective ranks or
grades. (Commonly referred to as examinations for physical inca-
pacity retirements.)
  This Board reviews and reports upon the findings and decision of
any naval retiring board by reason of which any person who, while

serving as an officer of the naval service, has been or may be retired
or released to inactive service without pay. The Board's authority
is extended only to those individuals who may request review within
the time limit prescribed in section 302 of the Servicemen's Readjust-
ment Act of 1944 (58 Stat. 287).

   The Naval Sentence Review and Clemency Board was convened by
a precept of the Acting Secretary of the Navy dated April 17, 1947,
and is now functioning under precept dated October 15, 1947. On
its creation, the Naval Sentence Review and Clemency Board assumed
the functions of the Naval Clemency and Prison Inspection Board.
The Board considers all general courts-martial,-relative to the appro-
priateness of the sentence, prior to their approval by the Secretary of
the Navy. On each such general court the Board makes its recom-
mendation, relative to the sentence, and when approved promulgates
the Secretary's approval. The Board also considers, at established
intervals, requests of all general court-martial confines for clemency.
After considering these requests and recommendations the Board
makes its recommendations to the Secretary for his approval. The
Board is also assigned the duty of making recommendations to the
Secretary regarding Navy and Marine Corps policy on matters of dis-
cipline and behavior.
                    OFFICE OF BUDGET AND REPORTS

  The Office of Budget and Reports has charge of the preparation and
execution of the Department of the Navy budget. It analyzes the
estimates of the individual bureaus and offices and correlates them
into a well-balanced program. After funds have been appropriated
by Congress, the Office revises the budgetary program to conform to
specific funds and follows up the execution of that program.

    The Office of the Fiscal Director, under the Administrative Assist-
ant to the Secretary of the Navy, is charged with the following
responsibilities: (a) to formulate, establish, supervise, and coordi-
nate all policies and procedures affecting the finance, accounting,
and auditing activities of the Navy; (b) to prescribe the type and
content of all accounting and finance records to be maintained; and
 (c) to prepare or cause to be prepared reports which will provide
information relative to commitments, obligations, and expenditures
of Navy appropriations and funds.

   The Office of the General Counsel furnishes commercial legal
services to the Department of the Navy. It is charged with responsi-
bility for all legal matters with respect to procurement, contract termi-
nation, property disposition, and renegotiation. As to such matters,
it advises the Secretary of the Navy, the Under Secretary, the As-
            NATIONAL MILITARY ESTABLISHMENT-NAVY                      171
 sistant Secretary, the Assistant Secretary for Air, the chiefs of the
 bureaus, and the heads of the offices and various activities of the
Department. Branch offices, designated as Offices of Counsel, are
 established in each of the contracting bureaus and these offices, in
addition to furnishing legal advice, participate in the negotiation
of the larger and more difficult contracts and administer or supervise
the mechanics of drafting contracts and amendments thereto and
terminating contracts. The Office of General Counsel also has
branches in the Office of the Fiscal Director (which handles over-all
Navy fiscal matters), and the Office of Naval Research (which coordi-
nates and handles matters pertaining to research and invention).
Branch offices are also maintained at the Aviation Supply Office,
Philadelphia, and in New York City to service the Navy Purchasing
Office, Ships' Service Store, and the Army-Navy Medical Procurement
Office. The Central Office of the Office of General Counsel prepares
procurement directives and uniform contract provisions and otherwise
coordinates the work of the over-all organization. The Central Office
also serves as Counsel for the Chief of Naval Operations and the Office
of Naval Material within the sphere of functions outlined above,
handles problems common to two or more bureau offices and other
legal work which does not properly fall within the scope of any bureau
or other branch office.

                        OTFICE OF INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS

   The Office of Industrial Relations is under direct supervision of the
Under Secretary of the Navy. The Office of Industrial Relations
is responsible for the development of the Navy's personnel program for
civilian employees and for advising and assisting bureaus, offAces, and
shore establishments in the application of the program throughout the
departmental and field services. . Its field of interest includes all mat-
ters relating to the employment, assignment, transfer, promotion, sepa-
ration, efficiency rating, and training of civilian employees, as well as
those relating to wage administration, classification, employee rela-
tions, and safety engineering.
   The Office acts for the Under Secretary of the Navy in interpret-
ing established civilian personnel policies, and recommends changes
in policy. It is responsible for coordinating the Department's over-
all program so that uniform standards are maintained throughout the
Naval Establishment.
                         OFFICE OF INDUSTRIAL SURVEY

   The Office of Industrial Survey acts to keep the Secretary of the
Navy informed as to the efficiency of operation of the industrial.activi-
ties of the shore establishments of the Navy and the Marine Corps,
including the effectiveness of utilization of personnel engaged in in-
dustrial work. The mission of this Office is to inspect industrial
activities and report the results thereof to the Secretary, with pertinent
observations and recommendations.

     792170°—-48   12


   The Office of the Management Engineer, under the direction of the
Manaogement Engineer, acts as consultant and adviser to the Secre-
taries and their staffs on problems of business administration. It
has the responsibility of advising and assisting the Administrative
Assistant to the Secretary in developing and maintaining efficiency
and economy in the operation of the Naval Establishment with par-
ticular regard to matters of organization, staffing, administrative
procedures, and the utilization of personnel, materials, and facilities.
In this connection the office reviews, plans, coordinates, integrates,
and evaluates management programs throughout the Navy Depart-
ment and shore establishment. It also assists the heads of major
activities in developing appropriate management staffs within such
activities, and develops criteria and techniques for appraising per-
                       OFFICE OF NAVAL MATERIAL

   The Office of Naval Material is headed by the Chief of Naval Ma-
terial who has responsibility, under the direction of the Secretary of
the Navy, to effectuate policies for procurement, contracting, and
production of material throughout the Naval Establishment, and plans
therefor; to determine the procurement and production policies and
methods to be followed by the Naval Establishment in meeting the
material requirements of the operating forces, and to coordinate and
direct the efforts of the bureaus and offices of the Navy Department
in this respect.
    The Office of Naval Material is the staff of the Assistant Secretary
in all matters related to the promulgation of policies and general
procedures, for the determination of stock levels and replenishment
requirements, in collaboration with the Chief of Naval Operations;
for the administration of inventory control systems; and for the
 coordination and integration of industrial mobilization planning for
the Naval Establishment.
    In addition, the Office of Naval Material represents the Navy as
 regards its material requirements before other Government agencies,
 such as the Munitions Board, which control the availability of produc-
 tion, materials, and facilities.
    The Cffice of Naval Material comprises the following divisions:
    ADMINISTRATIVE SERVICES DIVIsIoN.-Provides for all administra-
 tive services required by the Office of Naval Material, including as-
 signiment and separation of personnel, budget. administration, mail-
 distribution and messenger service, files, and related services.
    ANALYSIS AND REVIEW DIvIsIoN.-Serves as staff to the Require-
 ments Review Board and Committee and to the Office of Naval
 Material. The Division makes independent audits and reviews of
 major programs of the Naval Establishment, and conducts statistical
 studies and surveys in administrative fields which are of primary
 concern to top management in the Department.
    PROCUREMENT POLICY DivIsIoN.-Formulates and issues policies and
 general procedures governing activities of the Navy with respect to
            NATIONAL MILITARY ESTABLISHMENT-NAVY                      173
procurement of material and facilities. Reviews and evaluates com-
pliance with such policies and procedures and issues such orders as
may. be required to assure compliance.
   PRODTUCTION POLICY DivisIoN.-Formulates and issues policies and
general procedures governing activities of the Navy with respect to
the production of basic and processed material, end items, end prod-
ucts, and components. Reviews and evaluates compliance with such
policies and procedures and issues such orders as may be required to
assure compliance. Coordinates industrial mobilization planning for
the Navy Department.
   FIELD SvERnVICEs DIvIsION.-Formulates and promulgates policies and
general procedures governing material inspection activities of the
Navy. Reviews and evaluates compliance with such policies and pro-
cedures and issues such orders as may be required to assure compliance.
Exercises managenment control over the offices of the supervising inspec-
tors and the inspectors of naval material. Exercises coordination con-
trol over all offices of the Material Inspection Service, USN.
   MATERIAL CONTROL POLICY DIVISION.-Formulates and promulgates
policies and general procedures governing activities of the Navy with
respect to facilities, inventory control, and property disposal. Re-
views and evaluates compliance with such policies and procedures and
issues such orders as may be required to assure compliance.

   The Office of Naval Petroleum Reserves was established in 1927 as a
part of the Secretary's Office. A directive dated June 6, 1944, which
re-defined the duties and functions of this office, established the Office
of the Director of Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves to take
custody and charge of the reserves on behalf of the Secretary; to
formulate plans and programs for the exploration, prospecting, pro-
tection, conservation, development, use, and operation of the reserves,
and for the production of oil therefrom, and to make recommendations
to the Secretary with respect thereto; to execute such plans and pro-
grams as are duly approved; and to consult with the bureaus and other
offices of the Navy Department and other Government departments
and agencies to the extent necessary for the administration and con-
trol of the reserves, and for the production therefrom.
                      OFFICE OF NAVAL RESEARCH

   The Office of Naval Research was created by the act approved
August 1, 1946 (Public Law 588, 79th Cong., 2d sess.). Its duties are
performed under the authority of the Secretary and its orders are con-
sidered as emanating from him and have full force and effect as such.
The Office of Naval Research is directed by the Chief of Naval Re-
search, appointed by the President, by and with the advice and con-
sent of the Senate, for a term of not to exceed 3 years. The Assistant
Chief of Naval Research performs the duties of the Chief in the event
of the latter's absence.

   The Office of Naval Research performs the following functions:
 (1) the encouragement, promotion, planning, initiation, and coordi-
nation of naval research; (2) the conduct of naval research in augmen-
tation of and in conjunction with the research and development con-
ducted by the respective bureaus and other agencies and offices of the
Navy Department i and (3) the supervision, administration, and con-
trol of activities within or -on behalf-of the Navy Department relating
to patents, inventions, trade-marks, copyrights, royalty payments, and
matters connected therewith; as may be prescribed by the Secretary.
                     OFFICE OF PUBLIC RELATIONS

   The mission of the Office of Public Relations is to keep the public
informed of the activities of the Navy as an instrument of national
security. Its functions are to advise the Secretary of the Navy on
policies relative to public relations and the dissemination of informa-
tion; to initiate, coordinate, and develop channels between the Navy
and the public for the accomplishment of its mission; to stimulate
public interest in naval activities by liaison with civilian organiza-
tions; and to coordinate and prepare for posterity historical accounts
of the activities of the Navy and Marine Corps.
   The Office of Public Relations comprises the Public Information
Division, the Civil Relations Division, the Naval History Division,
the Aviation Division, and the Special Activities Division.
                     REQUIREMENTS REVIEW BOARD

  The Requirements Review Board is responsible for assuring that
balance is maintained within and between Navy materiel and per-
sonnel procurement programs and for keeping procurement levels
consistent with actual needs. The Board is to maintain such balance
and consistency by direct action of the individual members in those
matters for which each is administratively responsible.
  The Requirements Review Committee assists the Requirements Re-
view Board in the discharge of its responsibilities by keeping the major
mat6riel and personnel procurement programs of the Navy under con-
stant audit review. In performing this function, the Committee gives
consideration to the conformity of these programs to strategic re-
quirements, to rates of use and attrition, to inventory levels, etc.

                  The Chief of Naval Operations
  The Office of the Chief of Naval Operations is organized in accord-
ance with the provisions of Public Law 432 approved March 5, 1948,
and Executive Order 9635 of September 29, 1945, as amended by
Executive Order 9904 of November 13, 1947. . The duties of this Office
are also affected by the provisions of the National Security Act of
1947, approved July 26, 1947. Under the broad provisions of this
authority the following duties are performed:
             NATIONAL MILITARY ESTABLISHMENT-NAVY                      175
                     THE CHIEF OF NAVAL OPERATIONS

    The Chief of Naval Operations is a member of the Joint Chiefs of
Staff and as such participates in the strategic direction of our armed
forces and is one of the principal military advisers to the President
and the Secretary of Defense. With reference to his naval, functions
he (a) is the principal naval adviser to the President, the Secretary
of Defense, and the Secretary of the Navy on the conduct of war, and
principal naval adviser and naval executive to the Secretary of the
Navy on the conduct of the activities of the Naval Establishment; (b)
is in command of the operating forces comprising the several fleets
seagoing forces, sea-frontier forces, district forces, and such of the
shore establishment of the Navy and other forces and activities as may
be assigned to the operating forces by the President or Secretary of
the Navy; (c) is responsible to the Secretary of the Navy for the use
of the operating forces, including but not limited to their training,
readiness, and preparation for war, and plans therefor; (d) is charged,
under the direction of the Secretary of the Navy, with determining
the personnel and material requirements of the operating forces, in-
cluding the order in which ships, aircraft, surface craft, weapons, and
facilities are to be constructed, maintained, altered, repaired, and over-
hauled, and coordinates and directs the efforts of the bureaus and
offices of the Department of the Navy as may be necessary to effectuate
availability and distribution of the personnel and material required
where and when they are needed; and (e) is the next in succession to
act as Secretary of the Navy during the temporary absence of the
Secretary of the Navy, the Under Secretary of the Navy, the Assistant
Secretary of the Navy, and the Assistant Secretary of the Navy for Air.


   The Vice Chief of Naval Operations is a member of the Joint Deputy
 Chiefs of Staff and as such participates in the strategic direction of the
armed forces to the extent that authority is delegated to him by the
Chief of Naval Operations with the approval of the Secretary of the
Navy. With reference to his naval functions he exercises such execu-
tive authority with respect to the Naval Establishment as the Chief of
Naval Operations may, with the approval of the Secretary of the.
Navy, delegate to him, and in case of the death, resignation, absence,
or sickness of the Chief of Naval Operations, he shall, until'otherwise
directed by the President, perform the duties of the Chief of Naval
Operations until his successor is appointed or such absence or sickness
shall cease. Specifically the Vice Chief of Naval Operations (a) di-
rects the activities of the General Planning Group, (b) coordinates
the efforts of the Deputy Chiefs of Naval Operations, and (c) per-
forms such duties in connection with the other departments and agen-
cies of the National Military Establishment and the Government as are
delegated to him by the Chief of Naval Operations. All orders issued
by the Vice Chief of Naval Operations in performing duties assigned
him are considered as emanating from the Chief of Naval Operations
and have the full force and effect as such.

                      NAVAL INSPECTOR GENERAL

  The Naval Inspector General, when directed, inquires into and
reports upon any matter which affects the discipline or military
efficiency of the Naval Establishment. He makes such inspections,
investigations, and reports as may be directed by the Secretary of
the Navy or by the Chief of Naval Operations. He proposes, periodi-
cally, programs of inspections to the Chief of Naval Operations and
recommends additional inspections and investigations as may from
time to time appear appropriate.

  The Deputy Chief of Naval Operations (Personnel) initiates and
develops personnel logistic plans and policies and develops and pre-
pares operating force plan for personnel logistics. He coordinates
basic training and maintains liaison with the Army through joint per-
sonnel boards and agencies.

   The Deputy Chief of Naval Operations (Administration) has gen-
eral administration of the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations and
direction of Pan American affairs and United States naval missions.
He has supervision of island governments and cognizance of naval dis-
trict administrative affairs, and maintains liaison with State and other
Government departments on administrative matters. He has over-all
direction of Communications Service, the Naval Observatory, and the
Hydrographic Office, and has representation on joint administrative

   The Deputy Chief of Naval Operations (Operations) formulates
strategic plans and policies. He has cognizance of organization, op-
erational development, readiness, administration, plans, and opera-
tions of seagoing forces, sea frontiers, and overseas naval command
areas; of atomic defense; and of politico-military affairs. He exer-
cises over-all direction of the Intelligence Service, evaluates and dis-
seminates operational information, and has representation on joint
operational agencies.

    The Deputy Chief of Naval Operations (Logistics) initiates, de-
 velops, and executes logistic plans and policies and determines ma-
 teriel requirements of the Naval Establishment. He has control of
 the distribution and disposal of all materials for logistic support
 including petroleum throughout the Naval Establishment, coordinates
 and directs the construction and maintenance of naval vessels and
 bases, and coordinates and directs logistics efforts of the bureaus and
            NATIONAL MILITARY ESTABLISHMENT--NAVY                     177

offices of the Navy Department. He has supervision of the Board of
Inspection and Survey; coordinates naval logistics efforts with the
Army and other Government agencies; and has representation on joint
logistic agencies.

   The Deputy Chief of Naval Operations (Air) is the principal ad-
viser to the Chief of Naval Operations on aviation matters. He
correlates and coordinates policy, plans, and logistics of naval avia-
tion; supervises preparation, readiness, and logistic support of aero-
nautical elements of the Naval Establishment, and integration of
Marine aviation within over-all naval aviation program; and super-
vises and directs policies and programs affecting the Naval Air Trans-
port Service. He has general cognizance of guided missiles and re-
lated devices, lighter-than-air activities and aviation training, and
has representation on joint air agencies and civil air agencies.

   The Marine Corps and Coast Guard (when under the Secretary of
the Navy) are parts of the Naval Establishment. Their functions are
integrated with those of the Chief of Naval Operations. The respec-
tive commandants deal directly with him on matters of common inter-
est between the Marine Corps or Coast Guard and the Chief of Naval
Operations as may be appropriate in the discharge of his prescribed
duties. The respective commandants and their subordinates deal
directly with the Vice Chief of Naval Operations and the Deputy
Chiefs of Naval Operations on routine matters within the scope of
duties assigned those officers.


  The chiefs of bureaus and offices have direct access to the Chief of
Naval Operations in the same manner as the Deputy Chiefs of Naval
Operations. They and their subordinates deal directly with the Vice
Chief and Deputy Chiefs of Naval Operations in such manner as to
assist the Chief of Naval Operations in the execution of his duties.
The functions and duties of the bureaus and offices remain as pre-
scribed by statutes, Executive, and general orders.

                          HYDROGRAPHIC OFFICE

   This Office is charged with the execution of hygrograpic and ocean-
ographic surveys in foreign waters and on the high seas; the collection
and dissemination of hydrographic and navigational information and
data; the preparation and printing by its own personnel and with its
own equipment of maps and charts relating to and required in navi-
gation, including confidential. strategical, and tactical charts for naval
operations and maneuvers; the preparation and issue of sailing direc-
tions (pilots), light lists, pilot charts, navigational manuals, periodi-
cals, and radio broadcasts for the use of all vessels of the United
States and for the benefit and use of navigators generally, the furnish-

ing of the foregoing to the Navy and other public services, and the sale
of charts and publications to the mercantile marine of all nations and to
the general public, at the cost of printing and paper. It maintains in-
timate relations with the hydrographic offices of all foreign countries;
with the International Hydrographic Bureau, Monaco; and, through
branch hydrographic offices and sales agents, with mariners and the
general public.
   The Hydrographic Office is charged with the publication and sup-
ply of naval air pilots; aeronautical charts and related publications
as required by naval aviation; as well as the collection and dissemina-
tion of timely information which will contribute to the safe navigation
of naval aircraft over areas of strategic interest to the Navy.
   The Hydrographic Office collects and codifies oceanographic data
and publishes charts, manuals, and special reports of an oceanographic
nature for the Navy Department, other Government agencies, the Mer-
chant Marine, the airlines, and others. To support these programs it
conducts oceanographic surveys and promotes training and basic

   Under the supervision of the Chief of Naval Operations makes such
astronomical observations, derives and publishes such astronomical
data, as will afford to United States naval vessels and aircraft, as well
as to all availing themselves thereof, means for safe navigation, includ-
ing the provision of accurate time; and, while pursuing this primary
function, contributes material, within the capabilities of the available
astronomical equipment, to the general advancement of navigation
and astronomy.
                        Bureau of Aeronautics
   The Bureau of Aeronautics is charged with such matters pertaining
to naval aeronautics as may be prescribed by the Secretary of the
Navy (sec. 8, act of July 12, 1921; 42 Stat. 140; 5 U. S. C. 455).
   The Bureau of Aeronautics makes recommendations to the Chief of
Naval Operations as to the technical characteristics and limitations and
the available manufacturing sources, of naval aircraft and naval avia-
tion equipment. Conducts research, makes tests, and participates with
other Government agencies and with industry in the design, develop-
ment, and improvement of such aircraft and equipment. Contracts
for naval aircraft and aviation equipment of a technical, specialized
nature. Provides for plant facilities as necessary to meet production
programs. Schedules, in accordance with requirements, the produc-
tion of naval aircraft and naval aviation equipment and assists manu-
facturers in the production thereof, to the end that the various items
may be delivered in the quantities, of the qualities, and at the times
required. Collaborates with the Bureau of Yards and Docks in the
design, construction, and alteration of all aeronautic shore establish-
ments. These activities are employed for conducting necessary re-
search, tests, investigations, and developments to obtain suitable
apparatus and material for naval purposes and for supporting the
            NATIONAL MILITARY ESTABLISHMENT-NAVY                     179
aviation functions of the Chief of Naval Operations and the aviation
operating forces of the Naval Establishment. Initially outfits and
thereafter replenishes with aeronautical equipment and material all
bases afloat and ashore from which naval aircraft operate. Supervises
the service, repair, overhaul, and salvage of naval aircraft and aviation
equipment. Redistributes Government-owned material and settles
termination claims under its cognizance.

                  Bureau of Medicine and Surgery
    DUTIES AN-D RESPONSIBILITIES.-The Bureau is responsible for the
    1. Safeguarding the health of personnel in the naval service; pro-
viding care for the sick and injured; providing medical and dental
attendance to retired naval personnel and transferred members of
the Fleet and Fleet Marine Corps Reserve; and all pertinent matters
 relating thereto.
    2. The preparation of specifications for, and the procurement, in-
spection, receiving, storage, care, custody, and issue of all medical
 and dental materials used in the Naval Establishment.
    3. Research in the sciences of medicine and dentistry, including pre-
ventive medical procedures, medicinal and dental substances, remedies,
materials, devices; the physical and mental characteristics and the
endurance capabilities of the human being; and physiological prob-
lems pertinent to the naval service.
    4. Evaluation of the performance characteristics, from the physio-
logical standpoint, of equipment designed for use in the naval service,
and submission of recommendations thereon.
    8. Providing medical attendance, to the extent authorized by law
and by competent authority, to dependents of persons in the naval
service, and to civilian employees who suffer injury or become sick
while at work; conducting physical or medical examinations of civilian
employees, as may be required by law; and providing, outside the
continental limits of the United States under circumstances where
other facilities are not reasonably accessible, and to the extent pre-
scribed by law, medical attendance to civilian employees of the Fed-
eral Government, and employees of contractors with the Federal
Government, and their dependents, respectively, and to such other
persons as may be prescribed by the Secretary of the Navy.
   6. In coordination with the Bureau of Ships, approving the design
of hospital ships insofar as their efficiency for the care of the sick
and iniured is concerned.
   7. The determination, in collaboration with other bureaus con-
cerned, of standards of environmental sanitation, industrial hygiene,
and other measures for the prevention of illness or injury within the
Naval Establishment.
   8. Maintaining data regarding all personnel of the Medical Depart-
ment of the Navy and making recommendations regarding comple-
ments, assignments, and duties of such personnel.

   9. Administration of civilian personnel employed at those com-
mands and organizations established as separate activities over which
the Bureau exercises management control.
   10. Providing for the organization and administration of the Medi-
cal and Dental Departments of shore establishments and vessels.
   TECHNICAL CONTROL.-The Bureau exercises technical control, in
addition to that implicit in the responsibilities enumerated above, of
the following:
   1. Physical standards and examinations of persons for entrance into
the naval service, and for retention on active service therein.
   2. Professional qualifications of all applicants for transfer to the
Hospital Corps, and of all enlisted and warrant candidates for promo-
tion in the Hospital Corps.
   3. Professional education and training of personnel of the Medical,
Dental, Medical Service, Hospital, and Nurse Corps.
   4. Professional standards for clinical methods and procedures in
medical, dental, and nursing care and treatment, including immuniza-
tions and quarantine. The Dental Division of the Bureau is responsi-
ble for the study, planning, and direction of dental practices in the
Naval Establishment.
   5. Care and preparation of the dead for shipment and interment.
   MAINAGEMEiNT CONTROL.-The Bureau exercises management control
of those commands and organizations established as separate activities
of the shore establishment whose primary functions are:
   1. Examination, care, and treatment of the sick and injured.
   2. Dental care and treatment.
   3. Procurement, inspection, receipt, storage, distribution, issue of
and accounting for medical and dental materials.
   4. Research, development, and test in the fields of medicine and
   5. Technical training and professional education of members of the
Medical, Dental, Medical Service, Hospital, and Nurse Corps.

                    Bureau of Naval Personnel
Naval Personnel is charged with and responsible for the procurement,
education, training, discipline, promotion, distribution, and demobili-
zation of officers and enlisted personnel of-the Navy, including the
Naval Reserve, the Reserve Officers' Training Corps, and the Women's
Reserve, except the professional education of officers, nurses, and
enlisted men of the Medical Department.
  It issues, records, and enforces the orders of the Secretary of the
Navy to the individual officers of the Navy and Naval Reserve.
  It administers recruiting stations and supervises the enlistment and
discharge of all enlisted persons. It also administers the Women's
Reserve, a branch of the Naval Reserve.
  It directs the organization and administration of the Naval Reserve
and provides for the mobilization of these Reserves.
  It has cognizance of transportation for all naval personnel except
the Marine Corps.
            NATIONAL MILITARY ESTABLISHMENT-NAVY                      181
    It establishes the complements and allowances of ships and shore
    It keeps the records of service of all officers and men, and prepares
the annual Navy Register for publication; and it keeps records and
makes reports .on all naval casualties.
    It is charged with all matters pertaining to application for appoint-
ments and promotions in the Navy and with the preparation of
 appointments and promotions for signature.
   It is charged with the preparation, revision, and enforcement of
 all regulations governing uniforms, and with the distribution of
 general orders and regulations.
   Questions of naval discipline, rewards, and punishments are sub-
 mitted by the Bureau for the action of the Secretary of the Navy.
The records of all general courts-martial and courts of inquiry involv-
 ing the personnel of the Navy are, before final action, referred to the
Bu-reau f(?r comment and recommendation as to disciplinary features.
   It receives all reports of services performed by individual officers
or men.
   It is charged with the enforcement of regulations and instructions
 regarding naval ceremonies and naval etiquette.
   It is charged with the supervision of the welfare and recreational
activities of the naval service except those under the cognizance of
the Marine Corps, including certain programs of financial benefits to
dependents of naval personnel and naval casualties.
   It is responsible for libraries on ships and at shore stations through-
out the Naval Establishment.
   It is charged with regulation of ships service activities ashore,
departmental cognizance of ships service matters in forces afloat for
the purpose of disposing of outstanding accounts and residual funds
of vessels lost at sea and regulation of officers messes and other messes
and clubs, except those under the cognizance of the Marine Corps.
NEL.-It is charged with the upkeep, operation, and repair of the
Naval Academy, Postgraduate School, Naval War College, Naval
Reserve facilities, schools for the training of naval personnel, training
stations, and the Naval Home, with the direction of receiving stations,
and with the supervision and control of naval prisons and prisoners,
including prisoners of war.
NEL.-It is charged with the cognizance and responsibility for the
preparation of the estimates, the justification, and the administration
of the "Pay" subhead of the appropriation "Pay and Subsistence of
Naval Personnel," the appropriation "Transportation and Recruiting
of Naval Personnel," the appropriation "Naval Reserve," the appro-
priation "Naval Academy,' the appropriation "Naval Home," the
appropriation "General Expenses, Bureau of Naval Personnel," the
appropriation "Training and Education," the appropriation "Welfare
of Naval Personnel," the appropriation "Salaries, Bureau of Naval
Personnel," allocations from the appropriations "Miscellaneous Ex-
penses, Navy," "Contingent Expenses, Navy Department," and
"Printing and Binding, Navy Department," and miscellaneous special
and trust accounts.

                         Bureau of Ordnance
   The Bureau of Ordnance is charged with and responsible for the
design, manufacture, procurement, maintenance, issue, and efficiency
of all offensive and defensive arms and armament (including armor,
torpedoes, mines, depth charges, pyrotechnics, bombs, ammunition,
war explosives, war chemicals, defensive nets booms, and buoys, plus
anchors, moorings, and appliances therefor except fixtures on shore
used to secure the ends of nets and booms), and, except as specifically
assigned to other cognizance, optical and other devices and material
for the control of guns, torpedoes, and bombs.
charged with the upkeep and operation of the following naval ord-
nance establishments and with their repairs, within the capacity of
the force employed: naval gun factories, naval ordnance plants, naval
torpedo stations, naval torpedo testing ranges, naval proving grounds
naval powder factories, naval ammunition depots, naval magazines on
shore, naval mine depots, naval net depots, naval ordnance laboratories,
naval mine warfare test stations, naval ordnance test stations, naval
degaussing stations, and naval deperming stations.

                           Bureau of Ships
   The duties of the Bureau of Ships are performed under the authority
of the Secretary of the Navy, and its orders are considered as emanating
from him, and have full force and effect as such (54 Stat. 493; 5 U. S. C.
430). The Chief of the Bureau is appointed by the President by and
with the advice and consent of the Senate for a term of 4 years (54
Stat. 493; 5 U. S. C. 435). The Deputy and Assistant Chief performs
the duties of the Chief in the latter's absence (54 Stat. 493; 5 U. S. C.
   The Bureau of Ships is charged with and responsible for the gen-
eral design, structural strength, stability, and seaworthiness of all
ships and floating craft of the Navy, except aircraft, and except float-
ing craft under the cognizance of the Bureau of Yards and Docks.
   It is responsible for the preparation of preliminary plans, approxi-
mate data, or both, showing the designs of new ships in accordance
with the military characteristics recommended by the General Board
and approved by the Secretary of the Navy, and for the preparation
of final designs of new vessels in consultation with other bureaus.
   It is charged with and responsible for all that relates to details of
designing, building, fitting-out, repairing, and altering of hulls,
permanent fittings, and main machinery, including its related equip-
ment used for propulsion of naval vessels, district craft (except float-
ing craft of the Bureau of Yards and Docks), and small boats.
   It has similar responsibility in connection with auxiliary machinery
not associated with propulsion equipment, including all pumps, dis-
tilling apparatus, refrigerating apparatus, air-conditioning apparatus,
steering gear, anchor windlass, deck machinery, air compressors,
heating systems, and piping systems.
            NATIONAL MILITARY ESTABLISHMENT-NAVY                       183

    The Bureau of Ships has cognizance of all that relates to electric
 generating sets and storage batteries; the generation and distribution
 of electric power on board ships for all purposes; all means of interior
 communication; all electrical methods of signaling, internal and ex-
 ternal; all other electrical apparatus on board ship, except fire-control
 instrunments and motors and control appliances used to operate machin-
 ery under the specific cognizance of other bureaus; and all appliances
 and articles of equipage and supplies on its approved allowance list.
    It is charged with the design and procurement of all radio, radar,
 and sonar equipage, radiological instruments, and special devices
 used by the naval communiciations service together with research and
 development thereof, except aircraft and ordnance electronics devices
 which are responsibilities of the Bureau of Aeronautics and the Bureau
 of Ordnance, respectively. It is responsible for installation and main-
 tenance of radio, radar, and sonar apparatus ashore and afloat.
    The Bureau is responsible for the provision of facilities and ar-
 rangements for salvaging vessels.
    It has administrative supervision of the dry-docking of all vessels
 and district craft and of the operating and cleaning of drydocks and
 marine railways.
    It is charged with the design, development, and procurement plan-
 ning for materials and appliances for defense against gas attacks, ex-
 cept as specifically assigned to other cognizance; for diving gear and
 experimental diving units, respiratory protective devices, paravanes
 and mine-sweeping gear, office labor-saving devices for ships and cer-
 tain shore activities, mess and galley equipment, ground tackle and
 towing gear, life-saving equipment, and navigational equipment.
- It is responsible for the quality control of all petroleum products
 for the fleet. It prepares specifications and recommendations for the
 purchase on annual contracts of consumable engineering supplies and
 conducts tests for determining the quality which these supplies must
 meet. It prepares the specifications for lubricating oil purchased by
 the Navy.
    It prepares specifications and prescribes tests for material, equip-
 ment, and machinery under its cognizance. It is represented on many
 of the national standardization and engineering bodies, and on the
 various Federal specifications committees.
    The Bureau is charged with the management control and the up-
 keep, operation, and repair (within the capacity of station force) of
 the following activities:
    David W. Taylor Model Basin, Carderock, Md.
    Naval Engineering Experiment Station, Annapolis, Md.
    Navy Code and Signal Laboratory, Washington, D. C.
    Experimental Diving Unit, Naval Gun Factory, Washington, D. C.
    Material Department, Naval Observatory, Washington, D. C.
    Navy Underwater Sound Laboratory, New London, Conn.
    Office of the Supervisor of Salvage, New York, N. Y.
    Material Laboratory, New York Naval Shipyard.
    Naval Boiler and Turbine Laboratory, Philadelphia Naval Shipyard.
    Industrial Test Laboratory, Philadelphia Naval Shipyard.
    Navy Mine Countermeasures Station, Panama City, Fla.
    Industrial Department, Naval Station, San Diego, Calif.
    Navy Electronics Laboratory, San Diego, Calif.
    Naval Radiological Defense Laboratory, San Francisco Naval Shipyard.

   These activities are employed for conducting necessary research,
tests, investigations, and developments to obtain suitable apparatus
and material for naval purposes.
    The Bureau participates in the operation of the Army-Navy Elec-
 tronic and Electrical Standards Agency, Fort Monmouth, N. J., and
maintains a liaison office-with the Army laboratories at Fort Mon-
    It is charged with management control of all United States naval
    It nominates to the Bureau of Naval Personnel specially qualified
 officers for engineering duty at sea and on shore, including naval ship-
 yards and those for duty as supervisors of shipbuilding and inspectors
 of machinery.
    It compiles and issues instructions for the care, operation, and main-
 tenance of material, equipment, and machinery under its cognizance
 and prepares and issues bulletins of official information on these
    The Bureau of Ships maintains in the field supervisors of shipbuild-
 ing, industrial managers and assistant industrial managers, and inspec-
 tors of machinery.' In the offices of supervisors of shipbuilding and
 inspectors of machinery, a force of trained naval and civilian experts
 is maintained for the inspection of machinery and materials generally
 entering into the construction or repair of vessels. This force in-
 terprets and enforces strict compliance with the specifications and
 other contractual obligations for the construction of vessels as regard
 characteristics of materials used, the methods of installation of the
 completed parts, and completion dates. The industrial managers
 and assistant industrial managers are charged with proper inspection
 of naval ships being overhauled or converted in private shipyards
 where there is no supervisor of shipbuilding.
    The Bureau, under the Chief and a Deputy and Assistant Chief of
 the Bureau, is organized as follows: Administrative Division, Con-
 tract Division, Finance Division, Electronics Division, Naval Ship-
 yards Division, and Ships Division.
                  Bureau of Supplies and Accounts
  The duties of the Bureau of Supplies and Accounts are performed
under the authority of the Secretary of the Navy, and its orders are
considered as emanating from him, and have full force and effect as
such. The Bureau is directed by a Chief who has the additional title
of Paymaster General and who is appointed by the President by and
with the advice and consent of the Senate for a term of 4 years. The
Deputy and Assistant Chief of the Bureau performs the duties of the
Chief in the latter's absence.
   The Bureau develops plans, formulates policies, and specifes proce-
dures to be followed in the performance of Navy supply, disbursing,
and accounting activities afloat and ashore.
  The Bureau supervises the operation of Navy supply, disbursing, and
accounting activities. This includes naval supply centers, supply de-
pots, storehouses, clothing factory, coffee-roasting plants, fuel plants,
             NATIONAL MILITARY ESTABLISHMENT-NAVY                      185
  supply piers, market offices, commissary and ship's store activities,
 purchasing offices, cost inspection offices, property transportation of-
  fices, supply corps schools, material redistribution and disposal activi-
 ties, cargo handling battalions, and supply activities.
      It furnishes to Navy activities under cognizance of the Bureau of
 Supplies and Accounts, and as may be required by other bureaus, tech-
 nical direction on matters concerning materials handling, warehousing,
 carloading, and stevedoring to the end that Navy materials may be ex-
 peditiously handled into and through naval activities at a minimum
 cost and with the least expenditure of manpower, storage, and ship-
 ping space.
     It coordinates the operation of the Navy Supply System and the
 performance of the supply functions within that system, with the
 advice of the other bureaus.
     It recommends to the Bureau of Yards and Docks action relative to
 the location, design, construction, and equipment of Navy storehouses
 and other appropriate facilities ashore and to the Bureau of Ships
 action relative to space and equipment requirements of supply activi-
 ties afloat.
     It coordinates the assembly of the supplies and materials required
for the initial establishment of advance bases, and determines storage
 and space requirements in connection with the movement of such bases.
     It coordinates the compilation and arranges for the printing of Navy
Department specifications, and supervises the upkeep of stocks of these
specifications and of the Navy stock of Federal specifications.
     It prepares budget estimates and controls the expenditure of sums
required by the Navy for freight, fuel, clothing, subsistence of Navy
personnel, and for the maintenance of supply, disbursing, and ac-
counting activities ashore.
     The Bureau controls the Naval Stock Fund, Naval Working Fund,
Clothing and Small Stores Fund, and Naval Procurement Fund; and
the stocks of supplies and materials procured with these funds.
     It fixes the prices at which material shall be expended from the
Naval Stock Account, subject to the approval of the Secretary of
the Navy.
     It develops fiscal and accounting policies and procedures relative
to the possession and operating of private plants by the Navy, and their
return to private ownership.
    It recommends to the Bureau of Naval Personnel action relative to
the procurement, training, administration, and assignment of officers
of the Supply Corps and enlisted personnel of appropriate ratings.
    It supervises the reporting of the inventories, the usage, and the
requirements of critical and strategic materials needed by the Navy,
except for technical items which are procured directly by the bureau
    The Bureau supervises the receipt, custody, warehousing, and .issu-
ance of Navy supplies and materials, exclusive of medical items, and of
ammunition, projectiles, mines, and explosives.
    It administers a centralized storage program for the Navy shore
establishment, involving the monthly reporting of the use of all stor-
age space, the allocation of storage space in naval supply depots, and

recommendations for the increase, decrease, and transfer of storage
facilities to meet over-all Navy requirements. It recommends to the
field action relative to modifications of lay-out and operation to meet
changing requirements and to increase efficiency.
   The Bureau develops new containers and packaging methods for
the Navy and Marine Corps.
   It authorizes and supervises the transportation of Navy property,
civilian personnel, and the household effects of Navy personnel, both
military and civilian; procures cargoes, loads and discharges supply
ships and tankers, and charters merchant vessels for the transportation
of supplies.
   The Bureau determines allowable costs under all types of Navy
contracts wherein cost is the basis for compensation.
   It pays for all articles and services procured for the Navy; pays
pay rolls, military and civilian; pays family allowances to the de-
pendents of Navy personnel and other allotments; and arranges for
funds required by Navy disbursing officers.
   It prepares information and instructions regarding income tax and
disseminates the foregoing to the Naval Establishment.
   It supervises the issuance of United States Savings Bonds pur-
chased by Navy personnel, both military and civilian.
   It prepares and revises the Navy Travel Instructions, jointly with
the Bureau of Naval Personnel and-the Headquarters, U. S. Marine
    It keeps and audits the property and money accounts of the Naval
 Establishment, including accounts of all manufacturing and operat-
 ing expenses at yards and stations; keeps inventory records relating
 to the plant properties, facilities and capital equipment owned in
 whole or in part by the Navy and Marine Corps; directs naval cost
 accounting; and renders the periodic and special reports involved.
                    Bureau of Yards and Docks
   The Bureau of Yards and Docks is the Navy Department's "Public
Works Agency" for the entire Naval Shore Establishment. It is the
function and responsibility of the Bureau of Yards and Docks and
its field organizations to assist all bureaus and offices of the Navy
Department in development planning and to administer directly the
design, construction, and major repairs of the public works and
public utilities including: Navy yard facilities, such as drydocks,
marine railways, building ways, hammerhead cranes; harbor struc-
tures, such as moorings, quay walls, piers, wharves, slips (including
dredging), landings, floating cranes, floating, drydocks; utilities, such
as power plants, railroads, and systems for heat, light, telephone,
water, and sewer services; airport construction and all types of build-
ings, including structural and machine shops, and such accessories as
roads, walks, bridges, and radio towers.
   The Bureau is charged with responsibility for, and execution of,
the annual inspection as to structural condition and all major repairs
of such naval public works and utilities. It provides for their gen-
eral and routine maintenance, except such minor routine work as can
             NATIONAL MILITARY ESTABLISHMENT-NAVY                     187
  be accomplished by station forces, at ordnance stations, air stations
  training stations, hospitals, Marine posts, and the Naval Academy.
  The Bureau is also responsible for the operation of all central power
  plants and distribution systems and the provision and operation of
  land transportation and weight-handling equipment, including loco-
  motives, locomotive cranes, cars, derricks (both shore and floating)
  shears, motor-trucks, passenger automobiles, etc.
     The Bureau consults fully on new projects with those departmental
  bureaus or offices for whose use-they are primarily intended; prepares
  designs that will be mutually satisfactory as to location, lay-out, and
  operating features; prepares specifications and cost estimates; and
  supervises construction.
     The Bureau of Yards and Docks is charged with all functions, both
  legal and administrative, respecting the acquisition and disposition
  of real estate, or any interest therein, for the Navy Department, and
  is custodian of all naval real estate which is not in active use.
     The Bureau of Yards and Docks is a direct construction agency, one
 of its major ultimate objectives being the construction of all shore
 facilities for the use of the Navy. Its work of design and construc-
 tion is broad in nature and embraces nearly all forms of engineering
 and all types of structures. The Bureau's present practice is the
 accomplishment of construction work coming under its cognizance
 through the medium of contracts awarded on a competitive, lump-
 sum-bid basis. However, enacted legislation allows the award of
 contracts on a negotiated, cost-plus-a-fixed-fee basis, and this type of
 contract was extensively used during the period immediately prior
 to and during the early stages of the war, in the interests of satisfying
 the construction demands of the Navy in the shortest time. The use
 of this type of contract has been largely discontinued, since March
 1943, in favor of the competitive lump-sum form of contract.
    In order to accomplish the construction, repair, and operation of
 public works facilities at advanced bases, the Bureau has been in-
 strumental in organizing and placing in service naval personnel known
 as Naval Construction Battalions (Seabees). A Construction Bat-
talion consists of approximately 32 officers and 1,100 enlisted men who
 are all qualified engineering and construction personnel, with a suf-
ficient diversity of skills to perform any and all tasks, the accom-
plishment of which is a responsibility of this Bureau.
    Members of the Construction Battalions are trained in military
tactics and participated in and experienced combat in every theater
during the war. Reserve cadets form nuclei for emergency expansion.
    The work of the Bureau and its attendant field activities are ad-
ministered by officers of .the Civil Engineer Corps, United States
Navy, headed by the Chief of the Bureau, who is an officer of the
Civil Engineer Corps, United States Navy, and also Chief of Civil
Engineers, United States Navy, appointed for a term of 4 years, who
holds the rank of rear. admiral, and a Deputy Chief of the
Bureau, also an officer of the Civil Engineer Corps, United States
    The work of the Bureau is administered by four Assistant Chiefs
of Bureau for Administrative Management, Business Management,

Operations, and Plans and Research, respectively. In addition, there
is an office of Chief Inspector. These are all officers of the Civil
Engineer Corps, United States Navy.
               Office of the Judge Advocate General
   The Office of the Judge Advocate General has cognizance of all major
                                                                  law in-
phases of military, administrative, legislative, and general respect
cident to the    operation of the Naval Establishment. With
to military law, it reviews the records of proceedings of all courts
martial, courts of inquiry, and boards of investigation. It advises
and prepares opinions on questions of administrative law concerned
with the administration of naval affairs, including legal questions
arising on pay and allowances for naval personnel. As legislative
counsel for the Department, the Office of the Judge Advocate General
acts as the central liaison between Congress and the Navy Department.  and
It drafts or reviews proposed legislation (except appropriations), and
 examines reports, bills, and resolutions introduced    into Congress
                                                                    the re-
 referred to the Department. Questions of general law include
 view and necessary action on admiralty        cases, claims for damages
 caused by naval vessels, and miscellaneous claims filed by or against  the
 the Navy. Matters of international law and questions incident to and
 operation of    the Foreign Claims Commission are also reviewed
 opinions prepared thereon. A legal assistance program, which pro-       on
 vides free legal service to naval personnel and their dependents re-
 personal lega problems, is administered     by this Office. It is also
 sponsible for the adjustment and settlement of tax problems
  from liabilities asserted by Federal, State, and local tax authorities.
     In addition to the foregoing responsibilities, representatives
  this Office serve in the joint Army-Navy  War Crimes Office to investi-
  gate and assemble evidence on enemy atrocities committed
  American service personnel and other     Americans, and to arrange for
  prosecution of international war criminals.
             Headquarters United States Marine Corps
   While the Marine Corps operates as an integral part of the Naval
 Establishment, the Headquarters organization is a complete Navy
 ing organization in itself, and is more self-contained than are the
                                                                     may be
 bureaus. By law the Marine Corps or component parts thereofassigned
 detached from duty under the Navy by Executive order and
 duty elsewhere and must be self-sufficient to fulfill its traditional
   The Continental Marines, forerunners of the present Corps, 10,
 organized  by resolution of the Continental Congress November
                                                                    by act
 1775. The present United States Marine Corps was established,
 of Congress  July 11, 1798 (1 Stat. 594).
   The Commandant of the Marine Corps, who is appointed byterm
 President  by and with the advice and consent of the Senate for a
 of 4 years, is charged with and responsible for the procurement, and
 charge, education, training, discipline, and distribution of officers
            NATIONAL MILITARY ESTABLISHMENT-NAVY                    189
enlisted personnel of the Marine Corps, including the Marine Corps
Reserve, and its equipment, supply, administration, and general
   The Assistant to the Commandant is the Commandant's principal
adviser and performs the duties of Chief of Staff. He also assists in
coordinating the work of the separate divisions and staff departments
and performs the duties of the Commandant in the latter's absence.
   Headquarters Marine Corps, under the direction of the Comman-
dant, is composed of the following agencies: the Offices of the Com-
mandant which include the Administration Division, Division of
Plans and Policies, Division of Public Information, Division of Avia-
tion, Division of Reserve, Division of Recruiting, and the Inspection
Division; the Personnel Department; and the Supply Department.
These agencies, under the direction of the below designated officer-
heads, perform the functions as indicated.
   ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICER.-Is responsible for administration of ci-
vilian personnel and placement of enlisted personnel at Headquarters,
operation of services affecting Headquarters as a whole, and operation
of Headquarters communications office.
   DIRECTOR, DivisioN OF PLANS AND POLICIES.-Under the direction
of the Commandant, formulates Marine Corps policy and develops
plans for personnel, intelligence, operations, supply, equipment, and
training; maintains liaison regarding these matters with other agen-
cies; and is responsible for the organization and training of all Marine
Corps elements other than Marine Corps aviation.
  DIRECTOR OF PUBLIC INFORMATION.-The Director of Public Infor-
mation, acting for the Commandant of the Marine Corps, has super-
vision over and is responsible for all public relations of the Marine
  DIRECTOR OF AVIATION.-The Director of Aviation, as Assistant
Commandant (Air) of the Marine Corps, is adviser to the Comman-
dant of the Marine Corps on aviation matters; as Assistant Chief of
Naval Operations (Marine Corps Aviation) is liaison officer between
the Deputy Chief of Naval Operations (Air) and the Commandant of
the Marine Corps; is responsible for planning, organization, equip-
ment, training, and deployment, promotions, and distribution of per-
sonnel, and for budgetary matters for Marine Corps aviation.
  DIRECTOR, MARINE CORPS RESERvE.-Has supervision over matters
relating to ground units of the Organized Marine Corps Reserve and
all classes of the Volunteer Marine Corps Reserve.
  DIRECTOR OF RECRUITING.-Carries out the policies of the Comman-
dant respecting entry into the service and administers the various re-
cruiting activities of the Marine Corps.
  INSPECTOR GENERAL.-Makes periodic inspections and special in-
vestigations when ordered by the Commandant, making written, re-
ports containing findings of fact and recommendations concerning
irregularities or for the improvement of the efficiency of the activity
   DIRECTOR OF PERSONNEL, MARINE CoRPs.-Under the direction of
the Commandant of the Marine Corps, is charged with the procure-
ment and appointment of officer personnel; with the classification,

 assignment, promotion, military histories, separation, and retirement
 of officers and enlisted personnel. The Director of Personnel is also
 charged in like manner with the administration of discipline; decora-
tions and medals; morale; welfare; recreation; post exchanges; rehabil-
 itation; casualties; family allowances; target practice; and settlement
 of claims for terminal leave pay; with the adjudication of claims; with
 the preparation, revision, and issuance of regulations and instructions
 to the service; with the keeping of records and reports and furnishing
 returns and reports in connection with the administration of the per-
  sonnel and organization of the Marine Corps. He is charged with the
 determination of responsibility for overpayments and loss, damage,
  or destruction of Government property and funds; and with such
  other duties as may be prescribed by the Commandant of the Marine
   QUARTERMASTER GENERAL OF THE MARINE                              CoRPs.-Is head of the
Supply Department.
  The Supply Department has the responsibility of procuring, stor-
ing, and distributing all supplies for the Marine Corps. In addition
to combat material, it provides for subsistence, construction material,
and labor; has jurisdiction over quarters, barracks, and other public
buildings provided for officers and enlisted personnel, and repairs,
alterations, and improvements thereto; provides vehicles for the trans-
portation of troops and supplies, furnishes means of transportation
for movement of troops; and prints and issues blank forms for the
   Marine Corps.
   This department also has cognizance over all matters relating to the
 payment of pay and allowances of Marine Corps and attached Navy
 personnel and to the administrative audit and analyses of accounts
 and returns of disbursing officers, and the issuance of Savings Bonds.
 This department is also responsible for the disbursement of all moneys
 necessary for the payment for all equipment, supplies, maintenance,
 and services from funds appropriated by the Congress for the Marine
                                       NAVAL DISTRICTS
                                                                                with limits and head-
    The United States and island possessions are divided into naval districts, example, Commandant,
  quartersasindicatedbelow. Address communications to the Commandant; for
  First Naval District, Boston, Mass.

                                  District                                         Headquarters

                                                                             Boston, Mass.
  No. 1. Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island
    (including Block Island)
                                                                                  York, N. Y.
  No. 3. Connecticut, New York, northern part of New Jersey (Including New
   counties of Mercer, Monmouth, and all counties north thereof), also
   the Nantucket Shoals Lightship
                                                                             Philadelphia, Pa.
  No. 4. Pennsylvania, southern part of New Jersey (including Counties of
    Burlington, Ocean, and all counties south thereof), Delaware (including
    Winter Quarter Shoal Light Vessel)
                                                                         St. Norfolk, Va.
  No. I. Maryland less Anne Arundel, Prince Georges, Montgomery,
    Marys, Calvert, and Charles Counties; West Virginia; Virginia
    Arlington, Fairfax, Stafford, King George, Prince William, and Westmore-
    land Counties; and the Counties of Currituck, Camden, Pasquotank,
     Gates, Perquimans, Chowan, Tyrrell, Washington, Hyde, Beaufort,
    Pamlico, Cravea. Jones. Carteret, Onslow, and Dare in North Carolina;
    also the Diamond Shoal Lightship
                  NATIONAL MILITARY ESTABLISHMENT-NAVY                                                 191
                                   NAVAL DISTRICTS-Continued

                                   District                                           Headquarters

No. 6. South Carolina, Georgia, and North Carolina, except Counties of         Charleston. S. 0.
  Currituck, Camden, Pasquotank, Gates, Perquimans, Chowan, Tyrroll,
  Washington, Hyde, Beaufort, Pamlico, Craven, Jones, Carteret, Onslow,
  and Dare             -
No. 7. Florida, except the counties'west of Apalachicola River-...             Jacksonville Fla.
No. 8. Florida counties west of Apalachicola River, Alabama, Tennessee,        New Orleans, La.
  Louisiana, Mississippi, Arkansas, Oklahoma, Texas
No. 9. Ohio, Michigan, Kentucky, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin, Minne-          Great Lakes, Il,
  sota, Iowa, Missouri, North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas
No.10. Puerto Rico, Vieques, Culebra, Virgin Islands and the Naval Reser-      San Juan, P. Il.
  vation, Guantanamo, and U. S. Naval shore activities at Jamaica, Trini-
  dad, Bahamas, Antigua, St. Lucia, British Guiana
No. 11. New Mexico; Arizona; Clark County, Nevada; southern part of            San Diego, Calif.
  California, including Counties of Santa Barbara, Kern, and San Bernar-
  dino, and all counties south thereof
No. 12. Colorado; Utah; Nevada (except Clark County); northern part of         San Francisco, Calif.
  California, including Counties of San Luis Obispo, Kings, Tulare, Inyo,
  and all counties north thereof
No. 13. Washington, Oregon, Idaho, Montana, Wyoming ........                   Seattle, Wash.
No. 14. Hawaiian Islands. and islands to westward, including Midway,           Pearl Harbor, T. H.
  Wake, Kure, Johnston, and Sand Islands, and Kingman Reef
No. 1. Panama Canal Zone--......—....................._.----__________         Balboa. C. Z.
No. 17. Ala.ka and the Aleutians.-...-._._._.___..-_..          -_____ -----   Kodiak (Temp. Adak),

 Potomac River Naval Command. The Potomac River up to the Great                U. S. Naval Gun Factory,
  Falls, the District of Columbia, the Counties of Prince Georges, Mont-         Washington, D. C.
  gomery, St. Marys, Calvert, and Charles in Maryland; the Counties of
  Arlington, Fairfax, Stafford, King George, Prince William, and West-
  moreland in Virginia, and the city of Alexandria, Va., less the Marine
  Barracks, Quantico-Va., and the Marine Barracks, Washington, D. C.
Severn River Naval Command. Anne Arundel County, Md --              ...-       United States Naval Acad-
                                                                                emy, Annapolis, Md.

                                                                   JOHN L. SULLIVAN
                                                                       Secretary oj the Navy

                        (See pages 158-163.)
                          Department of the Air Force
                                  The Pentagon
           Director of Public Relations: REpublic 6700, Branch 73328
                       Night Duty Officer: Branch 71223
Office of the Air Adjutant General, Information: REpublic 6700, Branch 316


Secretary of the Air Force -----         --      W. STUART SYMINGTON
Under Secretary of the Air Force -------         ARTHUR S. BARROWS
Assistant Secretary of the Air Force (Civil
  and Military-Diplomatic)-------------                    CORNELIUS V. WHITNEY
Assistant   Secretary      of   the     Air Force
  (Management)                       .-----                EUGENE M. ZUCKERT
Director of Public Relations --- ————------ F. LEO         STEPHEN
General Counsel -------------                        --- BRACKLEY SHAW
Office, Secretary of the Air Force:
      Special Assistant ------
                           _--                 -      -- MAJ. GEN. G. GARDNER
      Special Assistant -                                  MAJ. GEN. J. D. McINTYRE
      Executive ---      -- :         -      -----         BRIG. GEN. J. B. MONTGOMERY
      Administrative Assistant_                         -
                                                     _---- J. J. McLAUGHLIN
      Deputy Administrative Assistant                __-- MAJ. R. W. ENDSLEY
      President, Secretary of the Air Force
        Personnel Council --- —----------                   MAJ. GEN. E. B. LYON
Office Under Secretary of the Air Force:
      Executive ------ _ _————                             BRIG. GEN. WILLIAM . ECKERT
      Special Assistant -- ___-             ___         _--JOSEPH IMIRIE
      Special Assistant-         --- -_---                  GEORGE B. WOODS
Office of the Assistant Secretary of the Air
   Force (Civil and Military-Diplomatic):
      Executive -              ---------                     COL. WALTER C. SWEENEY
      Special Assistant —---                                JOSEPH L. BRENT
       Special Assistant --        -       -      -,--      G. GRANT MASON, Jr.
 Office of the Assistant Secretary of the Air
    Force (Management):
       Executive -C-----------                               COL. H. W. OHL-FE
       Special Assistant- -S.                                  W. DONALDSON
       Special Assistant --------------                      W. R. SWEENEY
 Office of the Director of Public Relations:
       Director, Plans and Policies—-               ---      BRIG. GEN. G. F. SCHULGEN
       Special Assistant--——————                             COL. A. R. GINSBURG
       Special Assistant------------------- L. E. HEDBERG
       Executive------             -         -     -      - CAPT. WM. C. ROBINSON
       Administrative Assistant to the Di-
         rector --    ----------------------- CAPT. A. M. FROST
       Plans and Policies Group ------------- COL. H. J. AMEN
       Chief, Administrative Branch--------- MAJ. T. A. MILLER
       AF Information Officer, Office of the
          Secretarv of Defense--------------- COL. J. C. REUDOCH, Jr.
       Director of Air Information--------- COL. WM. P. NUCKOLS
         sion-                                     BRIG. GEN. R. F. STEARLEY

    Counsel----------------------------COL.W. T. THURMAN
   'Organization chart on page 585.
              NATIONAL MILITARY ESTABLISHMENT-AIR FORCE                                             193
Chief of Staff - ._______________________                                 GEN. HOYT S. VANDENBERG
Special Assistant to Chief of Staff                       _-_______ BRIG. GEN. R. P. SWOFFORD, Jr
Vice Chief of Staff -..                            _.-._               _ GEN. MUIR S. FAIRCHILD
Assistant Vice Chief of Staff ------------- _ MAJ. GEN. W. F. MCKEE
Secretary of the Air Staff ..--- ___                         -_____ COL. H. R. MADDUX
Inspector General -M_____ _....________
                               _                                         MAJ. GEN. HUGH J. KNERR
Deputy Inspector General _-_____________ MAJ. GEN. ST. CLAIR STREETT
Chief, Office of Special Investigations ----.                            BRIG. GEN. J. F. CARROLL
Air Provost Marshal -----.-.----.----- ,, BRIG. GEN. J. V. DILLON
Air Inspector           _____............-_              _.__.
                                                         ..              BRIG. GEN. A. H. GILKESON
Air Adjutant General ...-.                   __.___...                   COL. E.E. ToRo, Acting
Secretary General, The Air Board_ _.- ...                                 .
                                                                         MAJ. GEN. HUGH J. KNERR
Comptroller -     __.      ... ____..._                   ,_._.__        LT. GEN. E. W. RAWLINGS
Assistant Comptroller -----------                             ..---      BRIG. GEN. E. C. LYNCH
Assistant Comptroller ---------------
                             _,,                                         BRIG. GEN. E. H. WHITE, Acting
     Chief, Field Management Group ....-                                 COL. R. S. MACRUM
     Director of Program Standards and
       Cost Control ---                            .................     BRIG. GEN. J. W. WOOD
     Director of Budget ----------.                                -__--_BRIG. GEN. E. H. WHITE
     Director of Statistical Services -------                            BRIG. GEN. J. K. GERHART
    Director of Finance ---------- _____ BRIG. GEN. H. WHITT
Deputy Chief of Staff-Personnel and Ad-
  ministration ------------                    ....-.....                LT. GEN. I. H. EDWARDS
    Assistant Deputy ---                    ..-.. ,,......           ,.. MAJ. GEN. B. L. BOATNER
    Director of Military Personnel _.-_...                               BRIG. GEN. D. C. STROTHER
    Director of Civilian Personnel ..-..                        ,,.      MAJ. GEN. R. E. NUGENT
    Air Surgeon ....-..                                    .____.        MAJ. GEN. MI. C. GROW
    Air Judge Advocate,      -..                    .... ,....           COL. D. O'KEEFE
    Chief of Air Force Chaplains --------.                               COL. C. I. CARPENTER
Deputy Chief of Staff, Operations--------- LT. GEN. L. NORSTAD
      Assistant for Programming----------- MAJ.                       GEN.   F. H.   SMITH
      Director of Communications--------- MAJ.                        GEN.   F. L.   ANKENBEANDT
      Director of Intelligence -_________..
                                       -    MAJ.                      GEN. C. P. CABELL
      Director of Plans and Operations---,-                      MAJ. GEN. S. E. ANDERSON
      Director of Training and Requirements- MAJ. GEN. E. E. PARTRIDGE
      Chief, Guided Missile Group------... BRIG. GEN. W. L. RICHARDSON
      Chief, Civilian Components Group ---- BRIG. GEN. JOHN P. MCCONNELL
Deuty Chief of Staff, Matriel--------                            LT. GEN. H. A. CRAIG
   Assistant Deputy Chief--_-_---------                          MAJ. GEN. E. M. POWERS
   Chief, Logistics Plan Group----_   _                          COL. P. E. RUESTOW
   Chief, Special Weapons Group_-----__                          MAJ. GEN. W. E. KEPNER
     Director of Research and Development- MAJ.                       GEN. L. C. CRAIGIE
     Director of Procurement and Industrial
        Planning.-,           --       -------------         BRIG. GEN. A. A. KESSLER, Jr.
     Director of Maintenance, Supply, and
       Services---B--G---.               ---- --- BRIG. GEN. L. P. WHITTEN
     Air Engineer.-.--------------------          BRIG. GEN. S. D. STURGIS, Jr.
     Air Chemical Officer--------------- COL. J. F. BABCOCK, Acting
     Air Ordnance Officer---BR------_-_BRIG.'GEN. R. C. COUPLAND
     Air Quartermaster.-...............,.                        COL. G. H. DIETZ

                             CONTINENTAL AIR COMMANDS

Strategic Air Command             (Andrews             Air
  Force Base, Md.)_-__.-..__.._..._,.GEN.                             GEORGE C. KENNEY
Air Mat6riel Command (Wright-Patterson                       -
  Air Force Base, Ohio) ---           __.. ---------         GEN. JOSEPH T. MCNARNEY
Tactical Air Command (Langley Air Force
  Base, Va.)----_________...__._..___                        LT. GEN. ELWOOD R. QUESADA
Air Defense Command (Mitchel Air Force
  Base, N. Y.) ----------------              ______---       LT. GEN.IGEORGE E. STRATEMEYBR

Air Training Command (Barksdale Air
  Force Base La.) -     ---------------- LT. GEN. JOHN K. CANNON
Air Proving Ground (Eglin Air Force Base,
  Fla.) -------------.---------------     BRIG. GEN. CARL A. BRANDT
Air University (Maxwell Air Force Base,
  Ala.))-- ------------------------       MAJ. GEN. ROBERT W. HARPER
Military Air Transport Service (Gravelly
  Point, Va.)------------------------     MAJ. GEN. LAURENCE S. KUTER
Headquarters Command (Bolling Air Force
  Base, Washington, D. C.) ----__         BRIG. GEN. BURTON M. HOVEY

                      OVERSEAS AIR COMMANDS
U. S. Air Forces in Europe (Wiesbaden,
  Germany)--------------------------         LT. GEN. CURTIS E. LEMAY
Caribbean Air Command (Albrook Air
  Force Base, C. Z.) - -----    ---    -     MAJ. GEN. WILLIS H. HALE
Pacific Air Command (Pearl Harbor, T. H.)-   MAJ. GEN. RALPH H. WOOTEN
Far East Air Force (Tokyo, Japan)--------    LT. GEN. ENNIS C. WHITEHEAD
Alaska Air Command (Ft. Richardson,
  Adak, Alaska)-__       _---      ------    MAJ. GEN. JOSEPH H. ATKINSON

   CREATION AND AuJTHORITY.-The Department of the Air Force          was
established as an executive   department in the National Military Es-
tablishment by the National Security Act of 1947 (Public Law 253,
80th Cong., 1st sess.), approved July 26, 1947. It was the eleventh ex-
ecutive department to be created and the first since 1913. The same
act established the United States Air Force under the Department of
the Air Force. The Department and the Air Force officially began
operation on September 18, 1947.,
   PURPOSE.-The United States Air Force includes air combat and
service forces. It is organized, trained, and equipped for prompt and
sustained offensive and defensive combat operations in the air. Of
the three major services, the Air Force has primary responsibility for
 defending the United States against air attack; for gaining and main-
 taining general air supremacy; for defeating enemy air forces; for
 formulating joint doctrines and procedures, in coordination with the
 other services, for the defense of the United States against air attack;
 for providing the necessary units, equipment, and facilities for stra-
 tegic air warfare; for providing Air Force forces for joint amphibious
 and airborne operations; and for furnishing close combat and logistical
 air support to the Army.
    The United States Air Force is composed of the Regular Air Force,
 the Air Reserve, the Air National Guard, and the Air Reserve Officers'
 Training Corps.

                       Secretary of the Air Force
   The Secretary of the Air Force is the head of the Department of
 the Air Force and is responsible for the supervision of all matters
 pertaining to its operation and the performance of such duties as
 may be prescribed by law or assigned by the President and the Secre-
 tary of Defense.
                  Under Secretary of the Air Force
   The Under Secretary is responsible to the Secretary of the Air Force
for the formulation and general supervision, within the Department
of the Air Force, of policies relating to research and development
production, procurement, aind establishment of materiel requirements.
   The Under Secretary represents the Department of the Air Force
in a liaison capacity with the Atomic Energy Commission, the Research
and Development Board, and as a member of the Munitions Board.
   In the absence or disability of the Secretary of the Air Force, the
Under Secretary acts as the Secretary of the Air Force.

          Assistant Secretary of the Air Force (Civil and
   The Assistant Secretary is responsible to the Secretary of the Air
Force for the formulation and the general supervision, within the
Department of the Air Force, of policies relating to the role of air
power as an instrument of national policy, the coordination of civil and
military air matters in the national interest, matters involving other
countries, including the coordination of those matters with the State
Department and other appropriate Government agencies, the United
States Air Force Reserve, the Air National Guard, the Air Reserve
Officers' Training Corps, and Air Force participation in the Civil Air
   The Assistant Secretary represents the Department of the Air Force
on the State-Army-Navy-Air Force Coordinating Committee and the
Air Coordinating Committee and on such other boards and committees
to which the Secretary of the Air Force may appoint him.
  In the absence or disability of both the Secretary and the Under
Secretary of the Air Force, the Assistant Secretary acts as the Secretary
of the Air Force.

      Assistant Secretary of the Air Force (Management)
   The Assistant Secretary is responsible to the Secretary of the Air
Force for the formulation and general supervision, within the Depart-
ment of the Air Force, of the policies relating to the business manage-
ment of the Department including those matters with respect to
program control, management control through cost control, civilian
personnel, organizational planning, mobilization, and the budget of
the Department.
  In the absence or disability of the Secretary, Under Secretary, and
the other Assistant Secretary, he acts as the Secretary of the Air Force.


  The Director of Public Relations is responsible to the Secretary of
the Air Force for the dissemination of information concerning the

Department of the Air Force to the public, civil organizations, and to
the Congress through all appropriate media.
   He supervises and coordinates the preparation of proposed legisla-
tion and Executive orders affecting the Department of the Air Force,
and provides reports, and studies and conducts projects incident
thereto, when required. He maintains liaison with the Congress and
other Government agencies in connection with the aforementioned

  The Secretary of the Air Force's Personnel Council consists of the
Air Force Personnel Board, the Air Force Disability Review Board,
and the Air Force Discharge Review Board.
  Responsible for determining such military personnel actions as may
be directed by the Secretary or enjoined by public law; such action
being taken for and in the name of the Secretary of the Air Force.
                           GENERAL COUNSEL

   The General Counsel is the final authority on all legal questions aris-
ing within or referred to the Department of the Air Force. When
considered advisable, he represents the Secretary at departmental and
interdepartmental conferences and meetings involving matters of law
and advises the Secretary on the legal aspects of policy decisions. The
Office of the General Counsel furnishes legal advice upon request to all
levels in connection with all aspects of procurement activities.
                             CHIEF OF STAFF

   The Chief of Staff, United States Air Force, is the head of the Air
Staff, United States Air Force. He is the principal military adviser
to the President and to the Secretary of the Air Force on the employ-
ment of the Air Force in war and the principal military adviser and
executive to the Secretary of the Air Force on the activities of the
United States Air Force. The Chief of Staff has command of all
components of the United States Air Force and is responsible to the
Secretary of the Air Force for the operation of the Air Force in war
and for the plans and preparation for the readiness of all components
of the Air Force for war. Under the direction of the Secretary of the
Air Force the Chief of Staff is responsible for the coordination and
direction of the Air Staff. The Chief of Staff by virtue of his position
is the senior Air Force officer on active duty.
                           VICE CHIEF OF STAFF

   The Vice Chief of Staff assists the Chief of Staff in the discharge
 of the latter's duties and in his absence performs his functions.
                     ASSISTANT VICE CHIEF OF STAFF

  The Assistant Vice Chief of Staff assists and advises the Chief of
Staff and the Vice Chief of Staff and acts for them in matters delegated
to his authority. He is responsible for administrative procedures and
coordination within the Air Staff.

                               AIR BOARD

  The Air Board assists the Chief of Staff in the formulation of
over-all policies of the United States Air Force.

                      SECRETARY OF THE AIR STAFF

  The Secretary of the Air Staff assists the Chief of Staff, Vice Chief
of Staff, and Assistant Vice Chief of Staff. He reviews and takes
necessary action on staff papers and correspondence, participates in
staff meetings, and coordinates and follows up matters originating in
such meetings.
                        AIR ADJUTANT GENERAL

   The Air Adjutant General is responsible for the publication of the
orders and instructions of Headquarters, United States Air Force; the
administration within the United States Air Force of the Postal
Service, the Records Administration Program, the design and stand-
ardization of United States Air Force forms, the personnel adminis-
tration of officers assigned to Headquarters, United States Air Force;
the providing of correspondence, mail, records, filing, references, re-
production, message centers, and messenger services for Headquarters,
United States Air Force; and the maintenance of photographic records
and provision of photographic services.


   The Comptroller assembles and evaluates elements of information
necessary for the efficient management of the United States Air Force,
advises and assists the Chief of Staff and the Air Staff in the attain-
ment of integrated programs for the accomplishment of the United
States Air Force mission, defends the United States Air Force
budget, administers funds, provides for the measurement of progress
toward program objectives, evaluates results in relation to costs, to
the end that the Chief of Staff may efficiently and economically utilize
the resources available to him. The Comptroller provides complete
statistical services on all subjects for the Air Staff and higher au-
thority and exercises technical supervision over the budget and fiscal,
statistical control, and cost control systems.


  The Deputy Chief of Staff for Personnel and Administration is
responsible for the administration and management of all military and

civilian personnel in the United States Air Force as individuals, and
of such administrative services as are performed by the Air Surgeon,
Air Judge Advocate, and Air Chaplain.

   The Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations is responsible for the co-
ordination and direction of the Directors of Intelligence, Training and
Requirements, Plans and Operations, and Communications; the As-
sistant for Programming; Chief, Civilian Components Group; and the
Chief, Guided Missiles Group. He directs and is responsible for Air
Intelligence activities, training and requirements of the United States
Air Force, including organization; operations of the Air Force, includ-
ing joint operations; preparation of over-all plans and programs for
the Air Force, development and review of broad Air Force policy,
guided missiles and air-defense activities, and air-communications

   The Deputy Chief of Staff for Materiel is responsible for the plan-
ning, policy development, supervision, and administration of United
States Air Force programs relating to the field of materiel and services.
Included within the scope of his responsibilities are programs relating
to special weapons, research and development, procurement and indus-
trial planning, air installations, maintenance, supply and services,
engineer, chemical, ordnance, and quartermaster activities of interest
to and affecting the United States Air Force.
                           INSPECTOR GENERAL

  The Inspector General is responsible for assisting the Chief of Staff,
USAF in determining the combat readiness and logistic effectiveness
of the Air Force and its parts; insuring the maintenance of discipline
and security; and investigating matters involving crime and other vio-
lations of public trust within the jurisdiction of the United States Air
Force. He is charged with conducting such inspections and investi-
gations as may be required to determine the economy, efficiency and
adequacy of the United States Air Force.
                     Continental Air Commands
                        STRATEGIC AIR COMMAND

    The Strategic Air Command provides and operates that portion of
 the Air Force which is maintained in the United States, and in such
 other areas as designated, for employment against objectives of air
 attack in any location on the globe and conducts long-range reconnais-
 sance over land or sea, either independently or in cooperation with the
 Army or Navy. The Strategic Air Command is equipped with heavy
 long-range bombardment, reconnaissance, and fighter aircraft for
 operations on a global basis.

                         TACTICAL AIR COMMAND

   The Tactical Air Command provides and operates air units for co-
 operation with land and sea forces in the conduct of land and amphib-
 ious operations. It is equipped with light bombardment and fighter
 aircraft and is trained for operations on a global basis.

                         AIR DEFENSE COMMAND

    The Air Defense Command is organized primarily for the defense
 of the continental United States against air attacks. It also super-
 vises the training of the Air National Guard, the administration and
 training of the Air Reserve, and the instruction and training of the
 Air Reserve Officers' Training Corps.

                        AIR MATERIEL COMMAND

  The Air Materiel Command provides for the Air Force an adequate
and efficient system of procurement, supply, and distribution for all
Air Force materiel and organizes and trains units to accomplish this
mission. It conducts research and develops the aeronautical materiel
associated equipment, accessories, and supplies required by the Air
Force and such other materiel that is allocated to the Air Force for
research and development. Technical training is provided in the Air
Institute of Technology.

                          AIR PROVING GROUND

  The Air Proving Ground develops improved operational techniques
and test tactical materiel and equipment used or proposed for use by
the Air Force under simulated combat conditions to determine its
operational suitability.

                        AIR TRAINING COMMAND

   The Air Training Command provides individual and unit training
for Air Force officers and enlisted men. It provides basic training and
indoctrination for all Air Force recruits. The Technical Training
Division trains all ground crews, technical specialists, and administra-
tive personnel. The Flying Training Division performs flying

   The Military Air Transport Service is a merger of the Air Transport
Command and Naval Air Transport Service and provides air trans-
portation of personnel, materiel, mail, strategic materials, and the
evacuation of sick and wounded, for all agencies of the National Mili-
tary Establishment.
                       HEADQUARTERS COMMAND

 The Headquarters Command provides aircraft, and supervises ad-
ministrative and proficiency flying for Air Force personnel assigned

for duty in the Military District of Washington, air transportation
special mission personnel, the administration  of the Air Force Band
and the Air Force Bandsman Training School, and the photographic
services of the 10th Photo Technical Squadron.
                            AIR JUNIVERSITY

   The Air University is responsible for the supervision and operation
                                                                  the Air
of the Air War College, the Air Command and Staff School,of Avia-
Tactical School, the Air Special Staff School, and the School
tion Medicine. It conducts a continuous study of the Air Forcesystem,
tional and training  systems for officers to insure a progressive
that all essential fields of education and training are included,
that no duplication  exists.

                      Overseas Air Commands
    The United States Air Forces in Europe and the Far East Air Force
are primarily occupational Air Forces and perform duties incident
the military occupation      of defeated areas and the support of United
States interests in adjacent areas.                                    the
    The Alaska Air Command, the Caribbean Air Command, and
Pacific Air Command are assigned to         areas embracing United States
                                                                   for the
possessions and vital interests. They provide the air elements
unified force to which they are assigned      and also perform duties sim-
 ilar to the air units in the United States.
                                          W. STUART SYMINGTON
                                              Secretary of the Air Force.

                    (See pages 158-163.)
                            Department of Justice
                         Constitution Avenue and Tenth Street NW.
                                       REpublic 8200

Attorney General-..............._.....-_...._.            TOM C. CLARK
    Executive Assistant to the Attorney General-          (VACANCY)
Solicitor General --.------.-.       -..----....-....   - PHILIP B. PERLMAN
 The Assistant to the Attorney General--.-------.          PEYTON FORD
 Assistant Attorney General, Antitrust Division .... HERBERT A. BEROSON
 Assistant Attorney General, Tax Division .--..-..         THERON LAMAR CAUDLE
 Assistant Attorney, Claims Division------------- H. GRAHAM MORISON
 Assistant Attorney General, Lands Division ------ A. DEVITT VANECH
.Assistant Attorney General, Criminal Division.---- T. VINCENT QUINN
 Assistant Attorney General, Director, Office of
   Alien Property-- --------------------               -.....
                                                           DAVID L.' BAZELON
 Assistant Attorney General, Customs Division -...--       PAUL P. RAO
                                                              (New York City)
 Assistant Solicitor General--------------------- GEORGE T. WASHINGTON
 Director, Federal Bureau of Investigation—-_...- EDGAR HOOVER
     Associate Director ----------..-      —---.......     CLYDE A. TOLSON
     Assistant to the Director-...--------------- EDWARD A. TAMM
 Director, Bureau of Prisons --..     _.........-----.    JAMES V. BENNETT
     Assistant Director -----------------------           MYRL E. ALEXANDER
 Members, 'oard of Parole ------------------ . GEORGE G. KILLINGER
                                                          FRED S. ROGERS
                                                         BOLESLAU J. MONKIEWICZ
Commissioner of Immigration and Naturalization_ WATsON B. MILLER
    Deputy Commissioner ------------------        JOHN P. BOYD
    Special Assistant to the Commissioner ------- EDWARD J. SHAUGHNESSY
Mdembers, Board of Immigration Appeals---..... THOMAS G. FINUCANE,
                                                  ROBERT M. CHARLES
                                                  LEIGH L. NETTLETON
                                                  ROBERT E. LUDWIG
Pardon Attorney---------.................         DANIEL M. LYONS
Director of Public Relations ------------------   DEAN L. SCHBDLER
Administrative Assistant to the Attorney General— SALVADOR A. ANDRETTA

  CREATION AND AUTJHoRIrY.-The Department of Justice was estab-
 lished by the act of June 22 1870 (1 Stat. 92; 16 Stat. 162; 5 U. S. C.
291), with the Attorney Gieneral at its head. Prior to 1870 the
Attorney General was a member of the President's Cabinet, but not
the head of a department,, the office having been created under au-
thority of the act of September 24, 1789, as amended (1 Stat. 92; 16
 Stat. 162; 5 U. S. C. 291).
   PURPOSE.-The chief purposes of the Department of Justice are to
provide means for the enforcement of the Federal laws, to furnish
legal counsel in Federal cases, and to construe the laws under which
other departments act. It conducts all suits in the Supreme Court in
which the United States is concerned, supervises the Federal penal
 I Organization chart on page 586.

institutions, and investigates and detects violations against Federal
laws. It represents the Government in legal matters generally, render-
    legal advice and opinions, upon request, to the President and to the
headsof the executive departments. The Attorney General supervises
and directs the activities of the United States district attorneys and
 marshals in the various judicial districts.
   ORGANIZATION.-The affairs and activities of the Department of Jus-
tice are generally directed by the Attorney General. In the office o
the Attorney General are an Executive Assistant to the Attorney Gen-
eral and a Director of Public Relations. The Department of Justice
 has the following offices, divisions, bureaus, and boards:
OFFICES:                                DIVISIONs-Continued'
    Office of the Attorney General          Lands Division
    Office of the Solicitor General         Criminal Division
     Office of the Assistant to the At-     Customs Division
       torney General                       Administrative Division
     Office of the Assistant Solicitor BUREAUS:
       General                              Federal Bureau of Investigation
     Office of the Pardon Attorney          Bureau of Prisons
    Office of Alien Property                Immigration and Naturalization
DivIsIONs:                                    Service
     Antitrust Division                 BOARDs:
      Tax Division                          Board of Immigration Appeals
     Claims Division                        Board of Parole

                                                                   of the
  THE ATTORNEY GENERAL.-The Attorney General, as head
Department   of Justice and chief law officer of the Federal Government,
                                                                gives ad-
represents the United States in legal matters generally and
vice and opinions   to the President and to the heads of the executive
departments of the Government when so requested. The
General  appears in person to represent the Government in the United
States Supreme Court in cases of exceptional gravity or
The   Executive Assistant to the Attorney General is a part of
Office of the Attorney General      and reports directly to him. The
Director of Public Relations is a part of the Office of the Attorney
      THE SoucITOR GENERAL.-Under the direction of the
 General, the Solicitor General has special charge of the business of,
 and appears for and represents, the Government in the Supreme Court.
 When requested by the Attorney General, the Solicitor General may
 conduct and argue any case in which the United States is interested, in
 any court of the United States, or may attend to -the interests of the
 Government in any State court or elsewhere, conferring with and
 directing the activities of the Federal law officers throughout the coun-
 try when the occasion so requires. No appeal is taken by the United
 States to any appellate court without the authorization of the Solicitor
 General. In the absence or inability of the Attorney General to per-
 form his duties, the Solicitor General becomes the Acting Attorney
 Attorney General, under the Attorney General, has supervision
                                   DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE                                                203
all major units of organization of the Department, and over United
States Attorneys and Marshals. He is chief liaison officer of the De-
partment with Congress and with other governmental departments
and agencies.
   The office of the Assistant to the Attorney General has direction
of all personnel administration for the Department, including all
appointments, the administration of Federal employees compensation
and retirement acts, classification, and personnel relations.
   Bills incorporating legislative proposals which originate in the
Department of Justice are drafted in this office. It also prepares
reports and recommendations with respect to pending legislation
originating elsewhere in the Government in response to request of
congressional committees and other agencies, and prepares recommen-
dations as to the approval of enrolled bills.
   This office supervised the handling of all appeals referred from
appeal boards to the Department of Justice for inquiry and hearing
with respect to the character and good faith of those who are con-
scientiously opposed to war. It also served as liaison with the Di-
rector of Selective Service in all matters arising under the Selective
Service Act and passed upon all requests for deferment on the part of
any personnel of the Department which may have been in the public
interest. Although the act has expired, many matters remain to be
cleared. All matters relating to parole of those persons who have
been convicted of any violation' of the provisions of the Selective
Service Act clear through the office of the Assistant to the Attorney
   This office also exercises administrative supervision over the Board
of Immigration Appeals and the Board of Parole.
  NOTE.-Address same for both except where otherwise indicated by A (Attorney) and M (Marshal)

           District                 U. S. Attorneys             U. S. Marshals                Address

Alabama, Northern-------- John D. Hill--------       Raymond E. Thomason- Birmingbam
Alabama, Middle --.---- E. Burns Parker -----        Benjamin F. Ellis-    Montgomery
Alabama, Southern -    ..- Percy 0. Fountain---- Roulhac Gewin--.-—.. Mobile
Alaska, Division ].-.—-—.-Patrick  J. Gilmore, Jr ---William T. Mahoney -- Juneau
Alaska, Division 2--...—- Frank C. Bingham---- Benjamin B. Mozee-          Nome
Alaska, Divisions --             R
                                 Raymond E. Plummer--       James H. Patterson----      (A) vnchorae
Alaska, Division 4.-...-         Harry 0. Arend.-------     Stanley J. Nichols.-.----   Fairbanks
Arizona --.---              .-   Frank E. Flynn------       Benjamin J. McKinney- 1(M) Toeni
Arkansas, Eastern—-       ..- James T. Gooch.-     - Noble V. Miller      - - Little Rock
Arkansas, Western.--           R—-- S.
                            —espess Wilson ----      Jones Floyd —-—-—- -     Fort Smith
California, Northern.---- —.-Frank Hennessy-...      George Vice ----.-       San Francisco
California, Southern-——-—--   James M. Carter—-..... Robert E. Clark.--...    Los Angeles
Canal Zone --------                                       E.
                              Daniel E. McGrath -- —-John Hushing -- —--      Ancon
Colorado-       ---- —
                 —            Max M. Bulkeley------ Maurice T. Smith-         Denver
Connecticut ......---            Adrian W. Maher-           Bernard Fitch-       -...   (e-   eHave
Delaware—--------- William Marvel I---                      Paul B. Messick----   Wilmington
District of Columbia —-- George M. Fay--------              W. Bruce Matthews- -- Washington
   Mail to Anchorage.                                     I Court appointment.
204                        UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT MANUAL


           District                       U. S. Attorneys              U. S. Marshals              Address

Florida, Northern ----            —-- George Earl Hoffman__ Jordan B.Koyal]-                Pensacola
Florida, Southern -..-.-.-..          Herbert S. Phillips -.-       Chester S.Dishong       (M) Jacoi
Georgia. Northern --               3--— Mundy ..-
                                   J. Ellis                Henry 0. Camp -   - Atlanta
Georgia, Middle _- ... . John P. Cowart ---
                       .-                                  Edward B.Doyle-     Macon
Georgia, Southern -- —-- J. Saxton Daniel -                Joseph H.Young-      Savanah
Hawaii (term 6 years)----          Ray J. O'Brien       - Otto F. Heine-        Honolul
Idaho                     _------------ A. Carver------
                               - John                      Everett M.
Illinois, Northern..-----          Otto Kerner, Jr------- ThomasP.O'Donovan     Chicago
                                                                               [(A) Benton and E.St.
Illinois, Eastern ----       -     William W. Hart -     - Carl J.Weer-Louis
                                                                               L(M) Danville
Illinois, Southern ---       —-- Howard L. Doyle ...-       R r
Indiana, Northern -----.-          Alexander M. Camp- AlW.Hosinski-            J(A)FortWayne
                                      bell.                                    [(M) South Bend
Indiana, Southern --           — B. Howard Caughran-- Julius J. Wicser-         Indianapolis
Iowa, Northern -              Tobias E. Diamond -.- Frederick Elliot Bier- () Dubu
Iowa, Southern -    .---- —- Maurice F. Donegan - James Joseph Gillespie- Des Mones
                                                                            [(A) Topeka and Kan-
Kansas-       ...          .. Lester Luther l      - William M. Lidsay---.     s City.
                                                                             (M) Topeka
Kentucky, Eastern--------- Claude P. Stephens --- John M.Moore-              Lexington
Kentucky, Western -------     David C. Walls ----     LoomisE.ranor-         Louisville
Louisiana. Eastern -------     . Skelly Wright----  -  . Chess Richardson - New Orleans
Louisiana. Western----—--- Malcolm E. LaFargue__ Louis E.LeBlan------- Shreveport
Maine                 -               Alton A. Lessard -        —   Thomas N. Curran.-      PM) Bangorn
Maryland-------.-------- Bernard J. Flynn-------   Richard C. O'Connell._ Baltimore
Massachusetts-———- William T. McCarthy--           Arthur J. B. Cartier.. -- Boston
Michigan, Eastern --- —-- Thomas P. Thornton...    John J. Bare.-----      -- Detroit
Michigan, Western----- Joseph F. Dashe---—-        Edwin D. Bolger------- Grand Rapids
Minnesota-       —— -
               ----       Victor E. Anderson---    John J. McGowan----- St. Paul
Mississippi, Northern -- —-Chester Sumners ---
                                  L.               John Wesley Thompson Oxford
                                                     Falkner, IV
Mississippi, Southern------ Joseph E. Brown -----  Rupert H. Newcomb.--- Jackson
Missouri, Eastern-------    Drake Watson-—-—-- Schoen
                                                   Otto                         St.
                                                                      .--------- Louis
Missouri, Western-—------ Sam M. Wear--.---- Fred A. CanfdiI----- - Kansas City
                                                                              I(A) Billings
Montana----—-———John              B.Tansil—-—--     Geo.A.Wright-              [-
                                                                       --—-{(M)Great Falls
Nebraska-        --      -. Joseph T. Votava------ Frank Golden------- Omaha
Nevada-        ------       Miles N. Pike--— -     Edward M. Ranson-             R
New Hampshire--------- Dennis E. Sullivan--_ Alphonse Roy----—-- Concord
                                                                                (A) Newark
New Jersey ---------        Isaiah MatlackI -- - Hubert J. Harrington-. (M) Newark and Tren-
New Mexico------------—- Everett M. Grantham.- Felipe Sanchez y Baca_- Santa Fe
New York, Northern-                   Irving J. Higbee -
                                       t-—-                         Gerald K. Nellis-
                                                                    G                            Srac
 New York, Southern------- John F.X.McGohey-- - James E. Mulcahy -- —-NewYork City
 New York, Eastern---—--J. Vincent Keogh----- Eugene J. Smith -- —- Brooklyn
 New York, Western --        —- George L. Grobe---—-- Frank C. Blackford-----{(A) R   eter
 North Carolina, Eastern--..                                                -
                                John H. Manning—- — Ford S. Worthy—-- Raleigh
 North Carolina, Middle.---- Bryce R. Holt----        Edney Ridge -G--    —- Greensboro
 North Carolina, Western --- David E. Henderson..                   Charles H. Price----— f() Ahevlltte
 North Dakota --             —-       Powless W. Lanier---          Chester M. Foresman.--- Fargo
      'Court appointment.             'Mailing address, Portland, Maine.        a Mailing address, Newark, N. J.
                                 DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE                                               205

          District                U. S. Attorneys             U. S. Marshals               Address

Ohio, Northern--....      —Donald Miller-.......
                          --                              John J. Wein -      Cleveland
Ohio, Southern..-------- Ray J. O'Donnell -        .---   Harold K. Claypool-..Columbus
Oklahoma, Northern--.-       Whitfeld Y. Mauzy--.         John P. Logan -- —--Tulsa
Oklahoma, Eastern-           C------- Summers--...--
                              leon A.                     Granville T. Norris Muskogee-
Oklahoma, Western---       - Robert E. Shelton .--        Dave E. Hilles-.... Oklahoma City
Oregon------------------- Henry L. Hess ----        --    Jack R. Caufield -        J
                     ----. Gerald A. Gleason------
Pennsylvania, Eastern—                                                        Philadelphia
                                                          Joseph C. Reing -----
Pennsylvania, Middle----— Arthur A. Maguire---                                Scranton
                                                                             ((A) Pittsbuagh and
Pennsylvania, Western--     Owen McIntosh Burns_ John E. Sloan           ...          Erie
                                                                             1(M) Pittsburgh
Puerto Rico--------—--—-----Philip F. Herrick.-_ Donald A. Draughon            San Juan
Rhode Island---------—-—--  George F. Troy--------- Charles M. Eldridge-...    Providence
South Carolina, Eastern--— Benjamin Scott Whaley- Norris M. Thomas ----       Charleston
South Carolina, Western --- Oscar Henry Doyle.---. A. Roy Ashley.--------- Greenville
South Dakota----------—- Leo P. Flynn--------.-     Theodore B. Werner.... Sioux Falls
                                                          .....                     Chattanooga
Tennessee, Eastern------    Otto T. Ault ----        Henry Robert Bell-
                                                  —---                         (M) Knoxville
Tennessee, Middle--      ---   Ward Hudgins----------     Reed Sharp ----.   —-       Nashville
Tennessee, Western -----       William McClanahan__-      Ben Ivy King-----           Memphis
Texas, Northern --- -—-—       Frank B. Potter-.   —-     James R. Wright -- —-       Fort Worth
Texas, Southern- — ---   -—    Brian S. Odoem -- —— -     M. Frank Hammond -.         Houston
Texas, Eastern—
              ---   —-------- M. King—- —- Stanford C. Stiles-
                         Steve                                          (A) Texarkana
                                                                       [(M) Beaumont
Texas, Western-— ——-- —Henry Moursund___ Kehoe C. Shannon i..-
              --    --          W.                                       San Antonio
Utah--—-----             Daniel B. Shields - .---. Gilbert Mecham -   - Salt Lake City
Vermont -    —.. - -                          .... Edward L Burke -
                         Joseph A. McNamara. - ~,awS T. .. ...,, _I.A
                                                             L.        f(A) Burlington
                                                                         (A) Butland

Virgin Islands --         Francisco Corneiro ---
                       —-—-                               DouglasS. Armstrong   2_-   () St. Croia

Virginia, Eastern --     —-- George R. Humrick- Robert L. Allworth- ----   -     Norfo
Virginia, Western ------     Howard C. Gilmer, Jr--- Leland S. Finney-----   Roanoke
Washington, Eastern------- Harvey Erickson--.--      Wayne Bezona ------     Spokane
Washington, Western—---- J. Charles Dennis------- John S. Denise. Sr.---- Seattle
West Virginia, Northern—--: Charles Lee Spillers ---      Russell Nichols-     —           FA)
                                                                                       M)- Weing
West Virginia, Southern__      Leslie E. Given --   -     William H. McGmmis.—        Charleston
Wisconsin, Eastern-------      Timothy T. Cronin---—      Anton I. Lukaszewicz--      Milwaukee
Wisconsin, Western --------    Charles H. Casbin------    John M. Comeford------      Madison
Wyoming----------       ---.   Carl L. Sackett ----       Albert A. Sanders ------    Cheyenne

  I Court appointment.                       'Appointed by the Attorney General.

   THE ASSISTANT SOLICITOR GENERAL.-The Assistant Solicitor Gen-
eral has the responsibility of preparing the formal opinions of the
Attorney General, of rendering informal opinions and legal advice
to the various governmental agencies, and of assisting the Attorney
General in the performance of his functions as legal adviser to the
President and as a member of and legal adviser to the Cabinet. His
office also reviews as to form and legality, and arranges necessary
revisions of, all proposed Executive orders and proclamations prior
to their final submission to the President, as well as regulations which
require the approval of the President or the Attorney General. The
office also performs the legal work involved with respect to gifts and

bequests made to the Government. An additional function of the
office is to represent Federal agencies in the coordination of Federal-
State relations in the field of law to the end that matters which may
be best disposed of by State action are handled by the States rather
than by the Federal Government. The office also performs special
assignments on the direction of the Attorney General and the Solicitor
   ADMIIISTRATIVYB DIVISION.-Under the direction of the Administra-
tive Assistant to the Attorney General this office handles administra-
tive and fiscal matters generally, budget matters, accounting and
auditing, personnel transactions, supplies, mails and files, printing,
binding, and similar work, and the examination of offices of United
States attorneys and United States marshals.
   ANTITRUST DIVISION.-The Assistant Attorney General for the Anti-
trust Division is charged with the enforcement of the antitrust and
30 kindred acts.
   The Division receives complaints and, in cooperation with the Fed-
eral Bureau of Investigation, conducts investigations which, where
appropriate, lead to criminal prosecutions or suits in equity designed
to break up monopolies and restraints of interstate or foreign trade.
   The Division is charged with the responsibility under section 20
of the Surplus Property Act of 1944, of advising the disposal agen-
cies (see War Assets Administration) whether the disposition of prop-
erty including patents, processes, techniques, or inventions costing 1
million dollars or more would violate the antitrust laws.
   Temporarily, the Antitrust Division has stationed members of its
staff in the following locations:
                      City                             Building
Boston 8, Mass--Room                          619, 294 Washington Street
Chicago 4, III      —————————          Suite 826, 208 S. LaSalle Street
Cleveland, Ohio—-----         -----    506 Federal Building ,
Denver 2,  Colo-470——                      Post Office Building
Kansas City 15, Kans         —_ — _-   Room 305, 1401 Fairfax Traffic Way
New York 7, N. Y -232 — —         ——       U. S. Courthouse, Foley Square
Los Angeles 12, Calif… -1602                U. S. Post Office and Courthouse
San Francisco 2, Calif- -242               Federal Office Building
Seattle 4, Wash… -712                      U. S. Courthouse
  TAX DivISION.-The Assistant Attorney General in charge of the
Tax Division is charged with the prosecution and defense of all civil
suits arising out of the internal revenue laws; of appellate proceedings
in connection therewith including the briefing and argument in the
Federal Circuit -Courts of Appeals of petitions to review decisions
of The Tax Court of. the United States and of appellate proceedings
in the Supreme Court of the United States upon assignment by, and
under the supervision of, the Solicitor General of the United States.
He has charge of all criminal prosecutions of violations of the internal
revenue laws, except criminal prosecutions arising out of the liquor
tax laws, including cooperation with and direction of the United
States attorneys in the conduct of such cases. He has charge of the
enforcement of tax liens and the conduct of mandamus, injunction and
other specific writs, and all general matters relating to taxes. This
                       DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE                          207
 Assistant Attorney General has jurisdiction over all questions of
 intergovernmental tax immunity whether that question arises by
 reason of an attempt by the State to impose a tax upon the exercise
 of a Federal power or .by a State in resisting the imposition of a
Federal tax. With respect to cases under his jurisdiction, authority
 is delegated to the Assistant Attorney General in charge of the Tax
 Division by the Attorney General to accept or reject offers in com-
 promise of claims in behalf of the United States in all cases wherein
 the gross amount of the original claim does not exceed the sum of
 $50,000 and in claims against the United States wherein the amount
 of proposed settlement does not exceed the amount of $10,000. With
 respect to claims in excess of these amounts, the Assistant Attorney
 General recommends acceptance or rejection of compromises in tax
cases to the Attorney General.
    CLAIMS DIvIsIoN.-The Assistant Attorney General in charge of
the Claims Division has general charge of all civil suits and claims
for and against the Federal Government, its officers and agencies,
not otherwise specially assigned, excluding antitrust, tax, land, or
Indian matters, but including all other civil litigation, such as con-
tracts, admiralty and -shipping, injunctions, patents and copyrights,
bankruptcy, requisitions (other than land), renegotiation proceedings,
alien enemy litigation, civilpenalties and forfeitures, and claims under
the Litvinoff Assignmeent. FJPunctions of the Division include all phases
of protection of the Government's interest in inventions and patents,
acquisitions of patent rights, all interference and infringement litiga-
tion, and investigation of the scope and validity of patents. Such mat-
ters include forfeiture of foreign vessels for sabotage, civil suits based
on war frauds, requisitioning of merchant vessels and strategic mate-
rials, war contract matters, war patent problems, preservation of mili-
tary and naval secrets, War Savings Bonds litigation, civil enforce-
ment of export control, war shipping litigation, and civil litigation
involving Selective Service. This Division also handles veterans' civil
matters such as reemployment cases, war-risk insurance litigation and
matters arising under World War Veterans Act, the National Service
Life Insurance Act, and kindred statutes.
   LANDS DIvIsIoN.-The Assistant Attorney General in charge of the
Lands Division supervises all suits and matters of a civil nature
in the Federal district courts, in the State courts, and in the Court
of Claims relating to lands and real property. This includes con-
demnation proceedings for the acquisition of property, actions to re-
move clouds and, to quiet title, to recover possession, to recover dam-
ages, to, determine boundaries, to cancel patents, to set aside ad
valorem taxes and tax sales, to establish rights in minerals, including
mineral leases, in oil reserves, and in other natural resources, to estab-
lish and protect water rights, to defend actions for compensation
for the claimed taking by the United States of land or any interest
in land, whether by eminent domain or otherwise, to defend actions
seeking to establish an interest in real property adverse to the United
States, and to defend actions for damages to real property caused
by the negligent or wrongful acts or omissions of Government em-
ployees. The Lands Division also is charged with representing the

interests of the United States in all civil litigation pertaining to
Indians and Indian affairs, including the defense of Indian claims
against the United States, whether in the Court of Claims or before
the Indian Claims Commission. It defends officers of the United
States, handles injunction and mandamus proceedings and litigation
arising from war contracts where those matters affect the rights of
 the United States in the use or title of its real property.
    With certain exceptions specified by statute, the Lands Division
 passes upon the title to all lands acquired by the United States by di-
 rect purchase.
    CRIMINAL DIvIsIoN.-The Assistant Attorney General i charge of
 the Criminal Division has responsibility for and supervises the en-
 forcement of Federal criminal laws generally, including matters relat-
 ing to criminal practice and procedure, and generally directs United
 States attorneys with respect to the conduct of criminal prosecutions
 involving violations of Federal criminal statutes such as counterfeiting
 and forgery; bribery; customs; firearms; extortion; current
 liquor laws; larceny and theft; impersonation; kidnaping; national
 banking and bankruptcy; narcotics; passport; postal; antiracketeer-
 ing; white slave traffic; Securities Acts Fair Labor Standards; Labor-
 Management Relations; export control crimes on the high seas and
 Government reservations; atomic energy; treason, espionage, sedi-
  tion, and kindred offenses directed against the internal security;
 frauds upon the Government arising out of war contracts, except suits
  for the recovery of money damages; infringements of civil rights,in-
  cluding interference with the ballot, peonage, Corrupt Practices Acts,
  the Hatch Act, and conspiracy to violate the National Labor Relations
  Act; handles various types of civil matters such as those arising under
  the immigration and naturalization laws including expatriation and
  cancellation of citizenship proceedings; the Food, Drug, and Cosmetics
  Act; Hours of Service, Safety Appliance, and similar acts; extradi-
  tion proceedings; habeas corpus proceedings; petitions for remission or
  mitigation of forfeitures and offers of compromise under current
  liquor revenue, customs, and narcotics laws; and the collection of out-
  standing- bail bond judgments and unpaid fines; administers the
  Foreign Agents Registration Act, and has charge of legal matters per-
  taining to prisons and parole, of briefs and arguments in the Supreme
   Court on assignment by the Solicitor General and of matters specially
   assigned by the Attorney General.
     OFFICE OF ALIEN PROPERTY.-The Assistant Attorney General who
   has charge of the Office of Alien Property exercises the functions of
  the Attorney General in controlling or vesting- foreign-owned prop-
  erty, whether the ownership rests with a foreign government, with an
  individual -who is a national of a foreign government, or with a busi-
  ness enterprise which is a national of a foreign government. Once
   vested, such property shall be held, used, administered, liquidated,
   sold, or otherwise dealt with in accordance with the Trading With the
   Enemy Act, in the interest of and for the benefit of the United States.
   The payment of debt claims, title claims, and taxes out of vested prop-
   erty is authorized under specific statutory conditions. This Assistant
                                        DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE                                                        209

 Attorney General also has charge of litigation in which the Office
of Alien Property is interested and of litigation arising from the
-foreign funds program of the Treasury Department. He prepares
informal legal opinions to the Treasury Department involving prob-
lems relating to alien property or foreign funds control and on mat-
ters of legal policy in the administration of the foregoing programs
under the Trading With the Enemy Act.
    CUSTOMS DivISION.-The Assistant Attorney General in charge of
the Customs Division protects the interest of the Government in all
litigated matters of reappraisement and classification of imported
goods. He represents the Government in all proceedings brought by
importers in the United States Customs Court, including the briefing
and argument of cases on appeal in the United States Court of
Customs and Patent Appeals.
   FEDERAL Bu1REAU or INVESTIGATION.-The Director of the Federal
Bureau of Investigation has charge of the investigation of all viola-
tions of Federal laws with the exception of those which have been
assigned by legislative enactment or otherwise to some other Federal
agency, such as the statutes pertaining to counterfeiting, postal viola-
tions, customs violations, and internal revenue matters. The FBI has
jurisdiction over violations of espionage, sabotage, treason, and other
matters pertaining to the internal security of the United States. It
 also investigates alleged violations of approximately 120 Federal
statutes including such laws as the National Bank Act, Federal Kid-
naping Statute, the National Motor Vehicle Theft Act, the White
Slave Traffic Act, and the Atomic Energy Act of 1946.

             Division                                      Building                                   Office Phone

Albany 7, N. Y---------------- 707 National Savings Bank -----                                    6-7551
Anchorage, Alaska.-----------             Federal-----.............................. Main 821
Atlanta 3, Ga--I.—-..- ...... _ BlHealey.--------- --- --                        .......... Walnut 3605
Baltimore 2, Md -.......-.-               800 Court Square ------                      ....... Lexington 6700
Birmingham 3, Ala--------- American Life—-- -                             ------          ----- 4-7711
Boston 9, Mass---...........100 Mlilk Street.-                    -------------..-                 Liberty 2-5533
Buffalo 2, N. Y---..———-                  400 U. S. Courthouse ---             ..- ........ Madison 1200
Butte, Mont----—------------ 302 Federal --                   --     --            ..-            2-2304
Charlotte 2, N.C  c-           ...... 914 Johnston.-.......................... 3-4127
Chicago 3, III -10...........         .00      Bankers'..------                 ..       -        Randolph 2150
Cincinnati 2, Ohio---                - 637 U. S. Post Office and Courthouse-—- Cherry 7127
Cleveland 13, Ohio-                      900
                                         9—-Standard----------               ............. Prospect 3550
Dallas, Tex-------------------            1318 Mercantile Bank-——--- ..-- Riverside 6101
Denver 2, Colo—. --                        IRailway Exchange-
                                         11----                          -----
                                                                           —-— -                  Main 4335
Detroit 26, Mich.------------ 913 Federal-—---------------..--Woodward 2-2105
El Paso, Tex-        --         ----- 202 U. S. Courthouse -......                                2-6593
Honolulu 16, Hawaii---------- 206 Dillingham---------------------------- 59546
Houston 2, Tex-----                      1221
                                      - 3---- Niels Esperson ---..............                    Charter 4-6061
Indianapolis 4, Ind -- ..-.-             327 Federal---.......................... Market 6415
Kansas City 6, Mo ----                    707 U. S. Courthouse----          .-- --             .. Victor 4686
Knoxville 02, Tenn-------                 407 Hamilton National Bank.-                  ..-       4-2721
Little Rock, Arki----              --- 445 Federal -      ----         .-           ..---         2-3158
Los Angeles 13, Calif-                   BO Security———---------.———.--
                                        900.—                                                     Madison 7241
Louisville 2, Ky-             ——         633 Federal--         ——..——.——————.                     Wabash 8851
Memphis 3, Tenn—.--...-..-2401 Sterick-----6--—..---                                  ...-..      5-7373


            Division                                     Building                                Office phone

Miami 32, Fla ..----                   1300 Biscayne -             --.         -          9-2421
Milwaukee 2, Wis -......-              735 U.S. Post Office, Customs and Court-           Daly 484
Mobile, Ala -.-.-        -     -       623 Federal       ---             .--.-            2-8711
Newark 2, N. J ---------------         1836 Raymond-Commerce--                            Market 2-13
New Haven 10, Conn:--...-              510 The Trust Company                              7-1217
New Orleans 12, La           --        1308 Masonic Temple          --          ...       Cana 471
New York 7, N. Y --                    607 U. S. Courthouse, Foley Square-                Rector 2-3515
Norfolk 10, Va....--------             411 Flatiron---       —————                        4-5441
Oklahoma City 2, Okla .--.-            940 First National-                                2-_8186
Omaha 2, Nebr -         -----          1010 Federal-                                      Jackson 8220
Philadelphia 7, Pa--                   500 Widener--                ----                    ittenhouse 6-5300
Phoenix, Ariz .U.—               ...     gU. S. Federal Courthouse-4-7133
Pittsburgh 19, Pa -                    620 New Federal          -------                     rant2000
Portland 5, Oreg ------------ —        411 U. S. Courthouse              ---          -   Broadway 1167
Richmond 19, Va-                       701 Southern States Bulding -                      7-2631
St. Louis 1, Mo -—-—-—--               423 U. S. Courthouse and Customhouse—              Chestnut 5357
St. Paul 1, Minn.-                     404 New York -                                       arfield 750
Salt Lake City 1, Utah -               301 Continental Bank---                            6-721
San Antonio 6, Tex -            —-     478 Federal...-Garfield                                       421
San Diego 1, Calif --           —--    728 San Diego Trust and Savings Bank_              Main 3044
San Franciseo 4, Calif---- —           422 Federal Office, Civic Center-                  Klondike 2-2115
San Juan 21, P. R          —-1-        508 Banco Popular--           -------        --    2-012
Savannah, Ga - -—-—--                  305 Realty--.--.                        ...-       3-3026
Seattle 4, Wash -            .-        407 U. S. Courthouse-Main                                  0460
Springfield, III—-----------           1107 fllinois-          ----            ------     2-9675
Washington 25, D.C -- -                1706 Department of Justice -R—---             -    Republic 5226 or Executive

  BUREAOU OF PmISONs.-The Director of the Bureau of Prisons has
general supervision over the operation of Federal penal institutions,
the commitment and management of Federal prisoners, and the con-
tractino' with local institutions for the confinement and support of
prisoners. Under his supervision, the Federal Prison Industries, In-
corporated, has jurisdiction over all industrial enterprises and sponsors
vocational training programs in all Federal penal and correctional
institutions. Its policies, however, are controlled by a board of five
directors appointed by the President.


                    Penitentiaries                                          Correctional Institutions
Alcatraz, California                                           Ashland, Kentucky
Atlanta, Georgia                                               Danbury, Connecticut
Leavenworth, Kansas                                            Denver, Colorado
Lewisburg, Pennsylvania                                        La Tuna, Texas
McNeil Island, Washington                                      Milan, Michigan
Terre Haute, Indiana                                           Sandstone, Minnesota
                                                               Seagonville, Texas
                                                               Tallahassee, Florida
                                                               Texarkana, Texas
                               DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE                                            211
                 Reformatotries                                Detention Headquarters
Alderson, West Virginia (women)                     427 West St., New York, N. Y.
Chillicothe, Ohio
El Reno, Oklahoma                                                           Camps
Petersburg, Virginia
                                                    Benton City, Washington
                                                    Mill Point, West Virginia
                                                    Montgomery, Alabama
             Juvenile Institutions                  Tucson, Arizona

National Training School for Boys, Wash-                                   Hospital
  ington, D. C.
Natural Bridge, Virginia                            Springfield, Missouri

   BOARD OF PAERoE.-The Parole Board, consisting of three members
appointed by the Attorney General, has the duty of granting and
revoking paroles of Federal prisoners.
   OFFICE OF THE PARDON ATTORNEY.-The Pardon Attorney has charge
of applications for pardon and other forms of Executive clemency.
zation Plan V, approved June 4, 1940, and effective June 14, 1940, the
Immigration and Naturalization Service was transferred from the
Department of Labor to the Department of Justice.
   The Immigration and Naturalization Service, created by the act of
March 3, 1891 (26 Stat. 1085), administers the immigration and
naturalization laws relating to the admission, exclusion, and deporta-
tion of aliens, and the naturalization of aliens lawfully resident in
the United States. It investigates alleged violations of those laws
and makes recommendations for prosecutions when deemed advisable.
It patrols the borders of the United States to prevent the surreptitious
entry of aliens into the United States in violation of law.
   It is responsible for the detention of civilian alien enemy internees
and for the control of foreign travel.
   It supervises naturalization work in the specific courts designated
by section 301 of the Nationality Act of 1940 (54 Stat. 1140; 8 U. S. C.
701), to have jurisdiction in such matters. This includes requirement
of accountings from the clerks of such courts for naturalization fees
collected, investigations-through field officers-of the qualifications
of citizenship applicants, and representation of the Government at
all court hearings. It cooperates with the public schools in providing
citizenship textbooks and other facilities and services for the prepa-
ration of candidates for naturalization.
   The Immigration and Naturalization Service also registers and
fingerprints aliens in the United States, as required by the Alien
Registration Act, approved June 28, 1940 (54 Stat. 670; 8 U. S. C. 137,
155, 156a, 451-60; 18 U.. S. C. 9-13).

                             DisTRICT 1: 45 Kingman St., St. Albans, Vt.

Bangor, Maine. U. S. Post Office Bidg.              Burlington, Vt.. Administration Bldg., Burlington,
Beecher Falls, Vt., U. S. Border Station, Vermont    Vt.
 State Route 102.                                   Calais, Maine.

                             DISTRICT 1: 45 Kingman St., St. Albans, Vt.

                                               Newport, Vt., Immigraton-Naturalization Bldg.,
Fort Fairfield, Maine, Border Inspection Station,
  Maine State Route 161, Aroostook Falls, Rd.    Main St.
                                               Norton, Vt., U. S. Border Station, Vermont State
Fort Kent, Maine, International Bridge, Main St.
Halifax. Nova Scotia; Canada, 505 Barrington St. Route 114.
                                               Ogdensburg, N. Y., Isabella St
Highgate Springs. Vt., U. S. Border Station, U. S.
  Route 7.                                     Richford, Vt., U. S. Border Station, Vermout State
                                                 Route 13.
Houlton, Maine, U. S. Border Station, Military Roosvtown N.Y., International Bridge.
  Road, U. S. Route 2, Bangor St.              Rouses Point, N. Y., U. S. Border Station, New
Jackman, Maine, Canadian Pacific Railroad        York State Route 14, U. S. Route 9.
  Station, Jackman Station, Maine.             Thousand Islands Bridge, N. Y., Customs-Immigra-
Madawaska, Maine, Customs-Immigration Bldg.,     tion Inspection Station, Thousand Islands Bridge
  Bridge St.                                     (via Clayton, N. Y.)
Malone, N. Y., Federal Bldg.                   Van Buren, Maine, Bridge St.
Montreal, Quebec, Canada, Drummond Bldg., 1117 Vanceboro, Maine, Maine Central Railroad Sta-
  St. Catherine St. W.                           tion, International Bridge.

                              DISTRICT 2: 73 Tremont St., Boston 8, Mass.

Hartford 2, Conn., 223 Post Office Bldg.               Providence 3, R. I., 215 Post Office Bldg.
Portland 6, Maine, 316 Courthouse Bldg.                Springfield 3, Mass., 328 Post Office Bldg.

                          DISTRICT 3: 70 Columbus Ave., New York 23, N. Y.

Albany 7, N. Y., Room 536, 90 State St.                Newark 2, N. J., 1060 Broad St.

                 DISTRICT 4: Pennsylvania Bldg., 42 South 15th St., Philadelphia 2, Pa.

Pittsburgh 19, Pa., 707 New Post Office Bldg.

  DISTRICT 5: 341 U. S. Post Office and Courthouse Bldg., Calvert and Fayette Sts., Baltimore 2, Md.

Norfolk 10, Va., 467 New Monroe Bldg.                  Washington 4, D. C., 208 Hutchins Bldg.

                              DISTRICT 6: 920 Second Ave., Miami 27, Fla.

Atlanta 3, Ga., 1109 Marietta St. Bldg.                Havana, Cuba, Officer in Charge, U. S. Immigration
Charleston, S. C., U. S. Customhouse, East Bay and      and Naturalization Service, c/o American Em-
  Market Sts., P. 0. Box 282.                           bassy, Apartado 2229.
Jacksonville I, Fla., U. S. Courthouse and Post        Key West, Fla., 224 New Post Office Bldg., Simon-.
  Office Bldg., P. 0. Box 4608.                         ton and Carolina Sts., P. 0. Box 86.
Mobile 2, Ala., 457 U. S. Courthouse and Custom-       Miami 30, Fla., 701 Professional Bldg., P. 0. Box
  house, P. 0. Box 194.                                 3431.
San Juan 9, P. R., Post Office and Courthouse Bldg.,   New Orleans 9, La., 1539 Jackson Ave.
  P. 0. Box 1986.                                      Tampa, Fla., Federal Bldg., P. 0. Box 3271.
Savannah, Ga., 208 Customhouse, 1 East Bay St.,        West Palm Beach, Fla., 314 Guaranty Bldg., 120
  P. 0. Box 21.                                         S. Olive Ave.
                               DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE                                              213
                    DISTRICT 7: Jackson Bldg., 220 Delaware St., Buffalo 2, N. Y.

Cleveland 14, Ohio, 435 Federal Bldg.                 Syracuse 1, N. Y., 301 Federal Bldg.
Niagara Falls, N. Y., Rainbow Bridge.                 Toronto 5, Ontario, Canada, U. S. Immigration and
Rochester 14, N. Y., 20 Federal Bldg.                   Naturalization Service, 1174 Bay St.

                        DISTRICT 8: 3770 East Jefferson Ave., Detroit 7, Mich.

Cincinnati 1, Ohio, Post Office and Courthouse Port Huron, Mich., 2204 Railroad St.
  Bldg., P. 0. Box 537.
Columbus, Ohio, 361 New Post Office Bldg., P. 0. Sault Ste. Marie, Mich.. Post Office Bldg., Portage
  Box 1376.                                          Ave.
Flint, Mich.. 432 North Saginaw St.
Hammond,     Ind., 402 Post Office Bldg., State and Toledo 2, Ohio, 305 New Federal Bldg.
  Oakley Streets.

                DISTRICT 9: Post Office Bldg., Van Buren and Canal Sts., Chicago 7, III.

Duluth, Minn., 329 Post Office Bldg.                  Portal, N. Dak., Customs-Immigration Inspection
International Falls, Minn.                              Station.
Milwaukee, Wis., Federal Bldg.                        St. Paul 1, Minn., New Post Office Bldg., Kellogg
Noyes, Minn., Customs-Immigration        Inspection     Blvd. between Jackson and Sibley Sts.
  Station.                                            Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, Trust & Loan
Hovland, Minn., Pigeon River Bridge.                    Bldg., 173 Portage Avenue E.

                          DISTRICT 10: 605 Welch Building, Spokane 8, Wash.

Babb, Mont., Customs-Immigration Inspection           Oroville, Wash., Customs-Immigration Inspection
  Station.                                              Station.
Eastport, Idaho, Customs-Immigration Inspection       Raymond, Mont., Customs-Immigration Inspection
  Station.                                              Station.
 avre, Mont., Post Office Bldg., d Ave. and d St.      oosville Mo., Customs-Immigration Inspection
Helena, Mont., Federal Bldg.                            Station, Eureka, Mont.
Laurier, Wash., Customs-Immigration Inspection        Scobey, Mont., Customs-Immigration Inspection
  Station.                                              Station.
Loring, Mont.
Loring, Mont.                                         Sweetgrass, Mont., Customs-Immigration Inspec-
                                                        t    S
                                                        tion Station.
Metaline Falls, Wash., Customs-Immigration In-        Turner, Mont
  spection Station.                                   Walla Walla, Wash., U. S. Post Office Bldg., 2d and
Northport, Wash.                                        Shumach Sts.
Opheim, Mont.                                         Whitetail, Mont.

                DISTRICT 11: 819 U. S. Courthouse, 811 Grand Ave., Kansas City 6, Mo.

Denver 2, Colo., 355 Post Office Bldg.            St. Louis 1, Mo., 602 U. S. Courthouse and Custom.
Omaha 2, Nebr., 328 Keeline Bldg., 319 South 17th   house, 12th and Market Sts.

                             DISTRICT 12: 815 Airport Way, Seattle 4, Wash.

Aberdeen, Wash., U. S. Post Office, 2d and G Sts.       Port Angeles, Wash., Post Office Bldg., Southeast
Anacortes, Wash., Post Office Bldg., Commercial           corner 1st and Oak Sts.
  Ave. and 6th St.                                      Portland 5, Oreg., 333 U. S. Courthouse, Broadway
Astoria, Oreg., Post Office Bldg., 326 Commercial St.     and Main Sts
Bellingham, Wash., Post Office Bldg., Magnolia and      S        ,A     a,
  Cornwall Sts.
Blaine, Wash., Peace Arch ash.,
  Co     allin                 e Inspection Station,
                                   P        e           Sumas, Wash., Inspection Station, Boundary and
                                                         agwce, Alasnka H son B
  Pacific Highway Inspection Station.                     Cherry Sts.
Fairbanks, Alaska, Lavery Bldg,., Second and Cush-      Tacoma, Wash., Post Office Bldg., 11th and A Sts.
 man Sts., P. O.. BoxFdr
 Cruman P. 0 Box 231.
       Sts.,            231.                            Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, Credit-
Ketchikan, Alaska, -Federal Bldg., Mission and            Foncer B     8    asin       W.
  Stedman Sts.
Lynde n, Wash., Highway Inspection Station, m-          Victoria, British Columbia. Canada, Campbell
  migration Border Patrol Bldg., Guide Meridian          Bldg., 1029 Douglas St.

                         DISTRICT 13: Appraisers Bldg., San Francisco 11, Calif.

Fresno 1, Calif., 310 Post Office Bldg.                 Sacramento 9, Calif.. 434 Federal Bldg.
Honolulu 9, T. E., Ala Moana Blvd., P. 0. Box 461.      Salinas, Calif., Bank of America Bldg., Main and
Oakland 7, Calif., 313 New Post Office Bldg.            Salt Lake City, Utah, 407 Post Office Bldg., P. 0.
Reno Nev., 321 Byington Bldg.
          ,                                               Box 628.
                                                                    ,Calif., 211-212 City Hall.
                                                        Stockton 3, C

DISTRICT 14: U. S. Post Office and Courthouse Bldg., Alamo Plaza and Houston St., San Antonio 6, Tex.

Brownsville, Tex., Gateway International Bridge,        Hidalgo, Tex., International Bridge.
  P. 0. Box 551.                                        Houston 14, Tex., Federal Office Bldg., Franklin
Corpus Christi, Tox., Federal Bldg. (P. 0. Box 746).     and Fannin Sts., P. 0. Box 4059.
Dallas 2, Tex., 1114 Commerce St.                       Laredo, Tex., Federal Bldg.
Del Rio, Tex., International Bridge.                    Port Arthur, Tex., U. S. Post Office and Custom-
Eagle Pass, Tex., International Bridge.                  house, P. 0. Box 69.
Galveston, Tex., U. S. Post Office, P. 0. Box 388.      Roma, Tex., International Bridge.

                              DISTRICT 15: U. S. Courthouse, El Paso, Tex.

Albuquerque, N. Mex., U. S. Courthouse, Gold            Nogales, Ariz., U. S. Border Station.
 and 5th Sts.                                           Phoenix, Ariz., 603 Goodrich Bldg., 14 North
Alpine, Tex., North 4th and East Avenue D.                Central Ave.
Columbus, N. Mex., Immigration Station, Pershing        Presidio, Tex., International Bridge.
 Rd.                                                    Sasabe, Ariz., Federal Inspection Bldg.
Douglas, Ariz., Customs-Immigration Inspection          Sonoyta Gate, Ariz., Ajo, Ariz;
  Station.                                              Tucson, Ariz., Post Office Bldg., Scott and Broad-
Fabens, Tex., Guadalupe Gate.                             way.
Globe, Ariz., Federal Bldg., Hill and Sycamore Sts.     Ysleta, Tex., International Bridge.
Naco, Ariz., U. S. Border Station.
                               DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE                                              215
                 DISTRICT 16: Rowan Bldg., 458 South Spring St., Los Angeles 13, Calif.

Andrade, Calif., Immigration Inspection Station.      San Luis Obispo, Calif., Bank of America Bldg., 775
Bakersfield, Calif., 2715 0 St...                      Hliguerra St.
Calexico, Calif., U. S. Customs-Immigration Inspec-   San Pedro, Calif., Terminal Island, Calif.
  tion Station, Heffemran and 1st Sts.                Santa Ana, Calif., U. S. Post Office Bldg., 6th and
El Centro, Calif., Ill North Imperial Ave.              Bush Sts.
San Bernardino, Calif., Post Office Bldg., 5th and    San Ysidro, Calif., U. S. Customs-Immigration In-
 ~D  Sts.                                              spection Station, Tijuana Blvd. at border line.
San Diego, Calif., Third Floor, U. S. Customhouse     Tecate, Calif., U. S. Customs-Immigration Inspee
   and Courthouse Bldg.            .   .                tion Station.
San Luis, Ariz., U. S. Customs-Immigration Inspec-    Ventura, Calif., 121 North Fir St.
  tion Station

   THE BOARD OF IMMIGRATION APPEALS.-The Board is a quasi-judicial
body established in the Office of the Attorney General. The Board has
jurisdiction to review on appeal the orders entered by, or under the
general direction of, the Commissioner of Immigration and Natural-
ization in cases of, or relating to, applications for admission, in depor-
tation cases, and in cases of fines and penalties imposed on steamship
companies or other carriers for violation of the immigration laws.
It also has jurisdiction to consider and determine such cases which
are not appealed but which the Commissioner certifies to it for final

                                                                         TOM C. CLARK
                                                                           Attorney General
                         Post Office Department'
                     Twelfth Street and Pennsylvania Avenue NW.
                              STerling 3100, Branch 505

Postmaster   General -_---—--       ——--------------    --  JESSE M. DONALDSON
Executive Assistant to the Postmaster General-------- SAMUEL R. YOUNG
Special Assistant to the Postmaster General        _--      HAROLD F. AMBBOSE
Director of Budget and Administrative Planning------ JOSEPH F. GARTLAND
Commissioner of the Budget -----------                ----- ALFER B. STROM
Commissioner of Administrative Planning---------- MAURICE B. FEIMSTER
Chief Clerk and Director of Personnel-      ----------- EDGAR B. JACKSON
Assistant Chief Clerk and Assistant Director of Per-
  sonnel------- -----------    I ___-_ — — ——
                               —                            HAROLD W. BRESNAHAN

                             HEADS    OF BUREAUS   AND OFFICES

First Assistant Postmaster General----------------- VINCENT C. BURKE
Second Assistant Postmaster General ------------    PAUL AIKEN
Third Assistant Postmaster General and Agent of the
  Board,- Postal Savings System-------------------- JOSEPH J. LAWLER
Fourth Assistant Postmaster General ---------    —--WALTER MYERS
Comptroller _-—_--     ___---————                   JOHN J. HAGGERTY
Chief Inspector-          _----- _
                            _-------------          JAMES J. DORAN
Solicitor ----------.-------------                   FRANK J. DELANY
Purchasing Agent ---------------------------         HARRISON PARKMAN

  CREATION AND AUTHORITY.-The Post Office Department became
an executive department by the act of June 8, 1872 (17 Stat. 283; 5
U. S. C. 361), although it had been known as a department for imany
years. The Postmaster General had been a member of the President's
Cabinet since 1829, when he entered it upon the invitation of President
Andrew Jackson.
  The Articles of Confederation, formulated in 1777, and subse-
quently adopted, provided for "the sole and exclusive right and power
of . . . establishing and regulating post offices from one State to
another . . . and exacting such postage on the papers passing through
the same as- may be requisite to defray the expenses of the said
office   .   . ." (Art. IX).
   Following the final adoption of the Constitution in March 1789,
the post office was temporarily established by the act -of September
22, 1789 (I Stat. 70), which also created the Office of the Postmaster
General. The Postal Service so provided under the ordinance of
October 18, 1782, and subsequent resolutions and ordinances, was
temporarily continued by the act of August 4, 1790 (1 Stat. 178), and
the act of March 3, 1791 (1 Stat. 218). The act of February 20, 1792
 (1 Stat. 234), was the first to provide in detail for the Post Office
Department and the Postal Service generally. Acts of May 8, 1794
 (I Stat. 357), March 2, 1799 (1 Stat. 733), April 30, 1810 (2 Stat. 593),
March 3, 1825 (4 Stat. 102), and other subsequent legislation enlarged
  I Organization chart on page 578.
                        POST OFFICE DEPARTMENT                            217
the duties of the Department, strengthened and unified its organiza-
tion. and provided rules and regulations for the development of the
Postal System of the United States.
   PURPosE.-While the original purpose of the Postal System was
to provide "the best means of establishing posts for conveying let-
ters and intelligence through this continent" (Journals of the Con-
tinental Congress, May 27, 1775), the Post Office Department was
ultimately enlarged to include several services. Among the more
important developments of the Postal Service, in the order of their
establishment or authorization, were postage stamps, 1847; registered
mnail, 1855; railway mail service, 1862; city delivery service, 1863;
postal money orders, 1864; foreign money orders, 1867; special deliv-
ery, 1885; rural delivery, 1896; postal savings, 1911; village delivery,
1912; parcel post, including insurance and collect-on-delivery service,
1913; and air mail, 1918.
   Benjamin Franklin, who was appointed postmaster at Philadelphia
in 1737 and Co-Deputy Postmaster General of the British Colonies
in North America in 1753, and who on July 26, 1775, became the first
Postmaster General under the Continental Congress, is credited by
historians with having laid much of the foundation for the develop-
ment of the present United States Postal System. The Constitution
of the United States, Article I, section 8, provided that "the Congress
shall have Power . . . To establish Post Offices and post Roads."
   Samuel Osgood was the first Postmaster General under the Con-
stitution, having been appointed September 26, 1789, at which time
there were 75 post offices. From that small beginning the Postal
Service has been developed into what is now the largest business in
the world. It employs approximately 490,000 workers and has an
annual pay roll in excess of one billion dollars. Yearly, the Postal
Service handles more than 17 billion dollars and has gross receipts
totaling in excess of one billion dollars. There are approximately
42,000 post offices in the United States.
   The Department comprises the following offices, bureaus, and
Office of the Postmaster General       Bureau of the Third Assistant Post-
Office of Budget and Administrative          master General:
  Planning                                Office of the Special Administrative
Office of the Chief Clerk and Director      Aide
  of Personnel                            Division of Finance
 master General:                            Division of Stamps
    Office of the Special Administrative    Division of Stalps
      Aide                                  Division of Postal Savings
    Post Office Service:                    Division of Letter and Miscellane-
         Divisions 1, 2, 3, and 4             ous Mail
         Division of Postmasters            Division of Newspaper and Periodi-
Bureau of' the Second Assistant Post-         cal Mail
 master General:                            Division of Registered Mails
    Office of the Under Second Assist-      Division of Parcel Post
      ant Postmaster General             Be     o t     Fut     Assistant Post-
    Division of Air Postal Transport     B aurea Gnoeralt
    Division of International Postal       maser general:
      Service                               Headquarters Office
    Division of Surface Postal Trans-       Division of Motor Vehicle Service
      port -                                Division of Federal Building Op-
    Division of Administrative Services       erations

Bureau of the Fourth Assistant Post- Bureau of Accounts:
        master General-Continued              Office of the Special Administrative
      Division of Equipment and Supplies        Aide
      Division of Mail Equipment Shops        Division of Accounts
      Division of Engineering and Re-         Division of Cost Ascertainment
        search                                Division of Methods and Procedures
      Division of Post Office Quarters   Bureau of the Chief Inspector
      Division of Topography             Office of the Solicitor
      Division of Traffic                Office of the Purchasing Agent

                     Office of the Postmaster General
   The Postmaster General superintends the business of the Depart-
ment and executes all laws relative to the Postal Service. Subject to
the approval of the President, he negotiates postal treaties with
foreign governments. He is the executive head of the Postal Savings
System and ex officio chairman of the board of trustees.
   APPOINTMENTS.-With the exception of the four Assistant Post-
masters General, the Purchasing Agent, the Comptroller, and post-
masters of the first, second, and third classes, all of whom are
Presidential appointees, the Postmaster General appoints all officers
and employees of the Post Office Department and Postal Service. It
is also the duty of the Postmaster General to appoint postmasters at
offices of the fourth class, and to submit to the President for nomina-
tion by him the names of candidates for postmaster at offices of the
first, second, and third classes.

             Office of Budget and Administrative Planning
  This Office, under the immediate direction of the Postmaster
General, is charged with the budgeting and planning activities of the
Post Office Department. The several bureaus and offices of the Post
Office Department deal with this Office on all budgetary accounting
matters, on new activities and procedures, and on proposed changes in
operating management procedures in the Postal Establishment.

          Office of the Chief Clerk and Director of Personnel
   The Chief Clerk and Director of Personnel has primary responsi-
bility for personnel administration and the management functions of
the Department. He coordinates and exercises control over position
classification, recruitment, selection, placement, training, promotions,
discipline, efficiency ratings, employee relations, health and safety,
the proper administration of the Retirement and Employees' Com-
pensation Acts, and other personnel matters. He is chairman of the
Board of Appeals for the hearing of employee grievances throughout
the Postal Establishment and is also chairman of the Loyalty Board
of the Postal Establishment. He represents the Department in its re-
lations with the Civil Service Commission, the Federal Personnel
Council, and with other agencies where personnel functions are
                       POST OFFICE DEPARTMENT                         219
   The Chief Clerk and. Director of Personnel is also charged with
the administrative management and control of activities and operat-
ing services at the departmental level, including the printing and
binding required in the Department and field service; the receipt and
inspection of supplies for the Department and field service delivered
in Washington; the care and maintenance of public property located
in the Department building; the preparation and certification of pay
rolls; the compilation, publication, and distribution of the Official
Postal Guide and other postal publications; the preparation of esti-
mates for appropriations covering printing and binding, contingent
and miscellaneouse           expenses          of the Postmaster General
and Assistant Postmasters General, and salaries, Office of the Post-
master General; the custody of the journals, order books, correspond-
ence, and files. The Chief Clerk and Director of Personnel is the
security officer, the clearance officer, and the surplus property officer
for the departmental and the field service.
                     The Postmaster General's Staff
   The Postmaster General's Staff consists of the First Assistant Post-
master General (Chairman), Second, Third, and Fourth Assistant
Postmasters General, Executive Assistant to the Postmaster General,
Chief Inspector, Chief Clerk and Director of Personnel, the Comp-
troller, the Director of Budget and Administrative Planning, and
such other postal officials as the Postmaster General may designate.
The Staff is charged with the following functions: to coordinate the ac-
tivities of the several bureaus and offices of the Postal Establishment;
to consider and recommend to the Postmaster General any action to be
taken (a) for the more effective handling of postal business, (b) on all
requests for performance of any non-postal service, (c) on orders issued
by other governmental agencies which affect the Postal Establishment;
and to perform such other functions as the Postmaster General may
        Bureau of the First Assistant Postmaster General
   The First Assistant Postmaster General is charged with the duty
of handling for the Postmaster General all matters relating to the
establishment, discontinuance, and changes of names of post offices,
classified and contract stations and branches, and rural stations; the
changes of sites of offices of the fourth class; the selection and prepa-
ration for nomination of postmasters at post offices of the first, second,
and third classes, and the appointment of postmasters at offices of the
fourth class; the bonding and commissioning of postmasters; the
designation of Army mail clerks and assistant Army mail clerks; the
general management of post offices, and the instruction of post-
masters in regard to all functions of the bureau; the authorization of
allowances for clerk and city and village carrier hire, car fare and
bicycle hire, and other expenses connected with post offices; the con-
duct of the city delivery, village delivery, rural delivery, and special
delivery services; the treatment of all unmailable and undeliverable
mail matter; the preparation of budget estimates; and the control and

disbursement of- the appropriations for the Bureau of the First As-
   The two Deputies First Assistant Postmaster General, of equal
rank, are assistants to the First Assistant Postmaster General. Each
is in charge of a geographical area of two divisions, and each exercises
administrative responsibility for decisions in his assigned geographi-
cal field in all matters under the jurisdiction of the First Assistant
Postmaster General.
   The Special Administrative Aide to the First Assistant Postmaster
General is charged with the following duties: budgetary control officer
for the bureau; special assignments involving research and planning
activities affecting the work under the jurisdiction of the bureau; and
the annual adjustment of salaries of postmasters at all post offices.
   Post Office Service under the jurisdiction of the First Assistant
Postmaster General is divided into four geographical divisions. Each
division is under the supervision of a superintendent who is charged
with the following duties: the establishment, organization and man-
agement, maintenance, hours of service, change in name, and discon-
tinuance of classified and contract stations and branches, and rural
stations; the designation and supervision of Army mail clerks and
assistants; the appointment, disciplining, removal, and salaries of
 assistant postmasters, supervisors, clerks, watchmen, messengers and
mail handlers, printers, mechanics, and skilled laborers, and city, vil-
lage, and rural carriers, also cleaners, janitors, telephone operators,
 elevator conductors, and firemen paid from the appropriation of the
 First Assistant Postmaster General; the establishment, extension,
 maintenance, and conduct of city and village delivery and collection
 service, and rural delivery service, and the authorization of all allow-
 ances for expenditures for such services; also supervision over all
 matters concerning special delivery service; allowances for clerk hire
 at first-, second-, and third-class post offices for the separation of mail,
 and unusual conditions at fourth-class offices, and for miscellaneous
 service items at first- and second-class offices. The superintendent is
 also charged with responsibility for the treatment of all unmailable
 and undeliverable mail matter sent to dead-letter branches for dispo-
 sition; the enforcement of the prompt sending of such matter according
 to the regulations; the correcting of errors of postmasters connected
 with the non-delivery of mail matter sent to dead-letter branches, and
 the investigation by correspondence of complaints made with refer-
 ence thereto; the examination and forwarding or return of all such
 matter which has failed of delivery; the inspection and return to the
 country of origin of undeliverable foreign matter; recording and
 restoration to owners of letters and parcels which contain valuable
 enclosures; care and disposition of money, negotiable paper, and other
 valuable articles found in undeliverable matter; and correspondence,
both foreign and domestic, relating to these subjects.
    The Division of Postmasters, under the supervision of the super-
 intendent, is charged with the preparation of cases for the establish-
 ment, change of name, and discontinuance of post offices; the selec-
 tion and preparation for nomination of postmasters at post offices of
 the first, second, and third classes, and the appointment of post-
 masters at offices of the fourth class; the keeping of a record of the
                     POST OFFICE DEPARTMENT                         221
appointment of postmasters; the obtaining, recording, and filing of
bonds and oaths of office and issuance of postmasters' commissions;
the consideration of charges and complaints against postmasters;
all service matters in connection with fourth-class post offices; and
the regulation of hours of business and changes of sites of post offices
of the fourth class.
        Bureau of the Second Assistant Postmaster General
   The Second Assistant Postmaster General is charged with the re-
sponsibility and authority for administering all matters relating to
the transportation of the domestic and international mails by any and
all media of transportation, routing of such mails and distribution
thereof, management of the international postal service, and super-
vision of the personnel, accounting, budgetary, and other administra-
tive services of the Bureau of Postal Transport.
   The Under Second Assistant Postmaster General is charged with
the coordination and general supervision of the activities of the
bureau, aiding and assisting in the formulation of plans and policies,
and acting as head of the bureau during absences of the Second As-
sistant Postmaster General.
CHARGE OF SURFACE POSTAL TRANSPORT.-This office is responsible for
all operations in postal transport by railroads, star routes, mail
messengers, highway post offices, and other surface means, and for
postal personnel employed therein.
CHARGE OF AIR POSTAL TRANSPORT.-This office has supervision of
all domestic and foreign air mail routes flying the American Flag. It
is responsible for research and analysis with respect to proposed new
air services, and for the maintenance, development, improvement, and
expansion of transportation of mail by air.
for establishment and maintenance of postal relations with foreign
postal administrations, the exchange of mails by steamship in
international service, and the preparation of agreements and formal
conventions covering all hases of international postal operations.
CHARGE OF-ADMINISTRATIVE SERVICES.-This office has charge of all
bureau budgets and accounting, improvements in systems and pro-
cedures, verification and audit of all transport accounts, maintenance
of accounting records, and preparation and presentation of appro-
priation estimates.
       Bureau of the Third Assistant Postmaster General
   The Third Assistant Postmaster General has charge of the financial
operations of the Department, including the collection and deposit
of postal revenues, the receipt and disposition of all moneys coming
directly to the Department, and the keeping. of accounts showing the
fiscal operations of the postal, money order, and Postal Savings

   There are two Deputies Third Assistant Postmaster General, of
equal rank, who are assistants to the Third Assistant Postmaster
General, and a Special Administrative Aide to the Third Assistant
Postmaster General who acts as technical adviser and budgetary con-
trol officer for the Bureau.
   The activities of the Bureau are administered through the eight
following divisions:
   DIVISION OF FINANCE.-The Division of Finance is charged with
gathering and distributing funds derived from the collection of
revenues of the Postal Service.
   DIVISION OF MONEY ORDErES.-This Division supervises and manages
the money order service, both domestic and international, the postal
note system, and prepares conventions for the exchange of money
orders with foreign countries.
   DIVISION OF STAMPrs.-The Division of Stamps supervises, through
the proper Government agencies the manufacture of all postage-
stamp paper, Federal migratory-bird hunting stamps, postal cards,
and stamped envelopes; attends to their distribution; and supervises
the accounting therefor. It also has supervision of the distribution
 of, and the accounting for, documentary internal revenue stamps and
the distribution of savings stamps sold through post offices.
    DIVISION OF POSTAL SAVINGS.-The Division of Postal Savings su-
 pervises and manages the Postal Savings System; also supervises the
 sale of United States savings bonds and savings stamps at post offices,
 accounting to the Treasury Department for the proceeds.
general control over all business relatinA to the classification of do-
mestic mail, other than that of the secona-class, rates of postage, lim-
its of weight and size, and the addressing, forwarding, and return of
such mail; nonmetered and other permit mail; penalty envelopes,
franking, and other free mail privileges; and acceptance of mail
for armed forces.
Newspaper and Periodical Mail determines the admissibility of pub-
lications to the second class of mail matter, the right to continue in
that class, rates of postage thereon, and supervises the collection of
and accounting for such postage; administers the law requiring an-
nual statements of ownership, circulation, etc., and instructs the post-
masters on such subjects.
   DIVISION OF REGISTERED MAILS.-The Division of Registered Mails
 supervises the management of the domestic registered, insured, and
 collect-on-delivery services, and considers all claims for the loss and
 damage of such mail.
   DIVISION OF PARCEL POST.-The Division of Parcel Post has general
 supervision of the investigation of methods designed to improve and
 perfect the Parcel Post System.

         Bureau of the Fourth Assistant Postmaster General
   The Fourth Assistant Postmaster General, in addition to the other
 duties outlined, is charged with the duty of representing the Post-
 master General on the Joint Departmental Committee, and adminis-
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