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									IND   BLBKXXX-VadenKnoll       February 16, 2009     9:51    Char Count=




        Index
        Text in boldface denotes chapter discussions.


        A                                                      macroaggregated albumin (MAA),              Arrhythmia
                                                                     510–512                                 ambulatory electrocardiographic
        Abdomen                                                urine, 668–670                                      monitoring, 42–44
          computed tomography, 186                          Aldosterone, 492                                 electrocardiography, 241–244
          laparoscopy, 390–393                              Alkaline phosphatase, 36–37                    Arterial blood sample collection,
          radiography, 2–7                                     in semen, 552–554                                   107–108
             horizontal beam, 370–372                       Alkalosis. See Acid-base disorders             Arterial hemoglobin saturation (SpO2 ),
          ultrasonography, 8–10                             Allergen-specific serology, 38–39                       514–515
        Abdominal masses, radiographic assessment           Allergy testing                                Arterial pressure tracings, 155–158
                of, 6                                          food trial, 318–319                         Arteriovenous fistulas, ultrasonographic
        Abdominal radiography, 2–7                             gastroscopic and colonoscopic                       assessment, 405
        Abdominal ultrasonography, 8–10                              food-sensitivity testing, 330–332     Arthrocentesis with synovial fluid
        Abdominocentesis and fluid analysis,                    intradermal testing, 381–383                        analysis, 64–68
                11–15                                          referral laboratories, 743                  Arthroscopy, 69–71
        Abscess                                             ALP. See Alkaline phosphatase                  Aspartate aminotransferase, 72–73
          liver ultrasonography, 404                        Alpha-1 protease inhibitor, 40–41              Aspiration
          pancreatic ultrasonography, 465                   A1− acid glycoprotein, 26–27                     bone marrow, 119–121, 122–125
          splenic, 579                                      ALT. See Alanine aminotransferase                fine-needle, 306–307
        Absolute neutrophil count, 732                      Alveolar-arterial gradient, 101–103              renal biopsy and aspiration, 532–535




                                                                                                           AL
        Acanthocheilonema reconditum, 386                   Alveolar pattern, lung radiography,              ultrasound-guided mass or organ,
        ACDO (Amplatz canine duct occluder),                         593–594                                       654–656
                154                                         Ambulatory electrocardiographic                Aspiration pneumonia, 593


                                                                                                RI
        Acetylcholine receptor antibody, 16–17                       monitoring, 42–44                     AST. See Aspartate aminotransferase
        Acetylcholinesterase, 18–19                         Amikacin, assay for, 740                       Asteroid hyalosis, 455
        AChE. See Acetylcholinesterase
                                                                                              TE
                                                            Amino acid analysis, referral laboratories,    Atelectasis, 593
        AChR Ab. See Acetylcholine receptor                          743                                   Atopy
                antibody                                    Ammonia, 45–47                                   allergen-specific serology, 38–39
        Acid-base disorders
                                                                                      MA

                                                            Ammonia-tolerance test (ATT), 45–47              intradermal testing, 381–383
          anion gap, 54–55                                  Amplatz canine duct occluder (ACDO), 154       Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP),
          bicarbonate, 88–90                                Amylase, 48–49                                         452–453
          blood gases, 101–103                              ANA. See Antinuclear antibody                  Atrioventricular (AV) node, 241
          lactate, 388–389                                  Anabaena flos-aquae, 18–19                      ATT. See Ammonia-tolerance test
                                                                             ED



        Acidosis. See Acid-base disorders                   Anaerobic bacterial culture and sensitivity,
        ACTH assay, 20–21                                            76–78                                 B
        ACTH stimulation test, 22–23                        Anaplasma, 238–240
        Activated clotting time, 24–25                      Ancylostoma caninum, 281                       Babesia, 74–75
                                                                      HT




        Activated partial thromboplastin time               Ancylostoma tubaeformae, 281                   Bacteria
                (aPTT), 472–474                             Anemia                                           bartonella, 82–84
        Acute phase proteins, 26–27                            Heinz bodies, 358–359                         brucellosis serology, 141–143
                                                                 IG




        Addison’s Disease. See Hypoadrenocorticism             hematocrit, 360–362                           culture and sensitivity, 76–78
        Adenocarcinoma, pancreatic, 465                        hemoglobin, 363–365                           Ehrlichia/Anaplasma, 238–240
        ADH (antidiuretic hormone)                             hemotrophic mycoplasmas, 366–367              hemotrophic mycoplasmas, 366–367
                                                           R




          desmopressin response test and,                      reticulocyte count, 539–541                   Leptospira, 396–398
                228–230                                     Anesthesia. See specific tests/procedures         Lyme disease serology, 424–425
                                                        PY




          water-deprivation test and, 718–720               Angiography and angiocardiography,               Rocky Mountain spotted fever,
        Adrenal glands                                               50–53                                         548–549
          radiography, 5                                    Angiostrongylus spp., 286–287                  Bacterial culture and sensitivity, 76–78
                                              CO




          ultrasonography, 9, 10, 28–31                     Anion gap, 54–55                               Bacteriuria, 700
        Adrenal ultrasonography, 28–31                      Anisocytosis, 525                              BAER. See Brain-stem auditory evoked
        Adrenocorticotropic hormone. See ACTH               ANP (atrial natriuretic peptide),                      response
        Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, 281, 286–287                     452–453                               Baermann exam, 286–287
        Aerobic bacterial culture and sensitivity,          Anticoagulant proteins, 56–57                  BAL. See Bronchoalveolar lavage
                76–78                                       Anticoagulant screen, 58–59                    Balloon catheter, 152, 210, 260
        AGAP. See Anion gap                                 Antinuclear antibody, 60–61                    Band neutrophil, 732
        Agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID),                    Antithrombin, 56–57                            Barium-impregnated polyethylene spheres
                373–375                                     Applanation tonometry, 630–631                         (BIPS), 79–81
          brucellosis serology, 141–143                     APPs. See Acute phase proteins                 Barium swallow esophagography, 263–265
        Alanine aminotransferase, 32–33                     APTT (activated partial thromboplastin         Baruria, 701
        Alaria spp., 281, 286                                        time), 472–474                        Basophils, 724–725
        Albumin, 34–35                                      Aqueocentesis and vitreocentesis, 62–63          bone marrow aspirate cytology
          glycated (glycoalbumin/fructosamine),             Arginine vasopressin. See Desmopressin                 assessment, 125
                320–321                                              response test                         BCG (bromcresol green), 34–35

                                                                               747
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          748                                                               Index



          Behavioral system assessment                       aspartate aminotransferase, 72–73             lead, 394–395
             acetylcholinesterase, 18–19                     babesia, 74–75                                Leptospira, 396–398
             thyroxine (T4 ), free, 622–623                  bacterial culture and sensitivity, 76–78      lipase, 399–401
             thyroxine (T4 ), total, 624–626                 bartonella, 82–84                             low-dose dexamethasone suppression test,
          Bence-Jones proteins, 85–87                        bile acids, 91–93                                   412–413
          Berman angiographic catheter, 153                  bilirubin, 94–95                              lupus erythematosus cell preparation,
          Bicarbonate, 88–90                                 blood gases, 101–103                                419–421
             blood gases, 101–103                            blood smear microscopic examination,          luteinizing hormone, 422–423
          Bile acids, 91–93                                        109–111                                 Lyme disease serology, 424–426
          Bile peritonitis, fluid analysis and, 14            blood typing, 114–116                         magnesium, 430–431
          Biliary system. See Hepatobiliary system           brucellosis serology, 141–143                 masticatory muscle myositis (2M
                    assessment                               buffy coat preparations, 144–145                    antibody assay), 436–437
          Bilirubin, 94–95                                   calcitriol, 146–147                           methemoglobin, 438–439
             urine, 671–673                                  calcium, 148–150                              natriuretic peptides, 452–453
          Biopsy                                             carnitine, 160–163                            osmolality, 457–459
             bone, 117–118                                   chloride, 172–173                             osmotic fragility, 460–461
             bone marrow, 119–121                            cholesterol, 174–175                          parathyroid hormone, 467–469
             colonoscopy, 183–184                            coagulation factors, 176–178                  parathyroid hormone-related protein,
             cystourethroscopy, 215                          cobalamin, 179–181                                  470–471
             endomyocardial, 154                             complete blood count, 185                     partial thromboplastin time, activated,
             esophagogastroduodenoscopy, 260–261             Coombs’ test, 190–191                               472–474
             fine-needle aspiration, 306–307                  cortisol, 192–193                             phosphorus, 479–481
             impression smear, 376–377                       creatine kinase, 196–197                      PIVKA test, 482–483
             laparoscopy, 391–392                            creatinine, 198–199                           platelet antibody detection, 484–485
             liver, 407–411                                  crossmatch, 200–201                           platelet count and volume, 486–488
             masticatory muscle myositis, 437                D-dimer, 217–219                              platelet function tests, 489–491
             muscle, 440–442                                 distemper, 231–233                            potassium, 492–494
             nasal, 446–449                                  Ehrlichia/Anaplasma, 238–240                  progesterone, 495–497
             needle, 627–629                                 erythropoietin, 258–259                       protein electrophoresis, 501–503
             nerve, 440–442                                  estradiol, 266–267                            prothrombin time, 504–505
             punch, 627–629                                  ethylene glycol, 268–269                      red blood cell count, 518–519
             renal, 532–535                                  feline coronavirus, 288–290                   red blood cell enzyme activity, 520–521
             skin, 564–565                                   feline immunodeficiency virus, 291–293         red blood cell indices, 522–524
          BIPS. See Barium-impregnated polyethylene          feline leukemia virus, 294–296                red blood cell morphology, 525–529
                    spheres                                  ferritin, 297–299                             relaxin, 530–531
          Biuret reaction, 634                               fibrin degradation products, 300–302           reticulocyte count, 539–541
          Bladder sonography. See Lower urinary tract        fibrinogen, 303–305                            rheumatoid factor, 542–543
                    ultrasonography                          folate, 316–317                               Rocky Mountain spotted fever, 548–549
          Bladder stone analysis. See Urolith analysis       fructosamine, 320–321                         sodium, 573–575
          Bladder tap. See Cystocentesis                     gamma-glutamyltransferase, 322–323            somatomedin C, 576–577
          Bladder tumor analyte, 96–97                       gastrin, 324–325                              T3 suppression test, 582–583
          Bleeding time, 98–100                              general principles for performing,            taurine, 584–587
          Blood-collection tubes, xxx, xxxi                        xxx–xxxi                                testosterone, 588–589
          Blood gases, 101–103                                  collection tubes, xxx, xxxi                therapeutic drug monitoring, 740–741
          Blood pressure determination:                         preparation for sample collection, xxx     thyroglobulin autoantibody, 606–607
                    noninvasive and invasive, 104–106           sample handling and storage, xxx–xxxi      thyroid-releasing hormone response test,
          Blood sample collection, 107–108                      sending specimens with lab courier,              612–613
          Blood smear microscopic examination,                     xxxi                                    thyroid-stimulating hormone, 618–619
                    109–111                                  genetic testing, 333–335                      thyroid-stimulating hormone stimulation
          Blood smear preparation, 112–113                   globulins, 341–343                                  test, 620–621
          Blood tests                                        glucose, 347–349                              thyroxine (T4 ), free, 622–623
             acetylcholine receptor antibody, 16–17          glucose curve, 350–352                        thyroxine (T4 ), total, 624–626
             acetylcholinesterase, 18–19                     glycosylated hemoglobin, 353–355              total protein, 634–635
             ACTH assay, 20–21                               heartworm serology, 356–357                   toxoplasmosis serology, 636–638
             ACTH stimulation test, 22–23                    Heinz bodies, 358–359                         triglycerides, 645–647
             acute phase proteins, 26–27                     hematocrit, 360–362                           troponins, cardiac specific, 648–650
             alanine aminotransferase, 32–33                 hemoglobin, 363–365                           trypsin-like immunoreactivity (TLI),
             albumin, 34–35                                  hemotrophic mycoplasmas, 366–367                    651–653
             alkaline phosphate, 36–37                       high-dose dexamethasone suppression           urea nitrogen, 660–661
             allergen-specific serology, 38–39                      test, 368–369                           urine fractional excretion of electrolytes,
             ammonia, 45–47                                  immunoglobulin assays, 373–375                      674–676
             amylase, 48–49                                  insulin, 378–380                              von Willebrand factor, 716–717
             anion gap, 54–55                                insulin/glucose ratio, 378–380                white blood cell count and differential,
             anticoagulant proteins, 56–57                   iron level and total iron-binding capacity,         721–723
             anticoagulant screen, 58–59                           384–385                                 white blood cells: basophils, 724–725
             antinuclear antibody, 60–61                     lactate, 388–389                              white blood cells: eosinophils, 726–727
IND   BLBKXXX-VadenKnoll        February 16, 2009        9:51    Char Count=




                                                                                 Index                                                               749



          white blood cells: lymphocytes, 728–729                 angiography and angiocardiography,            CBC. See Complete blood count
          white blood cells: monocytes, 730–731                         50–53                                   CDYN (dynamic lung compliance), 506–508
          white blood cells: neutrophils, 732–733                 antinuclear antibody, 60–61                   Central diabetes insipidus
          zinc, 736–737                                           bartonella, 82–84                               desmopressin response test, 228–230
        Blood typing, 114–116                                     bile acids, 91–93                               water-deprivation test, modified,
          referral laboratories, 743                              blood gases, 101–103                                   718–720
        Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), 660–661                        blood pressure determination: noninvasive     Central venous catheter, for central venous
        BMBT (buccal mucosal bleeding time),                            and invasive, 104–106                            pressure measurement, 166–167
                98–100, 489–491                                   calcium, 148–150                              Central venous pressure, 166–167
        BNP (B-type natriuretic peptide), 452–453                 cardiac catheterization, 151–159              Cerebellomedullary cistern, CSF fluid
        Body cavity effusion. See Fluid analysis                  carnitine, 160–163                                     collection from, 168–169
        Bone biopsy, 117–118                                      central venous pressure, 166–167              Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
        Bone marrow aspirate and biopsy,                          creatine kinase, 196–197                        distemper tests, 231–232
                119–121                                           echocardiography, 234–237                     Cerebrospinal fluid tap, 168–171
        Bone marrow aspirate cytology:                            electrocardiography, 241–244                  Cestodiasis, abdominal fluid analysis and, 14
                microscopic evaluation, 122–125                   electroencephalography, 245–247               Chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA)
        Bone scan, 126–128                                        fluid analysis, 308–310                          progesterone, 495–496
        Borrelia burgdorferi. See Lyme disease                    fluoroscopy, 314–315                             testosterone, 588–589
                serology                                          heartworm serology, 356–357                     thyroxine (T4 ), total, 624–625
        Brain-stem auditory evoked response,                      horizontal beam radiography, 370–372          Chemistry reference intervals, 739
                129–131                                           Knott’s test, 386–387                         Chest radiography. See Thoracic radiography
        Brain ultrasonography, 132–134                            lactate, 388–389                              Chest tap. See Thoracocentesis and fluid
        Bregmatic fontanel, brain ultrasonography                 Lyme disease serology, 424–426                         analysis
                imaging through, 132                              magnesium, 430–431                            Chloride, 172–173
        Brilliant cresyl blue stain, for Heinz bodies,            magnetic resonance imaging, 432–435             urine fractional excretion, 674–675
                358                                               natriuretic peptides, 452–453                 Cholecystitis, ultrasonographic assessment,
        Bromide, assay for, 740                                   pericardiocentesis, 475–478                            405
        Bronchial pattern, lung radiography, 594                  potassium, 492–494                            Choleliths, ultrasonographic assessment,
        Bronchoalveolar lavage, 135–137                           pulse oximetry, 514–515                                405
        Bronchoscopy, 138–140                                     taurine, 584–587                              Cholestasis
          bronchoalveolar lavage, 135–136                         thoracic radiography, 590–595                   alkaline phosphatase, 36–37
        Brucellosis serology, 141–143                             thoracocentesis and fluid analysis,              ultrasonographic assessment, 405
        B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP),                               599–601                                 Cholesterol, 174–175
                452–453                                           thoracoscopy, 602–605                         Cholinesterase, 18–19
        Buccal mucosal bleeding time (BMBT),                      thyroxine (T4 ), free, 622–623                Chronic kidney disease, glomerular filtration
                98–100, 489–491                                   thyroxine (T4 ), total, 624–626                        rate assessment and, 344–346
        Buffy coat preparations, 144–145                          total protein, 634–635                        Chyloabdomen, 14
        BUN (blood urea nitrogen), 660–661                        toxoplasmosis serology, 636–638               Chylous effusion, 308–310
                                                                  troponins, cardiac specific, 648–650           Cisternal injection myelography, 443
        C                                                         ultrasound-guided mass or organ               CK. See Creatine kinase
                                                                        aspiration, 654–656                     CLIA. See Chemiluminescent immunoassay
        C6 peptide assays, 424–426                                urine protein/creatinine ratio, 693–695                (CLIA)
        Calcitriol, 146–147                                     Carnitine, 160–163                              Clinical chemistry reference intervals, 739
        Calcium, 148–150                                        Carpal joint assessment                         Clotting time, activated, 24–25
        Calculus stone analysis. See Urolith analysis             arthrocentesis with synovial fluid analysis,   CMAP (compound muscle action potential),
        Canine distemper virus. See Distemper                           64–68                                            251–252
        Canine trypsin-like immunoreactivity                      arthroscopy, 69–71                            Coagulation factors, 176–178
                (cTLI), 276–277                                 Casts, urine, 696–697, 699                      Coagulopathy assessment
        Capillaria, 281                                         Catheter-assisted stone retrieval,                activated partial thromboplastin time
        Carbamate insecticides, acetylcholinesterase                    164–165                                          (aPTT), 472–474
                test and, 18–19                                 Catheters and catheterization                     anticoagulant proteins, 56–57
        Cardiac arrhythmia. See Arrhythmia                        for angiography and angiocardiography,          anticoagulant screen, 58–59
        Cardiac catheterization, 151–159                                50–53                                     bleeding time, 98–100
        Cardiac muscle carnitine, 160–162                         cardiac, 151–159                                coagulation factors, 176–178
        Cardiac pressure measurement by cardiac                   for central venous pressure measurement,        D-dimer, 217–219
                catheterization, 154–158                                166–167                                   fibrinogen, 303–305
        Cardiac silhouette, 593                                   for cystourethrography, 210–211                 PIVKA test, 482–483
        Cardiac tamponade, 475                                    for pericardiocentesis, 475–477                 platelet function tests, 489–491
        Cardiac troponins, 648–650                                for prostatic wash, 498–499                     prothrombin time, 504–505
        Cardiac ultrasound. See Echocardiography                  for stone retrieval, 164–165                  Cobalamin, 179–181
        Cardiomegaly, 593                                         for thoracocentesis, 599–601                  COLAP (colonic allergy provocation),
        Cardiovascular system assessment                          urethral, 662–665                                      330–332
          abdominal radiography, 2–7                              for urine collection, xxxiii                  Colitis, ultrasonography assessment of, 328
          ambulatory electrocardiographic                       Cavitating lung mass, horizontal beam           Collapsing trachea
                monitoring, 42–44                                       radiography for assessment of,            fluoroscopy, 315
          ammonia, 45–47                                                370–372                                   thoracic radiography, 593
IND   BLBKXXX-VadenKnoll     February 16, 2009   9:51   Char Count=




          750                                                             Index



          Colon                                          CVP. See Central venous pressure                Wood’s lamp examination, 734–735
            radiography, 5                               Cyclosporine, assay for, 740                    zinc, 736–737
            ultrasonography, 326–328                     Cylinduria, 696–697, 699                      Dermatophyte culture, 225–227
          Colonic lavage, 182                            Cystocentesis, xxxiii–xxxiv, 202–204          Dermatophyte Test Media, 225, 226
          Colonic transit time, of barium-impregnated    Cystoisospora, 281                            Dermatophytosis
                  polyethylene spheres, 79–81            Cystometrogram, 205–209                         Wood’s lamp examination, 734–735
          Colonoscopic allergy provocation (COLAP),      Cystometry and urethral pressure              Descemetocele, 311
                  330–332                                         measurement, 205–209                 Descemet’s membrane, 311
          Colonoscopy, 182–184                           Cystoscopy. See Cystourethroscopy             Desmopressin response test, 228–230
            COLAP (colonoscopic allergy                  Cystourethrography, 210–213                   Dexamethasone suppression test
                  provocation), 330–332                  Cystourethroscopy, 214–216                      high-dose, 368–369
          Complete blood count, 185                      Cysts, liver ultrasonography and, 404           low-dose, 412–413
          Compound muscle action potential               Cytochrome-b5 reductase (Cb5R) deficiency,     Diabetes insipidus
                  (CMAP), 251–252                                 520–521                                desmopressin response test, 228–230
          Computed tomography, 186–187                   Cytology                                        water-deprivation test, modified, 718–720
          Conjugated bilirubin, 94–95                      bone marrow aspirate, 122–125               Diabetes mellitus
          Conjunctival scraping and cytology,              conjunctival scraping, 188–189                fructosamine, 320–321
                  188–189                                  esophagogastroduodenoscopy and,               glucose curve, 350–352
          Consolidation, pulmonary                                260–261                                glucose test, 347–349
            radiography, 594                               fecal, 273–275                                glycosylated hemoglobin, 353–355
            ultrasonography, 597                           nasal flush and biopsy, 446–449                insulin and insulin/glucose ratio tests,
          Contrast media. See specific applications         pericardial effusion, 477                           378–380
          Contrast vaginoscopy. See Vaginography           prostatic fluid, 498–500                       potassium, 492–494
          Coombs’ test, 190–191                            rectal, 516–517                               urine ketones, 686–687
          Core Tru-cut liver biopsy. See Liver biopsy      semen analysis, 552–554                     Diagnostic imaging. See also Radiography;
          Corneal assessment, with fluorescein dye          skin scraping and trichogram, 566–567               Ultrasonography
                  test, 311–313                            skin surface and otic cytology,               computed tomography, 186–187
          Coronavirus, feline, 288–290                            568–569                                magnetic resonance imaging, 432–435
          Cortisol, 192–193                                urine sediment, 696–700                     Diagnostic laboratory
            ACTH stimulation test, 22–23                                                                 getting most out of, xxviii–xxix
            high-dose dexamethasone suppression                                                          reference intervals, 739
                                                          D
                  test, 368–369                                                                          referral laboratories, 742–746
            low-dose dexamethasone suppression test,     DAT (direct antiglobulin test). See Coombs’     reliability assessment, xxviii
                  412–413                                        test                                    therapeutic drug monitoring, 740–741
          Cortisol/creatinine ratio, 194–195             DCM. See Dilated cardiomyopathy               Diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL), 11–15
          CPK (creatine phosphokinase). See Creatine     DDAVP trial, 228–230                          Diagnostic procedures
                  kinase                                 D-dimer, 217–219                                abdominal radiography, 2–7
          C-reactive protein, 26–27                      DEA (dog erythrocyte antigen), 114–115          abdominal ultrasonography, 8–10
          Creatine kinase, 196–197                       Deafness assessment, by brain-stem auditory     abdominocentesis and fluid analysis,
          Creatinine, 198–199                                    evoked response, 129–131                      11–15
            urine gamma-glutamyltransferase/             Dehydration, assessment with albumin test,      activated clotting time, 24–25
                  creatinine ratio, 677–679                      34–35                                   adrenal ultrasonography, 28–31
            urine protein/creatinine ratio, 693–695      Demodex, 566                                    ambulatory electrocardiographic
          Creatinine clearance, for glomerular           Dental assessment. See Gastrointestinal               monitoring, 42–44
                  filtration rate assessment,                     system assessment                       angiography and angiocardiography,
                  344–346                                Dental radiography, 220–224                           50–53
          Crenosoma vulpis, 286–287                      Dermatologic system assessment                  aqueocentesis and vitreocentesis, 62–63
          Cross-linked fibrin D-dimer. See D-dimer          allergen-specific serology, 38–39              arthrocentesis with synovial fluid analysis,
          Crossmatch, 200–201                              antinuclear antibody, 60–61                         64–68
          CRT. See Creatinine                              bartonella, 82–84                             arthroscopy, 69–71
          Cryopreservation of dog semen, 558–559           dermatophyte culture, 225–227                 barium-impregnated polyethylene spheres
          Crystals, urine, 696–699                         distemper, 231–233                                  (BIPS), 79–81
          CSF. See Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)                estradiol, 266–267                            bleeding time, 98–100
          CT. See Computed tomography                      feline immunodeficiency virus, 291–293         blood pressure determination: noninvasive
          CTLI (canine trypsin-like                        food trial, 318–319                                 and invasive, 104–106
                  immunoreactivity), 276–277               intradermal testing, 381–383                  blood sample collection, 107–108
          CTSH (canine TSH assay). See                     Lyme disease serology, 424–426                blood smear preparation, 112–113
                  Thyroid-stimulating hormone              skin biopsy, 564–565                          bone biopsy, 117–118
          Culture                                          skin scraping and trichogram, 566–567         bone marrow aspirate and biopsy,
            bartonella, 82–84                              skin surface and otic cytology, 568–569             119–121
            dermatophyte, 225–227                          somatomedin C, 576–577                        bone scan, 126–128
            Leptospira, 396–397                            thyroxine (T4 ), free, 622–623                brain-stem auditory evoked response,
            mycoplasma, 76                                 thyroxine (T4 ), total, 624–626                     129–131
            prostatic fluid, 498–499                        toxoplasmosis serology, 636–638               brain ultrasonography, 132–134
            semen analysis, 552–554                        ultrasound-guided mass or organ               bronchoalveolar lavage, 135–137
          Cushing’s Disease. See Hyperadrenocorticism            aspiration, 654–656                     bronchoscopy, 138–140
IND   BLBKXXX-VadenKnoll      February 16, 2009    9:51    Char Count=




                                                                           Index                                                                 751



          cardiac catheterization, 151–159                  skin biopsy, 564–565                            anticoagulant proteins, 56–57
          catheter-assisted stone retrieval, 164–165        skin scraping and trichogram, 566–567           D-dimer, 217–219
          central venous pressure, 166–167                  skin surface and otic cytology, 568–569         fibrin degradation products, 300–302
          cerebrospinal fluid tap, 168–171                   skull radiography, 570–572                    DIFA. See Direct immunofluorescence assay
          colonoscopy, 182–184                              splenic ultrasonography, 578–581                      (dIFA)
          computed tomography, 186–187                      thoracic radiography, 590–595                 Differential white blood cell count,
          conjunctival scraping and cytology,               thoracic ultrasonography, 596–598                     721–723
                188–189                                     thoracocentesis and fluid analysis,            Digestive system assessment. See
          cystocentesis, 202–204                                  599–601                                         Gastrointestinal system assessment
          cystometry and urethral pressure                  thoracoscopy, 602–605                         Digoxin, assay for, 741
                measurement, 205–209                        thyroid and parathyroid ultrasonography,      Dilated cardiomyopathy
          cystourethrography, 210–213                             608–611                                   carnitine deficiency and, 160–163
          cystourethroscopy, 214–216                        thyroid scintigraphy, 614–617                   taurine assay, 584–587
          dental radiography, 220–224                       tissue biopsy: needle and punch, 627–629      Dipetalonema reconditum, 386
          desmopressin response test, 228–230               tonometry, 630–633                            Dipylidium, 281
          echocardiography, 234–237                         tracheal wash, 639–641                        Direct antiglobulin test (DAT). See Coombs’
          electrocardiography, 241–244                      transsplenic portal scintigraphy, 642–644             test
          electroencephalography, 245–247                   ultrasound-guided mass or organ               Direct Coomb’s test. See Coombs’ test
          electromyography, 248–250                               aspiration, 654–656                     Direct immunofluorescence assay (dIFA)
          electroneurography, 251–253                       upper gastrointestinal radiographic             distemper, 231–232
          electroretinography, 254–255                            contrast studies, 657–659                 leptospirosis, 396–397
          epidurography, 256–257                            urethral catheterization, 662–665               Rocky Mountain spotted fever, 548–549
          esophagogastroduodenoscopy, 260–262               uterine ultrasonography, 707–709              Direct megakaryocyte immunofluorescence
          esophagography, 263–265                           vaginography, 710–713                                 assay, 484–485
          excretory urography, 270–272                      voiding urohydropropulsion, 714–715           Direct mutation tests, 333–334
          fine-needle aspiration, 306–307                    water-deprivation test, modified, 718–720      Dirofilaria immitis
          fluorescein dye test, 311–313                      Wood’s lamp examination, 734–735                heartworm serology, 356–357
          fluoroscopy, 314–315                             Diagnostic sample collection                      Knott’s test, 386–387
          food trial, 318–319                               abdominocentesis and fluid analysis,           Disseminated intravascular coagulation. See
          gastrointestinal ultrasonography, 326–329               11–15                                           DIC (disseminated intravascular
          gastroscopic and colonoscopic                     aqueocentesis and vitreocentesis, 62–63               coagulation)
                food-sensitivity testing, 330–332           arthrocentesis with synovial fluid analysis,   Distemper, 231–233
          gingival sulcus measurement, 338–340                    64–68                                   Dog erythrocyte antigen (DEA), 114–115
          glomerular filtration rate, 344–346                blood sample collection, 107–108               o
                                                                                                          D¨ hle bodies, 732
          horizontal beam radiography, 370–372              blood smear collection, 112–113               Doppler blood pressure determination,
          impression smear, 376–377                         bone biopsy, 117–118                                  104–105
          intradermal testing, 381–383                      bone marrow aspirate and biopsy,              Doppler echo. See Echocardiography
          laparoscopy, 390–393                                    119–121                                 Double-contrast gastrogram, 657–658
          liver and gallbladder ultrasonography,            bronchoalveolar lavage, 135–137               DPL (diagnostic peritoneal lavage), 11–15
                402–406                                     catheter-assisted stone retrieval, 164–165    Drug monitoring, therapeutic, 740–741
          liver biopsy, 407–411                             cerebrospinal fluid tap, 168–171               Dynamic lung compliance (CDYN ),
          lower gastrointestinal radiographic               conjunctival scraping and cytology,                   506–508
                contrast studies, 414–415                         188–189                                 Dynamic lung volume measurements, 506
          lower urinary tract ultrasonography,              cystocentesis, 202–204                        Dysphagia, fluoroscopy of, 315
                416–418                                     fine-needle aspiration, 306–307
          lymphangiography, 427–429                         impression smear, 376–377                     E
          magnetic resonance imaging, 432–435               nasal flush and biopsy, 446–449
          muscle and nerve biopsy, 440–442                  pericardiocentesis, 475–478                   Echocardiography, 234–237
          myelography, 443–445                              prostatic wash, 498–500                       EEG. See Electroencephalography
          nasal flush and biopsy, 446–449                    rectal scraping and cytology, 516–517         Effusions, analysis of, 308–310
          nasolacrimal irrigation, 450–451                  semen collection, 555–557                     Ehrlichia/Anaplasma, 238–240
          ocular ultrasonography, 454–456                   skin biopsy, 564–565                          Elbow joint assessment
          pancreatic ultrasonography, 464–466               skin scraping and trichogram, 566–567           arthrocentesis with synovial fluid analysis,
          pericardiocentesis, 475–478                       skin surface and otic cytology, 568–569               64–68
          prostatic wash, 498–500                           thoracocentesis and fluid analysis,              arthroscopy, 69–71
          pulmonary function tests, 506–509                       599–601                                 Electrocardiography, 241–244
          pulmonary perfusion scan, 510–513                 tissue biopsy: needle and punch, 627–629        ambulatory monitoring, 42–44
          pulse oximetry, 514–515                           tracheal wash, 639–641                        Electrodiagnostic tests
          rectal scraping and cytology, 516–517             urethral catheterization, 662–665               ambulatory electrocardiographic
          renal biopsy and aspiration, 532–535              Wood’s lamp examination, 734–735                      monitoring, 42–44
          renal ultrasonography, 536–538                  Diaphragmatic hernia                              brain-stem auditory evoked response,
          rhinoscopy, 544–547                               radiography, 592                                      129–131
          Schirmer tear test, 550–551                       ultrasonography, 597                            electrocardiography, 241–244
          semen collection, 555–557                       Diaphragmatic paralysis, fluoroscopy of, 315       electroencephalography, 245–247
          semen preservation, 558–560                     DIC (disseminated intravascular                   electromyography, 248–250
          skeletal radiography, 561–563                           coagulation)                              electroneurography, 251–253
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          752                                                              Index



          Electrodiagnostic tests (Cont.)                   magnesium, 430–431                              conjunctival scraping and cytology, 188
            electroretinography, 254–255                    osmolality, 457–459                             pleocytosis, 169
            pulse oximetry, 514–515                         parathyroid hormone, 467–469                  Eperythrozoon, 366
          Electroencephalography, 245–247                   parathyroid hormone-related protein,          EPI. See Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency
          Electrolytes, urine fractional excretion of,            470–471                                         (EPI)
                  674–676                                   phosphorus, 479–481                           Epidurography, 256–257
          Electromyography, 248–250                         potassium, 492–494                            Epithelial cells, in urine sediment, 698
          Electroneurography, 251–253                       progesterone, 495–497                         EPO. See Erythropoietin
          Electrophoresis, protein, 501–503                 skeletal radiography, 561–563                 ERG. See Electroretinography
          Electroretinography, 254–255                      skull radiography, 570–572                    Erythrocyte fragility test, 460–461
          ELISA                                             sodium, 573–575                               Erythrocytes
            babesia, 74–75                                  somatomedin C, 576–577                          bone marrow aspirate cytology
            brucellosis serology, 141–143                   T3 suppression test, 582–583                          assessment, 124
            distemper, 231–232                              thyroglobulin autoantibody, 606–607             red blood cell count, 518–519
            Ehrlichia/Anaplasma, 238–239                    thyroid and parathyroid ultrasonography,        red blood cell enzyme activity, 520–521
            fecal elastase, 276                                   608–611                                   red blood cell indices, 522–524
            feline coronavirus, 288–290                     thyroid-releasing hormone response test,        red blood cell morphology, 525–529
            feline immunodeficiency virus,                         612–613                                 Erythropoietin, 258–259
                  291–292                                   thyroid scintigraphy, 614–617                 Esophagogastroduodenoscopy, 260–262
            feline leukemia virus, 294–295                  thyroid-stimulating hormone, 618–619          Esophagography, 263–265
            Leptospira, 396–397                             thyroid-stimulating hormone stimulation       Esophagus
            Lyme disease serology, 424–425                        test, 620–621                             esophagogastroduodenoscopy, 260–262
            masticatory muscle myositis (2M                 thyroxine (T4 ), free, 622–623                  esophagography, 263–265
                  antibody assay), 436–437                  thyroxine (T4 ), total, 624–626                 fluoroscopy of swallowing, 314
            platelet antibody detection, 484–485            triglycerides, 645–647                          thoracic radiography, 593
            progesterone, 495–496                           ultrasound-guided mass or organ               Estradiol, 266–267
            relaxin, 530–531                                      aspiration, 654–656                     Ethylene glycol, 268–269
            thyroglobulin autoantibody, 606–607             urinalysis, 666–667                           Eucoleus boehmi, 281
            thyroxine (T4 ), total, 624–625                 urine glucose, 680–682                        Event monitoring, 42–44
            toxoplasmosis, 636–637                          urine ketones, 686–687                        Excretory urography, 270–272
            von Willebrand factor, 716                      urine pH, 688–689                             Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI)
          Embolism coil, 152, 153, 154                      urine protein/creatinine ratio, 693–695         cobalamin deficiency and, 179–180
          EMG. See Electromyography                         urine specific gravity, 701–703                  fecal elastase, 276–277
          Endocrine and metabolic systems assessment        water-deprivation test, modified,                folate concentrations, 316–317
            abdominal radiography, 2–7                            718–720                                   trypsin-like immunoreactivity (TLI),
            abdominal ultrasonography, 8–10               Endocrine tests, referral laboratories, 744             651–653
            ACTH assay, 20–21                             Endodontal disease, dental radiography and,     Exudate, fluid analysis, 308–309
            ACTH stimulation test, 22–23                          223
            adrenal ultrasonography, 28–31                Endomyocardial biopsy, by cardiac               F
            alkaline phosphate, 36–37                             catheterization, 154
            anion gap, 54–55                              Endoscopy                                       Fat, fecal, 278–279
            antinuclear antibody, 60–61                     arthroscopy, 69–71                            FCoV. See Feline coronavirus
            bicarbonate, 88–90                              bronchoscopy, 138–140                         FDP. See Fibrin degradation products
            blood gases, 101–103                            colonoscopy, 182–184                          Fecal direct smear and cytology,
            calcitriol, 146–147                             cystourethroscopy, 214–216                             273–275
            calcium, 148–150                                esophagogastroduodenoscopy, 260–262           Fecal elastase, 276–277
            chloride, 172–173                               gastroscopic and colonoscopic                 Fecal fat, 278–279
            cholesterol, 174–175                                  food-sensitivity testing, 330–332       Fecal flotation, 280–283
            cortisol, 192–193                               general principles, xxxv–xxxvii               Fecal occult blood, 284–285
            cortisol/creatinine ratio, 194–195                 instrumentation, xxxv                      Fecal sedimentation and Baermann exam,
            desmopressin response test, 228–230                potential complications, xxxvii                     286–287
            erythropoietin, 258–259                            procedural care of patient and             Fecal tests
            esophagography, 263–265                               endoscope, xxxv–xxxvii                    alpha-1 protease inhibitor, 40–41
            estradiol, 266–267                                 reporting results, xxxvii                    bacterial culture and sensitivity, 76–78
            fructosamine, 320–321                           indications in veterinary medicine, xxxvi       fecal direct smear and cytology, 273–275
            gastrin, 324–325                                laparoscopy, 390–393                            fecal elastase, 276–277
            glucose, 347–349                                rhinoscopy, 544–547                             fecal fat, 278–279
            glucose curve, 350–352                          thoracoscopy, 602–605                           fecal flotation, 280–283
            glycosylated hemoglobin, 353–355              Endouroscopy. See Cystourethroscopy               fecal occult blood, 284–285
            high-dose dexamethasone suppression           Enema, for colonoscopy, 182                       fecal sedimentation and Baermann exam,
                  test, 368–369                           Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. See                   286–287
            insulin and insulin/glucose ratio, 378–380            ELISA                                     general principles for performing, xxxii
            lactate, 388–389                              Eosinophilic effusion, fluid analysis, 14, 309         sample collection, xxxii
            laparoscopy, 390–393                          Eosinophils, 726–727                                  sample handling, xxxii
            low-dose dexamethasone suppression test,        bone marrow aspirate cytology                       sample storage, xxxii
                  412–413                                         assessment, 125                           Giardia fecal antigen, 336–337
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                                                                                Index                                                                753



        FEelectrolyte . See Urine fractional excretion of      G                                                 lower gastrointestinal radiographic
                  electrolytes                                                                                         contrast studies, 414–415
        Feline coronavirus, 288–290                            Gallbladder ultrasonography, 402–406              magnesium, 430–431
        Feline enteric coronavirus (FECV), 288–290             Gamma-glutamyltransferase, 322–323                magnetic resonance imaging, 432–435
        Feline hepatic lipidosis, ultrasonographic               urine gamma-glutamyltransferase/                osmolality, 457–459
                  assessment, 404                                      creatinine ratio, 677–679                 pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity,
        Feline immunodeficiency virus, 291–293                  Gammopathies, 501–503                                   462–463
        Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), 288–290           Gastric dilatation and volvulus, abdominal        pancreatic ultrasonography, 464–466
          abdominal fluid analysis, 14                                  radiography of, 3                         phosphorus, 479–481
        Feline leukemia virus, 294–296                         Gastric emptying time, of                         potassium, 492–494
        FeLV. See Feline leukemia virus                                barium-impregnated polyethylene           rectal scraping and cytology, 516–517
        Ferritin, 297–299                                              spheres, 79–81                            referral laboratories, 744
        Fibrin D-dimer. See D-dimer                            Gastric ulcers, ultrasonography assessment        sodium, 573–575
        Fibrin degradation products, 300–302                           of, 327–328                               total protein, 634–635
          D-dimer, 217–219                                     Gastrin, 324–325                                  toxoplasmosis serology, 636–638
        Fibrinogen, 303–305                                    Gastrinoma, 324–325                               triglycerides, 645–647
          acute phase proteins, 26–27                          Gastrointestinal system assessment                trypsin-like immunoreactivity (TLI),
          coagulation factors, 176–178                           abdominal radiography, 2–7                            651–653
          fibrin degradation products, 300–302                    abdominal ultrasonography, 8–10                 ultrasonography, 326–329
        Fine-needle aspiration, 306–307                          acetylcholine receptor antibody, 16–17          ultrasound-guided mass or organ
        FiO2 (fraction of inspired oxygen), 101–103              acetylcholinesterase, 18–19                           aspiration, 654–656
        FIP. See Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP)             albumin, 34–35                                  upper gastrointestinal radiographic
        FIV. See Feline immunodeficiency virus                    alpha-1 protease inhibitor, 40–41                     contrast studies, 657–659
        FLAIR (fluid-attenuated inversion recovery),              amylase, 48–49                                  zinc, 736–737
                  434                                            anion gap, 54–55                              Gastrointestinal ultrasonography,
        Flotation, fecal, 280–283                                barium-impregnated polyethylene spheres,              326–329
        Flow cytometric platelet                                       79–81                                   Gastroscopic and colonoscopic
                  immunofluorescence, 484–485                     bartonella, 82–84                                     food-sensitivity testing,
        Fluid analysis, 308–310                                  bicarbonate, 88–90                                    330–332
          abdominocentesis, 11–15                                calcium, 148–150                              Genetic testing, 333–335
          cerebrospinal fluid, 168–171                            chloride, 172–173                               referral laboratories, 744
          prostatic, 498–500                                     cobalamin, 179–181                            Gentamicin, assay for, 741
          thoracocentesis and, 599–601                           colonoscopy, 182–184                          GFR. See Glomerular filtration rate
        Fluorescein dye test, 311–313                            dental radiography, 220–224                   GFST (gastroscopic food-sensitivity test),
        Fluoroscopy, 314–315                                     distemper, 231–233                                    330–332
          angiography and angiocardiography,                     Ehrlichia/Anaplasma, 238–240                  GGT. See Gamma-glutamyltransferase
                  50–53                                          esophagogastroduodenoscopy, 260–262           Giardia, 280–282, 336–337
          cardiac catheterization, 151–159                       esophagography, 263–265                       Giardia fecal antigen, 336–337
          esophagography, 263–265                                fecal direct smear and cytology,              Gingival sulcus measurement, 338–340
        FNA. See Fine-needle aspiration                                273–275                                 Gingivitis, 338–340
        Folate, 316–317                                          fecal elastase, 276–277                       Glaucoma, tonometry and, 630–633
        Food allergy, 318–319                                    fecal fat, 278–279                            Globulins, 341–343
        Food intolerance, 318–319                                fecal flotation, 280–283                       Glomerular filtration rate, 344–346
        Food-sensitivity testing, gastroscopic and               fecal occult blood, 284–285                   Glucose, 347–349
                  colonoscopic, 330–332                          fecal sedimentation and Baermann exam,          insulin/glucose ratio, 378–380
        Food trial, 318–319                                            286–287                                   urine, 680–682
        Foramen magnum, brain ultrasonography                    feline coronavirus, 288–290                   Glucose curve, 350–352
                  imaging through, 132–133                       feline immunodeficiency virus, 291–293         Glucosuria, 680–682
        Foreign body, gastrointestinal                           fluid analysis, 308–310                        Glycoalbumin. See Fructosamine
          abdominal radiography, 3                               fluoroscopy, 314–315                           Glycosylated hemoglobin, 353–355
          ultrasonography, 327, 328                              folate, 316–317                               Growth hormone, 576–577
        Fragment D-dimer. See D-dimer                            food trial, 318–319                           Guillotine liver biopsy. See Liver biopsy
        Fragmented medial coronoid process,                      gastrin, 324–325
                  arthroscopy of, 69–71                          gastroscopic and colonoscopic
                                                                       food-sensitivity testing, 330–332       H
        Fructosamine, 320–321
        Function tests                                           Giardia fecal antigen, 336–337                Haemobartonella, 366–367
          activated clotting time, 24–25                         gingival sulcus measurement, 338–340          Haptoglobin, 26–27
          bleeding time, 98–100                                  glucose, 347–349                              HbA1. See Glycosylated hemoglobin
          cystometry and urethral pressure                       horizontal beam radiography,                  Hct. See Hematocrit
                  measurement, 205–209                                 370–372                                 HDDST. See High-dose dexamethasone
          desmopressin response test, 228–230                    iron level and total iron-binding capacity,           suppression test
          glomerular filtration rate, 344–346                           384–385                                 HDP (hydromethylene diphosphate),
          nasolacrimal irrigation, 450–451                       lactate, 388–389                                      126–128
          pulmonary, 506–509                                     laparoscopy, 390–393                          Heart disease/assessment
          Schirmer tear test, 550–551                            lead, 394–395                                   ambulatory electrocardiographic
          water-deprivation test, modified, 718–720               lipase, 399–401                                       monitoring, 42–44
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          754                                                               Index



          Heart disease/assessment (Cont.)                    lactate, 388–389                           Hemostasis tests, referral laboratories for,
            angiography and angiocardiography,                laparoscopy, 390–393                               744
                  50–53                                       lead, 394–395                              Hemotrophic mycoplasmas, 366–367
            echocardiography, 234–237                         lupus erythematosus cell preparation,      Hepatobiliary system assessment
            thoracic radiography, 593                               419–421                                abdominal radiography, 2–7
          Heart electrical activity measurement, by           lymphangiography, 427–429                    abdominal ultrasonography, 8–10
                  electrocardiography, 241–244                methemoglobin, 438–439                       abdominocentesis and fluid analysis,
          Heartworm                                           osmotic fragility, 460–461                         11–15
            Knott’s test, 386–387                             partial thromboplastin time, activated,      alanine aminotransferase, 32–33
            serologic tests, 356–357                                472–474                                albumin, 34–35
          Heartworm serology, 356–357                         phosphorus, 479–481                          alkaline phosphatase, 36–37
          Heinz bodies, 358–359                               PIVKA test, 482–483                          ammonia, 45–47
          Hematest tablet test, 284–285                       platelet antibody detection, 484–485         amylase, 48–49
          Hematocrit, 360–362                                 platelet count and volume, 486–488           angiography and angiocardiography,
          Hematology reference intervals, 739                 platelet function tests, 489–491                   50–53
          Hematoma, liver ultrasonography and, 404            protein electrophoresis, 501–503             anticoagulant proteins, 56–57
          Hematuria, 683–684, 698                             prothrombin time, 504–505                    aspartate aminotransferase, 72–73
          Hemic, lymphatic, and immune systems                pulse oximetry, 514–515                      bartonella, 82–84
                  assessment                                  red blood cell count, 518–519                bile acids, 91–93
            abdominal radiography, 2–7                        red blood cell enzyme activity, 520–521      bilirubin, 94–95
            abdominal ultrasonography, 8–10                   red blood cell indices, 522–524              carnitine, 160–163
            activated clotting time, 24–25                    red blood cell morphology, 525–529           cholesterol, 174–175
            acute phase proteins, 26–27                       renal ultrasonography, 536–538               fecal sedimentation and Baermann exam,
            anticoagulant proteins, 56–57                     reticulocyte count, 539–541                        286–287
            anticoagulant screen, 58–59                       rheumatoid factor, 542–543                   feline coronavirus, 288–290
            antinuclear antibody, 60–61                       Rocky Mountain spotted fever,                feline immunodeficiency virus, 291–293
            babesia, 74–75                                          548–549                                fibrinogen, 303–305
            bartonella, 82–84                                 splenic ultrasonography, 578–581             fluid analysis, 308–310
            Bence-Jones proteins, 85–87                       thoracic radiography, 590–595                gamma-glutamyltransferase, 322–323
            bilirubin, 94–95                                  thoracic ultrasonography, 596–598            globulins, 341–343
            bleeding time, 98–100                             thoracocentesis and fluid analysis,           glucose, 347–349
            blood smear collection, 112–113                         599–601                                horizontal beam radiography, 370–372
            blood smear microscopic examination,              thoracoscopy, 602–605                        iron level and total iron-binding capacity,
                  109–111                                     total protein, 634–635                             384–385
            bone marrow aspirate and biopsy,                  ultrasound-guided mass or organ              laparoscopy, 390–393
                  119–121                                           aspiration, 654–656                    Leptospira, 396–398
            bone marrow aspirate cytology:                    urinalysis, 666–667                          lipase, 399–401
                  microscopy examination, 122–125             urine bilirubin, 671–673                     liver and gallbladder ultrasonography,
            buffy coat preparations, 144–145                  urine heme protein, 683–685                        402–406
            coagulation factors, 176–178                      urine protein, 690–692                       liver biopsy, 407–411
            complete blood count, 185                         urine sediment, 696–700                      magnetic resonance imaging, 432–435
            Coombs’ test, 190–191                             von Willebrand factor, 716–717               pancreatic ultrasonography, 464–466
            crossmatch, 200–201                               white blood cell count and differential,     protein electrophoresis, 501–503
            D-dimer, 217–219                                        721–723                                sodium, 573–575
            distemper, 231–233                                white blood cells: basophils, 724–725        total protein, 634–635
            Ehrlichia/Anaplasma, 238–240                      white blood cells: eosinophils, 726–727      toxoplasmosis serology, 636–638
            erythropoietin, 258–259                           white blood cells: lymphocytes, 728–729      transsplenic portal scintigraphy, 642–644
            fecal occult blood, 284–285                       white blood cells: monocytes, 730–731        triglycerides, 645–647
            feline coronavirus, 288–290                       white blood cells: neutrophils, 732–733      ultrasound-guided mass or organ
            feline immunodeficiency virus, 291–293             zinc, 736–737                                      aspiration, 654–656
            feline leukemia virus, 294–296                  Hemoabdomen, 14                                urea nitrogen, 660–661
            ferritin, 297–299                               Hemoccult slide test, 284–285                  urinalysis, 666–667
            fibrin degradation products, 300–302             Hemoglobin, 363–365                            urine bilirubin, 671–673
            fibrinogen, 303–305                                arterial hemoglobin saturation (SpO2 ),      urine sediment, 696–700
            fluid analysis, 308–310                                  514–515                                urine specific gravity, 701–703
            food trial, 318–319                               glycosylated (HBA1), 353–355                 zinc, 736–737
            gastroscopic and colonoscopic                     Heinz bodies, 358–359                      Hepatomegaly, ultrasonographic assessment,
                  food-sensitivity testing, 330–332           mean cell (corpuscular) hemoglobin                 403
            globulins, 341–343                                      (MCH), 522–524                       Heterobilharzia americana, 286
            Heinz bodies, 358–359                             mean cell (corpuscular) hemoglobin         High-dose dexamethasone suppression
            hematocrit, 360–362                                     concentration (MCHC), 522–524                test, 368–369
            hemoglobin, 363–365                               methemoglobin, 438–439, 520                Hip joint assessment, by arthroscopy, 69–71
            hemotrophic mycoplasmas, 366–367                  oxygenated (HbO2 ), 514–515                Histology/histopathology. See also Cytology
            immunoglobulin assays, 373–375                  Hemoglobinuria, 683–684                        distemper, 231–232
            iron level and total iron-binding capacity,     Hemophilia, 176–178                            esophagogastroduodenoscopy biopsy,
                  384–385                                   Hemorrhagic effusion, 308–309                        260–261
IND   BLBKXXX-VadenKnoll      February 16, 2009      9:51    Char Count=




                                                                             Index                                                                755



        Holter monitoring, 42–44                            I                                              Iohexol clearance, for glomerular filtration
        Horizontal beam radiography, 370–372                                                                        rate assessment, 344–346
        Humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy                 IBD (inflammatory bowel disease),               Iron
          calcitriol, 146–147                                        esophagogastroduodenoscopy for           bone marrow aspirate cytology assessment
          parathyroid hormone, 467–469                               diagnosis of, 261                              of iron stores, 124
          parathyroid hormone-related protein,              ICA. See Immunochromatographic assay              ferritin, 297–299
                470–471                                     IDT. See Intradermal testing                      serum levels, 384–385
        Hydrocephalus assessment, by brain                  IEP (immunoelectrophoresis), 373–375              total iron-binding capacity (TIBC),
                ultrasonography, 132–134                    IFA assay                                               384–385
        Hydromethylene diphosphate (HDP),                     babesia, 74–75                               Iron level and total iron-binding capacity,
                126–128                                       bartonella, 82–84                                     384–385
        Hyperadrenocorticism                                  brucellosis serology, 141–143                Isosthenuria, 701
          ACTH assay, 20–21                                   distemper, 231–232
          ACTH stimulation test, 22–23                        Ehrlichia/Anaplasma, 238–239
                                                                                                           J
          adrenal ultrasonography, 31                         feline coronavirus, 288–290
          alkaline phosphatase, 36–37                         feline immunodeficiency virus, 291–292        Jaffe reaction, 198
          cortisol, 192–193                                   feline leukemia virus, 294–295               Joint assessment. See also Musculoskeletal
          cortisol/creatinine ratio, 194–195                  Lyme disease serology, 424–425                        system assessment
          high-dose dexamethasone suppression                 Rocky Mountain spotted fever, 548–549           arthrocentesis with synovial fluid analysis,
                test, 368–369                                 toxoplasmosis, 636–637                                64–68
          low-dose dexamethasone suppression test,          IgE, allergen-specific serology, 38–39             arthroscopy, 69–71
                412–413                                     IGF-I (insulin-like growth factor I),          Jones test, 311
        Hypercalcemia                                                576–577
          calcium assay, 148–150                            IHC. See Immunohistochemistry (IHC)            K
          humeral hypercalcemia of malignancy,              Immune-mediated hemolytic anemia
                                                                     (IMHA), Coombs’ test for,             Keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS), 550–551
                146–147, 467–469, 470–471                                                                  Ketones, urine, 686–687
        Hyperchloremia, 172–173                                      190–191
                                                            Immune-mediated thrombocytopenia (ITP),        Kidney. See also Renal system assessment
        Hyperglycemia                                                                                        radiography, 4
          fructosamine, 320–321                                      484–485
                                                            Immune system assessment. See Hemic,             ultrasonography, 8, 9–10, 536–538
          glucose test, 347–349                                                                            Knott’s test, 386–387
        Hyperkalemia, 492–494                                        lymphatic, and immune systems
        Hyperlipidemia                                               assessment
                                                            Immunoassays, referral laboratories for, 745   L
          cholesterol, 174–175
          triglycerides, 645–647                            Immunochromatographic assay (ICA)              Laboratory normal values, table of, 739
        Hyperparathyroidism, 467–469                          feline immunodeficiency virus, 291–292        Lab tests
          parathyroid gland ultrasonography,                  feline leukemia virus, 294–295                 acetylcholine receptor antibody, 16–17
                608–611                                     Immunoelectrophoresis (IEP), 373–375             acetylcholinesterase, 18–19
        Hypersthenuria, 701                                 Immunoglobulin assays, 373–375                   ACTH assay, 20–21
        Hyperthyroidism                                     Immunohistochemistry (IHC), distemper            ACTH stimulation test, 22–23
          T3 suppression test, 582–583                               assay, 231–232                          acute phase proteins, 26–27
          thyroid gland ultrasonography, 608–611            Immunophenotyping, referral laboratories         alanine aminotransferase, 32–33
          thyroid-releasing hormone response test,                   for, 745                                albumin, 34–35
                612–613                                     Immunoradiometric assay (IRMA), for              alkaline phosphatase, 36–37
          thyroxine (T4 ), free, 622–623                             parathyroid hormone, 467–469            allergen-specific serology, 38–39
          thyroxine (T4 ), total, 624–626                   Immunoturbidimetric test, for urine              alpha-1 protease inhibitor, 40–41
        Hypertriglyceridemia, 645–647                                albumin, 668–670                        ammonia, 45–47
        Hypoadrenocorticism                                 Impression smear, 376–377                        amylase, 48–49
          ACTH assay, 20–21                                   skin, 568                                      anion gap, 54–55
          ACTH stimulation test, 22–23                      Indirect fluorescent antibody assay. See IFA      anticoagulant proteins, 56–57
          cortisol, 192–193                                          assay                                   anticoagulant screen, 58–59
        Hypoalbuminemia, 34–35                              Indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test, for        antinuclear antibody, 60–61
        Hypocalcemia, calcium assay for,                             toxoplasmosis, 636–637                  aspartate aminotransferase, 72–73
                148–150                                     Insecticides, organophosphate and                babesia, 74–75
        Hypochloremia, 172–173                                       carbamate, 18–19                        bacterial culture and sensitivity, 76–78
        Hypoglycemia, 347–349                               Insulin and insulin/glucose ratio, 378–380       Bartonella, 82–84
        Hypokalemia, 492–494                                Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I),            Bence-Jones proteins, 85–87
        Hypothyroidism                                               576–577                                 bicarbonate, 88–90
          thyroglobulin autoantibody, 606–607               Insulinoma                                       bile acids, 91–93
          thyroid-stimulating hormone assay,                  insulin ans insulin/glucose ratio, 378–379     bilirubin, 94–95
                618–619                                       pancreatic ultrasonography, 464–466            bladder tumor analyte, 96–97
          thyroid-stimulating hormone stimulation           Interstitial pattern, lung radiography, 594      blood gases, 101–103
                test, 620–621                               Intradermal testing, 381–383                     blood smear microscopic examination,
          thyroxine (T4 ), free, 622–623                    Intraocular pressure (IOP), 630–633                    109–111
          thyroxine (T4 ), total, 624–626                   Intraoral radiography, 220–224                   blood typing, 114–116
        Hypoxemia, blood gas assessment of,                 Intussusception, ultrasonography assessment      bone marrow aspirate cytology:
                101–103                                              of, 328                                       microscopic evaluation, 122–125
IND   BLBKXXX-VadenKnoll      February 16, 2009    9:51   Char Count=




          756                                                                Index



          Lab tests (Cont.)                                   lupus erythematosus cell preparation,           urine pH, 688–689
            brucellosis serology, 141–143                           419–421                                   urine protein, 690–692
            buffy coat preparations, 144–145                  luteinizing hormone, 422–423                    urine protein/creatinine ratio, 693–695
            calcitriol, 146–147                               Lyme disease serology, 424–426                  urine sediment, 696–700
            calcium, 148–150                                  magnesium, 430–431                              urine specific gravity, 701–703
            carnitine, 160–163                                masticatory muscle myositis (2M                 urolith analysis, 704–706
            chloride, 172–173                                       antibody assay), 436–437                  von Willebrand factor, 716–717
            cholesterol, 174–175                              methemoglobin, 438–439                          white blood cell count and differential,
            coagulation factors, 176–178                      natriuretic peptides, 452–453                         721–723
            cobalamin, 179–181                                osmolality, 457–459                             white blood cells: basophils, 724–725
            complete blood count, 185                         osmotic fragility, 460–461                      white blood cells: eosinophils, 726–727
            Coombs’ test, 190–191                             pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity,             white blood cells: lymphocytes, 728–729
            cortisol, 192–193                                       462–463                                   white blood cells: monocytes, 730–731
            cortisol/creatinine ratio, 194–195                parathyroid hormone, 467–469                    white blood cells: neutrophils, 732–733
            creatine kinase, 196–197                          parathyroid hormone-related protein,            zinc, 736–737
            creatinine, 198–199                                     470–471                                 Lactate, 388–389
            crossmatch, 200–201                               partial thromboplastin time, activated,       Laparoscopy, 390–393
            D-dimer, 217–219                                        472–474                                 Laparotomy, for liver biopsy, 407–411
            dermatophyte culture, 225–227                     phosphorus, 479–481                           Large intestine. See also Gastrointestinal
            distemper, 231–233                                PIVKA test, 482–483                                   system assessment
            Ehrlichia/Anaplasma, 238–240                      platelet antibody detection, 484–485            radiography, 5
            erythropoietin, 258–259                           platelet count and volume, 486–488              ultrasonography, 326–328
            estradiol, 266–267                                platelet function tests, 489–491              Lateral telescope cannula, 603
            ethylene glycol, 268–269                          potassium, 492–494                            Latex agglutination test (LAT), for
            fecal direct smear and cytology, 273–275          progesterone, 495–497                                 toxoplasmosis, 636–637
            fecal elastase, 276–277                           protein electrophoresis, 501–503              L-carnitine. See Carnitine
            fecal fat, 278–279                                prothrombin time, 504–505                     LDDST. See Low-dose dexamethasone
            fecal flotation, 280–283                           red blood cell count, 518–519                         suppression test
            fecal occult blood, 284–285                       red blood cell enzyme activity, 520–521       Lead, 394–395
            fecal sedimentation and Baermann exam,            red blood cell indices, 522–524               LE cell preparation. See Lupus
                  286–287                                     red blood cell morphology, 525–529                    erythematosus cell preparation
            feline coronavirus, 288–290                       relaxin, 530–531                              Left shift, 732
            feline immunodeficiency virus, 291–293             reticulocyte count, 539–541                   Leiomyoma/leiomyosarcoma,
            feline leukemia virus, 294–296                    rheumatoid factor, 542–543                            gastrointestinal ultrasonography of,
            ferritin, 297–299                                 Rocky Mountain spotted fever, 548–549                 327–328
            fibrin degradation products, 300–302               semen analysis, 552–554                       Leptospira, 396–398
            fibrinogen, 303–305                                sodium, 573–575                               Leukocyte count. See White blood cell count
            fluid analysis, 308–310                            somatomedin C, 576–577                                and differential
            folate, 316–317                                   T3 suppression test, 582–583                  LH. See Luteinizing hormone
            fructosamine, 320–321                             taurine, 584–587                              Light microscopy. See Microscopy, light
            gamma-glutamyltransferase, 322–323                testosterone, 588–589                         Linked marker tests, 333–334
            gastrin, 324–325                                  thyroglobulin autoantibody, 606–607           Lipase, 399–401
            genetic testing, 333–335                          thyroid-releasing hormone response test,        pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity,
            Giardia fecal antigen, 336–337                          612–613                                         462–463
            globulins, 341–343                                thyroid-stimulating hormone, 618–619          Lipid-storage myopathies, carnitine
            glucose, 347–349                                  thyroid-stimulating hormone stimulation               deficiency and, 160–163
            glucose curve, 350–352                                  test, 620–621                           Liver. See also Hepatobiliary system
            glycosylated hemoglobin, 353–355                  thyroxine (T4 ), free, 622–623                        assessment
            heartworm serology, 356–357                       thyroxine (T4 ), total, 624–626                 biopsy, 391, 407–411
            Heinz bodies, 358–359                             total protein, 634–635                          radiography, 3
            hematocrit, 360–362                               toxoplasmosis serology, 636–638                 ultrasonography, 8, 9, 402–406
            hemoglobin, 363–365                               triglycerides, 645–647                        Liver and gallbladder ultrasonography,
            hemotrophic mycoplasmas, 366–367                  troponins, cardiac specific, 648–650                   402–406
            high-dose dexamethasone suppression               trypsin-like immunoreactivity,                Liver biopsy, 391, 407–411
                  test, 368–369                                     651–653                                 Lobar sign, 593
            immunoglobulin assays, 373–375                    urea nitrogen, 660–661                        Low-dose dexamethasone suppression
            insulin and insulin/glucose ratio, 378–380        urinalysis overview, 666–667                          test, 412–413
            iron level and total iron-binding capacity,       urine albumin, 668–670                        Lower gastrointestinal radiographic
                  384–385                                     urine bilirubin, 671–673                              contrast studies, 414–415
            Knott’s test, 386–387                             urine fractional excretion of electrolytes,   Lower urinary tract ultrasonography,
            lactate, 388–389                                        674–676                                         416–418
            lead, 394–395                                     urine gamma-glutamyltransferase/              Lumbar injection myelography, 443–444
            leptospira, 396–398                                     creatinine ratio, 677–679               Lumbar tap, CSF fluid, 168–169
            lipase, 399–401                                   urine glucose, 680–682                        Lung. See also Respiratory system assessment
            low-dose dexamethasone suppression test,          urine heme protein, 683–685                     thoracic radiography, 593–594
                  412–413                                     urine ketones, 686–687                          thoracic ultrasonography, 596–598
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                                                                              Index                                                               757



        Lung mechanics, assessment of, 507                   Microhepatica, ultrasonographic assessment,      skull radiography, 570–572
        Lung scan. See Pulmonary perfusion scan                     403                                       toxoplasmosis serology, 636–638
        Lupus erythematosus cell preparation,                Microphakia, 455                                 ultrasound-guided mass or organ
               419–421                                       Microscopic agglutination test (MAT), for              aspiration, 654–656
        Luteinizing hormone, 422–423                                Leptospira, 396–397                       urinalysis, 666–667
        Lyme disease serology, 424–426                       Microscopy, light                                urine heme protein, 683–685
        Lymphangiography, 427–429                             babesia, 74–75                                 Myasthenia gravis (MG), acetylcholine
        Lymphatic system assessment. See Hemic,               blood smear microscopic examination,                  receptor antibody test for, 16–17
               lymphatic, and immune systems                        109–111                                  Mycoplasmas
               assessment                                     bone marrow aspirate cytology, 122–125          culture, 76
        Lymph nodes, radiography of, 6                        distemper, 231–232                              hemotrophic, 366–367
        Lymphocytes, 728–729                                  Ehrlichia/Anaplasma, 238–239                   Myelography, 443–445
          conjunctival scraping and cytology, 188             fecal direct smear and cytology, 273–275       Myeloid/erythroid (M/E) ratio, 123
          pleocytosis, 169                                    urine sediment, 696–700                        Myoglobinuria, 683–684
        Lymphocytic thyroiditis, 606–607                     Microsporum spp., 225–226, 734
        Lymphoma, gastrointestinal ultrasonography           Mineralization, liver ultrasonography and,      N
               of, 327–328                                          404
                                                             Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC),         Nanophyetus salmincola, 286
                                                                    76–77                                    Nasal flush and biopsy, 446–449
        M
                                                             MMM. See Masticatory muscle myositis            Nasolacrimal duct assessment, with
        Macroaggregated albumin (MAA), 510–512                      (2M antibody assay)                              fluorescein dye test, 312–313
        Macrophages. See Monocytes                           Modified transudate, 308–309                     Nasolacrimal irrigation, 450–451
        Magnesium, 430–431                                   Molecular diagnostics, referral laboratories    Natriuretic peptides, 452–453
        Magnetic resonance imaging, 432–435                         for, 745                                 NCV (nerve conduction velocity), 251–252
        Malassezia, 568–569                                  Monoclonal gammopathies, 373–374                Needle biopsy, 627–629
        Mast cell tumor staging, buffy coat                  Monocytes, 730–731                              Neoplasia
               preparations for, 144–145                     MPV (mean platelet volume), 486–487               gastrointestinal ultrasonography, 327–328
        Masticatory muscle myositis (2M                      MRI. See Magnetic resonance imaging               humeral hypercalcemia of malignancy,
               antibody assay), 436–437                      Mucoceles, gallbladder, 405                             146–147, 467–469, 470–471
        MAT. See Microscopic agglutination test              Mucosal allergy testing. See Gastroscopic and     immunoglobulin assays, 373–375
               (MAT)                                                colonoscopic food-sensitivity testing      impression smear, 376–377
        MCH (mean cell (corpuscular)                         Multiple myeloma, Bence-Jones proteins            liver ultrasonography, 404
               hemoglobin), 522–524                                 and, 85–87                                 splenic ultrasonography, 579, 580
        MCHC (mean cell (corpuscular)                        Muscle and nerve biopsy, 440–442                  thoracic ultrasonography, 597
               hemoglobin concentration),                    Musculoskeletal scintigraphy                    Neoplastic effusion, 308–309
               522–524                                        bone scan, 126–128                             Neorickettsia, 238
        MCV (mean cell volume), 522–524                       Lyme disease serology, 424–426                 Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus
        MDP (methylene diphosphate), 126–128                 Musculoskeletal system assessment                 desmopressin response test, 228–230
        Mean cell (corpuscular) hemoglobin                    acetylcholinesterase, 18–19                      water-deprivation test, modified, 718–720
               (MCH), 522–524                                 alanine aminotransferase, 32–33                Nephrogram, 271–272
        Mean cell (corpuscular) hemoglobin                    alkaline phosphate, 36–37                      Nerve biopsy, 440–442
               concentration (MCHC), 522–524                  antinuclear antibody, 60–61                    Nerve conduction studies. See
        Mean cell volume (MCV), 522–524                       arthrocentesis with synovial fluid analysis,            Electroneurography
        Mean platelet volume (MPV), 486–487                         64–68                                    Nerve conduction velocity (NCV), 251–252
        Mediastinum                                           arthroscopy, 69–71                             Nervous system assessment
         thoracic radiography, 592–593                        aspartate aminotransferase, 72–73                acetylcholinesterase, 18–19
         thoracic ultrasonography, 596–598                    bone biopsy, 117–118                             brain-stem auditory evoked response,
        Megaesophagus, 593                                    bone scan, 126–128                                     129–131
        Megakaryocytes                                        calcium, 148–150                                 brain ultrasonography, 132–134
         bone marrow aspirate cytology                        carnitine, 160–163                               cerebrospinal fluid tap, 168–171
               assessment, 123, 125                           computed tomography, 186                         computed tomography, 186
         immunofluorescence assay for, 484–485                 creatine kinase, 196–197                         distemper, 231–233
        M/E (myeloid/erythroid) ratio, 123                    Ehrlichia/Anaplasma, 238–240                     Ehrlichia/Anaplasma, 238–240
        Metabolic acidosis/alkalosis. See Acid-base           epidurography, 256–257                           electroencephalography, 245–247
               disorders                                      esophagography, 263–265                          electroneurography, 251–253
        Metabolic system assessment. See Endocrine            feline immunodeficiency virus, 291–293            epidurography, 256–257
               and metabolic systems assessment               horizontal beam radiography, 370–372             esophagography, 263–265
        Methemoglobin, 438–439, 520                           lactate, 388–389                                 feline coronavirus, 288–290
        Methylene diphosphate (MDP), 126–128                  magnetic resonance imaging, 432–435              feline immunodeficiency virus, 291–293
        Metoclopramide, use in colonoscopy, 182               masticatory muscle myositis (2M                  fluoroscopy, 314–315
        MG (myasthenia gravis), acetylcholine                       antibody assay), 436–437                   glucose, 347–349
               receptor antibody test for, 16–17              myelography, 443–445                             lead, 394–395
        MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration),               phosphorus, 479–481                              Leptospira, 396–398
               76–77                                          rheumatoid factor, 542–543                       magnetic resonance imaging, 432–435
        Microalbuminuria, 668–670                             Rocky Mountain spotted fever, 548–549            myelography, 443–445
        Microfilariae, Knott’s test, 386–387                   skeletal radiography, 561–563                    Rocky Mountain spotted fever, 548–549
IND   BLBKXXX-VadenKnoll     February 16, 2009    9:51   Char Count=




          758                                                               Index



          Nervous system assessment (Cont.)                 tonometry, 630–633                              PCR tests
            skeletal radiography, 561–563                   toxoplasmosis serology, 636–638                    babesia, 74–75
            skull radiography, 570–572                    Oral cavity assessment. See Gastrointestinal         bartonella, 82–84
            toxoplasmosis serology, 636–638                       system assessment                            distemper, 231–232
          Neuromuscular system assessment                 Oral challenge. See Food trial                       Ehrlichia/Anaplasma, 238–239
            acetylcholine receptor antibody, 16–17        Organophosphate insecticides,                        feline coronavirus, 288–290
            acetylcholinesterase, 18–19                           acetylcholinesterase test and, 18–19         feline immunodeficiency virus, 291–292
            calcium, 148–150                              Orocolic transit time, of                            feline leukemia virus, 294–295
            electromyography, 248–250                             barium-impregnated polyethylene              genetic testing, 333–335
            esophagography, 263–265                               spheres, 79–81                               hemotrophic mycoplasmas, 366–367
            feline coronavirus, 288–290                   Oscillometric blood pressure determination,          Leptospira, 396–397
            horizontal beam radiography, 370–372                  104–105                                      Lyme disease serology, 424–426
            magnesium, 430–431                            Osmolality, 457–459                                  Rocky Mountain spotted fever, 548–549
            magnetic resonance imaging, 432–435           Osmotic fragility, 460–461                        PCV (packed cell volume). See Hematocrit
            masticatory muscle myositis (2M               Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD),                  PDH. See Pituitary-dependent
                  antibody assay), 436–437                        arthroscopy of, 69–71                              hyperadrenocorticism (PDH)
            phosphorus, 479–481                           Otic cytology, 568–569                            Pearsonema plica, 281
            referral laboratories, 746                    Oxygenation assessment, by blood gases,           Pelvis, radiography of, 561–562
            skeletal radiography, 561–563                         101–103                                   Percutaneous catheter introducer system
          Neutrophils, 732–733                                                                                       (modified Seldinger technique),
            bone marrow aspirate cytology                                                                            152–153
                                                           P
                  assessment, 124                                                                           Pericardial effusion, 475–478
            conjunctival scraping and cytology, 188       Pacemaker placement, 153                          Pericardiocentesis, 475–478
            pleocytosis, 169                              Packed cell volume (PCV). See Hematocrit          Periodontal disease
          New methylene blue stain                        PaCO2 (arterial partial pressure of carbon           dental radiography, 222–223
            for Heinz bodies, 358                                 dioxide), 101–103                            gingival sulcus measurement, 338–340
            for reticulocytes, 539                        Pancreas                                          Periodontal probing, 338–340
          Normal values, laboratory, 739                    radiography, 5                                  Peripheral blood smear evaluation. See Blood
          NT-proBNP, 452–453                                ultrasonography, 9, 10, 464–466                          smear microscopic examination
          Nuclear medicine                                Pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity,               Peristaltic abnormalities, ultrasonography
            bone scan, 126–128                                    462–463                                            assessment of, 328
            pulmonary perfusion scan, 510–513             Pancreatic ultrasonography, 464–466               Peritoneal cavity, radiography of, 6
            thyroid scintigraphy, 614–617                 Pancreatitis                                      Peritonitis, 14
            transsplenic portal scintigraphy, 642–644       abdominal fluid analysis, 14                     PF3 (platelet factor 3) immunoinjury test,
          Nucleated cell count, in fluid analysis,           amylase, 48–49                                           484–485
                  308–309                                   pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity,             PFA (Platelet function analyzer), 489–491
                                                                  462–463                                   PFK (phosphofructokinase), 520–521
                                                            pancreatic ultrasonography, 464–466             PFT. See Pulmonary function tests
           O
                                                            trypsin-like immunoreactivity (TLI),            PH
          Obstruction, ultrasonography assessment of              651–653                                      blood, 101–103
                  GI, 327, 328                            PAO2 (alveolar partial pressure of oxygen),          urine, 688–689
          Occult blood, fecal, 284–285                            101–103                                   Phenobarbital, assay for, 741
          OCD (osteochondritis dissecans),                PaO2 (arterial partial pressure of oxygen),       Pheochromocytoma, 31
                  arthroscopy of, 69–71                           101–103                                   Phosphofructokinase (PFK), 520–521
          Ocular ultrasonography, 454–456                 Paragonimus kellicoti, 286                        Phosphorus, 479–481
          One-stage prothrombin time. See                 Parasites                                         Physaloptera, 281
                  Prothrombin time                          babesia, 74–75                                  Pigmenturia, 683
          Ophthalmic system assessment                      Demodex, 566                                    Pigtail catheter, 153
            aqueocentesis and vitreocentesis, 62–63         fecal flotation, 280–283                         Pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism
            bartonella, 82–84                               fecal sedimentation and Baermann exam,                   (PDH)
            conjunctival scraping and cytology,                   286–287                                      ACTH assay, 20–21
                  188–189                                   Giardia fecal antigen test, 336–337                low-dose dexamethasone suppression test,
            distemper, 231–233                              toxoplasmosis serology, 636–638                          412–413
            Ehrlichia/Anaplasma, 238–240                  Parathyroid hormone, 467–469                      PIVKA test, 482–483
            electroretinography, 254–255                    calcitriol assay, 146–147                       PK (pyruvate kinase), 520–521
            feline coronavirus, 288–290                     calcium assay, 148–150                          Plasmin, 300
            feline immunodeficiency virus, 291–293         Parathyroid hormone-related protein,              Plasminogen, 300
            fluorescein dye test, 311–313                          470–471                                   Platelet antibody detection, 484–485
            Leptospira, 396–398                           Parathyroid ultrasonography, 608–611              Platelet count and volume, 486–488
            magnetic resonance imaging, 432–435           Paraxiphoid telescope cannula, 603                Platelet factor 3 (PF3) immunoinjury test,
            nasolacrimal irrigation, 450–451              Partial thromboplastin time, activated,                    484–485
            ocular ultrasonography, 454–456                       472–474                                   Platelet function analyzer (PFA), 489–491
            Rocky Mountain spotted fever, 548–549         Patent ductus arteriosus, cardiac                 Platelet function tests, 489–491
            Schirmer tear test, 550–551                           catheterization and, 154–157              Platelet surface-associated immunoglobulin
            skull radiography, 570–572                    Patient positioning. See specific test/procedure            (PSAIg), 484–485
            taurine, 584–587                              Pb. See Lead                                      PLE. See Protein-losing enteropathy (PLE)
IND   BLBKXXX-VadenKnoll       February 16, 2009       9:51    Char Count=




                                                                               Index                                                             759



        Pleocytosis, 169–170                                  PTH-rP. See Parathyroid hormone-related         skull, 570–572
        Pleural effusion                                              protein                                 thoracic, 590–595
           horizontal beam radiography for                    Pulmonary function tests, 506–509               upper gastrointestinal radiographic
                 assessment of, 370–372                       Pulmonary perfusion scan, 510–513                     contrast studies, 657–659
           thoracic ultrasonography, 596–598                  Pulmonic stenosis, cardiac catheterization      vaginography, 710–713
        PLI. See Pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity                   and, 158                              Radioimmunoassay (RIA)
        Pneumogastrogram, 657–658                             Pulse oximetry, 514–515                         progesterone, 495–496
        Pneumomediastinum, 593                                Punch biopsy, 564, 627–629                      thyroxine (T4 ), total, 624–625
        Pneumonia, aspiration, 593                            Pure transudate, 308–309                      Radiopaque markers. See
        Pneumothorax, 592, 593                                Pyelogram, 271–272                                    Barium-impregnated polyethylene
        Poikilocytosis, 525                                   Pyloric obstruction, ultrasonography                  spheres
        Point-of-care immunoassay, for urine                          assessment of, 327                    RBCs (red blood cells). See Erythrocytes
                 albumin, 668–670                             Pyruvate kinase (PK), 520–521                 RDW (red cell distribution width), 522–524
        Polyethylene glycol, use in colonoscopy, 182          Pyuria, 698                                   Rectal scraping and cytology, 516–517
        Polymerase chain reaction. See PCR tests                                                            Red blood cell count, 518–519
        Portal scintigraphy. See Transsplenic portal                                                        Red blood cell enzyme activity, 520–521
                                                              Q
                 scintigraphy                                                                               Red blood cell indices, 522–524
        Portal vein thrombosis, ultrasonographic              Quantitative immunoglobulins. See             Red blood cell morphology, 525–529
                 assessment, 405                                     Immunoglobulin assays                  Red cell distribution width (RDW),
        Portosystemic shunts                                                                                        522–524
           transsplenic portal scintigraphy, 642–643                                                        Reference intervals, xxviii, 739
                                                              R
           ultrasonographic assessment, 404–405                                                             Referral laboratories, 742–746
        Postural radiography. See Horizontal beam             Radial immunodiffusion (RID), 373–375         Refractometry, 701
                 radiography                                    testosterone, 588–589                       Relaxin, 530–531
        Potassium, 492–494                                    Radiography                                   Renal biopsy and aspiration, 532–535
           urine fractional excretion, 674–675                  abdominal, 2–7                              Renal system assessment
        Pregnancy detection, by relaxin assay,                  angiography and angiocardiography,            abdominal radiography, 2–7
                 530–531                                              50–53                                   abdominal ultrasonography, 8–10
        Pressure measurement                                    barium-impregnated polyethylene spheres,      abdominocentesis and fluid analysis,
           central venous pressure, 166–167                           79–81                                         11–15
           tonometry, 630–633                                   cardiac catheterization, 151–159              albumin, 34–35
           urethral, 205–209                                    computed tomography, 186–187                  alpha-1 protease inhibitor, 40–41
        Proficiency surveys, xxviii                              cystourethrography, 210–213                   amylase, 48–49
        Progesterone, 495–497                                   dental, 220–224                               anion gap, 54–55
        Prostate gland                                          Diagnostic Image and Communications           bicarbonate, 88–90
           radiography, 5                                             in Medicine (DICOM) standard,           bladder tumor analyte, 96–97
           ultrasonography, 8, 10, 416–417                            xxxviii–xxxix                           blood gases, 101–103
        Prostatic wash, 498–500                                 epidurography, 256–257                        calcium, 148–150
        Protein                                                 esophagography, 263–265                       carnitine, 160–163
           electrophoresis, 501–503                             excretory urography, 270–272                  catheter-assisted stone retrieval, 164–165
           total, 634–635                                       fluoroscopy, 314–315                           chloride, 172–173
           urine, 690–692                                       general principles, xxxviii–xl                cholesterol, 174–175
           urine protein/creatinine ratio,                         contraindications, xxxix                   creatinine, 198–199
                 693–695                                           equipment, xxxviii–xxxix                   cystocentesis, 202–204
        Protein C, 56–57                                           indications for performing procedures,     cystometry and urethral pressure
        Protein electrophoresis, 501–503                              xxxviii                                       measurement, 205–209
        Protein-losing enteropathy (PLE)                           interfering factors, xxxix                 cystourethrography, 210–213
           alpha-1 protease inhibitor, 40–41                       interpretation, xxxix                      cystourethroscopy, 214–216
           hypoalbuminemia, 34–35                                  potential complications, xl                desmopressin response test, 228–230
        Protein-losing nephropathy, 532–535                        procedure and patient care, xl             Ehrlichia/Anaplasma, 238–240
        Proteins induced by vitamin K absence or                   radiology principles, xxxviii              erythropoietin, 258–259
                 antagonism. See PIVKA test                        reporting results, xl                      ethylene glycol, 268–269
        Proteinuria, 690–692                                       risks of radiation exposure, xxxix         excretory urography, 270–272
        Prothrombin time, 504–505                                  signalment influences, xxxix–xl             feline coronavirus, 288–290
        Protozoa                                                   technique chart, xxxviii                   feline immunodeficiency virus, 291–293
           babesia, 74–75                                       horizontal beam, 370–372                      fluid analysis, 308–310
           fecal flotation, 280–283                              lower gastrointestinal radiographic           glomerular filtration rate, 344–346
        Provocative dietary trial. See Food trial                     contrast studies, 414–415               glucose, 347–349
        PSAIg (platelet surface-associated                      lymphangiography, 427–429                     laparoscopy, 390–393
                 immunoglobulin), 484–485                       myelography, 443–445                          lead, 394–395
        Pseudocholinesterases, 18–19                            signalment influences                          Leptospira, 396–398
        Pseudocyst, pancreatic, 465                                age, xl                                    lipase, 399–401
        Psychogenic polydipsia, desmopressin                       breed, xl                                  lower urinary tract ultrasonography,
                 response test for, 228–230                        gender, xl                                       416–418
        PT. See Prothrombin time                                   species, xxxix                             Lyme disease serology, 424–426
        PTH. See Parathyroid hormone                            skeletal, 561–563                             magnesium, 430–431
IND   BLBKXXX-VadenKnoll      February 16, 2009     9:51   Char Count=




          760                                                                 Index



          Renal system assessment (Cont.)                   Respiratory acidosis/alkalosis. See Acid-base   Scapulohumeral joint assessment
            magnetic resonance imaging, 432–435                      disorders                                 arthrocentesis with synovial fluid analysis,
            osmolality, 457–459                             Respiratory system assessment                            64–68
            phosphorus, 479–481                               acetylcholine receptor antibody, 16–17             o
                                                                                                            Schi¨ tz tonometry, 630–632
            potassium, 492–494                                acetylcholinesterase, 18–19                   Schirmer tear test, 550–551
            prostatic wash, 498–500                           anion gap, 54–55                              Scintigraphy. See Nuclear medicine
            renal biopsy and aspiration, 532–535              bicarbonate, 88–90                            Sedation. See specific tests/procedures
            renal ultrasonography, 536–538                    blood gases, 101–103                          Seizure disorders, electroencephalography
            Rocky Mountain spotted fever, 548–549             bone scan, 126–128                                     and, 245–247
            sodium, 573–575                                   bronchoalveolar lavage, 135–137               Semen analysis, 552–554
            triglycerides, 645–647                            bronchoscopy, 138–140                         Semen collection, 555–557
            ultrasound-guided mass or organ                   distemper, 231–233                            Semen preservation, 558–560
                  aspiration, 654–656                         fecal flotation, 280–283                       Seminal fluid, test for carnitine in,
            urea nitrogen, 660–661                            fecal sedimentation and Baermann exam,                 160–163
            urethral catheterization, 662–665                        286–287                                Septic peritonitis, 14
            urinalysis, 666–667                               feline immunodeficiency virus,                 Serology. See also specific tests
            urine albumin, 668–670                                   291–293                                   allergen-specific, 38–39
            urine fractional excretion of electrolytes,       fluoroscopy, 314–315                              brucellosis, 141–143
                  674–676                                     heartworm serology, 356–357                      distemper, 231–232
            urine gamma-glutamyltransferase/                  horizontal beam radiography, 370–372             heartworm, 356–357
                  creatinine ratio, 677–679                   Knott’s test, 386–387                            Leptospira, 396–397
            urine glucose, 680–682                            magnetic resonance imaging, 432–435              Lyme disease, 424–426
            urine heme protein, 683–685                       nasal flush and biopsy, 446–449                   toxoplasmosis, 636–638
            urine pH, 688–689                                 pulmonary function tests, 506–509             Serum alkaline phosphatase (SAP). See
            urine protein, 690–692                            pulmonary perfusion scan, 510–513                      Alkaline phosphatase
            urine protein/creatinine ratio, 693–695           pulse oximetry, 514–515                       Serum amyloid A, 26–27
            urine sediment, 696–700                           rhinoscopy, 544–547                           Serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase
            urine specific gravity, 701–703                    skull radiography, 570–572                             (SGOT). See Aspartate
            urolith analysis, 704–706                         thoracic radiography, 590–595                          aminotransferase
            vaginography, 710–713                             thoracic ultrasonography, 596–598             Serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase
            voiding urohydropropulsion, 714–715               thoracocentesis and fluid analysis,                     (SGPT). See Alanine
            water-deprivation test, modified,                         599–601                                         aminotransferase
                  718–720                                     thoracoscopy, 602–605                         Shoulder joint assessment
            zinc, 736–737                                     toxoplasmosis serology, 636–638                  arthrocentesis with synovial fluid analysis,
          Renal ultrasonography, 536–538                      tracheal wash, 639–641                                 64–68
          ReproCHEK, 530                                      ultrasound-guided mass or organ                  arthroscopy, 69–71
          Reproductive system assessment                             aspiration, 654–656                    SIBO (small intestinal bacterial overgrowth),
            abdominal radiography, 2–7                      Reticulocyte count, 539–541                              folate and, 316–317
            abdominal ultrasonography, 8–10                 Reticulocyte production index (RPI), 539        Siedel test, 311
            brucellosis serology, 141–143                   Retrograde urethrogram/urethrocystogram,        Sinoatrial (SA) node, 241
            calcium, 148–150                                         210–213                                Sinonasal computed tomography, 186
            cystourethroscopy, 214–216                      Retrograde vaginourethrography. See             Skeletal muscle carnitine, 160–162
            estradiol, 266–267                                       Vaginography                           Skeletal radiography, 561–563
            laparoscopy, 390–393                            RF. See Rheumatoid factor                       Skeletal scintigraphy, 126–128
            Leptospira, 396–398                             Rheumatoid factor, 542–543                      Skin biopsy, 564–565
            lower urinary tract ultrasonography,            Rhinoscopy, 544–547                             Skin scraping and trichogram, 566–567
                  416–418                                   Rhythm abnormalities. See Arrhythmia            Skin surface and otic cytology, 568–569
            luteinizing hormone, 422–423                    RIA. See Radioimmunoassay (RIA)                 Skull radiography, 570–572
            magnetic resonance imaging, 432–435             Rickettsia rickettsii, 548–549                  SLE. See Systemic lupus erythematosus
            progesterone, 495–497                           RID (radial immunodiffusion), 373–375           Sleep disorders, electroencephalography and,
            prostatic wash, 498–500                           testosterone, 588–589                                  245–247
            relaxin, 530–531                                Ringworm culture, 225–227                       SLUD (salivation, lacrimation, urination,
            semen analysis, 552–554                         Rocky Mountain spotted fever, 548–549                    defecation)
            semen collection, 555–557                       Rodenticide screen, 58–59                          acetylcholinesterase test, 18–19
            semen preservation, 558–560                     RPI (reticulocyte production index), 539        Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO),
            somatomedin C, 576–577                          RSAT (rapid slide agglutination test), for               folate and, 316–317
            taurine, 584–587                                         brucellosis, 141–143                   Small intestine. See also Gastrointestinal
            testosterone, 588–589                           RT-PCR tests                                             system assessment
            thyroxine (T4 ), free, 622–623                    distemper, 231–232                               esophagogastroduodenoscopy,
            thyroxine (T4 ), total, 624–626                   feline coronavirus, 288–290                            260–261
            ultrasound-guided mass or organ                 Ruaw measurements, 506–508                         radiography, 5
                  aspiration, 654–656                                                                          ultrasonography, 10, 326–328
            urinalysis, 666–667                                                                             Sodium, 573–575
                                                             S
            urine ketones, 686–687                                                                             urine fractional excretion, 674–675
            uterine ultrasonography, 707–709                Sabin-Feldman dye test, 636                     Somatomedin C, 576–577
            vaginography, 710–713                           SA (sinoatrial) node, 241                       Specific gravity, urine, 701–703
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                                                                                Index                                                             761



        Sperm                                                   Therapeutic drug monitoring, 740–741            semen analysis, 552–554
           semen analysis, 552–554                              Thoracic computed tomography, 186               taurine, 584–587
           semen collection, 555–557                            Thoracic duct, lymphangiography,                urolith analysis, 704–706
           semen preservation, 558–560                                  427–428                              TLI. See Trypsin-like immunoreactivity
        Spinal tap. See Cerebrospinal fluid tap                  Thoracic radiography, 590–595                         (TLI)
        Spine                                                   Thoracic ultrasonography, 596–598            Tonometry, 630–633
           horizontal beam radiography for                      Thoracocentesis and fluid analysis,           Tooth resorption, 223
                 assessment of, 370–372                                 599–601                              Total CO2 , 88–90
           radiography, 562                                     Thoracoscopy, 602–605                        Total iron-binding capacity (TIBC),
        Spirometry, 506–507                                     Thorax                                                384–385
        Spleen                                                    computed tomography, 186                   Total protein, 634–635
           radiography, 4                                         endoscopy, 602–605                         Touch prep. See Impression smear
           transsplenic portal scintigraphy, 642–644              fluid removal and analysis, 599–601         Toxicology, referral laboratories for, 746
           ultrasonography, 8, 9, 578–581                         radiography, 590–595                       Toxascaris leonina, 281
        Splenic portal scintigraphy. See Transsplenic                horizontal beam, 370–372                Toxocara canis, 281
                 portal scintigraphy                              ultrasonography, 596–598                   Toxocara cati, 281
        Splenic ultrasonography, 578–581                        Thrombocytopenia                             Toxoplasma gondii, 281, 636–638
        SpO2 (arterial hemoglobin saturation),                    platelet antibody detection, 484–485       Toxoplasmosis serology, 636–638
                 514–515                                          platelet count and volume, 486–488         TP. See Total protein
        Stifle joint assessment                                    platelet function tests, 489–491           Trachea
           arthrocentesis with synovial fluid analysis,          Thrombosis, 217–219                             fluoroscopy of, 314, 315
                 64–68                                          Thyroglobulin autoantibody, 606–607             tracheal wash, 639–641
           arthroscopy, 69–71                                   Thyroid and parathyroid                      Tracheal wash, 639–641
        STIR (short-tau inversion recovery), 434                        ultrasonography, 608–611             Transfusion
        Stomach. See also Gastrointestinal system               Thyroid gland                                   blood typing, 114–116
                 assessment                                       T3 suppression test, 582–583                  crossmatch, 200–201
           esophagogastroduodenoscopy, 260–261                    thyroglobulin autoantibody, 606–607        Transitional cell carcinoma, 96–97
           radiography, 3–4                                       thyroid-releasing hormone response test,   Transsplenic portal scintigraphy,
           ultrasonography, 10, 326–328                                 612–613                                       642–644
           upper gastrointestinal radiographic                    thyroid scintigraphy, 614–617              Transudate, analysis of, 308–309
                 contrast studies, 657–659                        thyroid-stimulating hormone, 618–619       Transurethral retrograde endoscopy,
        Strongyloides, 281, 286–287                               thyroid-stimulating hormone stimulation             210–213
        STT. See Schirmer tear test                                     test, 620–621                        TRH response test. See Thyroid-releasing
        Subaortic stenosis, cardiac catheterization               thyroxine (T4 ), free, 622–623                      hormone response test
                 and, 158                                         thyroxine (T4 ), total, 624–626            Trichogram, 566–567
        Sudan stain, 278                                          ultrasonography, 608–611                   Trichophyton spp., 225–226
        Sulfasalicyclic acid, 690–691                           Thyroid-releasing hormone response test,     Trichuris vulpis, 281–282
        Summation shadowgram, 592                                       612–613                              Tricuspid regurgitation, cardiac
        Surgical wedge liver biopsy. See Liver biopsy           Thyroid scintigraphy, 614–617                         catheterization and, 158
        Swallowing, fluoroscopy of, 314–315                      Thyroid-stimulating hormone, 618–619         Triglycerides, 645–647
        Swan-Ganz thermodilution catheter, 154                  Thyroid-stimulating hormone stimulation      Troponins, cardiac specific, 648–650
        Synovial fluid analysis, 64–68                                   test, 620–621                        Trypsin-like immunoreactivity (TLI),
        Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)                      Thyrotropin assay. See Thyroid-stimulating            276–277, 651–653
           antinuclear antibody, 60–61                                  hormone                              Trypsinogen, 651
           lupus erythematosus cell preparation,                Thyroxine (T4 ), free, 622–623               TSH. See Thyroid-stimulating hormone
                 419–421                                        Thyroxine (T4 ), total, 624–626              TSH stimulation test. See
                                                                TIBC (total iron-binding capacity),                   Thyroid-stimulating hormone
                                                                        384–385                                       stimulation test
        T
                                                                Tidal breathing flow-volume loop (TBFVL),     TSPS. See Transsplenic portal scintigraphy
        T3 suppression test, 582–583                                    506–509                              2M antibody assay. See Masticatory muscle
        Taenia, 280–281                                         Tissue biopsy: needle and punch, 627–629              myositis (2M antibody assay)
        Tarsal joint assessment                                 Tissue tests                                 Typing, blood, 114–116
          arthrocentesis with synovial fluid analysis,             bacterial culture and sensitivity, 76–78
                64–68                                             bartonella, 82–84                          U
          arthroscopy, 69–71                                      bone marrow aspirate cytology:
        TAT (tube agglutination test), for                              microscopy examination, 122–125      UA. See Urinalysis overview
                brucellosis, 141–143                              carnitine, 160–163                         UAlb. See Urine albumin
        Taurine, 584–587                                          dermatophyte culture, 225–227              UCCR (urine cortisol/creatinine ratio),
        Taurine analysis, referral laboratories, 743              distemper, 231–233                                 194–195
        TBFVL (tidal breathing flow-volume loop),                  Ehrlichia/Anaplasma, 238–240               UGI study. See Upper gastrointestinal
                506–509                                           ethylene glycol, 268–269                           radiographic contrast studies
        Temporal window, brain ultrasonography                    feline leukemia virus, 294–296             Ulceration
                imaging through, 132                              fluid analysis, 308–310                       corneal, assessment with fluorescein dye
        Testosterone, 588–589                                     genetic testing, 333–335                           test, 311–313
        TGAA. See Thyroglobulin autoantibody                      Leptospira, 396–398                          gastric, ultrasonography assessment of,
        Theophylline, assay for, 741                              Rocky Mountain spotted fever, 548–549              327–328
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          762                                                               Index



          Ultrasonography                                 Urine gamma-glutamyltransferase/                amylase, 48–49
            abdominal, 8–10                                       creatinine ratio, 677–679               anion gap, 54–55
            abdominocentesis, 12                          Urine glucose, 680–682                          bicarbonate, 88–90
            adrenal, 28–31                                Urine heme protein, 683–685                     bladder tumor analyte, 96–97
            brain, 132–134                                Urine ketones, 686–687                          calcium, 148–150
            echocardiography, 234–237                     Urine pH, 688–689                               carnitine, 160–163
            gastrointestinal, 326–329                     Urine protein, 690–692                          catheter-assisted stone retrieval, 164–165
            general principles, xli–xliii                 Urine protein/creatinine ratio, 693–695         chloride, 172–173
               artifacts, xlii                            Urine sediment, 696–700                         cholesterol, 174–175
               documentation, xliii                       Urine specific gravity, 701–703                  creatinine, 198–199
               doppler, xlii                              Urine tests                                     cystocentesis, 202–204
               indications for performing, xli              bacterial culture and sensitivity, 76–78      cystometry and urethral pressure
               interfering factors, xlii                    Bence-Jones proteins, 85–87                         measurement, 205–209
               m-mode, xlii                                 bile acids, 91–93                             cystourethrography, 210–213
               patient preparation and care, xli            bladder tumor analyte, 96–97                  cystourethroscopy, 214–216
               physical principles, xli                     carnitine, 160–163                            desmopressin response test, 228–230
               potential complications, xlii                collection methods, xxxiii–xxxiv              Ehrlichia/Anaplasma, 238–240
               safety, xliii                                   catheterized sample, xxxiii                erythropoietin, 258–259
               technique, xli–xlii                             cystocentesis, xxxiii–xxxiv                ethylene glycol, 268–269
               two-dimensional gray scale mode, xlii           voided urine, xxxiii                       excretory urography, 270–272
            liver and gallbladder, 402–406                  cortisol/creatinine ratio, 194–195            feline coronavirus, 288–290
            lower urinary tract ultrasonography,            creatinine, 198–199                           feline immunodeficiency virus, 291–293
                  416–418                                   distemper, 231–233                            fluid analysis, 308–310
            ocular, 454–456                                 ethylene glycol, 268–269                      glomerular filtration rate, 344–346
            pancreatic, 464–466                             general principles for performing,            glucose, 347–349
            renal, 536–538                                        xxxiii–xxxiv                            laparoscopy, 390–393
            splenic, 578–581                                   collection container, xxxiv                lead, 394–395
            thoracic, 596–598                                  collection methods, xxxiii–xxxiv           Leptospira, 396–398
            thyroid and parathyroid, 608–611                   collection timing, xxxiii                  lipase, 399–401
            uterine, 707–709                                   sample storage and transport, xxxiv        lower urinary tract ultrasonography,
          Ultrasound-guided mass or organ                   immunoglobulin assays, 373–375                      416–418
                  aspiration, 654–656                       lead, 394–395                                 Lyme disease serology, 424–426
          Uncinaria canium, 281                             Leptospira, 396–398                           magnesium, 430–431
          Unconjugated bilirubin, 94–95                     osmolality, 457–459                           magnetic resonance imaging, 432–435
          Ununited anconeal process, arthroscopy of,        taurine, 584–587                              osmolality, 457–459
                  69–71                                     urinalysis, 666–667                           phosphorus, 479–481
          UPC. See Urine protein/creatinine ratio           urine albumin, 668–670                        potassium, 492–494
          Upper airway resistance (Ruaw) assessments,       urine bilirubin, 671–673                      prostatic wash, 498–500
                  506–508                                   urine fractional excretion of electrolytes,   renal biopsy and aspiration, 532–535
          Upper gastrointestinal radiographic                     674–676                                 renal ultrasonography, 536–538
                  contrast studies, 657–659                 urine gamma-glutamyltransferase/              Rocky Mountain spotted fever, 548–549
          Uppsala Equex II Extender, 558–559                      creatinine ratio, 677–679               sodium, 573–575
          Urea nitrogen, 660–661                            urine heme protein, 683–685                   triglycerides, 645–647
          Ureter, radiography of, 5–6                       urine ketones, 686–687                        ultrasound-guided mass or organ
          Urethra                                           urine pH, 688–689                                   aspiration, 654–656
            catheterization, 662–665                        urine protein, 690–692                        urea nitrogen, 660–661
            radiography, 6                                  urine protein/creatinine ratio,               urethral catheterization, 662–665
          Urethral catheterization, 662–665                       693–695                                 urinalysis, 666–667
          Urethral pressure measurement,                    urine sediment, 696–700                       urine albumin, 668–670
                  205–209                                   urine specific gravity, 701–703                urine fractional excretion of electrolytes,
          Urethral sonography. See Lower urinary tract    Uroabdomen                                            674–676
                  ultrasonography                           abdominal fluid analysis, 14                   urine gamma-glutamyltransferase/
          Urinalysis overview, 666–667                      creatinine, 198–199                                 creatinine ratio, 677–679
          Urinary bladder                                 Urohydropropulsion, voiding, 714–715            urine glucose, 680–682
            cystometrogram, 205–209                       Urolith analysis, 704–706                       urine heme protein, 683–685
            cystourethrography, 210–213                     referral laboratories, 746                    urine pH, 688–689
            cystourethroscopy, 214–216                    Urolithiasis                                    urine protein, 690–692
            excretory urography, 270–272                    catheter-assisted stone retrieval,            urine protein/creatinine ratio, 693–695
            radiography, 4–5                                      164–165                                 urine sediment, 696–700
            ultrasonography, 8, 10, 416–418                 stone analysis, 704–706                       urine specific gravity, 701–703
          Urine albumin, 668–670                          Urologic system assessment                      urolith analysis, 704–706
          Urine bilirubin, 671–673                          abdominal radiography, 2–7                    vaginography, 710–713
          Urine cortisol/creatinine ratio (UCCR),           abdominal ultrasonography, 8–10               voiding urohydropropulsion, 714–715
                  194–195                                   abdominocentesis and fluid analysis,           water-deprivation test, modified,
          Urine fractional excretion of electrolytes,             11–15                                         718–720
                  674–676                                   albumin, 34–35                                zinc, 736–737
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                                                                             Index                                                              763



        USG. See Urine specific gravity                       Virus isolation                               feline immunodeficiency virus, 291–292
        Uterine ultrasonography, 707–709                       canine distemper, 231                       Lyme disease serology, 424–425
        Uterus                                                 feline immunodeficiency virus, 291          White blood cell count and differential,
          radiography, 6                                     Vitamin B12 , 179–181                               721–723
          ultrasonography, 8–9, 10                           Vitamin D, 146–147                           White blood cells: basophils, 724–725
                                                             Vitamin K, PIVKA test, 482–483               White blood cells: eosinophils, 726–727
        V                                                    Vitreocentesis, 62–63                        White blood cells: lymphocytes, 728–729
                                                             VLDLs (very low density lipoproteins), 645   White blood cells: monocytes, 730–731
        Vaginography, 710–713                                Voiding urohydropropulsion, 714–715          White blood cells: neutrophils,
        Vancomycin, assay for, 741                           Von Willebrand disease (vWD), bleeding              732–733
        Vascular abnormalities, hepatic, 404–405                     time assessment, 98–100              Whole-body plethysmography (WBP),
        Vascular pattern, lung radiography, 594              Von Willebrand factor, 716–717                      506–509
        Vascular ring anomalies, 593                         VU. See Voiding urohydropropulsion           Wood’s lamp examination, 734–735
        Vasopressin. See Desmopressin response test
        Venous blood sample collection, 107–108
                                                             W                                            X
        Veress needle, 391
        Very low density lipoproteins (VLDLs), 645           Waldenstr¨ m’s macroglobulinemia, 374
                                                                      o                                   X-rays. See Radiography
        Virus                                                Water-deprivation test, modified, 718–720
          distemper, 231–233                                 WBP (whole-body plethysmography),            Z
          feline coronavirus, 288–290                               506–509
          feline immunodeficiency virus, 291–292              Wedge biopsy, 564                            Zinc, 736–737
          feline leukemia virus, 294–296                     Western blot                                 Zinc-responsive dermatosis, 736–737
IND   BLBKXXX-VadenKnoll   February 16, 2009   9:51   Char Count=




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