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					Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
                                                   Chapter 14




       Chapter 14
     Social Behavior
           Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
                                                              Chapter 14


         What Is Social Psychology?
• Social Psychology: Scientific studies of how individuals
  behave, think, and feel in social situations; how people
  act in the presence (actual or implied) of others
• Need to Affiliate: Desire to associate with other people;
  appears to be a basic human trait
          Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
                                                             Chapter 14


         Comparison and Attraction
• Social Comparison: Making judgments about ourselves
  by comparing ourselves to others (e.g., comparing our
  feelings and abilities to those of other people)
• Interpersonal Attraction: Social attraction to another
  person
• Physical Proximity: Physical nearness to another person
  in terms of housing, school, work
• Physical Attractiveness: Person’s degree of physical
  beauty as defined by his or her culture
• Halo Effect: Tendency to generalize a limited impression
  to other personal characteristics
• Competent: When people display a high degree of
  knowledge, ability, or proficiency
           Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
                                                              Chapter 14


                         Similarity
• Similarity: Extent to which two people are alike in terms
  of age, education, attitudes, and so on
   – Similar people are attracted to each other
• Homogamy: Tendency to marry someone who is like us
  in almost every way
          Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
                                                             Chapter 14


                  Self-Disclosure
• Process of revealing one’s private thoughts, attitudes,
  feelings, and personal history to others
   – Should be used cautiously and sparingly by the
     therapist performing therapy
   – May lead to countertransference in therapy (when the
     therapist makes an unhealthy connection to the client)
• Reciprocity: Return in kind; reciprocal exchange
• Overdisclosure: Self-disclosure that exceeds what is
  appropriate for a relationship or social situation
          Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
                                                             Chapter 14


             Love and Attachment
• Romantic Love: Marked by high levels of interpersonal
  attraction, sexual desire, and heightened arousal
• Liking: Relationship based on intimacy but lacking
  passion and commitment
• Mutual Absorption: When two lovers almost always
  attend only to each other
• Evolutionary Psychology: Study of evolutionary origins of
  human behavior patterns
                   Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Figure 14.2                                                                        Chapter 14




FIGURE 14.2 What do people look for when considering potential dating partners? Here are the
results of a study in which personal ads were placed in newspapers. As you can see, men were
more influenced by looks, and women by success
           Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
                                                              Chapter 14


                    Life in Groups
• Social Role: Patterns of behavior expected of people in
  various social positions (e.g., daughter, mother, teacher,
  President (!))
   – Ascribed Role: Assigned to a person or not under
     personal control
   – Achieved Role: Attained voluntarily or by special effort
     (teacher, mayor, President)
• Role Conflict: When two or more roles make conflicting
  demands on behavior
          Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
                                                             Chapter 14


                         Groups
• Group Structure: Network of roles, communication,
  pathways, and power in a group
• Group Cohesiveness: Degree of attraction among group
  members or their commitment to remain in the group
• In Group: A group with which a person identifies
• Out Group: Group with which a person does not identify
   – Cohesive groups work better together
   – What kind of groups did you see on “Survivor,” “Road
     Rules,” and “Real World”?
          Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
                                                             Chapter 14


       Some More Important Terms
• Status: Level of social power and importance
• Norm: Accepted but usually unspoken standard for
  appropriate behavior
                     Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Figure 14.3                                                                                 Chapter 14




 FIGURE 14.3 Results of an experiment on norms concerning littering. The prior existence of
 litter in a public setting implies that littering is acceptable. This encourages others to “trash” the
 area.
          Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
                                                             Chapter 14


                Social Perception
• Attribution: Making inferences about the causes of one’s
  own behavior and others’ behavior
   – External Cause of Behavior: Assumed to lie outside a
     person
   – Internal Cause of Behavior: Assumed to lie within the
     person
           Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
                                                              Chapter 14


           Social Perception (cont'd)
• Fundamental Attribution Error: Tendency to attribute
  behavior of others to internal causes (personality, likes,
  etc.). We believe this even if they really have external
  causes!
• Actor-Observer Bias: Tendency to attribute behavior of
  others to internal causes while attributing one’s own
  behavior to external causes (situations and
  circumstances).
          Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
                                                             Chapter 14


                  Social Influence
• Changes in a person’s behavior induced by the actions
  of another person.
   – Someone else influences your decision: husband,
     wife, mother, peer, etc.
   – Peer Pressure: Ken was swayed by Lisa and
     Gabriella to go see “Catwoman” when he really
     wanted to see “Open Water.”
          Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
                                                             Chapter 14


                      Conformity
• Bringing one’s behavior into agreement with norms or
  the behavior of others.
   – Solomon Asch’s Experiment: You must select (from a
     group of three) the line that most closely matches the
     standard line. All lines are shown to a group of seven
     people (including you).
   – Other six were accomplices, and at times all would
     select the wrong line.
   – In 33% of the trials, the real subject conformed to
     group pressure even when the group’s answers were
     obviously incorrect!
                  Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Figure 14.4                                                                   Chapter 14




         FIGURE 14.4 Stimuli used in Solomon Asch’s conformity experiments.
          Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
                                                             Chapter 14


        Group Factors in Conformity
• Groupthink: Compulsion by decision makers to maintain
  agreement, even at the cost of critical thinking
• Group Sanctions: Rewards and punishments
  administered by groups to enforce conformity or punish
  nonconformity
• Unanimity: Unanimous agreement
          Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
                                                             Chapter 14


             Obedience (Milgram)
• Conformity to the demands of an authority.
• Would you shock a man with a known heart condition
  who is screaming and asking to be released?
• Milgram studied this; the man with a heart condition was
  an accomplice and the “teacher” was a real volunteer.
  The goal was to teach the learner word pairs.
          Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
                                                             Chapter 14


            Milgram’s Conclusions
• 65% obeyed by going all the way to 450 volts on the
  “shock machine,” even though the learner eventually
  could not answer any more questions
• Group support can reduce destructive obedience
                    Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Figure 14.6                                                                           Chapter 14




FIGURE 14.6 Results of Milgram’s obedience experiment. Only a minority of subjects refused
to provide shocks, even at the most extreme intensities. The first substantial drop in obedience
occurred at the 300-volt level (Milgram, 1963).
                    Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Figure 14.7                                                                          Chapter 14




   FIGURE 14.7 Physical distance from the “learner” had a significant effect on the percentage
   of subjects obeying orders.
           Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
                                                              Chapter 14


                      Compliance
• Bending to the requests of one person who has little or
  no authority or social power.
• Foot-in-the-Door Effect: A person who has agreed to a
  small request is more likely later to agree to a larger
  demand.
   – Once you get a foot in the door, then a sale is almost
     a sure thing.
• Door-in-the-Face Technique: A person who has refused
  a major request will be more likely later on to comply
  with a smaller request.
   – After the door has been slammed in your face (major
     request refused), person may be more likely to agree
     to a smaller request.
          Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
                                                             Chapter 14


              Compliance (cont'd)
• Low-Ball Technique: Commitment is gained first to
  reasonable or desirable terms, which are then made less
  reasonable or desirable.
      • Henry accepts the price he states for a new car.
        Then later Tillie the saleswoman tells Henry, “The
        business would lose too much money on that
        price; can’t you take a bit less and add all these
        options?”
• Passive Compliance: Quietly bending to unreasonable
  demands or unacceptable conditions.
           Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
                                                              Chapter 14


             Assertiveness Training
• Instruction in how to be self-assertive
• Self-Assertion: Standing up for your rights by speaking
  out on your behalf; direct, honest expression of feelings
  and desires
• Aggression: Hurting another person or achieving one’s
  goals at the expense of another person
   – Attempting to get one’s way no matter what
   – No regard for others’ feelings
          Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
                                                             Chapter 14


              Attitudes and Beliefs
• Attitude: Learned tendency to respond to people,
  objects, or institutions in a positive or negative way
   – Summarize your evaluation of objects
• Belief Component: What a person believes about the
  attitudinal object
• Emotional Component: Feelings toward the attitudinal
  object
• Action Component: One’s actions toward various people,
  objects, or institutions
          Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
                                                             Chapter 14


               Attitude Formation
• Direct Contact: Personal experience with the object of
  the attitude
• Interaction with Others: Discussions with people holding
  a particular attitude
• Child Rearing: Effects of parental values, beliefs, and
  practices
• Group Membership: Affiliation with others
• Mass Media: All media that reach large audiences
  (magazines, television)
• Mean World View: Viewing the world as dangerous and
  threatening
          Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
                                                             Chapter 14


   Attitude Measurement and Change
• Chance Conditioning: Learning that takes place by
  chance or coincidence
• Reference Group: Any group a person identifies with and
  uses as a standard for social comparison
• Persuasion: Deliberate attempt to change attitudes or
  beliefs through information and arguments
   – Communicator: Person presenting arguments or
     information
   – Message: Content of communicator’s arguments
   – Audience: Person or group to whom a persuasive
     message is directed
           Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
                                                              Chapter 14


    Cognitive Dissonance (Festinger)
• Contradicting or clashing thoughts, beliefs, attitudes, or
  perceptions that cause discomfort
   – We need to have consistency in our thoughts,
     perceptions, and images of ourselves
   – Underlies attempts to convince ourselves we did the
     right thing
• Justification: Degree to which one’s actions are
  explained by rewards or other circumstances
                  Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Figure 14.10                                                                     Chapter 14




FIGURE 14.10 Summary of the Festinger and Carlsmith (1959) study from the viewpoint of a
person experiencing cognitive dissonance.
          Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
                                                             Chapter 14


                    Brainwashing
• Engineered or forced attitude change requiring a captive
  audience; three steps:
   – Unfreezing: Loosening of former values and
     convictions
   – Change: When the brainwashed person abandons
     former beliefs
   – Refreezing: Rewarding and solidifying new attitudes
     and beliefs
          Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
                                                             Chapter 14


                           Cults
• Groups that profess great devotion to a person and
  follow that person almost without question
   – Leader’s personality is usually more important than
      the issues he/she preaches
   – Members usually victimized by the leader(s)
   – Recruit potential converts at a time of need,
      especially when a sense of belonging is most
      attractive to potential converts
        • Look for college students and young adults
         Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
                                                            Chapter 14


                   Cults (cont'd)
• Some examples: People’s Temple and Jim Jones;
  Heaven’s Gate; Branch Davidians
• Where does “Scientology” fit?
          Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
                                                             Chapter 14


                       Prejudice
• Negative emotional attitude held toward members of a
  specific social group
• Discrimination: Unequal treatment of people who should
  have the same rights as others
• Personal Prejudice: When members of another racial or
  ethnic group are perceived as a threat to one’s own
  interests
• Group Prejudice: When a person conforms to group
  norms
            Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
                                                               Chapter 14


Prejudiced Personality and Intergroup Conflict
 • Authoritarian Personality: Marked by rigidity, inhibition,
   prejudice, and oversimplification
 • Ethnocentrism: Placing one’s group at the center, usually
   by rejecting all other groups
 • Social Stereotypes: Oversimplified images of people who
   belong to a particular social group
 • Symbolic Prejudice: Prejudice expressed in a disguised
   fashion
    – “Prejudice is socially unacceptable,” but will still
      express prejudice in disguised form
          Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
                                                             Chapter 14


 Other Concepts Relating to Prejudice
• Status Inequalities: Differences in power, prestige, or
  privileges of two or more people or groups
• Equal-Status Contact: Social interaction that occurs on
  an equal level, without obvious differences in power or
  status
• Superordinate Goal: Goal that exceeds or overrides all
  other goals, making other goals less important
          Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
                                                             Chapter 14


                 Classroom Ideas
• Mutual Interdependence: When two or more people must
  depend on each other to meet each person’s goals.
• Jigsaw Classroom: Each student only gets a piece of
  information needed to complete a problem or prepare for
  a test; to succeed and get all pieces, students must all
  work together.
• Prejudicial stereotypes tend to be very irrational
          Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
                                                             Chapter 14


                      Aggression
• Any action carried out with the intention of harming
  another person.
• Ethologists believe that aggression is innate in all
  animals, including humans.
   – Ethologist: Studies natural behavior patterns of
     animals.
   – There appears to be a relationship between
     aggression and hypoglycemia, allergy, and certain
     brain injuries and disorders.
   – Certain brain areas can trigger or end aggressive
     behavior.
• Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis: Frustration tends to
  lead to aggression
          Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
                                                             Chapter 14


                  Aversive Stimuli
• Produce discomfort or displeasure
• Aggression Cues: Signals that are associated with
  aggression
• Weapons Effect: Observation that weapons serve as
  strong cues for aggressive behavior
                   Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Figure 14.12                                                                         Chapter 14




FIGURE 14.12 Personal discomfort caused by aversive (unpleasant) stimuli can make
aggressive behavior more likely. For example, studies of crime rates show that the incidence of
highly aggressive behavior, such as murder, rape, and assault, rises as the air temperature goes
from warm to hot to sweltering (Anderson, 1989). The results you see here further confirm the
heat-aggression link. The graph shows that there is a strong association between the
temperatures at major league baseball games and the number of batters hit by a pitch during
those games. When the temperature goes over 90°, watch out for that fastball (Reifman, Larrick,
& Fein, 1991)!
             Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
                                                                Chapter 14


Social Learning Theory (Bandura) and Television
  • Social Learning Theory: Combines learning principles
    with cognitive processes, socialization, and modeling to
    explain behavior
     – No instinctive (innate) desires for shooting guns, knife
       fights, and so on
     – Aggression must be learned
  • Disinhibition: Removal of inhibition; results in acting-out
    behavior that normally would be restrained
  • Television seems to be able to cause desensitization to
    violence
     – Desensitization: Reduced emotional sensitivity
                    Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Figure 14.13                                                                          Chapter 14




  FIGURE 14.13 Violent behavior among delinquent boys doesn’t appear overnight. Usually,
  their capacity for violence develops slowly, as they move from minor aggression to
  increasingly brutal acts. Overall aggression increases dramatically in early adolescence as
  boys gain physical strength and more access to weapons
          Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
                                                             Chapter 14
   Social Learning Theory and Television:
                A Conclusion
• Television seems to be able to cause desensitization to
  violence
   – Desensitization: Reduced emotional sensitivity
          Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
                                                             Chapter 14


Prosocial Behavior and Bystander Apathy
• Prosocial Behavior: Behavior toward others that is
  helpful, constructive, or altruistic
• Bystander Apathy: Unwillingness of bystanders to offer
  help during emergencies
   – Related to number of people present
• The more potential helpers present, the lower the
  chances help will be given
            Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
                                                               Chapter 14


Decision Points Reached before Giving Help
 • Noticing the person in trouble
 • Defining an Emergency: Until someone declares the
   situation an emergency, no one acts
 • Taking Responsibility: Assume responsibility to help
    – Diffusion of Responsibility: Spreading responsibility to
       act among several people
 • Select a course of action
                  Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
Figure 14.15                                                                    Chapter 14




     FIGURE 14.15 This decision tree summarizes the steps a person must take before
     making a commitment to offer help, according to Latané and Darley’s model.
          Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
                                                             Chapter 14


               Empathy Concepts
• Empathic Arousal: Emotional arousal that occurs when
  you feel some of the person’s pain, fear, or anguish
• Empathy-Helping Relationship: Helping person in need
  because we have emotions such as empathy and
  compassion for that person
           Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
                                                              Chapter 14


                   Multiculturalism
• Gives equal status to different ethnic, racial, and cultural
  groups
• Two ways to break stereotypes
   – Seek individuating information that helps you see a
     person as an individual and not as a member of a
     group.
   – Don’t believe just-world beliefs: That people generally
     get what they deserve.
          Introduction to Psychology: Kellogg Community College, Talbot
                                                             Chapter 14


    More Ways to Break Stereotypes
• Note self-fulfilling prophecies: Expectations that prompt
  people to act in ways that make expectations come true.
• Understand that different does not mean inferior.
   – Social Competition: Rivalry among groups, each of
     which regards itself as superior to others.
• Look for commonalities

				
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