“Oceans” By Seymour Simon Genre: Expository Nonfiction Day One • Introduce Spelling • Preview Skill and Grammar • Build Background • Learn About Author and Genre • Build Background • Read Aloud and Questions Spelling: Troublesome Words and Phrases anyway any way all right every one everyone already all ready a lot its’ it’s your you’re who’s whose there’s theirs anyone any one altogether all together Spelling Homework-Monday • Be sure to follow the directions as you place your spelling words in the correct categories Spelling Challenge Words • Continents • Wavelengths • Particles • Dangerous • Eventually Text Structure and Sequence • Nonfiction selections involve complicated information. The author may decide to use a pattern of main ideas and details to organize and structure the text. • Reading Skills Rocket • Text Structure • Test Tutor Grammar: Subject and Object Pronouns • Subject Pronouns – takes the place of a noun or nouns in the subject of a sentence. • Object Pronouns – takes the place of a noun after an action verb or a preposition. • Mixed Up Pronouns • Exploring the Pronoun Reef About Seymour Simon • Harcourt Website • Seymour Simon.com • Houghton/Mifflin Meet the Author Picture Taken From: http://harcourtschool.com/activity/trophies/author /g5simon-2.html “Oceans” Summary • Seymour Simon explains the ocean phenomena of tides, tsunamis and waves. Photographs and diagrams help readers understand the concepts. • Genre: Expository Nonfiction Building Background • What is the source of the earth’s heat and light? • How does the gravity of the moon and the sun affect earth’s oceans? • How might wind affect ocean waves? Read Aloud-The Drop in My Drink by Meridith Hooper • Pay attention to important ideas and details so that you can understand what is happening. One way to better understand a selection is to create a mental picture of what is happening. Focus on the images that the narrator describes so you can understand how water takes different forms but is never destroyed. One hundred and twenty thousand years ago, the drop in my drink fell as powder snow in the icy silence of the South Pole. It blew along the surface of the great ice sheet, then changed under the weight of snow heaped above it into solid, blue glacier ice. It slipped and scraped over buried mountains, as the ice sheet shifted and ground towards the ocean. The drop in my drink traveled inside the ice sheet for more than 100,000 years. At the edge of the land, great pieces of ice sheets break off into the sea as icebergs. The drop in my drink has been inside an iceberg floating its white bulk in the cold blue ocean, slowly melting. Waves roar into the iceberg’s caves. The edges of the iceberg crumble, it wallows and tilts, and all the ancient snowflakes fizz and melt into the sea. Four thousand years ago the drop in my drink sank down through the cold Southern Ocean. Giant pale squid swam through it, searching for prey. Deep-diving whales gulped it, searching for squid. Four miles down, in the darkness of the deepest water, it joined a current of very cold, very salty water flowing through the world’s oceans. The drop in my drink rose into the clear, warm, sunlit shallows of a coral reef. It carried food to the stinging tentacles of small coral polyps. It was sucked through the bright bodies of sea squirts, and around the arms of starfish. It lapped the eyes of a turtle and the fin of a shark. Two years ago the drop in my drink evaporated from the top of a wave, traveled a quarter of the way around the world in a week, clashed in a storm, fell in a shower of rain on wet hills, and trickled down glistering rocks into a stream which fed into a river. The drop spun and tumbled in the river’s current, carrying particles of clay, grains of sand and microscopic animals, until it fell into the quiet water of a reservoir. It touched the shiny scales of fish, the stems of green plants. Leaves and dust sank down through it. It was swallowed by small organisms and pushed out again. It did not evaporate back up into the sky. A few weeks ago my drop was pumped through strainers and filters to remove large things and microscopic things. It was blown through the air, mixed with chemicals to kill microorganisms, and fed into pipes buried under the ground. A second ago the drop was in my tap. Read Aloud Questions • How far back in time does the selection begin? When in time does it end? • The story begins one hundred and twenty thousand years ago and ends a second ago (sequence) • What is the “drop” in the narrator’s drink? • Water (understanding figurative language) • What is this selection about? • How water has been transformed from snow to tap water (theme/main idea) • How does the author tell the story? • Through a series of images that describe ow the drop travels through time to different places, such as oceans and rivers, and finally becomes water from a tap (Author’s Craft/Imagery_ Vocabulary • Gravitational • Bulge • Inlet • Shallow • Energy • Generated Vocabulary in Context Vocabulary in Context gravitational • grav-i-ta-tion-al • having to do with the law in physics that states that two objects exert a pull on each other. • “The earth’s gravitational pull is one reason objects have weight; the other is the mass of the objects themselves.” • adjective Gravitational • An adjective describing one type of force by which two bodies attract each other. (1) Tides are caused by the difference between the Moon's gravitational pull on the two sides of the Earth. We think of tides in association with the seashore. bulge • bulge • a part that swells outward • “The bulge in the tire means it needs replacement. • noun Bulge • A part that swells outward The tidal bulge created when ocean waters are pulled toward the moon is the high tide. Between each high tide, there is a low tide. As the moon rotates around the earth each day, water is displaced from the side of the earth facing the moon and also from the side of the earth facing away from the moon. The bulging of the waters on both sides of the earth occurs in response to the moon’s orbit. Because each orbit takes 24 hours and 50 minutes, there are usually two high tides and two low tides a day. inlet • in-let • a narrow strip of water leading into land • “We traveled the inlet in a small canoe.” • noun shallow • shal-low • not deep • “Shallow puddles were all over the parking lot after the rain storm.” • adjective Shallow Water that is not deep. The shallow water, or littoral zone, is a unique habitat found at the edge of the shoreline. These waters continuously shift with the tides and thus undergo extreme environmental fluctuations throughout the year. In the summer, the waters become very hot with little moderation in temperature. In winter, ice often covers the water, making these zones much cooler than deeper areas. Shallow waters are constantly being affected by climatic change, in the form of wind and storms, which suspend sediments throughout the water column. Spring rains lead to the runoff of sediment and nutrients from the land, which clouds the shallows even more. These heavy rain storms also constantly change the salinity of the shallow waters. energy • en-er-gy • the capacity for doing work or supplying power • “Food gives your body energy to move and grow.” • noun generated • gen-er-at-ed • produced • “The light generated a lot of heat.” • verb Fill in the Blanks • Use the words gravitational, bulge, inlet, shallow, energy, or generated to fill-in the blanks. • The ________ pull of the moon and the sun affects the daily tides. • The high tide created a ___________ in the ocean water. • During low tide, the water can be so ____________ the muddy water can be seen. • The hulls of the boats were anchored in a narrow ____________ near the island. • In the past, underwater earthquakes have __________ damaging waves. • People have often wondered how to use the ___________ of the waves. Day Two • Review Vocabulary • Preview and Predict • Introduce Strategy and Skill For Week • Read Story Filling Out Main Idea and Detail Graphic Organizer Vocabulary Power • Read pages 296-297. • At your table groups, make up a meaningful sentence for one vocabulary word (your teacher will tell you which vocabulary word you are responsible for. Vocabulary Review Energy Generated Inlet Shallow Bulge Gravitational • Use the following words to answer the questions: • Which word means the opposite of deep? • Deep • Electricity is ______________ by water power. • Generated • What word fits with these words: lump, bump, swelling? • Bulge • Small boats can reach land through an _____________. • Inlet • We should try to conserve ____________. • Energy • Earth’s own _____________ pull has an effect on a tossed ball. • Gravitational Preview and Predict-pgs. 298- 299 • What is Expository Nonfiction? • What are some things to look for in this selection? • What do you think the selection is about? • What might you learn about oceans? Text Structure - Main Idea and Supporting Details • Good readers look for an author’s main idea and supporting details. • The main idea is not always stated in the first sentence in a paragraph. • As you read aloud the example, notice how supporting details can come in the form of facts, examples, quotations, anecdotes, or expert opinions. Main Ideas and Details People have used various methods to measure the depth of the ocean. Long ago sailors lowered a rope over the side of the ship. When the end of the rope touched bottom, they knew how deep the water was. Today scientists measure the depth of the water with an echo sounder. It bounces sound waves off the bottom of the ocean. The depth of the ocean is determined by the amount of time it takes for the sound waves to travel. 1. What is the main idea of this passage? A.) Ropes measure the depth of the ocean. B.) Echo sounders measure the depth of the ocean. C.) Sailors measure the depth of the ocean. D.) Different methods have been used to measure the depth of the ocean. 2. How is this passage organized? F.) The main idea is first. The details follow. G.) The main idea is in the middle. The details are first and last. H.) The details are first. The main idea is last. J.) There are only details. 3.) Which of the following is a detail in this passage? A.) Various methods have been used to measure the ocean’s depth. B.) Sailors sail on ships. C.) Echo sounders bounce sound waves off the bottom of the ocean. D.) Diving can take sailors into deep water. Focus Strategy: Adjust Reading Rate • Good readers use strategies, such as adjusting reading rate, to better understand what they read. Active readers know when they must slow down their reading rate to understand information in the text. • This information about the causes of waves is all new to me. I can see that I need to read it slowly and carefully. When I do that, I understand that winds blowing for a long time at high speed causes big waves. I also learn that wind speeds affect what happens when the waves reach land. • When you encounter new or more difficult material, you can adjust yoru reading rate to identify and better understand the main idea and supporting details. Read Story • Use the Oceans by Seymour Simon following Main Name ___________________________ Date __________________ Idea and Detail Graphic Main Ideas Supporting Details Organizer as you read the story. Day Three and Four • Re-Read story by listening to tape • Choral read for fluency • Answer comprehension questions • Think and respond • Review skill and strategy for week Pages 300-301 • How is earth different from any other planet? (text structure-main idea and details) • It is the only planet with liquid water on its surface. • Why does the author explain how tides form? (author’s purpose) • To explain why water at the ocean shore rises and falls every few hours. • How do the diagrams on page on page 301 help you understand the information about tides? (text structure-graphic aids) • The diagrams let you see the positions of the sun, moon, and earth and make it easier to understand how the moon and sun affect the oceans. • What happens to ocean waters nearest the moon when the earth rotates? (Focus Strategy-Adjust Reading Rate) • They are pulled outward in a traveling bulge called high tides. • If I slow my reading rate when I read the page, I pick up on the details that explain how ocean waters are pulled outward in a traveling bulge. By reading more slowly, I also understand that a traveling bulge is called a high tide. Pages 302-303 • Why does the author tell readers to think about a large pan of water? (author’s craft) • To give the readers a mental picture of what happens in the ocean; to make the information easier to understand. • What do the photographs on page 303 show? (Text Structure: Graphic Aids) • How the water rises as a tsunami reaches shore. • What do you notice when you compare the two photographs on page 302? (re-read to clarify; graphic aids) • In one photograph, the water is low, indicating a low tide; in the other photograph, the water is high, indicating a high tide. • When I look at the photos, I’m not sure what they show, so I go back and reread page 302. It says that the photos show an inlet in the Bay of Fundy, where high tide may be fifty feet higher than low tide. The two photos show the difference between low tide and high tide in the inlet. Pages 304-305 • What can a swell be classified as? (classification) • A type of wave. • What is the main idea of the two paragraphs on page 305? (Focus Skill: Text Structure: Main Ideas & Details) • That the wind creates waves and causes them to change form and direction. • How are waves formed? (Focus Strategy: Adjust Reading Rate) • By wind blowing across the surface of ocean waters. • If I read the paragraphs on page 305 slowly, I see that the first sentence on the page tells me that when the wind blows across the surface of ocean water, it causes little ripples to form. As I continue to read, keeping my reading rate at a slow but steady rate, I understand that the speed of the wind, how long it blows, and the fetch – the distance over which the wave travels—all affect the size waves can become. Pages 306-307 • What is the main idea of the last paragraph on page 306? (Focus Skill: Text Structure: Main Idea and Details) • Waves caused by a storm can grow to great heights and become very forceful. • What does the diagram on page 306 and 307 show? (Text Structure: Graphic Aids) • What causes waves; the fetch, crest, trough, and wavelength of waves; what happens to waves when they reach shore. • What information in the diagram on page 307 is not in the text on page 306? (Focus Skill: Text Structure: Main Ideas and Details/Graphic Aids) • The base of a wave strikes the ocean floor and slows down. Pages 308-309 • Explain how the author has organized the text on page 308? (Text Structure: Sequence) • By explaining in sequence what happens to a wave as it approaches shore, then as it slows down, and finally when it breaks on the shore. • What happens to waves as they slow down and approach the shore? (Focus Strategy: Adjust Reading Rate) • Waves begin to pile up and change shape. They grow higher and start moving faster, crashing over waves in front of them until they break on the shore and begin the surf. • If I read the paragraphs on page 308 slowly, I see that there are several steps or stages to a wave’s approach to land. The waves slow down and grow higher. Waves behind cannot slow down and end up falling over the waves in front of them. This creates breakers that hit the shore and eventually become surf. • What have you learned from reading “Oceans”? (Summarize) • Use your graphic organizer to write one paragraph summary. Think and Respond – page 310 • Why is it important for us to learn about the ocean? (Summarize) • Oceans affect the land and people by means of tides, tsunamis, and hurricanes. • How does the author help you understand the scientific facts in this selection? (Structures of Text) • The author includes text, diagrams, and photos to help the reader visualize and better understand the concepts presented. He also makes comparisons to everyday events. • Are tidal waves generated in the same way as regular ocean waves? Explain. (Compare and Contrast) • No. Tidal waves, or tsunamis, are generated by undersea earthquakes or volcanoes. Regular waves are produced by the wind. • Would you like to read other selections by this author? Why or why not? (Personal response) • What reading strategies did you use to help you understand “Oceans”? When did you use them?