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DCP Follow up Confirmed Report

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DCP Follow up Confirmed Report Powered By Docstoc
					The Designing Careers Pilot (DC pilot) ran from February 2005 to July 2006. A key
component of the Pilot was the development of a Learning and Career Plan (LCP) to
support learning about a life-long process of planning future directions. The LCP was
trialled with Year 10 students in Pilot schools. The second key component of the
project was individual career planning and guidance for students at risk of not
completing a successful transition from school to employment or study.


ERO’s first evaluation was to provide the MOE with information and advice that
would enable the MOE to decide whether the Pilot should be further developed and
implemented across the secondary school sector and to identify ways in which this
could best be done. The suggestions from the ERO evaluation of the DC pilot were
taken on board when developing the new and improved initiative for 100 schools –
Creating Pathways and Building Lives (CPaBL).


The focus of the DC Tracking evaluation was to establish the extent to which
developments made during the pilot had been sustained and embedded in the initial
75 schools.


Most schools report that they will continue to deliver programmes developed under
the Pilot. Where schools used the Pilot funding to develop programmes, resources
and systems and to build staff capability, the developments appear to have been
sustained.
                                                           The Education Review Office
                                                                   101 Lambton Quay
                                                                             Box 2799
                                                                           Wellington


     Designing Careers - Tracking beyond the Pilot
                         CONFIRMED REPORT


1      EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
The Ministry of Education (MoE) has sought a low-cost overview of the impact of the
Designing Careers Pilot (DCP) after MoE funding has ceased. This review is designed
to provide information on the medium-term impact of the Pilot.
Year 10. A key component of the Pilot was the development of a Learning and
Career Plan (LCP) to support planning future directions. The LCP process forms the
common element of Year 10 career education in the Pilot schools. Schools in this
follow-up evaluation say that Year 10 careers programmes have improved as a result
of the Pilot, and that these improved programmes will continue to be delivered,
sometimes in a modified form. Student outcomes reported by schools have been:
increased self-awareness, increased understanding of the relevance of school to their
future goals, improved subject selection, better levels of motivation, and raised
aspirations.
The Year 10 careers programme is most often delivered by specifically trained
teachers in curriculum time, usually Social Studies. Led by the careers adviser, staff
involved generally adopt a team approach. Individual student interviews continue to
be a valued adjunct to classroom programmes in many schools, although without Pilot
funding, the extent to which these interviews were held in 2006 was less than in 2005.
Principals and careers advisers indicate that interviews are likely to be further
curtailed in the future.
LCPs. These are intended to be treated as part of a process rather than an end in
themselves. Schools that adopt this attitude are likely to make constructive,
continuing use of the LCPs with students, and are likely to review them, particularly
during subject selection processes. To assist with the review process, some schools
have developed systems for storing LCPs so that they are readily accessible to
students and staff. Use of LCPs, however, is variable. Some students take them home
and no follow-up takes place.




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Year 11. ERO found a range in the quantity and quality of career education provided
for Year 11 students. Many schools do not offer any careers programmes at this level.
Often, students in lifeskills or transition classes have work and career related unit
standards as part of their curriculum. Students in mainstream or academic classes
sometimes have the opportunity to gain National Certificate of Education
Achievement (NCEA) credits through applying careers concepts to topics such as
research. In general, Year 11 students in Pilot schools overall do not receive the level
or quality of career education and guidance that they experienced in Year 10, so the
initial impetus from the Pilot has not been sustained for these students.
At Risk Students. Most schools provided some targeted programmes for at risk
students prior to the Pilot, although not all of these programmes addressed career
education. In many schools, the Pilot funding enabled expansion of existing
programmes and interventions. Most of these catered for Years 11, 12 and 13
students. Gateway and STAR are generally regarded as critical elements in schools‟
provision for students identified as being at risk of leaving school unprepared for the
transition to the workplace or further education/training. Most schools provided
support for at risk students through the careers adviser, guidance counsellor, or dean.
Career Services consultants supported small numbers of students.
Self Review. Most Pilot schools still do not systematically collect reliable information
that can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of career education and guidance
programmes, and to assess their impact on student achievement. Although most
careers advisers say that they collect such information, they usually rely on anecdotal
accounts and impressions.
Schoolwide Impact. Careers advisers state that since the Pilot more students are
making appropriate subject choices, and that students‟ understanding of the relevance
of school to their future goals has improved. Most principals, deans and HoDs also
identify these outcomes. All staff believe that the Pilot has resulted in raised
awareness of career education among students. Other impacts are reported to be
improved provision of career education across the school and, for at risk students,
involvement of more staff, and networking with other careers advisers.
During the course of this evaluation ERO has identified factors that contribute to
schoolwide improvements in career education. Key features are the principal‟s
commitment to career education and having a careers team to share responsibilities
for planning and delivery. Principals consider the provision of career education at
Year 9 to be the least effective.
Parent Involvement. Schools report that there has been some increase in parent
involvement in students‟ course and career planning processes, although this
involvement is still limited. Parents are more likely to attend report evenings than
meetings about courses and subjects or meetings with a specific career focus.




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                                   Confirmed Report



Sustainability. Most schools report that they will continue to deliver programmes
developed under the Pilot. The continuing availability of teachers who have been
suitably trained is a risk factor for some schools, given staff turnover and the cost of
ongoing professional development. The practice of employing outside consultants is
not sustainable for most schools.
Conclusion
Where schools used the Pilot funding to develop programmes, resources and systems
and to build staff capability, the developments appear to have been sustained.
The impact of Designing Careers on career education at Year 10 continued in 2006,
and there was also some impact at Year 11 and school-wide. The Pilot does not
appear to have provided any significant benefits for at risk students.
Without schools assigning specific priority to career education, it is likely that the
delivery of quality programmes will diminish over time. Senior managers need to
demonstrate clear commitment to establishing and embedding effective career
education and guidance school-wide. They need to ensure that: student needs are
identified; all staff recognise that they have a responsibility to integrate aspects of
career education into their programmes; appropriate programmes are in place; and
outcomes for students are monitored.




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                               Confirmed Report




     CONTENTS                                           Page
     1 Executive Summary                                  1
     2 Background                                         5
     3 Methodology                                        8
     4 Findings
     Section 1       The Year 10 Career Education
                                                          10
                     Programme in 2006
     Section 2       Use of Learning and Career Plans
                                                          13
                     (LCPs)
     Section 3       Career Education in Year 11          16
     Section 4       Programmes for At Risk Students      18
     Section 5       School Self Review                   20
     Section 6       Schoolwide Impact of Designing
                                                          22
                     Careers
     Section 7       Parent Involvement                   28
     Section 8       Case Study Schools                   29
     5 Sustainability                                     36
     6 Ideas for Further Consideration                    37
     7 Conclusion                                         40
     Appendices
     Appendix A      Questionnaire Responses              41
     Appendix B      Interview Questions                  59




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2      BACKGROUND
The Designing Careers Pilot
The Designing Careers Pilot (the Pilot) was part of the Government‟s Youth
Transitions Strategy aimed at assisting young people to make more successful
transitions from school to higher education, training or work. The Ministry of
Education hopes that improving the quality of careers information, advice and
guidance will allow students to take fuller advantage of the opportunities that NCEA,
vocational education and training programmes, and the expanding range of tertiary
pathways offer. The Ministry saw the Pilot as an initial step in improving the
provision of careers education in schools, and expected it to build on current career
education and career planning work in schools, as well as offering new ideas and
opportunities to pilot schools.
Designing Careers was piloted in 75 schools throughout the country in 2005 and
2006. A key component of the initiative was the development of a Learning and
Career Plan (LCP) to support learning about a life-long process of planning future
directions. The LCP was trialled with Year 10 students in Pilot schools. The second
key component of the project was individual career planning and guidance for
students at risk of not completing a successful transition from school to employment
or study.
These components were supported by professional development for the teachers
involved, the provision of career education resources, and ongoing support to the
schools. The Ministry of Education contracted Career Services Rapuara to provide
this professional support over 18 months. The mix of support provided to each school
was based on discussion with individual schools about their priorities.
The Ministry of Education and Career Services signed an agreement in September
2004 and implementation of the Pilot began in February 2005. Government approved
funding for participating schools was $1.03m for 2004/05 and $0.94m for 2005/06.
Funding of $1.30m for 2004/05 and $1.182m for 2005/06 (all GST inclusive) was
allocated to Career Services for provision of information and advisory services.

ERO’s Evaluation of the Pilot
The purpose of the Pilot was to find out what works well in school-based career
planning, to improve practices, resources and measurement tools where necessary,
and to share the learning from pilot schools with the wider school community. ERO‟s
evaluation was to provide the MOE with information and advice that would enable the
MOE to decide whether the Pilot should be further developed and implemented across
the secondary school sector and to identify ways in which this could best be done.
The Ministry of Education requested proposals to evaluate the Pilot and subsequently
selected ERO to carry out the evaluation. The Ministry and ERO signed an
Agreement for the evaluation in May 2005.




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The purposes of the evaluation were to identify:
 key features of, and contributing factors in, effective delivery of career education,
   planning and guidance;
 best practice for Learning and Career Plans (LCPs) for Year 10 students, at risk
   Year 10-13 students, and students with disabilities; and
 effective career planning resources and measurement tools for New Zealand
   schools and their students.
ERO‟S evaluation of 75 Designing Careers Pilot schools was conducted over a
seven-month period (May to December 2005). Interim reports were provided on
various aspects of the Pilot. ERO was unable to judge the success of the Pilot against
its key expected outcome, which was, „students making successful transitions from
school to higher education, training or work‟. This was for a number of reasons:
 a lack of baseline data;
 the fact that almost all Year 10 students were still enrolled at school at the end of
     the Pilot;
 the absence of collated data on outcomes for the at risk students; and
 the limited time period covered by the evaluation did not allow time for schools to
     measure performance against expected outcomes.
The final evaluation report in early 2006 covered the implementation and
effectiveness of the Pilot; models of good practice in career education; and system
barriers. ERO identified areas for further consideration, and made recommendations
about project design and planning, and implementation.
Key Findings of the 2006 Evaluation Report
Overall, the Pilot had:
 improved the provision of careers education for Year 10 students;
 improved support for some at risk students;
 raised the profile of careers education amongst students and teachers;
 enabled further development of career education at other year levels; and
 enabled the development of a school-wide team involved with careers education.
The Pilot had not:
 documented clear outcomes with success indicators in the planning phase;
 sought baseline data to facilitate robust self review and evaluation;
 provided clear information and guidelines for schools;
 established clear lines of accountability;
 increased the involvement of parents in their children‟s career education; or
 provided specific programmes for Mäori, Pacific or students with disabilities.
Although students with disabilities were identified as a focus in the original
programme documentation, this focus was not carried through into implementation.




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Recommendations
Project design and planning
ERO recommended that the Ministry of Education consider how the Designing Careers
Pilot could be modified to ensure that:
 the aims, objectives, outcomes and implementation strategies of the project were
    better aligned;
 project documentation focused on outcomes for students, and in particular on
    increased knowledge about how and where to access information about possible
    careers and further training and education opportunities;
 formulae for the disbursement of project funds were reviewed to better recognise the
    needs of particular groups of schools, particularly those in rural areas;
 consideration was given to providing schools with a greater share of Pilot funding so
    that they could choose their own provider for professional development and resources
    if they so wished;
 expectations of services provided by Career Services were explicit and a system
    established to monitor delivery;
 requirements for Career Services to report to the Ministry of Education were clarified,
    with a focus on outcomes rather than outputs;
 clear information was given to schools about expectations for the implementation of
    the project, including the use of funding, criteria to help staff evaluate the success of
    their work, requirements for collecting and analysing baseline data, and requirements
    for accountability for the use of Pilot funding; and
 criteria for identifying students at risk of not making successful transitions to work or
    further education were further clarified for participating schools.
Implementation
ERO recommended that the Ministry of Education consider how the Designing Careers
Pilot could be modified to ensure that schools were encouraged and supported to:
 include whole-school career education in their strategic plan and self-review cycle;
 develop whole-school career education programmes that were coordinated across year
    levels and linked clearly to student needs, subject areas and pastoral care systems;
 establish base-line data that would enable teachers to monitor the impact of their
    programmes on student knowledge, learning and behaviour;
 involve parents more actively and meaningfully in their children‟s decisions about
    choices for the future;
 ensure career information was readily available in both print and electronic form;
 modify learning and career plans to meet the particular needs of the students and the
    school;
 implement appropriate and effective strategies for supporting and monitoring the
    progress of students at risk of not making successful transitions;
 include a focus on the needs and perspectives of Mäori and Pacific students in their
    planning for, and implementation of, careers education; and
 review timetables, option structures, and qualification pathways to identify and
    remove barriers to students‟ ability to make successful transitions to work or further
    study.




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                                  Confirmed Report



3      METHODOLOGY
This follow-up evaluation of Designing Careers reviews the embedding and
sustainability of the Designing Careers Pilot.
ERO began the evaluation by re-reading the philosophy and the general intent of the
Pilot and the May 2006 evaluation report.
Key Evaluative Questions for the Follow-Up
Key evaluative questions, based on the intended outcomes of the Pilot, were
developed to focus the evaluation and establish the extent to which developments had
been sustained.
1. To what extent has the delivery of Designing Careers to Year 10 students been
   sustained?
2. How have Learning and Career Plans (LCPs) been used this year by students and
   staff?
3. What impact has Designing Careers had on Year 11 students‟ motivation,
   learning and achievement, and subject choice?
4. What careers follow up was there for 2005 Year 10 students? (Year 11 in 2006)
5. How effective has Designing Careers been in meeting the needs of targeted
   students? (Those at risk of leaving school unprepared for the transition to the
   workplace or further education/training.)
6. Has the school reviewed, evaluated and modified school-wide career education
   and guidance programmes?
7. To what extent has Designing Careers strengthened careers education and
   guidance across the school?
8. To what extent has the Learning and Career Plan (LCP) process developed
   students‟ self-awareness, knowledge of careers and career planning?
9. To what extent have parents been involved in students‟ career planning?


Information was gathered through five different methods:
   Questionnaires (40 schools)
    Questionnaires were designed and trialled. After modifications, the questionnaires
    were sent to principals, careers advisers, Year 11 Deans and Heads of Department
    (HoDs) at 40 schools. The response rates were 90% of principals and 100% of
    careers advisers. Questionnaires were also returned by 42 deans from 34 schools
    and by 79 HoDs from 35 schools. Some schools have more than one Year 11
    Dean. More than one HoD was surveyed, so that it was possible to include the
    responses of HoDs who had been directly involved in the Pilot as well as those
    who had not.




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   Telephone Interviews (10 schools)
    Telephone interviews were conducted with 9 careers advisers, 10 principals, 8
    Year 11 deans and 9 HoDs. Those interviewed were in Pilot schools other than
    the schools that were sent questionnaires.
   On site visits to 5 case study schools
    Case study schools were selected to cover a range in school type and geographical
    location. At these schools, ERO interviewed principals, careers advisers, Year 11
    Deans and HoDs. In the two schools visited in February 2007, students were
    interviewed as well. Student interviews were not possible in 2006, because on-
    site visits were late in Term 4, senior students had left, and many Year 10 students
    were involved in Education Outside the Classroom (EOTC) activities.
   Documentation (case study schools)
    ERO viewed documents such as career education policy (if applicable); career
    education goals and targets included in strategic and annual plans for 2006 and
    2007; career education management documents, whether separate or included in
    other department schemes; and Learning and Career Plans (LCPs) completed by
    2005 and 2006 Year 10 students.
   Feedback from Career Services
    Consultants were given the opportunity to comment on the Pilot from their
    perspective. Feedback was received from consultants in three regions.
Data and responses from all sources were collated and analysed in relation to the
rationale and terms of reference for the evaluation. The report was prepared,
incorporating findings and providing judgments synthesised from all stages of the
investigation.




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4      FINDINGS
Section 1      The Year 10 Career Education Programme in 2006
The programme
The major focus of the Designing Careers Pilot was on career education at Year 10.
In particular, the Pilot was designed to incorporate the development of Learning and
Career Plans (LCPs) with all students at this year level. A programme based on the
Ministry‟s guidelines was designed at each school, with Career Services consultants
available to provide resources, professional development and ongoing support as
required. In most schools implementation of the Pilot was led and coordinated by the
careers adviser.
ERO finds that the Pilot has had a positive impact on the quality of career education
and guidance received by Year 10 students. All schools in the Pilot developed new
careers programmes or expanded existing ones. These were first delivered in 2005,
and all the schools surveyed continued to deliver the same or modified Year 10
programmes in 2006. However, the significance of this finding should not be over-
estimated and should be considered alongside the fact that three quarters of CPaBL
schools, which were randomly selected, also provide career education at Year 10.
All the principals and careers advisers in this survey stated that the Year 10 career
education programme would continue in the future. Three quarters said that it was
likely that the programme would continue to be delivered in its present form.
However, some staff interviewed said that without Pilot funding the use of Careers
Services consultants was unlikely to continue at current levels, so the practice of
interviewing individual students in up to a third of the schools is likely to be
terminated or curtailed.
In 2006, Social Studies was the curriculum area into which careers programmes were
integrated in three quarters of the schools. In other schools, subject areas that
integrated Pilot modules were English or Health.
We embedded it as a part of the social studies curriculum at Year 9/10. PD for key
staff was completed. We have a team approach. Resources for effective delivery are
in place. (Principal)
All Year 10 Health teachers introduced students to their Learning and Career Plans
in Health Education and taught sections on goal setting and 'knowledge about
themselves' using health education material and the Career Kete units. All Deans,
Senior management and guidance staff help with interviews across all year levels
except Year 9. (Careers Adviser)
The programme was delivered 1 period/week through curriculum time. If the teachers
buy in it’s not too bad. There is confusion with some kids who need reminding that
it’s careers time not English time. Almost all teachers have been retained. Career
Services trained the staff – they will do it next year, we have a good relationship with
them. (Principal)




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We started off by teaching careers during Health, including LCPs, and we have
continued with this. It’s a 10 hour programme, using a designated person, supported
by a career consultant and making a folder for each student. (Principal)
We are using the Real Game alongside Designing Careers. Year 10 Social Studies
use the Real Game, to follow on with the English Designing Careers programme.
They are rolled in together. (Careers Adviser)
We did it in a 16 period module - it was action packed. Resource packs were
prepared for the teachers [who delivered it]. (Careers Adviser)
Most schools had, and used, a wide range of career education resources for staff and
students. Almost all schools gave students access to relevant online information.
Students in schools surveyed had used a range of appropriate and up-to-date
resources.
In most schools, the careers adviser led a team of colleagues, including the HoD in
whose curriculum area the Year 10 programme was being delivered. Other staff
frequently involved were Deans and form teachers/tutors. Schools visited had
developed appropriate strategies and plans for delivering Designing Careers to Year
10 students in 2006.
Staff turnover and changes in class allocations sometimes meant that teachers trained
under the Pilot were no longer available to be involved in the Year 10 programme. In
such cases, substitute teachers usually received some in-house training from the
careers adviser. One of the case study schools (see Miro High School) had to
completely change the way in which the programme was delivered, because a change
in the structure of the daily timetable meant that there was insufficient time during
tutor periods. Consequently, the careers adviser delivered the programme to all
classes in curriculum time in 2006.
Pilot schools demonstrated a commitment to ongoing delivery of the Year 10
programme. Many schools reviewed and modified the Year 10 programme between
2005 and 2006. Some adapted LCPs to better meet the needs of their students (see
Section 2) or to reduce photocopying costs (by shortening or reformatting them).
Student interviews
Approximately 40% of careers advisers surveyed said that they would continue the
practice of interviewing every Year 10 student. In 2006, the careers adviser, another
careers team member, or a Career Services consultant conferred with individual
students, with particular reference to subject choice.
We interviewed each Year 10. This year 3 staff members interviewed … we
prioritised kids that need attention. (Principal)
ERO‟s telephone interviews and onsite investigations indicated that the main purpose
of interviews was to support students in their exploration of career options as part of
the course planning process. Individualised attention helped students to gain a sense
of purpose and direction in their studies.




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Schools that said they would not be continuing to interview individual Year 10
students gave the reason for this decision as funding constraints.
The careers pilot funding did allow the Careers Adviser to have 3 more hours per
week specifically helping implement the Year 10 careers programme and interviewing
all Year 10 students one on one. Because pilot funding has ceased, we probably will
not be interviewing Year 10 students in the future. This is a shame, because one on
one interviews allow the students to connect with the careers adviser. (Careers
Adviser)
Year 10 student outcomes
Principals and staff in questionnaires and interviews indicate that they believe the
Pilot has led to a number of outcomes for Year 10 students. These include: increasing
their self awareness, increased understanding of the relevance of school to their future
goals, improved subject selection, increased levels of motivation, and raising
aspirations. Careers advisers are more likely than other staff to identify benefits to
students.
Year 10 students are better informed, FAR more interested, aware of options.
(Careers Adviser)
Students have more focus and awareness of planning for the future. (Careers
Adviser)
Staff generally reported that students were better informed when they made their
subject choices for the following year. Most of the improvements noted for Year 10
continued to be evident for the same cohort in Year 11, although usually to a lesser
extent.
Students interviewed in one school said that the Year 10 careers programme had
expanded their options and given them a long-term perspective. Some also reported
that the LCP process had opened up communication with parents, who are well
informed and therefore supportive. ERO noted a high level of self-awareness and
confidence among these students interviewed.
Career Services consultants in one region believe that the most significant outcome
for Year 10 students is that those who are at risk are identified early and appropriate
responses put in place. In another region, Career Services consultants report that Year
10 students are more aware of the support network in their schools and also have a
greater understanding of the labour market.




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Section 2      Use of Learning and Career Plans (LCPs)
The 2005 Designing Careers survey found that schools affirmed the value of the LCP
process in enabling students to gain an understanding of their own interests and
abilities, and in helping them to find out something about the range of possible career
options open to them, learn how to access information about courses and careers, and
develop decision-making skills. ERO noted in the 2006 evaluation report that it was
important that Year 10 students were advised to keep their options open and not to be
pressured into choosing a job or career.
In 2006, ERO asked schools how LCPs completed in Year 10 as part of the Pilot were
used to support students‟ ongoing career education needs. The rationale for this line
of enquiry was to establish the extent to which, having been the basis for Year 10
programmes and practices under the Pilot, the use of LCPs has been sustained.
LCPs were done again this year – I got enough copies to last. We used copies that
Careers Services had supplied. I think it’s particularly important to have the colours,
and I don’t like downloading things for that reason. Anything with colour will appeal
to the students. (Careers Adviser)
In 2007 we will use three years worth of LCPs as part of our academic guidance
process. We have enough LCPs for two years of Year 10 students (2007/08). (Careers
Adviser)
Many schools see the value of LCPs as contributing to a process rather than as being a
completed product. Some found that aspects of the LCP layout and language needed
improvement to make the learning more accessible, and consequently adapted the
LCPs to suit the nature and needs of their particular student group.
The LCPs are still in a cumbersome format and we will look at streamlining it and
possibly putting it into an electronic form. (Careers Adviser)
We modified the LCP to suit the boys, and incorporated it into our own programme.
(Careers Adviser)
Examples of effective use of LCPs demonstrate some careers advisers‟ recognition of
their value and their commitment to building on the work done by students in
Year 10. Not only do students in these schools have their LCPs completed and
available when they choose their subjects for the following year, but staff often
provide one-to-one support in conjunction with this process. Some schools have
developed systems both for storing LCPs and for ensuring that students and staff can
easily access them for decision-making and review purposes.
Some careers advisers create a cumulative file for each student, comprising the
Year 10 LCP and all other relevant material, which is added to as the student moves up
through the school. At least one school facilitates an LCP-type process from
Year 9 right through to Year 13. The principal of this school attributes significant
improvement in retention and achievement to the close ongoing monitoring of student
career education needs. The same school, along with some others, systematically uses
information from LCPs to design appropriate courses and timetable structures from year
to year.




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We do a Year 9 Social Studies unit [about careers] that lasts for 2 weeks. Students’
work is put into a large folder that follows students through Years 10, 11, 12 to 13.
NCEA & NQF results etc go into folder. When you leave school you have an exit
interview and are given a copy of your folder. Students have access to their folders
while at school if wanted. They are kept by Deans, who take folders to interviews
with students and parents. They are put on the table. (Dean)
Most schools state that process of developing an LCP is useful for guiding students‟
subject choices. However, ERO‟s onsite investigations in 2005 found that many
LCPs were not completed, or were likely to be of limited value. Some school
managers still do not coordinate the timing of subject choice with LCP completion.
Furthermore, there is a risk when schools do not stress to students the importance of
keeping their career options open. The practice of making English, mathematics, and
science compulsory at year 11 is desirable for this reason.
Overall, ERO found little evidence that schools are collating and analysing
information from LCPs when planning wider systems, such as curriculum options and
timetable structures. Information in LCPs has the potential to enable school managers
to adapt course structures and timetabling more appropriately to meet students‟
learning and career goals. However, schools usually said that other factors, such as
available staffing, were more important considerations when planning curriculum
structures.
Careers advisers reported using collated information on students‟ intended careers to
target relevant career or course information to students, and to identify students at
risk. Career advisers sometimes identify trends, patterns and needs, but few are in a
position to effect change in course structures. In some schools, the careers adviser is
on the curriculum committee, and hence has a voice in decision-making. Where this
occurs, the likelihood of LCPs being used effectively to contribute to responsive
planning is greatly increased.
Combined responses from HoDs and deans indicated that 69% of the schools
surveyed had reviewed the 2005 LCPs. In some cases, different responses were given
by staff at the same school. This inconsistency suggests a lack of understanding or
knowledge of careers and guidance procedures, or that some but not all students
reviewed their LCPs.
Around 60% of schools reported that students were using their LCPs, most often to
guide subject selection. Deans and other staff use them in up to 40% of schools, again
mainly to guide subject selection.
LCPs are kept by the careers adviser and deans. Deans use them at the end of term 3
for subject selection. (Careers Adviser)
To some extent, then, LCPs have contributed effectively to informed decision-making
about students‟ courses. One third of deans, however, do not use them at all, a pattern
that could be of concern given the pastoral and guidance responsibilities commonly
assigned to the dean‟s role.




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Ineffective follow-up in many schools means that potential student benefits from the
LCP process may be largely lost. Some schools issue a photocopy of the plan
template, which students work on as a draft, and which they can subsequently take
home and keep for their own reference. Schools that store completed LCPs have
different systems for organising them, and ease of access is variable. While
accessibility of LCPs is important, it is not in itself enough to ensure meaningful use.
It’s [LCP information] on a database for access through the careers department –
completed LCPs go back to students. I don’t want to just keep them in storage and I
told the students to use it as a folder to collect data for their CVs. (Careers Adviser)
LCPs are good as a base. They are put in student files but we will move them so that
the careers adviser can keep them. We purchased filing cabinets [with Pilot funding].
(Careers Adviser)
Most were completed. The students kept them – I don’t know if they were used much.
(HoD)
LCPs were done again this year – the Careers Adviser has taken over the function
this year. We have collected these back in and are in the process of entering the
information from the intended career section into our database. We have developed
our own database, but we also use KAMAR. Access to this information is available to
all of us in the [careers & transition] centre. (HoD)
Schools that have set up systems for ongoing LCP access by students and staff enable
them to use and build on what they have learned from the Year 10 programme. Some
schools incorporate the LCP into regular reviews of students‟ course planning, with
the result that the LCP is a living, evolving record of the career exploration process.
The extent to which LCPs are used, however, varies from school to school.
Students can access them – they’re kept in the careers suite. A booklet is designed for
students to track through the year – they get a new one each year. (HoD)
Students did LCPs as part of their workbooks. Not all were done particularly well.
They are used by students - kept by Social Studies department and issued in the Year
11 programme. (Careers Adviser)
We use the Career Services version. LCPs are now in filing cabinets in the careers
room, in alphabetical order. They are really useful. Students like them. Having them
[readily available in careers interviews] breaks the ice. Anyone can access LCPs:
students, deans, form teachers, principal. (Careers Adviser)
Students don’t have access to their LCPs. They are brought to [the centre]. Students
don’t get them back. The database provides us with rich Year 11 data. This data is
used for example to select kids who want to be vets: the software will pull up this as a
list and the careers teacher can specifically call up these kids and perhaps get special
interest speakers for students. We don’t really use this information in other ways.
(HoD)




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Parents make little use of LCPs, with a third of schools reporting some use. The fact that
40% of parents are said not to have used LCPs reveals a gap in the kind of support that
LCPS are able to offer. Further findings in the area of parent involvement in subject
choice and career education are outlined in Section 7.
It is clear that there is a place for the LCP at Year 10. However, at this level, the main
value of the LCP is in helping students to think about their interests, aptitudes, and skills
and to develop a general sense of direction, rather than to choose a particular job or
career.

Section 3       Career Education in Year 11
ERO investigated career education and guidance provision at Year 11 in Pilot schools,
because this year group had participated in the Year 10 Designing Careers programme
during the Pilot year. ERO sought to establish the extent to which the gains made in
Year 10 were still in evidence, and to discover what career education was provided at
Year 11.
Investigations revealed a wide range in the quality and quantity of career education
offered to Year 11 students. Five schools provide no programmes beyond the availability
of a careers adviser, which all secondary schools have. At the other end of the scale is a
small number of schools (approximately 15% of those surveyed) which offer regular
classes, integrated careers work, reviews of LCPs, and/or individual interviews. One
Career Services consultant reported that all the schools in her cluster reviewed LCPs with
Year 11 students in 2006.
Year 11s are re-interviewed. They have one-to-one interviews with the careers adviser.
(Careers Adviser)
All Year 11 students have a follow up programme that uses Year 10 LCPs –this leads up to
course selection for Year 12. Year 11 at risk students are identified early in the year - for a
separate programme that can include STAR and Work Experience. (Careers Adviser)
A career planning unit is used in Year 11 English, plus all Year 11 students attend the
regional career expo and they can self-refer to the Careers Adviser. (Careers Adviser)
Modules have been carefully selected (with student input) for students to choose from and
students have been asked to reflect on their ambitions, qualifications, interests, passions and
abilities when choosing. The module selection will enable students to develop a self awareness
of their own abilities and needs and consider each term which is the best selection for them in
relation to work, training, life and general wellbeing, hauora (work-life balance). Within this,
six one hour sessions are designated to career support and subject selection. This has built on
last year’s Designing Careers programme and individual interviews with each student are an
integral component of the programme delivery. All Year 11 students are given the opportunity
to reflect on changes in their LCP from last year. (Careers Adviser)
The programme was delivered in English classes - 3 periods each class. The careers adviser
went in and updated LCPs. We took all (450) students to careers expo. It is good
continuation from Year 10. With subject choices girls are more aware of what they need, for
example keeping up Science and Maths (both compulsory). It is not an easy year group to
get access to. (Careers Adviser)




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Year 11 students in Pilot schools overall did not receive the level or quality of career
education and guidance that they had received in Year 10.
Not a lot is done at the beginning of the year. They have a brief follow-up on LCPs,
looking back on goal setting. They also have a study skills day. We ran out of time for
individual interviews - hope to do these next year. (Careers Adviser)
Year 11 remember what they said last year as Year 10 for their LCP – they are more
aware, they understand and think more. (Careers Adviser)
It is hard to find time and resources required for Year 11 because of NCEA. (Careers
Adviser)
In schools where Year 11 careers programmes take place, these take a variety of
forms. Some are incorporated into lifeskills, transition or study classes. Some
programmes are provided for all students, while some are part of alternative courses
for students who are not following a full NCEA schedule. A common arrangement is
to teach career education once or twice a week for one or two terms.
A feature of Year 11 career education in some schools is the integration of careers
related unit and achievement standards across the curriculum. Some of these
standards are explicitly related to career education, such as the development of
curriculum vitae (CV) and interview skills, while others incorporate a career focus
into work for achievement or unit standards, such as research for English. Raised
awareness of students‟ career education needs in these schools has resulted in
extension of existing programmes to include useful, practical and relevant units of
learning.
Students do a research unit in English and gain credits. Three out of four classes
completed this. (Careers Adviser)
The Year 11 English programme includes formal CV writing and letters of application for
jobs. (Careers Adviser)
There is one Employment skills class. Achievement Standard 1.9 is taught with a careers
focus through all Year 11 English classes. (Careers Adviser)
Despite these positive developments, many schools are not providing effective
ongoing career education to all Year 11 students. Classroom programmes often target
only those students at risk of not making a successful transition to further education,
training or employment. All Year 11 students should have opportunities to review
their plans, set goals, and monitor their own progress. This is where LCPs could be a
useful tool as students choose their subjects for the following years. Without cohesive
planning to meet the continuing and changing needs of Year 11 students, schools risk
losing the momentum gained through the Year 10 programmes, and students
experience no ongoing benefits from them.
Careers advisers noted that Year 11 programmes had positive outcomes that were
similar to those for Year 10 students. These included: increased self awareness,
knowledge about careers, understanding the relevance of school to future directions
and improved subject selection.




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Section 4      Programmes for At Risk Students
ERO investigated ways in which Pilot schools were responding to the needs of
students who were at risk of leaving school unprepared for the transition to the
workplace or further education or training. It should be noted that many of these
students have needs, such as literacy and numeracy, that will not be met through
career education.
Most of the schools in the follow-up evaluation reported that they already had a range
programmes in place for at risk students prior to the Pilot. One of the ways in which
the Designing Careers funding was used to add to existing provisions in many schools
was the referral of at risk groups or individuals to Career Services consultants for
careers guidance. Eighty percent of schools in the Pilot reported having accessed this
external support, mainly for identified students in Years 11 to 13.
In one region, Career Services staff believe that most schools have enhanced their
systems for identifying and referring at risk students. Consultants report that most
schools increased the amount of time that careers advisers spent with these students,
and that they continue to access Career Services for supporting Mäori and Pasifika
students.
The survey showed that most schools had only anecdotal evidence of student
outcomes, and were therefore unable to formally evaluate the effectiveness of Career
Services‟ involvement. Approximately 35% of schools said that they collated
information about student outcomes, but ERO‟s on-site examination of documentation
found little evidence of robust evaluation of Career Services‟ involvement.
Curriculum support and alternative courses were identified most frequently by schools
as strategies for meeting the needs of at risk students. Approximately three-quarters
of the schools in this evaluation are providing transition or life-skills classes that cater
for at risk students on a full-time or part-time basis. That is, courses are set up so that
students can opt in to one of these classes for one or more subject option lines.
Students often have opportunities to gain literacy and numeracy credits required for
NCEA, and to gain unit standards relevant to employment and work skills. Most
schools demonstrate an innovative, flexible and student-centred approach to
programmes targeting at-risk students.
We’ve done research on early exemption kids - these are at risk. We found that of
our early exemption kids over half are imported to our school. When we do analysis,
the number of imports versus home-growns distorts the data. This is a large Year 11
group, and they also miss careers under our Year 10 programme. (Principal)
We have had a very successful vocational programme in the areas of hospitality,
carpentry, rural skills and outdoor recreation running alongside our academic
courses for the last 5 years. This programme was established as a result of
community need and to provide a meaningful and relevant way of retaining students
at school for a bit longer. This enables us to hopefully advance both their educational
and transition skills. The reality for students in rural areas is that there are not other
training options available locally so we endeavour to provide as much support and
flexibility to at risk students as possible. (Careers Adviser)




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We have a list of at risk students. Because we start careers in Year 9, we can put in
plan, so in Year 10 they have something to work on. Attendance is an indicator.
Many want to do hairdressing, so we set it up in the school, using Innovations
funding. We have a polytech tutor, with up to 16 students. In Year 10 we refer to the
at risk register. While they are doing hairdressing, staff are working with them – we
are able to use the time to cover other areas. This has had a significant impact on the
number of leavers without qualifications. We are going to continue it. (Principal)
From Designing Careers I was able to fund time for myself to spend with Year 12 and
13 who were at risk (not Year 11). I used the Career Quest programme, and provided
work experience. [We took them on] an adventure to the “big city” - it was successful
with some students, not with others. This idea is not sustainable now, and it’s not the
careers teacher’s role – Deans may be better? (Careers Adviser)
Many HoDs of English, mathematics, and science are providing multi-strand course
structures that enable them to place students in classes where their learning needs can
be most appropriately addressed. In some classes, for example, students can opt for
programmes with varying combinations of achievement standards and unit standards.
Some of the schools have designed entirely new courses for Years 11 to 13, such as
science with a practical everyday approach, or social science, comprising a
combination of history, geography and economics. These courses provide students
with a wide range of opportunities to experience success and achieve qualifications.
Programmes such as Gateway, STAR and ASDAN effectively operate alongside other
courses. Transition and careers staff in most Pilot schools strive to provide enough
flexibility to enable programmes to meet the needs of individuals and groups.
Maintaining this flexibility is often a challenging task, involving one-to-one
interviews, needs assessment, networking within the school and in the community,
counselling and liaison with parents and whänau. ERO found that most schools in the
Pilot had a number of programmes for at risk students underway before the Pilot, and
were using Pilot funding to modify and add courses and interventions to improve
student achievement.
Careers advisers identified outcomes for at risk students, such as increased knowledge
about what they might do when they left school, increased self-knowledge, and
increased understanding about the relevance of school. However, the ways in which
schools are able to substantiate the impact of programmes for at-risk students vary.
Some measure success in terms of NCEA credits, some by retention data, some by
data or observations of behaviour and motivation. This combination of hard data and
professional judgement enables most schools to evaluate the effectiveness of their
career education provisions generally, but does not enable them to evaluate the impact
of separate initiatives.
You don’t know how effective you are by the number of fights that DON’T happen –
it’s long term, it’s just amazing how one person can affect something so critical in
kid’s life. (Careers Adviser)




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Career Services did an evaluation [of programme] as followup –it was most positive.
Students’ pathways were mostly stuck to. In interviews, most were found to be on
track. It gave them focus. All cohorts were targeted. A few Year 13s were lost - they
were struggling. (Careers Adviser)
In general, many of the programmes and strategies noted by staff were available only
to Year 12 and 13 students. STAR full year, Gateway and workplace experience, for
example, were not often offered to Year 11 students.
These findings, combined with the number of school leavers and exemptions at this
level, indicate a need for schools to strengthen the delivery of appropriate careers
guidance for Year 11 students, particularly for those at risk.


Section 5      School Self Review
In order to measure and evaluate the effectiveness of programmes, schools need to
establish baseline data and develop tools with which they can assess student
outcomes. The results of such self-review processes form the basis for subsequent
planning, ensuring that programmes and interventions are responsive to identified
priorities and changing student needs.
Most Pilot schools still do not systematically collect information that can be used to
evaluate the effectiveness of career education and guidance programmes, and to
assess their impact on student achievement. Almost all schools rely on anecdotal
accounts and impressions. This type of feedback may be interesting and valid, but its
usefulness for self review and planning is limited, especially in the absence of
objective data. Some schools state that they plan to evaluate careers programmes, but
currently, most schools‟ knowledge of the outcomes for students is flimsy.
Some schools obtain feedback from students and staff through surveys. In response to
ERO‟s investigation, three schools provided samples of surveys they have conducted
to assess student attitudes to aspects of career education. Two of these schools had
analysed responses and linked their findings explicitly to planning for the following
year. This reflective approach demonstrates a high level of awareness of, and
commitment to, effective practice.
We had a look at a [student] survey from last year and made a comparison. We asked
them about career staff, career info etc. It all showed that Designing Careers was
effective. One of the questions was “Have you decided what you will do when you
leave school?” We found that there was more uncertainty after Designing Careers
than before. That means they’ve put more thought into it. The aim of programme
isn’t to provide certainty. (Principal)
Our self review is robust. We have baseline data, with students’ and teachers’
attitudes and knowledge. (Careers Adviser)
We carried out a review of LCPs. There was a brief questionnaire and a feedback
section. As a result we developed our own school LCPs, and cut out a couple of
sections (about me) that were covered in Health. (Careers Adviser)




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We surveyed Year 10 students –their attitudes re career knowledge etc, at the beginning of
the year and the end of the 3rd term. There was an increase on all questions. (Careers
Adviser)
It went really well – improved since last year. We had a major evaluation after 05, and
refined what we did. For example we positioned the programme differently [to fit in with]
option choice (it used to be term 2). (Careers Adviser)
The ERO report on Designing Careers was extremely useful. I believe we can extract a
'template' for a comprehensive self review of careers provision from the ideas in the report.
This we will do during 2007. We also intend to scope an additional building for a
careers/gateway/STAR centre. If we are successful in gaining DHB support we would like
to add health services for our students in the same vicinity. (Principal)
The aspects of careers education that most schools know little about are teachers‟ and
parents‟ attitudes towards their respective roles in career education and guidance. Ten
percent of careers advisers surveyed by ERO had asked parents how satisfied they were
with the career education provided by the school. On the other hand, 50-60% of careers
advisers had collected information about students, such as their understanding about the
relevance of school to their future goals, their self knowledge, their awareness of
opportunities, their knowledge of sources of information, and their levels of motivation
and engagement. Schools that have made an effort to investigate attitudes to
programmes provided are in a stronger position to meet students‟ career education
needs than those that have not. Generally, however, self review is not contributing
meaningfully to planning for improved outcomes.
Almost all (90%) schools have up-to-date information about leaver destinations.
However, in many cases these data relate only to Year 13 leavers, and it is not analysed
or interpreted. The few schools that have collected information about leavers
schoolwide, have in some cases, broken the information down into useful categories
based on age, gender, year level or ethnicity. This analysis provides valuable self-
review material. The next step is for the schools to link their findings to planning by
targeting particular groups for appropriate career education and guidance.
Analysed leaver information can also be used in the development of a schoolwide
career education plan. For example, if most students are leaving to go on to tertiary
education, the school career education programme will be different from that in a
school where most students leave to go into a trade.
Data provided to ERO in the survey show that the median number of Year 11 leavers
per school in 2006 was 10, the range being from 0 to 49. Clearly, some schools are
losing large numbers of students around the 16 year-old age group, and rigorous self
review would assist these schools to identify ways to engage students more effectively
at that level. Although the schools‟ data indicate that most Year 11 leavers move on to
employment or tertiary training, these placements reflect the current economic climate,
in which there is not a shortage of jobs. Schools should ensure that they are in a
position to monitor the local employment situation closely and should balance this
knowledge with the longer-term interests of students. In some situations this could
entail strategies for encouraging students to choose further education over immediate
employment.



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Section 6      Schoolwide Impact of Designing Careers
ERO‟s 2005 evaluation of Designing Careers recommended that the Pilot be modified
to ensure that schools were encouraged and supported to include whole-school career
education in their strategic plan and self-review cycle. Whole school planning is
necessary in order to provide programmes that link clearly to student needs at each
level of the school and that are coordinated across year levels, subject areas and
pastoral care systems.

The role of the principal
Almost all principals in this follow-up evaluation state that career education
throughout the school has been extended to some extent as a result of the Pilot. Half
the principals believe that this growth has been to a great extent. They report that
there has been an increase in the number of staff involved in career education, that
more students are making appropriate subject choices, and that students have a raised
awareness of career education.
Principals demonstrate their commitment to improving career education by including
it in the school‟s strategic and annual plans, and specifying middle managers‟
responsibilities in relation to career education. They also expect the careers
department to report annually to the board.
Although all principals opted in to the Pilot, it is clear that those who maintain an
active interest in the programmes are more successful at gaining buy-in from staff.
The programmes will be sustained. I attribute this to the principal. He has a strong
vision for this as a community school. (HoD)
We put a programme across the school, the whole school. Everyone knew what was
happening. It wasn’t just for Year 10 but school wide. (Principal)
In most of the schools surveyed, the principal has delegated responsibility for
implementation to the careers adviser or to a designated team, but some have an
ongoing and keen interest in how programmes are progressing. The principals quoted
below do more than support and affirm careers staff. They have a hands-on approach.
We need to train teachers and whänau teachers as careers advisers. A lot of teachers
are stuck in the time period when they went to university and think that the same jobs
are still out there from when they went to uni – often their advice is wrong.
(Principal)
It is expensive to photocopy LCPs – it is time and copying and postage home. This is
not sustainable - we have a budget deficit next year. We may reduce the size of LCPs,
and we may post them with reports, not separately. A lot of paperwork will be
reduced, for example, letters to parents at the beginning. Teachers’ PD is expensive
- we have to weigh it up against other areas such as literacy. We will try to keep the
programme intact re planning but not the paperwork. (Principal)




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We will try to sustain changes without funding. The Ministry has initiatives that are
great but then the money goes and they collapse. We were aware that this was a 2-
year funding scheme, but we have looked to cover that, and will continue to fund
careers from our operations budget. (Principal)
Careers personnel in these schools know that the principal values their work and
places high priority on students receiving effective career education and guidance.
This active support is critical for developing staff capability and aligning performance
management to strategic goals - areas over which a careers adviser, no matter how
passionate and dedicated, has little influence.
If we have to fund it we will. If we have to pay for one person for one day and relief
staff against PD, then it’s not too bad. It’s PD for staff – they are learning themselves
about careers and how systems operate. The cost is for a Careers [Career Services]
person from Dunedin. We are in a small rural town and it is expensive to pay for
someone to come out to us from the city, but they seem to be able to find a pool to
support us. (Principal)
Will we continue? Yes. We have put too much in to back away. (Principal)
Our health teachers are trained and most will stay on. (Principal)
I think what we’re pointing to is something that’s quite unique – rather than putting
money into each programme separately we pool it together, and the programmes sort
of merge under the umbrella of [our network]. (Principal)
There is an expectation [from the principal] that career education is included in HOF
[Head of Faculty] documents. (HoD)
The principal of one of the case study schools commented that Designing Careers was
“doomed to succeed”, because he insisted that teachers delivering the Year 10
Programme be those identified as models of good classroom practice, teachers who
related positively to students.
Career Education Team
Eighty-seven percent of principals and 79% of careers advisers said that the Pilot had,
to at least some extent, led to the development of a team involved with career
education. Schools that have a team approach to career education and guidance are
generally in a better position to ensure sustainability, as team members share
responsibility for planning and delivering programmes. A senior manager is
sometimes in the team, providing a link with top-level decision-making.
Careers advisers who work alone or with limited ancillary assistance are often under
pressure, and say they are unable to meet the career needs of students school-wide.
Teams usually include a combination of the careers adviser, the HoD or teacher with
responsibility for the Year 10 programme, the person in charge of transition
education, guidance counsellor, a dean, and an ancillary support person. In most
cases, team members have received some training or professional development.




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Designing Careers funding allowed us to train 12 teachers who have now gained
specific skills in career guidance. Although the funding has stopped these teachers
will continue to impart this knowledge and the students at [this school] will continue
to benefit. (Careers Adviser)
The importance of a fully functioning team is highlighted by this careers adviser‟s
experience:
When I was away at the [Careers Advisers and Transition Educators] CATE
conference, the students were on work experience. I expected the team to maintain
notices, and talk at assembly. They didn’t, even though it was already set up before I
left. It’s soul destroying – I put in so much energy and then things don’t carry on. A
bit like a guidance counsellor, if things go wrong people are aware, if things carry on
no one cares. (Careers Adviser)
Impact on students
When assessing the impact of career education and guidance on students, ERO considered
the responses of staff to questionnaires and interviews, and interviewed students in two
schools. (The funding available for the evaluation allowed for only five schools to be
visited, and in three schools the timing meant students were not available for interview.)
All careers advisers state that more students are making appropriate subject choices, and
that students‟ understanding of the relevance of school to their future goals has improved.
Most principals, deans and HoDs also identify these outcomes. Although other staff are
generally not as positive as careers advisers, all staff believe that the Pilot has resulted in
raised awareness of career education among students.
We’ve had 2 or 3 students come back to school – they’ve changed their views, they think,
hey, I can go to university. One guy wanted to be an apprentice electrician, but now he
wants to go to university. (Principal)
It has had an impact on option choice - students are clearer about what they need.
Things seem to have gone better in Year 11 as a result - students are thinking about their
career paths. (Principal)
I think the careers people have improved careers education here. We are a small
community, all the boys wanted to be mechanics, because there are two garages in town –
and they like tinkering with cars. They didn’t see any other options. But in the careers
interviews over an hour was spent with each of the senior kids. I got good information.
We only have 13 kids from Year 11 up. I used the information to talk to kids about other
possibilities – such a small number so we were able to. (Principal)
There are fewer [subject] changes as students made more realistic choices based on
ability and possible future direction. Also they were much better informed about the
value of wise subject selection that is not 'coloured' by what friends are doing or who is
teaching it. In a small school where there is often only one teacher in a subject some
students need good guidance around the importance of the subject over a possible dislike
of a teacher. (Careers Adviser)
The kids are a lot more aware – they know where to go for help. The profile of careers is
much higher. We have a broader focus, not just university. There are many more
opportunities. (Dean)




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Impact on staff
All careers advisers and most principals report raised awareness of career education
among teachers. However, only a small number of staff have been trained for, or are
directly involved in, delivering Pilot programmes. This reflects the tendency of many
schools to have a small number of staff carrying responsibility for delivering career
education related services and programmes.
The Ministry guidelines (Career Education and Guidance in New Zealand Schools,
2003) are clear about the desirability of integrating career education across the
curriculum, so that all staff have some responsibility for making links to possible
careers and relevant tertiary education and training. Principals who inform teachers
about career education and establish clear expectations for implementing schoolwide
goals are more likely to succeed in building shared understandings and awareness.
Just over half of the careers advisers surveyed had career education management
documentation and only 40% of schools included career education in other
departments‟ management documents.
Designing Careers has increased awareness among staff, and provided time to work
with students and training for staff. (Principal)
There has been a major impact. I felt I had a whole lot more momentum, informing
staff and support groups. Careers was suddenly really really important. I want to
make more impact with HoDs. (Careers Adviser)
The introduction of the Designing Careers programme into our Health and Wellbeing
Year 10 course has been viewed positively by staff and will continue. (Careers
Adviser)
Careers advisers say that there has been continued networking with other careers
advisers as a result of the Pilot.
Working as Careers Adviser in secondary schools is at most times an isolated job.
Because [this] is a relatively geographically isolated, small region, the DC funding
allowed us to travel to [a bigger centre] to network with a greater number of Careers
Advisers. (Careers Adviser)
Deans and HoDs in many schools also recognised the positive impact of Pilot
programmes but overall were less positive than careers advisers.
[Students learned] the importance of doing well at school, and it changed some of
them. I had a 'ratbag’ of a class - they were unfocused, then they saw the relevance
[of school]. We put on an evening for Year 10 students and their parents. It was well
attended. Students made their [subject] choices quickly and filled in the forms. We
noticed a difference. We have raised the profile of careers people. Students know
who people are, they will come up and ask for appointment. There is much more
talking by students. (HoD)
The Pilot enabled whole school careers here - it’s because of the project that we have
a project in place that’s getting better and better. (Dean)




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Career Services believe that a growth in teachers‟ awareness of students‟ career
education needs has been an important outcome of the Pilot.
Impact on career education
Although principals believe that the Pilot has extended the provision of career
education, there are still weaknesses and gaps in coverage school-wide, particularly at
Year 9, and to a lesser extent, at Year 11.
Seventeen percent of principals say there has been no improvement in course
structures and option lines as a result of the Pilot. In most schools, staff have not
considered using the information from LCPs to improve subject availability through
the school timetable.
Differences in the perceptions of principals and careers advisers probably reflect their
relative positions. The careers adviser, as the person responsible for implementation
of careers programmes, often presents a more positive picture of the impact of these
programmes. The principal, on the other hand, has a broader knowledge of school
operations and is aware of other initiatives and factors that may have contributed to
the positive outcomes.
Many staff expressed a view that career education in their schools has developed and
expanded as a result of the Pilot. Levels of staff awareness and knowledge have
increased, particularly among teachers who have been trained to deliver the Year 10
programmes. In some schools, the Pilot encouraged careers advisers to instigate
follow-on careers units in Year 11. The heightened focus often raised general staff
awareness of the need to consider career education in the context of their classroom
interactions and units of learning.
Designing Careers seemed to really sharpen up the focus and give direction to the
careers programme in the school. (Principal)
Career education was good before [the Pilot] but it needed fine tuning. It gave us more
scope (eg setting up the filing system). (Careers Adviser)
It allowed us to sharpen the focus we already had on career education. The growth of the
programme of career education throughout the school has been worthwhile. The
identification of students at risk and being able to offer help to them has also progressed.
(Principal)
It has really improved things - especially in Year 10. We used to have just the old-
fashioned World of Work unit. It’s an amazing opportunity. … Teachers have seen
impacts, students really enjoyed it. (Careers Adviser)
The profile of career education has improved throughout the school, although I’m not
sure to what extent to this is due to Designing Careers. It may be partly attributed to the
building of the new careers facility earlier this year. The awareness has been raised in
both staff and students. We’ve had to do a lot of marketing and branding for our new
careers centre in the last year so this too has led to a high level of awareness in the staff
and student populations. We have our own careers website, containing careers,
Gateway, Spectrum, [an in house initiative] etc. It has links to sites such as Kiwi
Careers. (HoD)




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In some schools, problems in sustaining improvements made possible through the
Pilot highlight resourcing issues. Careers advisers in these schools express their
disappointment at being unable to sustain the progress made, although some are trying
to adjust provisions to the reduced funding.
Careers is facing serious time and staffing issues and is in a self-evaluating and
restructuring process. Despite desperate efforts to involve other staff, like Deans,
Form and Curriculum teachers, few have the time to allow further involvement. They
say that funding and release from their duties are the greatest needs, as the desire is
there to do so. … At present my thoughts are focused on finding effective ways to
address these [resourcing] issues without overloading and burning out dedicated staff
as is the case right now. As yet we have come up with few answers and despondency
is reigning. This is particularly frustrating as this school saw some dramatic results
from the 2005 DC activities which rolled over with the 2006 Year 11 cohort. (Careers
Adviser)
Designing Careers has been a great programme in all facets. It is totally gutting to
have funding withdrawn but still be expected to provide the same service. The choice
is to either drop the programme down a level or try to carry out an impossible
workload. Neither choice is satisfactory! (Careers Adviser)
Regarding sustainability, the staff are asking me who will they put in to keep up the
hours if mine are cut. Demands on the careers adviser are at interval and lunch time
- I don’t want to bring students out of class unduly. It gets difficult when other things
are happening. It can be a time-management nightmare. It takes an awful lot of
energy. (Careers Adviser)
I plan to sacrifice the major part of the study skills programme so that academic
guidance can still be funded. The unit on the world of work and the preparation of a
career plan will continue without PD for the teachers and some of the resources and
teaching support that Designing Careers made possible. (Careers Adviser)
Others believe their programmes to be sustainable.
It is sustainable. We worked it in the English department, using two English teachers
over 2 years – they’ve seen the benefit. Careers fitted nicely into the unit they have
done. One teacher is leaving but the one staying is a strong advocate for careers and
this will continue as long as this English teacher is here - but it would be easy for
careers to get lost. One more teacher needs to be trained. I would hope that each
year at least there is some training even if it is not funded. (Careers Adviser)
A Career Services consultant in one region reports that their relationship with schools
has become stronger.
This pilot helped cement our role with schools and widened our relationships with
more staff while deepening our relationship with the Careers Adviser. … This pilot
also enabled new consultants to form new and sound relationships with school staff.




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Range of provisions
Most schools provide a variety of programmes to support students‟ ongoing exploration
of possible future directions. Effective schools identify diverse students‟ needs and
plan programmes to meet them. Implementation is more likely to be successful when
there is a coordinator who is flexible, knowledgeable and student-centred.
Alongside classroom modules and designated courses, students generally have
opportunities to go to careers expositions (expos), hear speakers, and participate in
workplace experience - particularly senior students. In addition to these opportunities,
students can seek individual interviews with the careers adviser. It is important,
however, to reiterate the point made earlier, that not all students will access a service
just because it is available, so many will not receive necessary support and guidance.


Section 7      Parent Involvement
ERO‟s 2005 report on Designing Careers found that the Pilot had not increased the
involvement of parents in their children‟s career education. ERO recommended that
schools engage parents more actively and meaningfully in decisions about students‟
choices for the future.
Most principals and careers advisers say that the Pilot has had some impact on parent
involvement. Of the principals, 14% say that parents‟ involvement has increased to a
great extent, and another 11% say that there has been no increase. All careers
advisers surveyed believe that parents‟ involvement in career education and guidance
is important, 41% saying that it is very important.
We involved parents, and they provided fantastic support. We advertised for parents,
and they turned up. We invited them to interviews, and the boys discussed options
with them. (Principal)
We sent a letter home explaining Designing Careers, and afterwards let parents know
they could make contact. We told parents to discuss careers with students and think
about careers. We have not had a lot of reports back from parents. We didn’t get
around to doing an evaluation. There was more contact with parents over at risk
students, we have their backing [parents]. They want what’s best for their kids.
(Careers Adviser)
Our parents are worked with. Parents phone and ask for advice for students and talk
to me. We have regular newsletters and give information at the beginning of the year
and at report evenings so parents know they can talk to me. (Careers Adviser)
A majority of careers advisers (83%) observe that career education is included at
meetings for parents, such as options evenings and NCEA presentations. Two thirds
(68%) say that contact can be made at report evenings. Parents are more likely to
attend report evenings than meetings about courses and choosing subjects or those
with a specific career focus. Respondents may have interpreted this question to refer
to career advice being available.




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The programme enabled the school to get parents in to explain it (course planning).
At normal parent night, they could see the careers adviser. A lot more took this
opportunity. (HoD)
We had great difficulty in trying to involve parents. Despite our various attempts very
few attend. Option evenings are the best. (Principal)
There is generally less parent involvement for Year 9 students than at other year
levels. This is a pattern that may reflect the fact that options evenings are not
generally held at Year 9 level and that career education at Year 9 has a lower profile
in most schools. The highest levels of parent involvement in school career education
reported are with Years 11 and 12 students.
Few schools (10%) collect information about parents‟ satisfaction with career
education programmes, and about 28% say they survey parents about their role in
career education and guidance. Some schools, however, do plan to obtain this
feedback in the future.
Around 60% of deans and HoDs surveyed think that their school‟s processes for
involving parents in decision-making about students‟ subject choice are effective and
around 10% that they are very effective. About 20% did not know how effective they
were.
I don’t feel I can comment about effectiveness. Careers evening, subject selection
evenings are well attended and staff engage in many lengthy discussions with parents
together with students. (HoD)
Parent involvement is very effective with a number of students but (perhaps reflecting
our decile 2 status) not effective with quite a few. This is not necessarily a bad thing.
(HoD)
Parent involvement only happens when they want to be involved. (HoD)
Students can make an appointment to see Dean with parents about different pathways
at school or with the careers adviser about various pathways, post school. (Dean)
The concern here is that many of the parents who have a say in students‟ subject
choice may not have access to the relevant and up-to-date information. Schools
should consider ways to involve parents in subject selection processes so that they
understand links between subjects and careers and can provide informed support and
assistance.




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Section 8       Case Study Schools
Rimu College
Rimu College is a co-educational Decile 7 school in a provincial centre. Its roll is
approximately 1100, of whom 18% are Mäori. Leaver destination data are limited to
Year 13, so the school has not identified trends and patterns school-wide. Currently, the
local employment situation is such that students generally have no difficulty finding jobs.
The principal is strongly supportive of career education and affirms the work of the career
adviser. A team consisting of the careers adviser, deans, guidance counsellor and a head
of department (HoD) oversees and coordinates career education and guidance in the
school, from Year 9 to 13. The HoD volunteered to take the role of lead teacher for the
Pilot, restructuring and modifying Year 10 Social Studies to incorporate Designing
Careers. In partnership with the careers adviser, he designed teaching units to support
delivery of the programme.
Positive impacts for the Pilot included one-to-one interviews for all Year 10 students.
These were conducted by internal staff, (careers adviser, HoD Social Studies and HoD
Transition), supplemented by four Career Services consultants. All students initially had
short interviews and those needing additional support were identified for in-depth follow-
up. In conjunction with these interviews, individual files, including the LCPs, were set up
for all students. Students worked on a modified version of the LCP as a „rough copy‟,
which they could then keep as their own record.
For at risk students, the school already had well-established strategies and programmes
prior to the Pilot. At Years 11 to 13, students can choose to be in a „Transition class‟, of
which there is at least one at each year level. All students in these classes have work
experience and develop individual plans. Career Services consultants interview some
students who are referred for individual guidance.
Parents have little involvement in career education programmes. A letter was sent to
parents of Year 10 students, to explain the Pilot, and some parents wrote comments along
with their signatures on the LCPs. No difference in parent attendance at option evenings
was noted.
All staff interviewed said that the Year 10 career education programme was sustainable
and would continue. However, they believed that the cessation of Pilot funding meant
that it was likely that the individual interviews at Year 10 would be curtailed, as budget
constraints had made the feasibility of engaging external consultants doubtful. Travel
costs were also cited as a funding issue: trips and visits possible under the Pilot were less
likely to take place, especially those that involved more distant travel, such as to the
nearest metropolitan centre.
The strengths of Rimu College‟s career education are based on judicious use of the Pilot
funding, particularly the training of staff to deliver the Year 10 programme. The active
support of the principal and the formation of an enthusiastic careers team have ensured
that students receive ongoing benefits from the college‟s involvement in the Pilot. In the
principal‟s words, the Pilot has “brought career education to the forefront”, and “staff
value it so kids value it”.




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Miro High School
Miro High School is a co-educational Decile 2 school in a major city. With a roll of
approximately 900 students, it has 21% who identify as Mäori.
Careers education and guidance have a high profile in the school, and are largely
driven by the careers adviser, with a strong base in the attractive, inviting and
inclusive careers centre. The principal recognises the importance of good quality
career education and guidance for students at the school, and one of the annual goals
for 2006 relates to careers. An illustration of senior managers‟ commitment to
improving the provision of career education is the fact that the careers adviser is on
the curriculum committee. An example of her proactive role in this group was the
shifting of option choice procedures so that students and staff could make use of
completed LCPs.
The careers adviser‟s documentation is high quality. It clearly states the department‟s
vision and goals, and demonstrates a strategic approach to planning. Self review and
programme evaluation are evident.
The nature of the Year 10 Pilot programme changed significantly between 2005 and
2006, because of factors unrelated to the effectiveness of the programme. In the first
year of the Pilot, Designing Careers was delivered in tutor time by form tutors, who
had been trained to carry out this role. Anecdotal evidence indicated that this method
was effective. However, when the school adopted the 2-2-11 timetable structure, tutor
times were changed, and there was no longer enough time for the Year 10 programme
to be delivered by tutors. Hence, in 2006, the careers adviser presented the
programme in curriculum time, there being no provision for professional development
to train other teachers. This meant that much more of the career adviser‟s time and
energy was spent on Year 10 classes. A further unanticipated factor was the cessation
of a community initiative that enabled ancillary staff to assist with the implementation
of the Pilot.
With help from an interested HoD, the careers adviser designed a modified LCP that
better met the needs of their students. This HoD has also put together a booklet about
careers in science, which he gives to all students. In his curriculum area, he offers at
least three strands for each subject with different combinations of achievement
standards and unit standards to enable better matching of students to courses.
The careers adviser believes that the links between the LCP process and subject
choice are not yet sufficiently strong. Approximately 15% of Year 11 students sought
changes to their selected subjects in Term 1. Many of the LCPs examined by ERO
were incomplete. Year 10 students at Miro High School do not have individual
interviews.




1
  2-2-1 refers to two periods before interval, another two periods before lunch, and one period after
lunch.




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There is no careers team as such, but ancillary staff in the careers centre work
cooperatively in the interests of students. In 2006, a Year 10 careers focus day was
organised, with HoDs and deans present to guide students. Staff interviewed reported
that parent involvement is very difficult to achieve, in spite of a range of approaches.
All programmes and interventions targeting at risk students were in place before the
Pilot. These include integrated studies classes at Year 11, which have a pre-
employment focus. Students in these classes are taught and supported by a primary-
trained teacher.
This school is a careers-friendly environment. However, the careers adviser carries a
heavy load of responsibility, and were she to leave, it is likely that another person
could (or, perhaps would) not do all that she does. Much of what was gained in the
first year of the Pilot was lost with the timetable change, and the sustainability of
gains made rests mainly on the shoulders of one person. Although the importance of
career education is recognised, ERO‟s site visit showed tensions and pressures that
could put future developments at risk.
Karaka College
This school is situated in a rural area close to a university city. A Decile 6 school, it
has approximately 1300 students, of whom 18% are Mäori. Plenty of jobs are
available locally for school leavers, and school data show that many students leave
from Year 12. However, the school does not have a system for tracking school
leavers and analysing patterns and trends.
The Year 10 Pilot programme has been delivered for two years by selected teachers
from across the curriculum. Staff interviewed said that students benefited from
having careers education spread over different subjects, with a mix of teachers. The
sustainability of the programme was also ensured by the development of a broad,
strong base of trained and proficient careers educators in the school.
Each of these teachers was provided with a resource box put together by the careers
adviser. The Pilot programme was trialled before full implementation, and this trial
was evaluated by Career Services consultants. Students develop their LCPs on a
photocopied version, and are then able to keep this draft for their own use. The
completed LCPs are stored in form groups in the careers adviser‟s office, where they
can be accessed by other staff - although the careers adviser says that this rarely
happens.
The school has carried out no formal evaluation of programme effectiveness since the
initial trial in 2005. There are no baseline data on which to base assessment of student
outcomes. While recognising the strengths in the delivery model adopted for the Year
10 programme, ERO found (during the onsite phase in 2005) the quality of LCPs to
be variable. There was little evidence that the programme had robust links to subject
choice processes and the careers adviser observed that choosing options was “still
somewhat random”. ERO‟s evaluation showed that the school did not know how
effectively the programme was meeting Year 10 students‟ needs, and that the results
of students‟ exploration of their learning and career pathways were not being used -
by the students or by staff - for maximum benefit.




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A small number of at risk students had interviews with Career Services consultants.
This practice was not seen as effective in terms of student outcomes, although no
formal evaluation had taken place to establish key factors or possible explanations for
this. It is unlikely that Career Services work with at risk students will continue in this
school. Other provision for at risk students is outside the Pilot, consisting mainly of
three streamed bands in English, mathematics and science.
Six staff members are involved in career education and guidance, but they do not
operate or meet as a team. Parent involvement is limited to signing LCPs (when
completed) and attending option evenings.
The principal‟s assertion that staff are enthusiastic about the programme was
demonstrated in interviews, and a raised awareness of career education in the school
was reported by many interviewed. The continuation and sustainability of the Year
10 programme looks secure, and the possible need for further training was accepted as
a necessary element in future planning and implementation.
Koromiko High School
Koromiko High School is a large Decile 1 school in one of the major metropolitan
centres, with 16% of students identifying as Mäori. The principal delegated
management of the Pilot to the careers adviser, and does not know much about how
programmes are being implemented and what the outcomes have been. He referred
most of ERO‟s questions to the careers adviser, and does not require or expect reports
on career education and guidance in the school. The school‟s career education policy
was last reviewed in 2002, and therefore does not encompass Designing Careers. The
principal‟s commitment to and involvement in the Pilot are minimal.
The school has a careers team, consisting of the careers adviser, the guidance
counsellor and the HoD health and physical education. These staff oversee Pilot
programmes, but have not gathered baseline data and do not identify student
outcomes. The effectiveness of programmes and interventions is therefore not known,
beyond an informal perception of a “raised profile” for careers. The HoD sees no
improvement in student outcomes from participation in the Pilot. The careers office
is regarded as too small, and students do not have adequate access to computers for
online careers research. ERO found that overall, the work of the careers team is not
treated as a priority or an asset in the school.
In spite of this, the careers team put considerable energy into modifying the Year 10
programme for 2006. They adapted the LCP worksheets, and purchased an eight hour
module (Futureselves) to replace the 2005 programme. Professional development was
provided to support delivery of this module, and all deans were included in this
training. The team has also established an electronic database, to record relevant
student information from year to year. Year 11 students receive a 3 week careers
module through Health, so some follow-up of Year 10 programmes takes place,
although the module does not include a review of LCPs. The careers team works hard
to provide students with useful career education.




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However, although the team‟s input and commitment is evident, outcomes are
hampered by a range of limiting factors. Most students and staff do not access
information from LCPs. Even the Year 11 dean had not seen or used any LCPs.
Neither is the information used to guide curriculum review or timetable structure. In
2005, parent involvement was facilitated by the employment of a liaison person, but
this practice was discontinued in 2006, and there was no parent contact during the
LCP process. Staff state that they have not noticed any improvement in students‟
preparedness for subject selection.
Students identified as being at risk have one-to-one interviews with the careers adviser.
Those interviewed said that they are aware of opportunities for work experience. A
community liaison officer takes students to work and maintains contact with parents of
students on targeted programmes. These students have not reviewed or used the LCPs
that they completed in Year 10. They said that LCPs were filed away and they did not
know how to access them. Most of what they know about tertiary courses and careers
comes from family or extended family, not school personnel. ERO found that nothing
has changed for at risk students as a result of the Pilot. The effectiveness of the
school‟s provision for at risk students is lessened through a lack of coordination of
activities.
The careers adviser is positive about the impact of the Pilot and expects to continue
the same programmes into 2007. However, with the lack of strong buy-in at senior
management level, it is unlikely that the deficiencies identified by ERO will be
overcome. The 2006 annual plan included career education, but the goal was
unrealistic (“individual interviews for all students”), especially in the light of the low
level of support provided to the careers team. The establishment of the student
database, mentioned above, appears to be the main outcome of the Pilot at this school.
Kowhai College
Kowhai College is a Decile 6 integrated single sex school in a major city. Its roll is
approximately 660, with 3% identifying as Mäori. The principal saw the Pilot as
timely for the school, as he had identified a need for a more “systematic” approach to
career education in the school. His first move was to assign timetabled periods to
careers.
Programmes developed under the Pilot were overseen by the careers adviser, with
close support from the HoD social studies and a clerical assistant. The principal
maintained an active interest in the progress of the new programmes.
The Year 10 programme, consisting of 15 – 17 periods in social studies, was adapted
for boys and fittingly named called “Career Navigator”. Outside consultants provided
professional development and resources for teachers in the school. The programme
was evaluated at the end of 2005. Baseline data have been established, but at the time
of ERO‟s on-site investigation, this information had not been used to assess
programme outcomes. Completed LCPs are typed up and stored on disk. Students
review them at the beginning of Year 11, and re-do them at the end of that year. Staff
report that, as a result of the Pilot, students are better informed for making subject
choices, and that they have improved focus, knowledge, motivation and direction.




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The Year 11 dean is involved with the subject choice process, using LCPs to guide
students as they make decisions about courses and pathways.
Students interviewed as part of this review said that they have gained greater
awareness of job opportunities, and that their parents have a better understanding of
subjects needed. They expressed a positive attitude to school, and all had accessed
their LCPs since completing them. All had ideas about possible career plans. They
said that Year 10 was a good time to do the programme.
The HoD Social Studies recounted his experience with delivering the programme to a
class of Year 9 and 10 „gifted and talented‟ students. He said that the programme
gives students a focus for learning and achievement. Another pleasing outcome in his
view has been improved teacher-student relationships, particularly when students go
into Year 11 with a positive attitude to ongoing career education. The teacher thought
that the Year 10 programme was especially beneficial for Pacific students.
Wanting to make maximum use of LCPs, the careers adviser introduced a new careers
module for Year 11 students in 2006. This programme included three unit standards
related to careers and work skills, but when reviewed at the end of the year, possible
qualifications were reduced to two unit standards.
A new career education initiative called “Catch a Shooting Star” was developed for at
risk students at the school. This programme was designed to meet the specific needs
of identified students, and was fully funded under the Pilot. These students also
receive individual counselling as appropriate, and their progress is continuously
monitored. Staff report that the careers adviser has a very high profile in the school,
and students therefore readily seek his help. A private career consultant is employed
to work with some at risk Year 12 and 13 students.
The school works in partnership with a community agency called Youth Horizons,
which supports students deemed to be high risk. Leavers are contacted by the school
in the following March, and very few of them are found to be unemployed.
Staff and students in this school recognise the value of the LCP process. The
knowledge and skills developed by Year 10 students provide a useful foundation for
continuing career education and guidance. The principal is unsure about the
availability of funding for relevant professional development in 2007, but otherwise,
Kowhai College has made the most of the opportunities provided by Pilot funding.




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5      SUSTAINABILITY
Almost 60% of principals surveyed said that it is likely that the school will continue
the current career education programme to a great extent. A further 35% said that
they would continue with it to some extent, and 3% said that they would not continue
with it at all. All but one principal said that the Year 10 programme would continue,
but 32% will modify it. Feedback from careers advisers shows similar patterns.
One of the most critical elements for sustainability is embedding career education in
school planning, such as the annual plan, curriculum management documents and
performance appraisal systems. Another element is the ongoing availability of staff
who have been appropriately trained to deliver and support career education. This
requires a commitment to budgeting for regular staff training and re-training. ERO‟s
follow-up survey found that over a quarter of Year 11 deans and approximately 20%
of HoDs have had no professional development relevant to career education and
guidance.
ERO has noted some vulnerability in schools that do not have a careers team. An
additional consideration is that involvement of a senior manager in the team
contributes to sustainability on two levels. Firstly, there has to be support for any
changes required in the school‟s infrastructure and systems. Secondly, when
additional resources are needed, senior management has to have a clear rationale for
the purchase of these resources. A further advantage of having a senior manager in
the team is that it shows that what the team is doing is important, and that the school
supports the implementation of programmes and initiatives to improve provision of
career education and guidance for all students.
One principal said that the school would not in future include LCPs as part of Year 10
career education, and 20% said that they could not sustain individual interviews at the
current level. All will continue to target at risk students, but 40% will modify existing
programmes.
On the other hand, some careers advisers are members of their schools‟ curriculum
committee. This group operates under various titles, but its primary function in most
schools is to review course structures, receive submissions about proposed changes
and make recommendations to the principal. Schools that include the careers adviser
at this level demonstrate a strong commitment to course planning based on students‟
ongoing and future education and training needs, and the sustainability of careers
programmes is thereby enhanced.
The availability of a wide range of resources to plan and implement career education
and guidance supports sustainability. These resources come mainly from the
Ministry, Career Services and the Tertiary Education Commission, and most are print
resources. In addition, several websites provide rich information about courses and
careers. Most schools have yet to develop and use materials that target particular
groups, such as Mäori, Pacific, refugee and English for Speakers of Other Languages
(ESOL) students. Some schools have materials designed for these different groups
but do not use them.




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Some schools, such as Kowhai College (section 8), find that available resources do
not suit their students and adapt them to meet their specific needs. Factors that may
prompt these changes include ethnicity, gender and rural environments.
With sustainability in mind, some schools photocopied resources to enable their
ongoing use after the Pilot funding ceased. Students in most of these schools should
continue to benefit from the availability of a variety of appropriate, comprehensive
and up-to-date resources.
Career Services in one region reported that they continued to have an involvement
with staff development and individual work with at risk students. Careers advisers in
this region have requested a continuation of the cluster meetings to support their
ongoing implementation of career education in their schools. Career Services also
believe that in-school support for key personnel, particularly from senior managers, is
critical for the sustainability of effective career education and guidance.


6      IDEAS FOR FURTHER CONSIDERATION
6.1    Barriers to effective career education
ERO has identified factors that may put the effectiveness of career education
programmes at risk. Most of these are related to resourcing.
Human Resources
In 2006, nine of the 40 schools surveyed had new principals and six had new careers
advisers. Schools that do not have a designated team managing career education and
guidance are vulnerable when a key person leaves. For a time, they may experience a
loss of momentum or direction. Without leadership, some programmes founder, and
it may take some time before effective delivery is restored. Students in these schools
may not receive the level or quality of career education and guidance that they need.
Not having a robust team, therefore, is a risk factor.
A further risk is that teachers trained to deliver career education programmes leave or
move to positions in the school where they are longer able to teach career education.
Most schools are faced with this situation to some extent, and it is compounded when
targeted funding for the necessary professional development is no longer available.
The risk here is that untrained staff may be involved in teaching careers, and that
students may not continue to receive useful, appropriate career education. Some
schools say that they are able to maintain programmes, in the short term at least.
Limitations in technology facilities
In some schools, students do not have easy access to computers with fast internet
capability. Frequently, the number of computers is also an issue. These limitations
mean that a rich source of support and up-to-date information is not readily available
to students.




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                                  Confirmed Report



Language and concepts used in resources
Available resources are sometimes unsuitable in a particular school context. Some of
these schools adapt or modify material for their own students. It is probable that at
least some schools did not adapt resources, and that therefore many students found the
material difficult, irrelevant or meaningless. This mismatch between resources and
students‟ needs is a barrier to effective engagement in the career education process.
One school reported that the language used on Career Services websites is difficult for
some students to interpret.
Marginalisation
Some of the HoDs surveyed said that they know nothing about the Pilot or careers
education. A few of these HoDs may have recently come from a non-Pilot school, but
even so, it is clear that careers does not have a schoolwide profile in these schools.

6.2    Effective career education practices
In the 2006 Designing Careers evaluation, ERO outlined practices associated with
effective career education. These good practices were:
 a whole school approach;
 meeting students‟ needs;
 coordination of activities across the school;
 a careers team;
 accessible location of the careers office;
 access to career information; and
 availability of computers.
Further factors found to be associated with effective career education included the
principal‟s commitment to it, teachers‟ knowledge about career education and their
relationship with students, identification of clear outcomes for students, monitoring
and self review.
This follow-up evaluation did not include observations or extensive student
interviews. ERO‟s conclusions are therefore based largely on the views and responses
of staff. It is nevertheless possible to identify practices that contribute to effective
career education, most of which further endorse the 2006 findings.
Whole school approach
A schoolwide, cohesive career education plan is needed, in order to provide
sequenced programmes for students from Year 9 to Year 13, and in particular for
those in identified target groups. As it is usually a complex task to assess needs, plan
appropriately, monitor delivery and evaluate outcomes, coordination is a key success
factor. These processes necessitate both time and human resources. Schoolwide
career education, particularly in large schools, is best organised and delivered by a
team of knowledgable, interested and appropriately trained staff, with a suitable
allocation of time and management units.



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Principal’s commitment
As described in Section 6 above, the principal has a key role in ensuring that
students receive purposeful and useful career education and guidance. Principals
who are committed to providing high quality careers programmes are more likely
to:
 consult students, staff and parents about the specific needs of their school
  community;
 expect the careers adviser to provide regular reports on activities and their
  impact on students;
 use student data to prioritise and to inform strategic and annual planning;
 set specific and measurable student targets that are based on student outcomes,
  not school inputs;
 provide clear guidelines and expectations for self review;
 embed annual career education priorities in performance management
  processes; and
 ensure that a senior manager is involved, to maintain lines of communication
  and to obtain an accurate overview of progress and development.
Usefulness of LCPs
Schools that make optimum use of LCPs regard them as part of a broader ongoing
process rather than simply as a worksheet to be filled in. They consider the
relevance of the plan to the evolving needs of students at each level. Completed
forms are a record of students‟ thinking and exploration at a particular time, and
should be regularly reviewed and further developed.
If LCPs are stored at the school, they should be easily accessible for students and
staff. Schools need to ensure that students are aware that they can access their
LCPs and should encourage them to do so. Unless there are two copies of the
LCP, as is sometimes the case, schools that give the LCPs to students to take home
are losing a valuable foundation for subsequent career education and guidance.
Strategic planning
NAG 1 (vi) requires schools to provide appropriate career education and guidance
for all students in Year 7 and above. More than 75% of schools surveyed have
some aspect of career education in their strategic plan and 60% have career
education in their annual plan, but goals are often broad and general, without
specific targets and actions that can be measured.




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An example of robust strategic planning for career education cites the relevant
National Administration Guideline (NAG), states the board‟s strategic goal for
careers, lists specific objectives relating to the goal, outlines the annual plan for
achieving these objectives, reports on what has been achieved in the last year, and
gives outcomes. This school is using self review to drive planning and, furthermore,
is sharing the plan with parents2.
Some careers advisers develop strategic and annual plans for their own department,
and the best models demonstrate a strong commitment to strengthening practice and
improving delivery. Although three quarters of careers advisers said they report
annually to the board, the reports sighted (for the CPaBL schools) were generally
focused on activities and not on outcomes for students. A small percentage have
conducted surveys among students and staff, to analyse student needs, to assess the
effectiveness of programmes, and to identify areas for further development.
7          CONCLUSION
ERO‟s follow-up evaluation is based largely on school self reporting. Often onsite visits
find that outcomes are not as positive as schools report.
The impact of Designing Careers on career education at Year 10 continued in 2006, and
there was also some impact at Year 11 and school-wide. The Pilot does not appear to
have provided any significant benefits for at risk students.
Where schools used the Pilot funding to develop programmes, resources and systems and
to build staff capability, the developments appear to have been sustained. The evidence
for this is generally based on documentation only.
Unless schools assign specific priority to career education, it is likely that the delivery of
quality careers programmes will diminish over time. Senior managers need to
demonstrate clear commitment to establishing and embedding effective career education
and guidance school-wide.
In order to achieve this they should ensure that:
 student needs are identified;
 all staff recognise they have a responsibility to integrate aspects of career education
    into their programmes;
 appropriate programmes are in place; and
 outcomes for students are monitored and evaluated so that they inform future
    decisions about the provision of career education programmes and resources.



Ross Hanna
Manager, Standard and Contracts Unit
20 April 2007


2
    This was obtained as part of the documentation provided by a school in the CPaBL project.




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                     APPENDIX A - Questionnaire Responses


The information in this appendix comes from questionnaires completed by key
stakeholders at each stage of the evaluation.

        Designing Careers – Tracking Beyond the Pilot
                              Principal (36 responses)
Current provision of careers education and guidance
Q1     Tick box if either of these key personnel is new to the school or to their current position
       (since January 2006).
       9 Principal                         6 Careers adviser/coordinator

Q2     How effective do you consider the current provision of career education in your school?
        %                       Very effective       Effective      Not effective     Don’t know
        Year 9                        17                50               23                10
        Year 10                       65                32                3                 0
        Year 11                       41                47                9                 3
        Year 12                       52                39                6                 3
        Year 13                       61                32                6                 0
       Please comment on your response:
       Description of school programme                              6
       Benefits for students                                        6
       Qualities of careers adviser                                 4
       DCP reinforced / improved existing programmes                4
       Increased staff awareness                                    2
       Still needs further development                              2
Impact of Designing Careers in the school
Q3     To what extent has Designing Careers extended the provision of career education in
       the school?
         To a great extent      To some extent           A little       Not at all     Don’t know
                50                    44                    6               0              0
       Please comment on your response:
       Enhanced existing programme                                  9
       Improved Year 10 programme                                   8
       Raised staff awareness of value of career education          5
       Involved the whole school                                    3
       Extra funding helped                                         3
       Staff upskilled                                              3
       More staff involved                                          2
       Provisions for at risk                                       2
       Valued Career Services involvement                           2




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                      APPENDIX A - Questionnaire Responses


Q4      To what extent has Designing Careers led to the outcomes listed below?
 %                                                                   Great        Some       A       Not at
                                                                     extent       extent   little     all
 The development of a team involved with career education              31           56        8        6
 The development of a career education plan for the school             26           54        3       17
 An increased number of staff involved in career education             42           33       19        6
 An improved provision of career education throughout the
                                                                       44          44       11           0
 school
 Improved support for at risk students                                 42          42       17           0
 The provision of information to better structure courses and
                                                                       31          34       17           17
 option lines to meet student needs
 Improved student understanding of the relevance of school to
                                                                       22          58       19           0
 their future goals
 More students making appropriate subject choices                      42          39       17           3
 An opportunity to improve the involvement of parents with the
                                                                       14          31       44           11
 school
 Raised awareness of career education among teachers                   33          58        6           3
 Raised awareness of career education among students                   53          36       11           0

Future planning and sustainability
Q5      To what extent do you think the school is likely to continue the current career education
        programme in the longer term?
  To a great extent      To some extent          A little            Not at all            Don’t know
        56                    39                   3                    3                      0
        Please comment on your response:
        Need the funding to continue                                          11
        School is aware of the importance of career education                  7
        Can sustain                                                            3
        Will develop further                                                   3
        Need funding for the at risk students                                  3


Q6      Which aspects of career education is the school likely to continue in the longer term?
 %                                                      Yes, as is      Yes, modified               No
 Career education programme for year 10                   74                 26                      0
 Year 10 students developing LCPs                         65                 32                      3
 Individual interviews for year 10 students               53                 27                     20
 Targeted support for at risk students                    60                 40                      0
The ERO report on Designing Careers was extremely useful. I believe we can extract a
'template' for a comprehensive self review of careers provision from the ideas in the report.




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                      APPENDIX A - Questionnaire Responses


         Designing Careers – Tracking Beyond the Pilot
                  Careers Adviser/Coordinator (40 responses)

Current provision of careers education and guidance

Q1      What time allowance is allocated to you for this role?
                Hours per week:          2005      [median: 9, range 0-36]
                                         2006      [median: 10, range 0-36]
        33 schools provided data for both 2005 and 2006 - 23 schools allocated the same
        time in both years, 6 allocated more in 2006, and 4 allocated less time in 2006.

        Does this include time available because you don‟t have a form class?
                                                                            45% Yes
Q2      How many management units are attached to careers education and guidance
        (including STAR etc)?
                           None           1 unit           2 units         3 units        4 or 5 units
        2005                10              8                 7               4                2
        2006                9               8                 7               5                1


Q3      Is there a designated careers team within the school?             87% Yes
        68%     dedicated time allowances
        83%     job descriptions
        40%     a representative from senior management
        53%     representation on the curriculum committee
        88%     links to guidance and pastoral care networks

Q4      Which staff are involved in career education and guidance? (% of 40)
 Staff involved in career education and              Y9          Y10        Y11          Y12         Y13
 guidance
 Social studies teachers                              33             78      10           10         13
 English teachers                                     10             13      20           13         10
 Health teachers                                      25             23      10           10          8
 Pastoral care teachers e.g. form/tutor teachers      43             55      55           58         53
 Deans                                                50             60      68           75         75
 Career Services consultants                          10             45      55           53         48
 Another outside careers consultant                    5              8      15           23         18
[No. of schools with both pastoral and deans          13         17          20           21         19 ]
        Please comment on your response:
        Guidance counsellor                                                   3
        All subject teachers involved at Y10                                  2
        Headmaster/principal                                                  2
        Gateway Coordinator, Mäori/Pacific liaison, Learning Support,
        Transition/employment skills                                          1




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                     APPENDIX A - Questionnaire Responses


Q5     Does the school have and use the following resources?
 %                                                       Have and     Have but              Don’t
                                                           use        don’t use             have
 Career Education and Guidelines in NZ Schools
                                                               87            8               5
 Handbook
 STAR Resource kit – handbook and DVD                           97          3                 0
 Gateway Handbook                                              100          0                 0
 Career Plan-It                                                 66          26                8
 Career Quest                                                   87          11                3
 The Real Game                                                  87          13                0
 Options Kit                                                    86          9                 6
 Jobs by Interest                                               95          5                 0
 Jobs Galore                                                    95          5                 0
 Courses Galore                                                 81          16                3
 Career Kete                                                    81          19                0
 Learning and/or Career Plan                                    92          5                 3
 Information pamphlet for Mäori students                        47          3                50
 Information pamphlet for Pasifika students                     29          6                65
 Information pamphlet for refugee students                      7           10               83
 Information pamphlet for ESOL students                         14          7                79
 Other information and online resources via the Career
                                                               97            0               3
 Services and Kiwi Careers websites
 Other information and online resources                        95            0               5

Q6     Does the school have the following career education documentation?
 Career Education Documentation                                    % of 40                  Yes
 Separate career education policy                                                           65
 Career education included in school strategic plan                                         78
 Career education included in school annual plan                                            60
 Career education management document                                                       53
 Career education included in management documents for other departments                    40
 Annual career education report to board                                                    73

       Please comment further if you wish:
       Career dept working document is annual action plan
       CA reports monthly to BOT
       Evaluative statement to BOT
       Careers made into separate dept for 07




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                     APPENDIX A - Questionnaire Responses


Q7a     What careers education programmes were delivered to Year 11 students this year?

        LCP follow up/review                                         9
        1 period/week                                                5
        Life skills                                                  4
        Speakers/tertiary liaison                                    3
        Careers Expo                                                 3
        Employment skills/ transition class                          2
        Career Service workshop/ interviews                          2
        Career Adviser interviews                                    2
        Career planning unit in English/Study                        2
        Group sessions                                               2
        Gateway/STAR; at risk only; CV; Work Ex.                     1
        None                                                         4

Q7b     Was this different from the 2005 Year 11 programme?                   51% Yes


Q8      Please indicate whether the following career education provisions occurred in 2006:
 %                                                                                    Yes         No
 Online careers information accessed by students                                      100          0
 Posters with career information displayed in classrooms                              100          0
 Trips to careers events or tertiary providers                                         97          3
 Speakers from outside school e.g. motivational, goal setting, etc                     89         11
 Experience in the workplace                                                           97          3

Q9      Is information about possible intended careers collated for use within the school?
                                                                              86% Yes
        If Yes, in what ways has it been used?
 % of 40                                                                                         Yes
 To target relevant career or course information to students                                     78
 To arrange relevant speakers or visits                                                          60
 As a basis for deciding subject option lines                                                    63
 To identify students at risk                                                                    75

Q10     Does the school include career education at meetings for parents?
                                                   %                       year level/s no.
 In 2006
                                                   Yes         9         10      11       12       13
 Meetings with a specific focus on career
                                                    35         1         6       8          8      7
 information
 Parents as career educators meetings (PACE)        20         2         3       2          2      2
 Information about courses, choosing subjects,
                                                    83         4         10      16      16        15
 NCEA, etc
 Report evenings                                    68         13        15      17      17        16
 Meetings with a career education focus at
                                                    15         2         4       3          3      3
 community forums eg marae, church




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                      APPENDIX A - Questionnaire Responses



 Approximate number of parents attending in                 Number
                                                                             Range            Median
 2006                                                       with data
 Meetings with a specific focus on career
                                                               6             8 – 315             175
 information
 Parents as career educators meetings (PACE)                   4             12 – 200            37.5
 Information about courses, choosing subjects,
                                                               16            6 – 300             55
 NCEA, etc
 Report evenings                                               17            5 – 500             200
 Meetings with a career education focus at
                                                               2            7 and 200            n/a
 community forums eg marae, church


Q11     In what ways has the school provided support for students at risk of leaving school
        unprepared for the transition to the workplace or further education or training?
                                                       %                 year level/s no.
 In-school support
                                                       Yes          9   10      11      12             13
 Curriculum e.g. alternative courses for English,
                                                       88           3   6         27      23           15
 maths
 Transition class or course, work skills etc           78           1   3         16      21           16
 STAR full year course/s                               68           0   0         12      21           19
 STAR taster course/s                                  75           2   13        16      15           12
 Work experience through Gateway                       57           0   1          4      14           13
 Other experience in the workplace                     68           0   3         11      16           12
 ASDAN programme                                       38           3   4          8       7            6
 Support from the careers adviser                      90           6   12        23      23           23
 Referral within school, e.g. guidance counsellor,
                                                       83           7   11        17      17           18
 dean, etc
 Support from outside school
 Support from Career Services consultant               80           3   7         17      17           13
 Referral to Youth Transition Service                  45           1   0          5       5            2
 Mentoring                                             55           4   7          6       6            6
 Networking with agencies that work with
                                                       33           2   4         5       5             5
 groups such as refugees, Pasifika
 Support from another outside consultant               20           0   1         2       3             2
 Referral outside school                               28           0   0         4       3             2




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                      APPENDIX A - Questionnaire Responses


                                                       Number with
 Approximate number of students                                            Range             Median
                                                          data
 Curriculum e.g. alternative courses for
                                                           20           7 – 360                 60
 English, maths
 Transition class or course, work skills etc               20           6 – 117                 35
 STAR full year course/s                                   19           2 – 350                 80
 STAR taster course/s                                      18           6 – 300                 60
 Work experience through Gateway                           13           20 – 80                 35
 Other experience in the workplace                         20           2 – 650                 15
 ASDAN programme                                            7            4 – 65                 30
 Support from the careers adviser                          23          20 – 600                 97
 Referral within school, e.g. guidance counsellor,
                                                           17          10 – 350                 30
 dean, etc
 Support from outside school
 Support from Career Services consultant                   19              2 – 80               15
 Referral to Youth Transition Service                      10              1 – 30                6
 Mentoring                                                  8              4 – 29               10
 Networking with agencies that work with
                                                           4               6 – 30               27
 groups such as refugees, Pasifika
 Support from another outside consultant                   5            2 – 112                  4
 Referral outside school                                   5             1 – 40                 14

Impact of Designing Careers in the school

Q12     To what extent has Designing Careers led to each of the outcomes below for 2006
        Year 10 and Year 11 students?
                                              To a great To some       A                        Don’t
 Year 10 students                      %                                        Not at all
                                               extent     extent     little                     know
 Increased knowledge about themselves             42        56         0            3             0
 Increased knowledge about careers                61        36         0            3             0
 Increased understanding about the
                                                  50        47         0            3                0
 relevance of school to their future goals
 Improved subject selection                     50        44           3            3             0
 Raised aspirations                             23        66           6            3             3
 Increased motivation and/or engagement         18        68           9            3             3
                                            To a great To some         A                        Don’t
 Year 11 students                         %                                     Not at all
                                             extent     extent       little                     know
 Increased knowledge about themselves           38        56           3            0             3
 Increased knowledge about careers              50        44           3            0             3
 Increased understanding about the
                                                41        47           9            0                3
 relevance of school to their future goals
 Improved subject selection                     47        41          9             0                3
 Raised aspirations                             21        59          15            0                6
 Increased motivation and/or engagement         18        58          18            0                6




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                     APPENDIX A - Questionnaire Responses


Q13     To what extent has the support provided for at risk students led to each of the outcomes
        listed below?
 %                                              To a great   To some           A           Not at     Don’t
                                                 extent       extent         little         all       know
 Increased knowledge about themselves              31          53            14             0           3
 Increased understanding about the
                                                   25          56            19             0           0
 relevance of school to their future goals
 Increased knowledge about what they
                                                   28          61             8             0           3
 might do when they leave school
 Raised aspirations                                17          40            40             0           3
 Increased motivation and/or engagement            15          35            50             0           0

Q14     Do you have any information about the outcomes for at risk students?
        (a)     Uncollated (ie, available but not combined to provide a general picture) information
                about individual students                        65% Yes
        (b)     Collated information (ie, combined to provide a general picture)
                                                                    35% Yes

Q15     To what extent has Designing Careers led to the outcomes listed below?
 %                                                                     Great      Some            A Not at all
                                                                       extent     extent        little
 The development of a team involved with career education               35            44          12    9
 The development of a career education plan for the school              27            55          12    6
 An increased number of staff involved in career education              33            53           6    8
 An improved provision of career education throughout the school        42            47           6    8
 The provision of information to better structure courses and
                                                                        28            22        25      25
 option lines to meet student needs
 Improved student understanding of the relevance of school to
                                                                        31            57        11       0
 their future goals
 More students making appropriate subject choices                       43            49         8       0
 Improved support for at risk students                                  36            47        17       0
 An opportunity to improve the involvement of parents with
                                                                         8            39        39      14
 the school
 Continued networking with other careers advisers                       57            32         5       5
 Raised awareness of career education among teachers                    49            46         5       0
 Raised awareness of career education among students                    54            38         8       0




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                     APPENDIX A - Questionnaire Responses


Q16     Do you collect information on any of the aspects below which can be used to evaluate the
        impact of careers education and guidance programmes and to assess their outcomes?
 %                                                                      Yes         Plan to       No
 Attitude of teachers towards their role in career education             9             33         58
 Attitude of students (motivation/engagement)                           50             19         31
 Student understanding about the relevance of school to their
                                                                           52          19         29
 future goals
 Student self awareness and knowledge about themselves                     61          16         23
 Student awareness of opportunities for courses and careers/jobs           58          13         29
 Student knowledge of where to get information about tertiary
                                                                           53          25         22
 courses and jobs
 Student knowledge of how to make decisions and set goals                  47          23         30
 Students making appropriate subject choices                               65          10         26
 Qualifications of school leavers                                          75          14         11
 Destination of school leavers                                             90          10          0
 Satisfaction of parents with the career education programme
                                                                           10          24         66
 provided by the school
 Satisfaction of parents with their role in their child/s subject
                                                                           28          10         62
 choice
        Please make any comments that you wish to add:
        Informal/anecdotal only                                             10
        Difficult to fit in; don‟t have time                                 3
        Leavers fill in form                                                 2
        Parent-student conflict over career plans                            1
        Career Services role conflicted/ want to be main adviser             1
        Not specifically                                                     1

Section C       Future planning and sustainability

Q17     To what extent do you think the school is likely to continue the current career education
        provisions in the medium term (2007/2008)?
 To a great extent    To some extent           A little             Not at all          Don’t know

        58                  32                   3                     3                      5

        Please comment on your response:
        Impossible/unlikely without funding                                 11
        Plan to maintain                                                     7
        In restructuring process                                             4
        Staff need time                                                      4
        Serious time & staffing issues                                       3
        Always looking to improve                                            2
        Were doing it before                                                 2
        2 MUs needed                                                         1
        Designated space needed                                              1
        Reverting to previous programme                                      1




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                     APPENDIX A - Questionnaire Responses


Q18     Which aspects is the school likely to continue with next year?
 %                                                    Yes, as is         Yes, modified           No
 Career education programme for year 10                 74                    26                  0
 Year 10 students developing LCPs                       72                    28                  0
 Individual interviews for year 10 students             38                    29                 32
 Targeted support for at risk students                  57                    43                  0
 Networking with other schools                          50                    41                  9
        If you plan to modify any aspects, please explain briefly how
        Modify LCPs                                                         5
        Fewer interviews                                                    4
        At risk students                                                    3
        Improve record keeping/tracking                                     3
        Career Services involvement                                         3
        Database                                                            2
        Subject choice process                                              2
        Ongoing review                                                      2
        Trialling LCP at Y9                                                 1
        LCPs at Y11-13                                                      1
        1 day seminars for y11                                              1
        Newsletter items                                                    1
        New Social Studies curriculum document                              1
        Staff pressure/frustration/despondency                              1
        Delivery of Y10 programme                                           1
        Interviews by internal staff only                                   1
        More Career Adviser networking                                      1
Q19     How important do you think the elements listed below are for an effective career
        education programme?
 %                                                    Very      Important         Not            Don‟t
                                                    important                   important        know
 Career education integrated into one or more
                                                       62          38               0             0
 curriculum area
 Developing self awareness                             87          13               0             0
 Learning where to find information about careers      95           5               0             0
 Learning about specific careers                       47          47               5             0
 All students developing a learning and career
                                                       61          39               0             0
 plan (state year level)
 Students choosing subjects that relate to a
                                                       37          61               3             0
 likely future job
 Schools providing subject options that are
                                                       58          34               3             5
 driven by student choices
 Subject choice evenings that include career
                                                       57          32               8             3
 information
 Links with other career education programmes
                                                       81          19               0             0
 e.g. Gateway, STAR
 Work experience/work exploration                      70          27               3             0
 Involving parents                                     41          59               0             0
 Access to an external career consultant               31          40              20             9




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                    APPENDIX A - Questionnaire Responses


Q20    Please feel free to make further comments about either Designing Careers or career
       education and guidance in your school.
       Increased/tagged budget                                                 6
       Enabled very good programme                                             4
       Needs to be coordinated/integrated at all levels/schoolwide             3
       More time needed for CA/HoD                                             3
       Benefits for Y10                                                        3
       Success due to upskilled/dedicated staff                                2
       Support & funding/ catalyst for development                             2
       Extra MU needed for Careers Adviser                                     2
       Unhappy to have funding withdrawn                                       2
       Growth in student awareness/engagement/knowledge                        2
       Staffing pressures                                                      2
       Cross curricular support/ resources                                     1
       Research shows integration to the most effective way                    1
       Hard copy LCP useful in interviews                                      1
       Lack of Careers Education at Y11-13                                     1
       Cant afford to employ outside services                                  1
       Importance of one-to-one                                                1
       Opportunity to be in CPaBL wanted                                       1
       All Y11-13 have 1 period/week timetable for Careers Education           1
       More needed for at risk                                                 1
       Establish monitoring systems                                            1
       Difficult at Y11 because of NCEA                                        1
       Clear benefits to students & school re: subject choice                  1
       YTS tracking leavers                                                    1




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Designing Careers - Tracking Beyond the Pilot                      Confirmed Report
                   APPENDIX A - Questionnaire Responses


      Designing Careers – Tracking Beyond the Pilot
                   Year 11 Dean(s) [42 responses]

Current provision of careers education and guidance

Q1     Were you a Dean in this school last year?             79% Yes

Q2     If Yes, which year level?
       5% Year 9                   52% Year 11           19% Year 13
       31% Year 10                 17% Year 12


Q3     This year, were you involved in students‟ subject choice processes?
                                                             95% Yes

Q4     Which year group(s) have you assisted with their subject choices?
       57% 2005 Year 10                   45% 2006 Year 10                        2% None
       38% 2005 Year 11                   76% 2006 Year 11

Q5     What professional development have you received to support the delivery of careers
       education and guidance?
       Workshops with Careers Services                    9
       Advice/training from Careers Adviser               4
       Have previously been a Careers Adviser             3
       Workshops/speakers                                 3
       Specific Deans PD                                  3
       Working with Designing Careers                     3
       Conferences                                        2
       In house PD                                        2
       Experience                                         1
       None                                             12


Q6a    Have the students‟ 2005 Learning and Career Plans (LCPs) been reviewed this year?
                                                          69% Yes

Q6b    Have they been used this year by students or staff?
       62% Students                  36% Teachers                 36% You as Dean




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                     APPENDIX A - Questionnaire Responses


Q6c     What have they been used for?
        Guidance                                                9
        Subject Selection                                       8
        Motivation/Goal Setting                                 6
        Career Planning                                         6
        Careers Interviews                                      3
        Received/reviewed by Careers Adviser                    2
        Identify Students at risk                               2
        To chart career choices                                 1
        Don‟t Know                                              3

Q7     To what extent were LCPs used to guide students‟ subject choices and support your
       work as Dean?
 %                                Great extent    Some extent       A little       Not at all
 By students                          13             65               16              6
 By form teachers/tutors               7             18               39             36
 By dean(s)                           11             42               14             33
 By parents                            8             20               32             40

Q8      How effective in your experience are the school‟s processes for students‟ decision-
        making about subject options?
 %                                          Very       Effective        Not        Don‟t know
                                          effective                  effective
 Career information easily accessed           48          45             5                 3
 Monitoring and guidance provided             38          43            20                 0
 Support with decision-making                 39          54             7                 0
 Flexibility in courses offered               45          43            13                 0
 Flexibility with course entry criteria       15          73            12                 0
 Parent involvement                           13          59            10                18

Q9      (a) Approximately what proportion of 2006 Year 11 students changed their options
        in the first term?  [median: 7%, range: 2%-25%]

        (b) If you were also involved with the 2005 Year 11 group‟s option selection
        process, please comment on how the number of changes this year (Q9a) compared
        with those in the previous year.
        Similar                                             7
        Less changes                                        2
        More changes in 06 than 05                          1
        Most changes arose from timetable clashes           1




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Designing Careers - Tracking Beyond the Pilot                      Confirmed Report
                    APPENDIX A - Questionnaire Responses


Q10    What careers education and guidance is provided to students in Year 11?
       Individual Interviews/appointments with Careers Adviser    31
       Deans appointment                                           7
       Group/class time with Careers Adviser                       7
       LCP                                                         5
       Subject Selection Process                                   5
       Guest Speakers                                              4
       Parent Evening                                              4
       Careers Expo/days                                           4
       1hr/week                                                    3
       Careers Quest                                               2
       Gateway                                                     2
       STAR                                                        2
       1hr/term                                                    1
       1hr/half year                                               1

Q11    How would you describe Year 11 students‟ general levels of awareness of possible
       career or further education options?
       Fair/good/reasonable/average                             14
       Excellent/very good/high                                   5
       Limited/low/poor                                           6
       Variable                                                   3
       Most aware                                                 4
       Most have some ideas about direction                       4


Q12a Do you identify Year 11 students at risk leaving school unprepared for the transition
     to the workplace or further education/training?      83% Yes

Q12b If Yes, what programmes and strategies are in place to meet their needs?
       Work experience                                            9
       Gateway                                                    5
       STAR                                                       4
       Referral to careers adviser                                9
       Parents involved                                           5
       Referral to guidance counsellor                            5
       Referral to transition broker/YTS                          5
       Literacy/numeracy                                          3
       IEPs                                                       3




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Designing Careers - Tracking Beyond the Pilot                         Confirmed Report
                    APPENDIX A - Questionnaire Responses


Q13    How many Year 11 students have left school (not transferring to another school)
       during the year?   [median: 10, range: 1-49]
       How many to enter employment?                   [median: 2, range: 0-20]
       How many to further training/education?         [median: 5, range: 0-19]
       How many under exemption?                       [median: 4, range: 1-18]
       How many unemployed?                            [median: 2, range: 0-9]
       How many unknown?                               [median: 3, range: 0-16]
       27 respondents provided this information. In 6 cases the numbers provided did not
       add up which may have been due to some students being counted in more than one
       category. Most schools had small numbers of year 11 leavers in each category.

Q14    To what extent has Designing Careers led to each of the outcomes below for
       2006 Year 11 students?
 %                                                          Great    Some       Not at    Don‟t
                                                            extent   extent      all      know
 Improved student understanding of the relevance of           19      72         3         6
 school to their future goals
 More students making appropriate subject choices            24       70           0       5
 The provision of information to better structure courses    22       50          19       8
 and option lines to meet student needs
 Raised aspirations                                          14       71           9       6
 Increased motivation and/or engagement                      14       69           8       8
 Improved support for at risk students                       11       65          14      11


Q15    From your perspective as Dean, how would you describe the extent to which the
       school‟s current career education provisions build students‟ knowledge and
       attitudes?
       Positive comments about current provisions and staff          11
       Students develop awareness, knowledge, attitudes              11
       Links with subject choice                                      3
       Needs to be developed                                          3




Tracking Beyond the Pilot               PAGE 55 -                         20 April 2007
Designing Careers - Tracking Beyond the Pilot                           Confirmed Report
                     APPENDIX A - Questionnaire Responses


Designing Careers – Tracking Beyond the Pilot
                 HODs [79 responses]
Q1     What professional development have you received to support the school‟s provision
       of careers education and guidance?
       Advice/training from Careers Adviser      17
       PD through Staff Meetings                 16
       Workshops with Careers Services           15
       Real Game                                 10
       Department meetings/trainings              8
       Designing Careers Launch/PD                5
       Using Kiwicareers                          2
       None                                      17

Q2a    Have students‟ 2005 Learning and Career Plans (LCPs) been reviewed this year?
                                                                       63% Yes
Q2b    Have they been used this year by students or staff?
       58% Students                     43% Teachers                   15% You as HOD

Q2c    What have they been used for?
       Course selection/subject choices                34
       Advice about future career directions            9
       Goal setting/reviewing goals                     6
       Motivate to stay at school                       2
       Don‟t know                                       6
       As part of careers unit                          1
       To design courses                                1
Q3     This year, were you involved in students‟ subject choice processes?
                                                                       73% Yes
Q4     How effective in your experience are the school‟s processes for students‟ decision-
       making about subject options?
 %                                           Very       Effective         Not      Don’t know
                                           effective                   effective
 Career information easily accessed           44            49             3                4
 Monitoring and guidance provided             30            58             6                5
 Support with decision-making                 42            48             5                5
 Flexibility in courses offered               27            53            17                3
 Flexibility in course entry criteria         17            70             9                4
 Parent involvement                            6            57            17               19
[HODs who were directly involved with DCP in 2005 tend to be more positive about the first 3
aspects]




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Designing Careers - Tracking Beyond the Pilot                         Confirmed Report
                    APPENDIX A - Questionnaire Responses


       Comment further if you wish:
       Flexibility limited by school size and staffing constraints   3
       Involvement of parents varies                                 3
       Don‟t know                                                    3

Q5     To what extent has Designing Careers led to each of the outcomes below for
       Year 10 and Year 11 students in 2005 and 2006?
 %                                                          Great    Some Not at           Don’t
                                                            extent   extent all            know
 Improved student understanding of the relevance of           32      57     0              12
 school to their future goals
 More students making appropriate subject choices            35       56          0          9
 The provision of information to better structure courses    13       54         13         20
 and option lines to meet student needs
 Raised aspirations                                          16       64          1         18
 Increased motivation and/or engagement                      10       72          3         14
 Improved support for at risk students                       36       44          1         19

Q6     What involvement have you had with career education programmes for
       students at risk of not making successful transitions to further education,
       training or employment?
       None                                                          29
       Little                                                        11
       Through form teacher/classes taught                            7
       Refer students                                                 4

Q7a    How do you or your school provide for these students?
       Alternative courses e.g. vocational, literacy                 23
       Referred to careers adviser                                   17
       Referred to guidance counsellor                               11
       IEP/individual pathway                                        10
       Work experience                                                8
       Referral to outside agencies                                   7
       Gateway                                                        6
       Parents involved                                               4
       STAR                                                           4
       Additional support                                             3
       Don‟t know                                                     5




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Designing Careers - Tracking Beyond the Pilot                         Confirmed Report
                   APPENDIX A - Questionnaire Responses


Q7b    What do you know about the impact or effectiveness of these strategies?
       Appears to be effective / going well                          11
       At risk students benefit                                       5
       Work experience/Gateway/STAR                                   5
       Some students benefit                                          5
       Get more credits/stay longer at school                         5
       More motivated/confident/raised self-esteem                    5
       Students go on to work or further education                    4
       Informal contact                                               3
       Targeted earlier                                               3
       Database/statistics                                            2
       No information/ limited information/ don‟t know               19

Q8     If you wish, please make further comments about the school‟s current career
       education provisions, the impact they have had, and the likelihood of their
       being sustained in the future.
       Current career education
       Good provision                                                5
       Qualities of careers adviser                                  5
       Integrated into SS/health                                     4
       Work experience component important                           3
       Need more staff time                                          3

       Impact of career education provisions
       Students link subjects and careers                            5
       Improved provision                                            3
       Ongoing developments                                          2
       Student knowledge                                             2
       More staff trained                                            2

       Likelihood of provisions being sustained
       Yes                                                           4
       Depends on funding                                            3
       Depends on senior management                                  2

       Other
       Importance recognised                                         6
       Needs further enhancement                                     3


Q9     Were you directly involved with the Designing Careers Pilot in 2005?
                                                             42% Yes
[HODs who were directly involved with DCP in 2005 tend to be more positive about the outcomes]




Tracking Beyond the Pilot              PAGE 58 -                          20 April 2007
Designing Careers – Tracking Beyond the Pilot                        Confirmed Report

                       APPENDIX B - Interview Questions



Principal

1. Have there been any changes in key personnel since January 2006? (Principal,
   Careers Adviser - New to school? New to job?)
2. How is Designing Careers going in your school this year?
3. What is happening at Year 10 level?
4. Has the school collated and used the information from LCPs? In 2005? In 2006?
   How?
5. To what extent is the information from LCPs being used to determine course
   structures, subject choices, and the timetable for 2007?
6. Do you have a careers team? Who is included?
7. What career education and guidance is currently provided for at risk students?
8. In what way/s have this year‟s career education programmes differed from last
   year‟s?
9. Did you review and evaluate the impact for students of career education
   programmes?
10. What baseline data do you have against which to measure changes in students‟
    attitudes? subject choice? Transitions into employment or further
    education/training (tracking destinations of leavers)?
11. What have been the impacts for students? (Year 10? at risk?)
12. How have you sustained the changes made under the Pilot in 2005?
13. To what extent has DC extended the provision of career education in the school?
14. Does the strategic plan and/or annual plan include elements of career education
    and guidance?
15. To what extent do you think the school is likely to continue the current career
    education programme in the longer term?
16. What aspects/elements are most likely to be sustained?




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Designing Careers - Tracking Beyond the Pilot                      Confirmed report
                      APPENDIX B - Interview Questions


Careers Adviser/Coordinator

1. Did you hold this position in 2005?
2. What time allowance do you have for this position? How does that compare with
    2005?
3. How many MUs do you hold?
4. What professional development related to careers education have you had this
    year?
5. Is there a careers team in the school? Who is involved? What are its main
    functions?
6. Do you have a careers management document? Policy?
7. How is Designing Careers going in your school this year?
8. What is happening at Year 10 level? Who is delivering career education at
    Year 10?
9. Have students‟ 2005 LCPs been reviewed by staff this year? By students?
10. Has the school used the information from LCPs? In 2005? In 2006? How?
11. What career education did Year 11 receive in 2006? Was this different from the
    2005 Year 11 programme? In what way(s)?
12. To what extent is the information from LCPs being used to determine course
    structures, subject choices, and the timetable for 2007?
13. How do you use LCPs? Have you modified the LCP resource?
14. What systems has the school set up to enable you to monitor LCP completion and
    quality?
15. What career education and guidance is currently provided for at risk students?
16. In what way/s have this year‟s career education programmes differed from last
    year‟s?
17. Do you collect data to review and evaluate the impact of careers education and
    guidance programmes and to assess their outcomes?
18. Which elements have had the biggest impact? What outcomes for students have
    you identified?
19. Does the school track the destination of school leavers? What does this show?
20. What involvement have parents had in career education, especially LCPs? Is this
    different from last year?
21. How have you sustained the changes made under DC in 2005?
22. To what extent has DC extended the provision of career education in the school?
23. To what extent do you think the school is likely to continue the current career
    education programme in the longer term (2007/2008)?
24 What aspects/elements are most likely to be sustained?




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Designing Careers - Tracking Beyond the Pilot                       Confirmed Report
                       APPENDIX B - Interview Questions



Interviews: Year 11 Dean(s)

1. Were you a dean here last year? What year level?
2. This year, have you been involved in students‟ subject choice processes? Which
   year group(s)?
3. What professional development have you had over the last two years, related to
   careers education and guidance?
4. If Year 10 dean in 2005, what involvement did you have with LCPs?
5. Have the 2005 LCPs been reviewed by staff this year? By students?
6. Have they been used? In what way(s)? To what extent were they used to guide
   students‟ subject choices?
7. What subjects are compulsory in Year 11?
8. How effective in your experience are the school‟s processes for students‟
   decision-making about subject options?
9. Approximately what proportion of Year 11 students changed their subjects in the
   first term this year? If you were involved with the 2005 Year 11 subject selection
   process, did you note any difference in the number of changes compared with the
   previous year?
10. How has this year‟s subject choice process gone? To what extent were the
    students aware of their possible career/further education options when planning
    2007 courses?
11. What CE is provided to Year 11 students?
12. How would you describe Year 11 students‟ general levels of awareness of
    possible career or further education options?
13. Do you identify Year 11 students at risk of leaving school unprepared for the
    transition to the workplace of further education/training? What strategies are in
    place to respond to their needs?
14. How many Year 11 students left school during the year? Do you collate
    information about their destinations? What does this show?
15. To what extent has Designing Careers improved Year 11 students‟ knowledge of
    and attitudes to the relevance of school to their future goals?
16. Any good-news stories?




Tracking Beyond the Pilot              PAGE 61 -                            20 April 2007
Designing Careers - Tracking Beyond the Pilot                    Confirmed Report
                       APPENDIX B - Interview Questions



Interviews: HoDs

1. Have you been involved with students developing LCPs? Last year? This year?
2. If Yes, what has been your involvement?
3. How did it go? Impacts for students? Teachers? HoDs? You?
4. Have the 2005 LCPs been reviewed by staff this year? By students?
5. Have they been used? By whom? What for? Any changes to courses made in
   response?
6. This year were you involved with students‟ subject choice processes?
7. How effective were they in your experience, for students‟ decision-making about
   subject options?
8. What professional development have you had over the last two years to support
   the school‟s provision of careers education and guidance?
9. To what extent has Designing Careers contributed to improvements in students‟
   knowledge of and attitude to school‟s relevance to their future goals?
10. What involvement have you had with career education programmes for students at
    risk of not making successful transitions to further education, training or
    employment? How do you or your school provide for these students?
11. Do you know how effective the provisions are? How do you know?
12. In your view, to what extent has the school‟s involvement in Designing Careers
    led to improved provision of career education and guidance schoolwide?
13. How likely is it that improvement will be sustained?
14. Any good-news stories?




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