The Immune System
By: Charlene Topacio
About the Immune System
The Immune System is our bodies defense
The Immune System is always working.
Part of the Immune System is the
Integumentary System, or the skin.
Without the Immune System we would not be
able to survive.
Another system within the Immune System is
the Lymphatic System.
Parts of the Immune System
Flow of lymph
• lymph nodes filter lymph
• provide a site for many leukocytes
to wait and ambush pathogens
• or trigger other parts of immune
Other lymph organs
Bone Marrow-soft tissue Tonsils and Adenoids-oval
located in the cavities of the masses of lymphoid tissues on
bones. This is the source of all either side of the throat.
blood cells. Appendix-organ in the
Thymus-A primary lymphoid intestine
organ, high in the chest, Peyer‟s Patches- collection of
where T lymphocytes lymphoid tissues in the
proliferate and mature. intestinal track.
Lymph nodes- Small bean- Lymphatic vessels-similar to
shaped organs that are the blood vessels but they
distributed widely by transfer lymph to the immune
lymphatic vessels. Lymph organs and the bloodstream.
noded are garrisons of B, T, Lymph- slightly yellow fluid
and other immune cells. that carries lymphocytes to
Spleen-Located in the the body tissues, and drains
abdominal cavity, is an into the lymphatic vessels.
important location for immune
Immune System Integumentary System
Combined Eczema-itchy, dry skin
Immunodeficiency Disease Acne
Acquired Immune Deficiency
More Problems and Diseases
of the Immune System
Allergic rections such as: hay-fever, asthma
(only some types), hives
Happens when harmless sustances such as
grass, pollen, or house dust is thought as a
threat and is then attacked by the immune
Allergies can be treated with such
medications as Astelin, Zyrtec, Allegra, and
Treatments for the Diseases
Immune System Cures
To cure Eczema, you can put
The only „cure‟ for Combined
an antipruritic(a relief for
Immunodeficiency Disease is to
itching), such as Benadryl on
live in a germ free environment.
To cure allergies you can take an
Treatments for acne are
antihistamine to clear up the
topical creams like Benzyl
There is NO cure for AIDS!!!!
Ringworm can be treated by
keeping the rash dry,
wearing loose cotton clothes,
and by applying an anti-
Keratinocytes make proteins that help
waterproof the skin and protect the tissue
from heat and abrasions.
Merkel Cells are touch sensors.
Melanocytes make the melanin pigments
which protect the skin against UV rays.
Langerhans Cells are macrophages that are
used in the defense against
Functions of the systems
The immune system resists diseases, drains
fluid from cells and tissues back to the
bloodstream, and fights infection.
The Integumentary system has multiple roles
in homeostasis, including protection,
temperature regulation, sensory reception,
biochemical synthesis, and absorption.
Humoral (antibody-mediated) immunity
Recognize, React, Remember
A pathogen has infected the
• a pathogen is recognized
by its antigens
• phagocytized by
• forms a major
complex (MHC-II) that
can be “presented” to
More Functions of the Skin
1. Barrier to loss of water and electrolytes
2. Protection from external agents
3. Regulates body temperature
4. Regulates blood pressure
5. Acts as sense organ for touch, pressure, temperature,
6. Maintain body surface integrity by replacing cells and
7. Maintains a buffered protective skin film by eccrine and
sebaceous gland to protect against microbial and fungal
8. Participates in production of vitamin D
9. Delays hypersensitivity reactions to foreign objects
10. Indicates emotion through color change
Vaccines through Biotechnology
Genetic engineering scientists can isolate specific genes and
insert them into DNA of certain microbes or mammalian
cells; the microbes or cells become living factories, mass
producing the desired antigen. Then using another product
of biotechnology, a monoclonal antibody that recognizes that
antigen, the scientists can separate the antigen from all the
other material produced by the microbe or call. This
technique has been used to produce immunogenic but safe
segments of the hepatitis B virus and the malaria parasite.
In another approach, scientists have inserted genes for desired
antigens into the DNA of the vaccinia virus, the large
cowpox virus familiar for its role in smallpox immunization.
When the reengineered vaccinia virus is inoculated, it
stimulates an immune reaction to both the vaccinia and the
products of its passenger genes. These have included, in
animal experiments, genes from the viruses that cause
hepatitis B, influenza, rabies, and AIDS.
Flow of lymph
• fluid filters out of capillaries
• most returns to capillaries
• some filters into lymphatic capillaries
Flow of lymph
• some filters into
• collecting vessels
• lymph nodes
• lymphatic trunks
• collecting ducts
• subclavian veins
UH-OH! A splinter… OUCH!
Inflammation (redness, swelling, heat,
pain, impaired function)
• some chemicals cause
capillaries to become leakier
• WBCs (and some RBCs) and
chemicals escape into
– (this and vasodilation
• tissue swells and veins
• more fluid then drains
• passing WBCs are attracted to
the area by
• attack the pathogens
• mixture of tissue fluid, cell
debris, and dead/dying WBCs
and pathogens makes “pus”
• PDGF stimulates healing
Pictures of the immune system
Pictures of the
not really… j.k = )