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ADVISING HANDBOOK

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					                      ADVISING HANDBOOK
                              TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of Contents .....................................................................................................................1
Definition of Advising ..............................................................................................................2
Characteristics of a Good Advisor .............................................................................................2
Academic Advising Is Not .........................................................................................................3
Academic Advising is...NACADA Advising Goals ..................................................................5
Good Practices for Advising ......................................................................................................5
A Developmental Approach: O’Banion’s 5-Step Model ...........................................................6
Helping Students Make Decisions .............................................................................................6
Taking Notes ..............................................................................................................................7
Advising for Student Growth and Development .......................................................................7
Referrals- Accessing Campus/Community Resources ..............................................................8
Retention ....................................................................................................................................9
Advising Style of Students.......................................................................................................10
Learning Styles ........................................................................................................................10
Classroom Environment...........................................................................................................11
Questioning Skills that Uncover Student Needs ......................................................................12
Different Types of Students to be Advised ..............................................................................12
Under Prepared Students..........................................................................................................14
Learning Disabled Students .....................................................................................................14
Honor Students.........................................................................................................................15
Adult Students..........................................................................................................................15
Students of Color .....................................................................................................................16
Course Selection/Schedule.......................................................................................................17
Career Planning ........................................................................................................................18
Health – Physical, Mental and Emotional................................................................................18




                                                                                                                                       1
                                  Definition of Advising
                                          (ACT)

Academic advising is a developmental process which assists students in the clarification
of their life/career goals and in the development of educational plans for the realization of
these goals. It is a decision-making process by which students realize their maximum
educational potential through communication and information exchanges with an advisor;
is it ongoing, multifaceted, and the responsibility of both student and advisor. The
advisor serves as a facilitator of communication a coordinator of learning experiences
through course and career planning and academic progress review, and an agent of
referral to other campus agencies as necessary.

                               Characteristics of a Good Advisor
                                             (ACT)

 “Good advising may be the single most underestimated characteristic of a successful college
career.”
                                                                                         - Light

To be an effective adviser you must be student-centered, be cognizant of student development
theory, be confidential, respectful, honest, ethical, friendly, approachable, nurturing, and an
active listener. An effective adviser needs to engage in relationship building with their advisees
and must take primary responsibility for initiating that relationship.

A good advisor:

   1. is personally and professionally interested in being an advisor.

   2. listens constructively, attempting to hear all aspects of students’ expressed problems.

   3. sets aside enough regularly scheduled time to adequately meet the advising needs of
      students assigned to him or her.

   4. knows college policies and practices in sufficient detail to provide students with accurate,
      usable information.

   5. refers students to other sources of information and assistance when referral seems to be
      the best, student-centered response to be made.

   6. attempts to understand student concerns from a student point of view.

   7. views long-range planning as well as immediate problem-solving as an essential part of
      effective advising.

   8. shares his/her advising skills with working colleagues who also are actively involved
      with advising.



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9. continually attempts to improve both the style and substance of his/her advising role.

10. willingly and actively participates in advisor-training programs, both initial and in-
    service.

11. is willing to establish a caring, human relationship – one in which the advisor must take
    primary responsibility for its initial development.

                           ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

                            Academic Advising is Not
                                    (ACT)

   Academic advising us not a conference held once a term. In too many
    instances, advising is viewed as little more than a short meeting held once a term
    between the student and an institutional representative. Winston and Sandor
    (1984) found that the average advising conference at one university was less than
    twenty minutes long. If academic advising is to have any significant influence on
    students’ lives, the quality and depth of the interaction between student and
    advisor require commitment and purpose. Short, limited, and irregular
    interactions between individuals seldom have lasting impact.

   Academic advising is not obtaining a signature to schedule classes. Too
    often academic advising is seen as being synonymous with class scheduling and
    course registration. Granted, one outcome of academic advising may be the
    selection of an appropriate class schedule, but advising is much more than this.
    Without a clearly defined educational plan based upon a number of previously
    made decisions regarding interests, aptitudes, and career objectives, class
    scheduling can be at best guesswork, at worst educational malfeasance.

   Academic advising is not a closed or limiting activity. Quality advising can
    take many forms but is invariably “open-ended.” Advising depends as much on
    the educational and academic needs of the student as upon the intention of the
    advisor to be of help. Although advising primarily centers upon the educational
    and the academic, all factors that influence these areas of the student’s life have
    potential for consideration. Quality academic advising attends to the total
    development of the student.

   Academic advising is not a judgmental process. The purpose of advising is to
    facilitate development, not to diagnose students’ behavior or judge their values. It
    is, on the other hand, certainly within the realm of the advising process to aid
    students in self-assessment and values clarification process that are essential to
    both personal and educational growth. Likewise, it is valuable for students to be
    able to use their advisor as a sounding board to test out new ideas and alternatives.
    It is even appropriate for the advisor to communicate his or her personal opinions



                                                                                          3
    and positions about issues and problems faced by the student within the
    framework of the advising relationship. It is not, however, the purpose of
    advising to impose the advisor’s values on students or to seek to direct or manage
    the way students confront the educational process. Advisors must be aware that
    students confront the educational process. Advisors must be aware that students
    may view education differently from an academician and that advisors should not
    attempt to impose their values.

   Academic advising is not personal counseling. Although the outcome of
    academic advising may well reflect students who function at high levels of
    effectiveness in their personal as well as in their academic lives, advising is not
    another form of counseling. Good human relations skills are essential to both
    activities, but the advising relationship centers on the individual as a student in
    search of both academic and personal competence. Shane (1981) has proposed
    four depths of involvement an advisor may have with a student:

       o    1. informational: where the focus is upon informing the student,
           providing data, usually about deadlines, procedures, or policies
           (communication is generally one-way)

       o    2. explanatory: where the focus is upon helping the student understood
           college expectations, rules, and procedures (communication is two-way)

       o    3. analytic: where the focus is upon the student and is directed at helping
           the student analyze options available in the college environment and
           understand himself or herself in relationship to opportunities and options
           available

       o    4. therapeutic or counseling: where the focus is on values,
           commitments, and emotional preferences (often only marginally
           connected with college attendance) and may involve unusual or self-
           defeating kinds of behavior.

    It seems quite appropriate for advisors to be involved in the first three types
    of intervention, but the latter type would require experience, knowledge, and
    skills not possessed by most advisors. Advisors who encounter students who
    have remedial concerns (requiring the fourth type of intervention), rather
    than normal developmental concerns, can best assist by referring students to
    appropriate personnel that are trained to deal with such concerns.

                        ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~




                                                                                          4
                   Academic Advising is…NACADA Advising Goals
                   (NACADA- National Academic Advising Association)

1. Assisting students in self-understanding and self-acceptance (value clarification,
   understanding abilities, interests, and limitations).

2. Assisting students in their consideration of life goals by relating interests, skills,
   abilities, and values to careers, the world of work, and the nature and purpose of higher
   education. (Refer to Career Center and/or career link on website.)

3. Assisting students in developing an educational plan consistent with life goals and
   objectives (alternate courses of action, alternate career considerations, and selections of
   courses).

4. Assisting students in developing decision-making skills.

5. Providing accurate information about institutional policies, procedures, resources, and
   programs. Students often do not know what they do not know. (Refer to student
   handbook.)

6. Making referrals to other institutional or community support services. (Refer to mental
    health page on the web site and/or mental health brochures.)

7. Assisting students in evaluation of continuing progress toward established goals and
   educational plans.

8. Providing information to students about the institution, colleges, and/or academic
   departments.

                               Good Practices for Advising
                    (Dr. Leslie A. Crabtree – North Central University)

   1. Advisors should meet at least 3 times a semester with advisees to build a
      relationship.

   2. If students do not make appointments with the advisors, the advisors need to track
      them down.

   3. An advisor should see each advisee within the first 6 weeks of the semester.

   4. Advisors should send notes on occasion to advisees letting them know they are
      thinking about them, or ask students to join them for coffee, etc.


                              ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~




                                                                                             5
               A Developmental Approach: O’Banion’s 5-Step Model
                                    (ACT)

O’Banion’s (1972) five-step advising model is now generally recognized as the origin of
the developmental model of academic advising which recognizes that there is a logical
and sequential set of steps to the advising process. O’Banion’s five steps are (1)
exploration of life goals, (2) exploration of career goals, (3) selection of a major or
program of study, (4) selection of courses, and (5) scheduling of courses. O’Banion’s
model thus assumes that a developmental approach to academic advising must involve
more than course selection and scheduling. Rather, these necessary, but more
perfunctory, activities must be accomplished within a broader context which needs to be
discussed and developed by the advisee and the advisor. The quality of academic
advising on college and university campuses could be greatly enhanced by placing more
emphasis on and devoting more time to steps one and two of the O’Banion model. Walsh
(1979) presents a convincing case for redefining advising so that these developmental
functions (that is, exploring, integrating, and synthesizing a student’s life, career, and
academic goals) are central to the process.

The growing evidence of the link between advising and improved student retention is not
surprising if advising is viewed developmentally. And indeed, academic advising is
evolving on many campuses from a simplistic, perfunctory course scheduling activity
performed primarily by teaching faculty to a more integrated and complex process
designed to facilitate student growth and development.

                              Helping Students Make Decisions
                                        (Noel Levitz)

   1. In many cases, advisors will be more heavily involved with students at the onset of the
      advising relationship. Developmental advisors provide concentrated advising the first
      term to help students understand expectations for college students.

   2. Many new students do not arrive at college knowing how to make sound judgments.
      Advisors need to both model and teach decision-making skills.

   3. There are five steps that can help make teaching and modeling this process easier and
      more effective:

           a. Define the problem and clarify the situation.
           b. Collect information form the student and use that information to help steer the
              student toward alternatives and solutions.
           c. Evaluate the alternatives available.
           d. Assess the risks involved in each alternative plan.
           e. Help the student develop a plan of action and a timetable to follow through on
              that plan.




                                                                                        6
                                         Taking Notes
                                         (Noel Levitz)

1. Take good notes on advising sessions, especially recommendations, commitments,
   exceptions, referrals, proposed actions, etc. This will assist you in follow-up sessions
   with the student.

2. In appropriate situations, ask students to sign statements that they understand and agree to
   actions that you are taking or that the student is taking.

3. When talking to students or explaining something, remind them to take notes and write
   down important information for their own records. Ask them questions throughout to
   probe for understanding.

4. Keep anecdotal notes on advising contacts in students’ files. Send notes to
   admission/registration office to be filed.

5. Any waivers of policy, degree requirements, etc., should be in writing and maintained in
   the student’s file. Avoid oral permissions and waivers.

6. Information disclosed in individual advising sessions must remain confidential, unless
   written permission to divulge the information is given by the student. However,
   information that is judged to be of an emergency nature, especially when the health and
   safety of the individual or individuals are involved are at risk.

                           ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

                    Advising for Student Growth and Development
                                     (Noel Levitz)

1. Advising is a process that involves the entire campus, from freshman orientation to career
   counseling to graduation. The advisor is a resource person who can direct students to the
   campus experts-and is not someone who has all the right answers. Advisors need to keep
   in mind that students often do not know what they do not know.

2. Advising is a process that helps students discover their strengths and build on them to
   achieve their goals.

3. Effective advisors are caring, compassionate, concerned, and excited about meeting
   students and helping to direct students. They want to make a difference in students’ lives.

4. Effective advisors recognize that students are often hesitant to seek help. It is up to the
   advisor to be proactive and take the first step in the advising relationship. This is called
   intrusive advising.




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5. Good advising is interactive. Both the student and the advisor contribute.

6. Teaching and advising require the same skills. Advisors and teachers have to really care
   about students, and want to make a difference in their lives. They get personal
   satisfaction out of having an impact, changing students in a positive way so that they can
   fulfill the goals they seek.

7. Advising like teaching promotes active learning and requires good communication skills.
   Listening and questioning skills are the principal ways to draw out students. The root
   meaning of educate is to “draw out.” Advisors help students recognize what their
   strengths are and to draw them out.

8. A good advisor is someone who is a student advocate and can cut through some of the
   red tape when necessary and who looks at the system through the eyes of a student as
   well. Sometimes it is intervening on behalf of the student. Other times it is encouraging
   the student to take action and showing them the proper way to resolve issues i.e. – how to
   approach a teacher, etc.

9. Advising is a progressive process that moves students from dependence to independence.
   This involves increasingly shifting responsibility to the student. Advisors often need to
   walk a thin line between empowering students to act for themselves and providing direct
   assistance.

10. A key ethical responsibility for advisors is not to do things for students that students need
    to learn to do themselves. Teach students how to assume responsibility for their own
    academic lives, i.e.
         Keep abreast of syllabus
         Meet with advisor on a regular basis
         Keep a planner
         Communicate with instructors
         Inform instructors if they have a disability and need special accommodations.

11. Monitor the progress of students; keep detailed records, and look out for students.

12. Part of the advising process is helping students develop realistic expectations of the
    college experience.

                             ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

                   Referrals - Accessing Campus/Community Resources
                                       (Noel Levitz)

1. A key component of advising is helping students access the wide array of resources and
   support services available on your campus and in the community. The advisor is a
   resource person and does not have to have all the answers.



                                                                                        8
2. Part of the referral process is getting students comfortable with accessing those services.

3. Sending them off with a list of tasks to do and report back to you is an important part of
   their educational process.

4. Sometimes advisors need to contact the referral source directly and facilitate the student’s
   use of that resource.

5. Follow-up is critical in the referral process. At the end of the session, schedule an
   appointment for a return visit. The referral and what is to be accomplished in that session
   sets the agenda for your next visit with the student. Follow-up communicates to the
   student that the referral is important.

6. It is also important to refer/guide students to the website where they can access a great
   deal of information such as the student handbook, the college catalog, etc.

                             ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

                                        Retention
                                       (Noel Levitz)

1. Advising is a key to student retention. The best way to keep students enrolled is to keep
   them stimulated, challenged, and progressing toward a meaningful goal. The best way to
   do that – especially among new students – is through informed academic advising.

2. Good advising is vital to the long-term success of the institution.

3. Students who stay in college and graduate are much more likely to be students who
   developed a relationship with one significant person in the employ of the college.
   Advisors are in an excellent position to be that one significant person.

4. The advisor is the link between the student and the institution.

5. Advising can make a difference. Advisors can take a student who might otherwise leave
   the college and reshape that student to some extent so that the student stays and feels
   good about him or herself.

6. First- and second-year students can be overwhelmed by the college experience. The
   reality is that many new students have trouble coping with so many new experiences.

7. Academic preparation does not always equip students to persist and succeed
   academically. Attitude and motivation are powerful predictors of student success in
   college.

8. Most students don’t come to college knowing how to make academic decisions. Advisors
   teach students how to gather information and how to make decisions.



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   9. Many students leave due to financial issues; encourage students to fill out their financial
      aid forms in a timely manner and make an appointment with the financial aid director if
      need be.

   10. Inform students of scholarship opportunities that may be available for them.

   11. Encourage students to get involved in the life of the campus, join an organization, etc.
       Students’ active involvement in the campus outside of the classroom also aids in
       retention. (Astin’s involvement theory)

   12. The most effective advisors understand student goals and use them as a point of
       departure. They help students make connections between their goals and the goals of the
       institution. This is crucial to promoting student retention. Broadly defined goals are:

           a. Academic Goals – students becoming broadly educated, developing the capacity
              for life-long learning and developing solid communication skills.

           b. Personal Goals – students developing aesthetic appreciation, becoming more
              open to new ideas, valuing diversity, learning about their identity, etc.

           c. Career Goals – helping students develop a solid work ethic, flexibility to adapt to
              the needs of changing workplace, and the ability to transfer and apply knowledge.

                            ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~


                                   Advising Style of Students
                                    (Crockett and Crawford)

Sensing Students – prefer advising that address the practical details of course registration and
academic planning

Intuitive Students – prefer developmental advising that examines their experiences and goals
more broadly (intuitive students also seem more interested in artistic and investigative careers)

Feeling Students – prefer a model that is more focused on creating a close working relationship
with their advisors

                                        Learning Styles
                                          (Lawrence)
                          Personality type is related to learning styles

Extraverts – learn best through discussion and group activity

Introverts – need time to process information and prefer reading and working individually



                                                                                         10
Sensors – need step by step instruction and do best on practical tasks that require remembering
facts and observing specifics

Intuitives – prefer independent learning and tasks that call for imagination, seeing relationships,
and grasping general concepts

Thinking types – value organization, objective material to study, and depth and accuracy of
content

Feeling types – value rapport with the teacher, learning through relationships, and personal
connection to content

Judging types – work in a steady, orderly manner and prefer outlined tasks and formalized
instruction – they have a need for closure

Perceptive types – work in spurts and follow impulses. They prefer informal learning and
discovery tasks.

                                             Of note:

   1. 60 % of students in higher education are sensing types (Schroeder)

   2. Students’ choice of major in relation to MBTI (Myers-Briggs Type Indicator) also related
      to retention. Extraverts in majors dominated by introverts and vice versa were more
      likely to drop out of college than students in majors dominated by their own type.
      (Provost)

   3. Students with the greatest attrition rate were SPs who had difficulty becoming involved
      and feeling connected to the college. (Provost)

   4. Students who were most likely to graduate were extraverts who were highly involved in
      campus activities. (Provost)

                                 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

                                    Classroom Environment
                                            (Salter)

1.     Regardless of personality types – students perform better in environments that are
characterized as extraverted, intuitive, and feeling.

2.      Students tend to perform more poorly in environments that have low classroom
interaction, lecture, independent work and a competitive atmosphere.

                                  ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~



                                                                                         11
                    Questioning Skills that Uncover Student Needs
                                     (Noel Levitz)

1. Questions are the main vehicle for establishing a relationship with advisees.

2. Questions allow you to discover what students know, what they feel, their points of view,
   biases, their preparation, their motivation, their strengths and weaknesses, their
   curiosities, expectations, etc. – those things that you can not find in their personal record.

3. Questions open doors to the student’s concerns, pave the way to discussions of critical
   issues and help identify real and potential trouble areas.

4. Open-ended questions are invitations for the students to talk. They draw students into
   conversation and help students reveal valuable information about themselves. Questions
   such as:

       a. How are you paying for college?
       b. Has anything happened in your life prior to beginning this semester which
          may affect you as a student – i.e. death in family, loss of job, etc?

                                 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

                         Different Types of Students to be Advised

                                   Undecided Students
                                      (Noel Levitz)

1. Undecided students are often the rule than the exception. Many students are not ready or
   able to commit to a major when they enroll. The first task an advisor faces is to
   determine the source of the indecision.

2. Students may be undecided for one or more of the following reasons:

       a.   They never had to make important decisions.
       b.   They do not understand the decision making process.
       c.   There has been a lack of professional support to assist them.
       d.   They lack information on themselves, majors, and careers.
       e.   They have a multitude of interests.
       f.   They lack in interests.
       g.   They perceive a lack of ability in themselves.
       h.   They have concerns about the job market.
       i.   Their area of study may not be available.
       j.   They do not want to be in college.
       k.   Many times rural students do not know what their options are; whereas,
            undecided urban students have too many options.



                                                                                       12
3. Undecided students are at risk because of their confusion. Advisors need to help students
   clarify their values, beliefs, and concerns.

4. Questions to ask undecided/confused students:

       a. What do they like to do?
              i. What have they enjoyed studying, learning, reading?
             ii. What have they learned on their own?
           iii. What experiences have been most interesting to them?
            iv. What are they most eager to learn?

       b. What are their strengths? What do they do well?
              i. In what subject have they been most successful?
             ii. When do friends ask them for help?
           iii. What can they explain to others particularly well?
            iv. Are they intellectually curious?
             v. What is their preferred learning style?

       c. What are their weaknesses? What don’t they do well?
             i. In what subjects have they not been so successful?
            ii. What subjects or disciplines have been difficult for them?
           iii. What do they need to improve on academically to be successful in
                college?

       d. What are their values? What is important to them?

       e. What do they really want to learn in college?

5. Some undecided students are truly undecided and may be open to many possibilities.
   Other students are undecided because they haven’t been able to decide among two or
   three majors that they find appealing.

6. Advisors help students make sense of all the fragmented pieces of information they have.

7. An informed career choice frees the energy and gives students the drive they need to
   complete the education and training required for that career.

8. The more able the student, the harder the decision – because more options are available.

                           ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~




                                                                                   13
                                Under Prepared Students
                                     (Noel Levitz)

1. Underprepared students typically do not do well on the Accuplacer. Review assessment
   scores and help students select classes that are appropriate to their ability level.

2. Underprepared students need to be encouraged to focus on their strengths. Advisors can
   help students identify the skills they come with and can encourage students to build on
   those skills.

3. Many students have multiple deficiencies. If advisors try to attack the deficiencies all at
   once, it can destroy student self-confidence and destroy the advising relationship.

4. Try to structure at least half of a student’s program to play to strengths and set the stage
   for success.

5. Students are capable of profound change. Advisors can inspire students to shine and to
   do things they didn’t think were possible.

6. Advisors can help underprepared students learn how to study, how to get connected to the
   academic community and how to get involved.

7. Determine what learning style they have. Suggest ways of studying that would be most
   beneficial considering their learning style.

8. Encourage student to share learning style with their teachers.

9. Refer them to the LARC for peer tutoring, Smart-thinking.

10. Encourage them to enroll in a study skills class.

                            ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

                               Learning Disabled Students

1. Some students attending college may have a learning disability. They need to be
   encouraged to share their disability with their instructors and the disabilities coordinator
   so proper accommodations can be made for such things as: note-taking, extra time for
   test-taking, books on tape, etc.

2. Many students who come to college from high school with IEP plans are reluctant to
   share their disability, but it is to their advantage to share it so that they can avail
   themselves to campus resources in order to be successful. Students with learning
   disabilities need to be their own advocates and advisors need to encourage them to
   disclose this information.
                        ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~



                                                                                       14
                                     Honor Students
                                      (Noel Levitz)

1. The best and the brightest students also can be at risk.

2. Many high ability students have difficulty making educational and career decisions
   because they have so many areas of strength and interest. Uncertainty about what to study
   or major in is the most frequent reason talented students give for dropping out. Advisors
   can help students bring focus to multiple talents.

3. Academic boredom can be a problem for some high-ability students. Advisors can help
   students identify challenging opportunities.

4. On the other hand, some high-ability students are reluctant to seek out academic
   challenges because they do not want their G.P.A. affected.

                         ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

                                      Adult Students
                                       (Noel Levitz)

1. Adults have multiple role commitments that may conflict with their educational
   experiences.

2. Adults often return to campus as a result of a major life transition that in itself may
   impact the success of their return.

3. Adult students sometimes don’t like to ask for help. Advisors may need to be more
   proactive when working with adults.

4. Adults sometimes bring “baggage” with them from past negative experiences in formal
   education. The resulting lack of self-confidence may prevent them from persisting
   through degree completion.

5. Adults want to expedite their degree completion and get frustrated when they are required
   to take courses that they think they may not need. Their prior learning must be assessed.

6. Because adults feel the pressure of time and/or life circumstances, course selection is
   critical for adult students.

7. Many people assume that adult learners enroll with clearer educational goals than the
   traditional age students. This is not necessarily true. They often come with short-term
   goals related to issues in their lives. These issues sometimes cloud their real long-term
   education needs. Advisors need to help students assess those short-term goals to see if
   they are going to help them reach their long-term goals.




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8. Adults frequently return to campus without support from spouses, family, co-workers and
   friends. This opposition must be balanced by institutional support.

9. Adult students often lack confidence in their ability to succeed.

10. Advisors need to help adult students remain open and flexible to new views.

                        ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

                                     Students of Color
                                       (Noel Levitz)

1. The key issue is helping students of color achieve success, not just simply persist.

2. It is important for advisors to recognize there is a great deal of diversity within diversity.
   Advisors need to avoid making generalizations and assumptions about students.

3. Students of color often must overcome numerous obstacles, including prejudice, in order
   to achieve academic success. This includes perceptions that they are unqualified or
   underprepared. If faculty members have low expectations, students may feel insulted or
   may begin to doubt their own abilities.

4. Establishing rapport with students of color is especially important because they may have
   previous negative experiences with people outside their ethnic group-especially people in
   positions of authority.

5. The racial match between advisor and students is not always as important as sensitivity,
   genuine care, and support.

6. Many students of color come from traditional cultural backgrounds and are accustomed
   to hierarchical relationships. So an advising relationship that calls for the student to take
   a great deal of responsibility may be new.

7. Students of color tend to see advisors as experts and are coming to advisors with concrete
   problems in which they want help. Advisors need to help resolve students’ issues in a
   nondirective style.

8. Advisors need to help students take the long view – progress, not perfection. Advisors
   need to help students define the small steps necessary to attain goals.

9. Peers are important to the success of students of color.

10. Group interactions may be extremely positive. Advisors need to help students integrate
    their academic and social selves.

                              ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~



                                                                                       16
                               Course Selection/Schedule
                                     (Noel Levitz)

1. Course selection is the primary concern of all students. Getting the right courses in the
   right order concerns most students. Informed course selection considers more than
   course sequencing.

2. Informed course selection involves three factors that need to come together to inform
   every single course decision: the motivation of the student, the preparation of the student,
   and the way the course fits into the student’s life and requirements.

3. Discuss with students their priorities and time management skills – juggling their
   commitments – work, family, education, extra-curricular activities, etc.

4. Build a schedule that is manageable and promotes good mental and physical health.

5. Assist them with choosing a schedule that will maximize success.

       a. Review Accuplacer Test scores with them.

       b. Help them create a well-rounded schedule which does not, for example, place
         students who are struggling with reading or ESL students in three classes that are
         heavily laden with reading assignments.

       c. Help them chose a class that they may have interest in to balance out more difficult
          classes.

       d. Devise a course schedule that has variety – meaning that all the difficult courses
          are not saved for one semester.

       e. Be knowledgeable about the different workload each class requires.

       f. Understand student curiosities and help students select classes that reflect those
          curiosities.

13. Advise them of the credits they can realistically take to be successful considering other
    demands on their life.

14. Help them select classes that will be beneficial for their major and lead them to their
    major.

15. Inform them of the registration process.

16. Questions to ask students concerning course selection:

       a. What courses would you take if you had no requirements?



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       b. If you have a career in mind, what are the kinds of things you’d need to know to
          be successful in it?

       c. Apart from career goals, where do you see yourself in 10 years? In 20 years?
          What is it going to take to get there?

                          ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

                                     Career Planning
                                      (Noel Levitz)

1. Many students come to college and choose a major not based on what they personally
   like, but what they have heard is practical or what their parents told them to do. That’s a
   great place for an advisor to make an impact, to make a difference, to discuss majors and
   careers.

2. Developing a life purpose requires that students clarify what is really important to them
   in their personal lives and how their personal lives will relate to their vocational lives.

3. Part of career advising is helping students build a portfolio of skills they can use in one or
   more careers.

4. Refer students to the career center for career counseling, guidance, testing – Career
   Scope.

5. Assist students with connecting with professionals in the field where students could ask
   questions and perhaps job shadow.


                     ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~


                     Health – Physical, Mental and Emotional
  (Advising the whole student means focusing on personal as well as academic areas.)
                                   (Noel Levitz)

1. Physical
      a. Discuss with them good eating habits and the importance of exercising and
          getting proper rest/sleeping.
      b. Suggest enrollment into classes that promote wellness and offer physical
          activities.
      c. Encourage involvement in student activities that will engage the student
          physically.
      d. Encourage them and assist them with creating a health plan.
      e. Follow-up with them on their health plan.




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2. Mental/emotional (Advising should not become personal counseling.)
     a. Be an empathetic listener, but do not take on the student’s problem.
     b. Look for signs that indicate that students might need extra emotional support.
     c. Refer students who need additional assistance beyond your level of expertise.
     d. If necessary, make an appointment with a counselor.




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