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					Utilizing Laser Spectroscopy of
Noble Gas Tracers for Mapping
      Oil and Gas Deposits


            Project ID No.: NPRP30-6-7-35
         Name of Lead PI: Hans A. Schuessler
           Name of Contact PI: Milivoj Belic
Texas A&M University (Doha, Qatar and College Station, TX)
We thank the Qatar Foundation and the
     Qatar National Research Fund

 Founded by His highness the Emir Sheikh
  Hamad bin Khalifa Al-Thani
 Chaired by Her Highness Sheikha Mozah bint
  Nasser Al-Missnad
 Directed by Dr. Abdul Sattar Al-Taie

  for this research opportunity and the funds
                    provided.
                       Outline

1. Aims of the project and approach
2. Work done at TAMU, CS Texas: main results
4. Work done at TAMU, Doha
   •Preparations for investigations of the oil reservoir
   structure
   •Selection of a postdoc for continuous work at
   TAMU-Qatar.
   •Established additional collaborations on the
   project with three TAMUQ [Petroleum
   Engineering(2), Mathematics(2)] Professors.
                Outline cont.
3. Next steps:
   • Shipment of the new setup, improvement of
     sensitivity with a mass separator.
   • Tracer injections into a well and purification
     of the recovered gas samples
5. Organizational issues
6. Present status of the project and time table.
    Aims of the project and approach
        Noble gases are being used as tracers to measure the
structure of gas and oil deposits. Due to their chemical
inertness, they offer the advantage that they do not react with
the environment with which they are in contact. In standard
commercial applications long lived isotopes and nuclear decay
counting are being used. Our research will employ stable
isotopes, which are environmentally accepted.
        The novelty in our present approach is that it uses optical
detection for noble gases. In particular for krypton (Kr) it relies in
using several narrow banded (1 MHz) cw-lasers to excite the
rare isotope ions (signal ions) to a high Rydberg level, followed
by field ionization and energy discrimination for their detection.
We showed that this scheme can be implemented with about
20% total efficiency for 85Kr; it works equally well for all the
stable Kr and other noble gas isotopes.
                   Motivation
•A need to analyze well gas samples from the
Northfield (Dr. Fahes) for rare noble gas isotopes.
•Tracer techniques are relatively cheap and
informative for reservoir structure characterization.
•Allows fast diagnostics of gas/water breakthroughs
and plug off efficiency by detecting the migration
velocity of the tracers.
•The total selectivity is made up as the product of
selectivities of the mass separator and of the two
laser excitation steps namely
 Stotal = Smass separator • Slaser1 • Slaser2 = 10-3 • 10-4 •
10-4 = 10-11
  Comparison of main detection techniques
Nuclear decay       •Standard tracer technique in the petroleum industry to
detection            assess size, porosity, connectivity and other important
                     properties of a reservoir
                    •Inject 20 to 40 Curie of 85Kr into a   central well
                    •Using decay counting measure the speed and extend of
                     spike migration by sampling surrounding wells
                    •In a large fields nuclear decay counting runs out of
                     sensitivity due to diifusion


Optical detection   •About 3 orders of magnitude more sensitive [proven
                     by our on-line work at RIKEN (Japan), TRIUMF
                     (Canada), Oak Ridge National Lab (USA)]
                    •Possible use of rare stable isotopes (Kr, Ar, etc.)
                    •Enviromentally friendly
                    •No safe guarding for nuclear polution
                    •Large amounts of tracer gas can be safely injected
                    •Availability of several tracer gases provides the
                    opportunity for detailed reservoir characterization.
   Laser spectroscopy parameters
         in nuclear physics
Optical absorption cross section   s = l2 = 10-10 cm2 = 1014 barn

Useful target thickness            d = 1010 atoms/cm3 = 1 pg/cm3

Intensity of photon beam           I = 1019 photons/cm2 sec
(ring dye laser 1 W/cm2)

Excitation rate per atom           R = s x I = 109 photons/sec
Qatari North Field
  Work done at TAMU, CS Texas
•Publication: paper at the International Laser
 Probing (LAP 2008) conference. It summarizes the
main results and indicates the plan to employ the
technique at the Qatari North Field.
•Preparations for the next step: work with reservoir
gas samples, stable noble gas reservoir injections
and purification (Drs. Schutz and Thonnard),
planning for improvement of sensitivity with a mass
separator (Dr. Wollnik).
•Work by Dr. Jinhai Chen (postdoc): construction of
the initial apparatus and testing of the vacuum
chambers and the beam line setup before shipment
to Doha.
Laser Probing 2008 conference, Nagoya, Japan
Laser Probing 2008 conference, Nagoya, Japan
TAMU collinear fast beam apparatus
          o
   31s[3/2]2
           o
   29d[5/2]3
   29d[5/2]o
           2
           o
                                           } ~ 140 cm
                                                    -1

   29d[7/2]3
           o
   29d[7/2]4
           o
   29d[3/2]2

                        488 nm (fixed)




   5p[5/2]3


                        811 nm (tracked)

          o
   5s[3/2]2




The Excitation Scheme (beam energy 5~12 eV)
                                       Experimental Setup


                                   Cs cell                           CI    FI




                             Postacc                                                       A


                    Lasers                      Interaction region                              Energy Filter

       ion Source


        Mass Resolution                                Collisional Ionization                  Energy Filter

         Xe+    R=m/Dm250                                                 Ar                      FI
                                       Stripped ions
ions




                                                                      N2
                                                                                                        CI
                                                       0     40      80         120   1.40 1.45 1.50 1.55 1.60 1.65
               B Field                                        Gas (mT)                    Voltage (×100 V)
TAMU-Qatar fast beam line

                 Source and open beamline
                 segments showing the bending
                 capacitors and the quadrupole
                 triplet. The bending capacitors
                 are for overlapping the ion
                 beam on axis with the laser
                 beam. The quadrupole triplet is
                 to remove possible astigmatism
                 and also serves as one of the
                 focusing elements for the ion
                 beam (does not contain a
                 magnet for mass separation
                 and field ionization region).
Preliminary ray trace
results for the Wollnik type
mass separator in the
stigmatic imaging mode:
(a) beam distribution in the
x,y and z directions,
(b) beam cross sections.
  Prof. Milivoj Belic (contact PI)
• Senior Associate Professor TAMU-Qatar
• Provides mathematical and computer
  modeling
• Expert in nonlinear optics and optical
  systems
• He introduced the existence of counter-
  propagating two-dimensional vector solitons
  and bidirectional waveguides in SBN crystals.
• Kummer solitons in strongly nonlocal
  nonlinear media
Prof. Dr. Hermann Wollnik
       (collaborator)
Director of the magnet laboratory at the
University of Giessen, Germany
World-expert in mass separators and
spectrometers, charged particles
motion in fields.
Author of a famous monograph: Optics of
charged particles by H. Wollnik, Academic
Press, New York, London, 1987.
                  Dr. Norbert Thonnard
                      (collaborator)
Director, Institute for Rare Isotope Measurements, and Research Professor,
Departments of Geological Sciences, and Physics and Astronomy at the University
of Tennessee.
           The Institute for Rare Isotopes Measurements (IRIM) explores extremely
sensitive analytical techniques using multiple lasers that make the detection of
only a few atoms in a sample feasible.
Collaborations with researchers word-wide to studies of very old groundwater,
contaminant transport and modern groundwater recharge, age-dating of polar ice
sheets, and to studies of isotopic signatures in minute mineral grains in meteorites
and presolar dust grains to understand the formation and early history of our solar
system.
           Dr. Thonnard measured the 81Kr concentration in groundwater to better
understand the flow, recharge and potential for contaminant incursion in a major
regional aquifer system. The many instruments in his laboratory include four mass
spectrometers, two multi-wavelength laser systems, water and gas processing
systems, and lots of vacuum and electronic systems.
           Particular interest for the current work presents expertise of Dr. Thonnard
in purification of gas and oil samples with tracer isotopes.
       Dr. Schutz (collaborator and
               consultant)
Donald F. Schutz, Ph.D., consultant for the project
President of the Geonuclear Inc., Former President of the Teledyne Inc.
Dr. Schutz received his doctorate in Geology & Geophysics from Yale
University in 1964.
Dr. Schutz joined Isotopes, Inc. which later became Teledyne Isotopes
and thenTeledyne Brown Engineering - Environmental Services.
He performed field and laboratory work, which led to the use of
radioisotopes as tracers in oil field operations.
In 1975 Dr. Schutz became president of the company and chaired the
Radiation Safety Committee until 1998. Iin 1999 Dr. Schutz started
Geonuclear, Inc. In April 2000 Geonuclear acquired portions of the Mass
Spectrometry Services product line from Teledyne and added it to other
on-going work with TLD dosimetry systems and petroleum tracers.
Participated in large scale studies of oil reservoirs with traceer gas
analysis (Mexico, Dubai, North slope of Alaska).
   Prof. Dr. Klaus D.A. Wendt
 (collaborator who can also send students
        from Germany to TAMUQ)
Director of the Laser Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy for Selective
Trace Analysis (LARISSA) laboratory, Institute of Physics
Johannes Gutenberg-Universitat, Mainz, Germany
Renowned expert in Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy, High
Resolution Laser-Mass Spectrometry,
Ultra Trace Isotope Determination in Environmental, Bio-Medical,
Fundamental Research and Applications.
  The major future stages of the project
Spring 2008: The PI (Schuessler) and TAMU coop Industrial Engineering student Ricardo
Nava are at TAMU Qatar to install the first half of the collinear fast beam apparatus, which
is ready for shipping to Doha. Professor Fahes has reservoir gas which is evaluated fo
rare noble gas isotopes for possible tracer use. Professor Nasrabadi uses his expertise
to simulate tracer prorogation in a reservoir. Professor Rudolph Lorentz applies data
computations and numerical solutions procedures to solving reservoir simulations with
differential equations. Professor Samia Jones contributes to statistics and data evaluation.

June-December 2009: A postdoc under supervision of the PI and Profs. Fahes and
Nasrabadi will will further develop the collinear fast beam apparatus and work with it
based on the equipment that was already setup.

February to May 2010: By this time and the field ionization part of the collinear fast beam
apparatus has also been completed in the TAMU machine shop and has been shipped to
Doha by TAMU. The field ionization and energy discrimination stages will be added. Also a
simple laser system will be operational.

June to December 2010: We will order the remaining equipment items to be shipped
directly to Doha. They will be installed into the analytical instrument. The collaborating
professors, postdoctoral researchers, and students will start to use the system to process
tracer samples at TAMU-Qatar.
Floor plan with the laboratory location




  ½ of the Lab
  location
  356B
Boxes with
equipment
    for
 shipment
Documents for ion beam setup shipment
                              Postdoc
Dr. Tarek Ali Mohamed Hassan:
Degrees:
2003 Ph. D. in Atomic Physics, Sweden, Stockholm University, Atomic
Physics Department. 2001
Licentiate degree in Atomic Physics, Sweden, Stockholm University, Atomic
Physics Department.
1996 M. Sc. in Experimental Physics, Cairo University.
1990 B. Sc. in Physics, Cairo University, First Class Honors.
Education and employment
1- Postdoctoral Fellow, Institute of Physical and Chemical Research
(RIKEN), Atomic Physics Laboratory, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako-Shi, Saitama 351-
0198, Tokyo, Japan, from 20/1/2005 till now.
2- Postdoctoral Fellow, Laser Cooling Group, Physics Department, National
Chung Cheng University, Taiwan from 8/7/2004 till 12/01/2005.
3- Assistant Professor, Cairo University, Beni-Suef Faculty of Science,
Physics Department, Egypt from 1/7/2003 to 5/7/2004.
4- Ph. D. student, Stockholm University, Atomic Physics Department,
Sweden, Supervisor Prof. R. Schuch, from 24/5/1999 to 2/6/2003.
5- Teaching Assistant, Cairo University, Beni-Suef Faculty of Science, Egypt
from 23/4/1996 to 23/5/1999.
6- Instructor and Researcher in Physics, Cairo University, Beni-Suef Faculty
of Science, Egypt from 3/10/1990 to 23/4/1996.
Tarek BS sertificate
      TAMU-Qatar Co-PI and
         Collaborators
• Professor Milivoj Belic, Physics (Contact
  PI)
• Professor Mashhad Fahes, Petroleum
  Engineering
• Professor Hadi Nasrabadi, Petroleum
  Engineering
• Professor Rudolph Lorentz, Mathematics
• Professor Samia Jones, Mathematics
                  Present status
•One complete general setup is available at
 TAMU, College Station, Texas. It is being used to
 prepare studies on new elements before on-line
 work at nuclear accelerators is carried out.
•A second dedicated setup for oil and gas reservoir
 studies is being prepared and part of it has been completed
and is ready for shipment to TAMUQ.
•Vacuum equipment has been ordered.
•Obtain permission and funds for shipping the initial part of the
apparatus.
•Work within the approved budget and find yearly support for a
postdoc staying at Doha (possibly for the whole year).
•The PI is at TAMUQ for research and teaching until May 2009.
He is accompanied by an undergraduate student (Ricardo
Nava, Industrial Engineering). Ricardo will setup the initial
apparatus as his co-op project. The PI will come back to Doha
TAMUQ later this year and plans to work with a postdoc (to be
hired).
Tarek BS seriticate - arabic
Schematic of the fast ion beam
  apparatus for rare isotope
   spectroscopic detection
                           Teledyne sample                                Reactor sample                                 Diluted (1/5) Reactor sample


                     40k                                        800                                                      3k




                                                                                                 Counts per 10 seconds
                     30k
Counts per 0.3 sec




                                                                600




                                             Counts per 2 sec
                                                                                                                         2k
                     20k                                        400

                     10k                                                                                                 1k
                                                                200

                      0
                                                                  0                                                       0
                               Beam Energy                                   Beam Energy                                             Beam Energy




                                   Sample                       Teledyne               Reactor                                Diluted Reactor

                           Expt.                                 4.0E-6                9.3E-9                                     1.8E-9
                           From activity                         1.9E-6                1.6E-8                                     3.2E-9
                           Measurements



                             Results of concentration measurements on various samples
ISAC collinear fast beam laser
             hut
RF ion guide setup

				
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