The Immune System

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					The Immune System
   By: Charlene Topacio
        Bailey Murphy
        Molly Martin
         Christy Loh
    About the Immune System
   The Immune System is our bodies defense
   The Immune System is always working.
   Part of the Immune System is the
    Integumentary System, or the skin.
   Without the Immune System we would not be
    able to survive.
   Another system within the Immune System is
    the Lymphatic System.
Parts of the Immune System

                Flow of lymph
                  • lymph nodes filter lymph
                  • provide a site for many leukocytes
                     to wait and ambush pathogens
                  • or trigger other parts of immune
                Other lymph organs
                  • tonsils
                  • spleen
                  • thymus
               Lymphoid Organs
   Bone Marrow-soft tissue               Tonsils and Adenoids-oval
    located in the cavities of the         masses of lymphoid tissues on
    bones. This is the source of all       either side of the throat.
    blood cells.                          Appendix-organ in the
   Thymus-A primary lymphoid              intestine
    organ, high in the chest,             Peyer‟s Patches- collection of
    where T lymphocytes                    lymphoid tissues in the
    proliferate and mature.                intestinal track.
   Lymph nodes- Small bean-              Lymphatic vessels-similar to
    shaped organs that are                 the blood vessels but they
    distributed widely by                  transfer lymph to the immune
    lymphatic vessels. Lymph               organs and the bloodstream.
    noded are garrisons of B, T,          Lymph- slightly yellow fluid
    and other immune cells.                that carries lymphocytes to
   Spleen-Located in the                  the body tissues, and drains
    abdominal cavity, is an                into the lymphatic vessels.
    important location for immune
    system activities.
       Immune System               Integumentary System
          Combined                     Eczema-itchy, dry skin
    Immunodeficiency Disease                    Acne
         Allergies                           Ringworm
           AIDS
   Acquired Immune Deficiency
More Problems and Diseases
of the Immune System
   Allergic rections such as: hay-fever, asthma
    (only some types), hives
   Happens when harmless sustances such as
    grass, pollen, or house dust is thought as a
    threat and is then attacked by the immune
   Allergies can be treated with such
    medications as Astelin, Zyrtec, Allegra, and
    Treatments for the Diseases
                                         Integumentary Cures
   Immune System Cures
                                       To cure Eczema, you can put
    The only „cure‟ for Combined
                                          an antipruritic(a relief for
   Immunodeficiency Disease is to
                                        itching), such as Benadryl on
   live in a germ free environment.
                                                   the rash.
 To cure allergies you can take an
                                        Treatments for acne are
     antihistamine to clear up the
                                          topical creams like Benzyl
  There is NO cure for AIDS!!!!
                                       Ringworm can be treated by
                                            keeping the rash dry,
                                        wearing loose cotton clothes,
                                           and by applying an anti-
                                              fungal medication.
          Epidermal Cells
 Keratinocytes make proteins that help
  waterproof the skin and protect the tissue
  from heat and abrasions.
 Merkel Cells are touch sensors.
 Melanocytes make the melanin pigments
  which protect the skin against UV rays.
 Langerhans Cells are macrophages that are
  used in the defense against
  Functions of the systems
The immune system resists diseases, drains
 fluid from cells and tissues back to the
 bloodstream, and fights infection.

The Integumentary system has multiple roles
 in homeostasis, including protection,
 temperature regulation, sensory reception,
 biochemical synthesis, and absorption.
Humoral (antibody-mediated) immunity

                          Recognize, React, Remember
                          A pathogen has infected the
                          Recognition
                            • a pathogen is recognized
                               by its antigens
                            • phagocytized by
                               B-lymphocyte or
                               (Antigen Presenting
                            • forms a major
                               complex (MHC-II) that
                               can be “presented” to
                               helper-T cells
         More Functions of the Skin
   1. Barrier to loss of water and electrolytes
   2. Protection from external agents
   3. Regulates body temperature
   4. Regulates blood pressure
   5. Acts as sense organ for touch, pressure, temperature,
    and pain
   6. Maintain body surface integrity by replacing cells and
    wound healing
   7. Maintains a buffered protective skin film by eccrine and
    sebaceous gland to protect against microbial and fungal
   8. Participates in production of vitamin D
   9. Delays hypersensitivity reactions to foreign objects
   10. Indicates emotion through color change
 Vaccines through Biotechnology
Genetic engineering scientists can isolate specific genes and
  insert them into DNA of certain microbes or mammalian
  cells; the microbes or cells become living factories, mass
  producing the desired antigen. Then using another product
  of biotechnology, a monoclonal antibody that recognizes that
  antigen, the scientists can separate the antigen from all the
  other material produced by the microbe or call. This
  technique has been used to produce immunogenic but safe
  segments of the hepatitis B virus and the malaria parasite.

In another approach, scientists have inserted genes for desired
   antigens into the DNA of the vaccinia virus, the large
   cowpox virus familiar for its role in smallpox immunization.
   When the reengineered vaccinia virus is inoculated, it
   stimulates an immune reaction to both the vaccinia and the
   products of its passenger genes. These have included, in
   animal experiments, genes from the viruses that cause
   hepatitis B, influenza, rabies, and AIDS.
              Flow of lymph
• fluid filters out of capillaries
• most returns to capillaries
• some filters into lymphatic capillaries
Flow of lymph

           • some filters into
             lymphatic capillaries
           • collecting vessels
           • lymph nodes
           • lymphatic trunks
           • collecting ducts
           • subclavian veins
      UH-OH! A splinter… OUCH!
   Inflammation (redness, swelling, heat,
    pain, impaired function)
     • some chemicals cause
        capillaries to become leakier
           • WBCs (and some RBCs) and
             chemicals escape into
             surrounding tissue
                – (this and vasodilation
                  cause redness)
           • tissue swells and veins
             become constricted
           • more fluid then drains
             lymphatic system
     • passing WBCs are attracted to
        the area by
           • attack the pathogens
           • mixture of tissue fluid, cell
             debris, and dead/dying WBCs
             and pathogens makes “pus”
     • PDGF stimulates healing
Pictures of the immune system
    Pictures of the
integumentary system

    not really… j.k = )


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