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“Oceans”

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					               “Oceans”



By Seymour Simon
Genre: Expository
    Nonfiction
                 Day One
•   Introduce Spelling
•   Preview Skill and Grammar
•   Build Background
•   Learn About Author and Genre
•   Build Background
•   Read Aloud and Questions
Spelling: Troublesome Words and
             Phrases
anyway       any way        all right
every one    everyone       already
all ready    a lot          its’
it’s         your           you’re
who’s        whose          there’s
theirs       anyone         any one
altogether   all together
   Spelling Homework-Monday
• Be sure to
  follow the
  directions as
  you place your
  spelling words
  in the correct
  categories
      Spelling Challenge Words
•   Continents
•   Wavelengths
•   Particles
•   Dangerous
•   Eventually
  Text Structure and Sequence
• Nonfiction selections involve complicated
  information. The author may decide to
  use a pattern of main ideas and details to
  organize and structure the text.
• Reading Skills Rocket
• Text Structure
• Test Tutor
   Grammar: Subject and Object
           Pronouns
• Subject Pronouns –
  takes the place of a
  noun or nouns in the
  subject of a sentence.
• Object Pronouns –
  takes the place of a
  noun after an action
  verb or a preposition.
• Mixed Up Pronouns
• Exploring the
  Pronoun Reef
       About Seymour Simon
• Harcourt Website
• Seymour Simon.com
• Houghton/Mifflin Meet
  the Author




                     Picture Taken From:
                     http://harcourtschool.com/activity/trophies/author
                     /g5simon-2.html
        “Oceans” Summary
• Seymour Simon explains the ocean
  phenomena of tides, tsunamis and waves.
  Photographs and diagrams help readers
  understand the concepts.

• Genre: Expository Nonfiction
        Building Background
• What is the source of the earth’s heat and
  light?
• How does the gravity of the moon and the
  sun affect earth’s oceans?
• How might wind affect ocean waves?
   Read Aloud-The Drop in My
    Drink by Meridith Hooper
• Pay attention to important ideas and
  details so that you can understand what is
  happening. One way to better understand
  a selection is to create a mental picture of
  what is happening. Focus on the images
  that the narrator describes so you can
  understand how water takes different
  forms but is never destroyed.
        One hundred and twenty thousand years ago,
the drop in my drink fell as powder snow in the icy
silence of the South Pole. It blew along the surface of
the great ice sheet, then changed under the weight of
snow heaped above it into solid, blue glacier ice. It
slipped and scraped over buried mountains, as the
ice sheet shifted and ground towards the ocean. The
drop in my drink traveled inside the ice sheet for more
than 100,000 years.
        At the edge of the land, great pieces of ice
sheets break off into the sea as icebergs.
        The drop in my drink has been inside an
iceberg floating its white bulk in the cold blue ocean,
slowly melting.
           Waves roar into the iceberg’s caves. The
edges of the iceberg crumble, it wallows and tilts, and all
the ancient snowflakes fizz and melt into the sea.
           Four thousand years ago the drop in my drink
sank down through the cold Southern Ocean.
           Giant pale squid swam through it, searching
for prey. Deep-diving whales gulped it, searching for
squid.
           Four miles down, in the darkness of the
deepest water, it joined a current of very cold, very salty
water flowing through the world’s oceans.
           The drop in my drink rose into the clear,
warm, sunlit shallows of a coral reef.
             It carried food to the stinging tentacles of
small coral polyps. It was sucked through the bright
bodies of sea squirts, and around the arms of starfish. It
lapped the eyes of a turtle and the fin of a shark.
             Two years ago the drop in my drink
evaporated from the top of a wave, traveled a quarter of
the way around the world in a week, clashed in a storm,
fell in a shower of rain on wet hills, and trickled down
glistering rocks into a stream which fed into a river.
             The drop spun and tumbled in the river’s
current, carrying particles of clay, grains of sand and
microscopic animals, until it fell into the quiet water of a
reservoir.
            It touched the shiny scales of fish, the stems
of green plants. Leaves and dust sank down through it.
It was swallowed by small organisms and pushed out
again. It did not evaporate back up into the sky.
            A few weeks ago my drop was pumped
through strainers and filters to remove large things and
microscopic things. It was blown through the air, mixed
with chemicals to kill microorganisms, and fed into pipes
buried under the ground.
            A second ago the drop was in my tap.
          Read Aloud Questions
• How far back in time does the selection begin? When in time
  does it end?
• The story begins one hundred and twenty thousand years ago and
  ends a second ago (sequence)
• What is the “drop” in the narrator’s drink?
• Water (understanding figurative language)
• What is this selection about?
• How water has been transformed from snow to tap water
  (theme/main idea)
• How does the author tell the story?
• Through a series of images that describe ow the drop travels
  through time to different places, such as oceans and rivers, and
  finally becomes water from a tap (Author’s Craft/Imagery_
                    Vocabulary
•   Gravitational
•   Bulge
•   Inlet
•   Shallow
•   Energy
•   Generated

       Vocabulary in
    Context
Vocabulary in Context
                gravitational
• grav-i-ta-tion-al
• having to do with the
  law in physics that
  states that two
  objects exert a pull on
  each other.
• “The earth’s
  gravitational pull is
  one reason objects
  have weight; the other
  is the mass of the
  objects themselves.”
• adjective
            Gravitational
• An adjective describing
  one type of force by
  which two bodies
  attract each other.

(1) Tides are caused by the difference between the
Moon's gravitational pull on the two sides of the
Earth.
We think of tides in association with the seashore.
                      bulge
• bulge
• a part that swells
  outward
• “The bulge in the tire
  means it needs
  replacement.
• noun
                            Bulge
• A part that swells
  outward




   The tidal bulge created when ocean waters are pulled toward the
   moon is the high tide. Between each high tide, there is a low tide.
   As the moon rotates around the earth each day, water is displaced
   from the side of the earth facing the moon and also from the side
   of the earth facing away from the moon. The bulging of the waters
   on both sides of the earth occurs in response to the moon’s orbit.
   Because each orbit takes 24 hours and 50 minutes, there are
   usually two high tides and two low tides a day.
                      inlet
• in-let
• a narrow strip of
  water leading into
  land
• “We traveled the inlet
  in a small canoe.”
• noun
                    shallow
• shal-low
• not deep
• “Shallow puddles
  were all over the
  parking lot after the
  rain storm.”
• adjective
                         Shallow
                        Water that is not
                         deep.
                   The shallow water, or littoral zone, is a unique

habitat found at the edge of the shoreline. These waters
continuously shift with the tides and thus undergo extreme
environmental fluctuations throughout the year. In the summer, the
waters become very hot with little moderation in temperature. In
winter, ice often covers the water, making these zones much
cooler than deeper areas. Shallow waters are constantly being
affected by climatic change, in the form of wind and storms, which
suspend sediments throughout the water column. Spring rains
lead to the runoff of sediment and nutrients from the land, which
clouds the shallows even more. These heavy rain storms also
constantly change the salinity of the shallow waters.
                    energy
• en-er-gy
• the capacity for doing
  work or supplying
  power
• “Food gives your
  body energy to move
  and grow.”
• noun
                 generated
• gen-er-at-ed
• produced
• “The light generated a
  lot of heat.”
• verb
                 Fill in the Blanks
•   Use the words gravitational, bulge, inlet, shallow,
    energy, or generated to fill-in the blanks.

•   The ________ pull of the moon and the sun affects the daily
    tides.
•   The high tide created a ___________ in the ocean water.
•   During low tide, the water can be so ____________ the
    muddy water can be seen.
•   The hulls of the boats were anchored in a narrow
    ____________ near the island.
•   In the past, underwater earthquakes have __________
    damaging waves.
•   People have often wondered how to use the ___________ of
    the waves.
                 Day Two
•   Review Vocabulary
•   Preview and Predict
•   Introduce Strategy and Skill For Week
•   Read Story Filling Out Main Idea and
    Detail Graphic Organizer
         Vocabulary Power
• Read pages 296-297.
• At your table groups, make up a
  meaningful sentence for one vocabulary
  word (your teacher will tell you which
  vocabulary word you are responsible for.
               Vocabulary Review
Energy     Generated   Inlet       Shallow     Bulge       Gravitational

 •   Use the following words to answer the questions:
 •   Which word means the opposite of deep?
 •   Deep
 •   Electricity is ______________ by water power.
 •   Generated
 •   What word fits with these words: lump, bump, swelling?
 •   Bulge
 •   Small boats can reach land through an _____________.
 •   Inlet
 •   We should try to conserve ____________.
 •   Energy
 •   Earth’s own _____________ pull has an effect on a tossed ball.
 •   Gravitational
 Preview and Predict-pgs. 298-
             299
• What is Expository Nonfiction?
• What are some things to look for in this
  selection?
• What do you think the selection is about?
• What might you learn about oceans?
    Text Structure - Main Idea and
          Supporting Details
• Good readers look for an
  author’s main idea and
  supporting details.
• The main idea is not
  always stated in the first
  sentence in a paragraph.
• As you read aloud the
  example, notice how
  supporting details can
  come in the form of facts,
  examples, quotations,
  anecdotes, or expert
  opinions.
     Main Ideas and Details
People have used various methods to measure
the depth of the ocean. Long ago sailors
lowered a rope over the side of the ship. When
the end of the rope touched bottom, they knew
how deep the water was. Today scientists
measure the depth of the water with an echo
sounder. It bounces sound waves off the bottom
of the ocean. The depth of the ocean is
determined by the amount of time it takes for the
sound waves to travel.
1. What is the main idea of this passage?
   A.) Ropes measure the depth of the ocean.
   B.) Echo sounders measure the depth of the
   ocean.
   C.) Sailors measure the depth of the ocean.
   D.) Different methods have been used to
   measure the depth of the ocean.

2. How is this passage organized?
   F.) The main idea is first. The details follow.
   G.) The main idea is in the middle. The
   details are first and last.
   H.) The details are first. The main idea is last.
   J.) There are only details.
3.) Which of the following is a detail in this
  passage?
  A.) Various methods have been used to
  measure the ocean’s depth.
  B.) Sailors sail on ships.
  C.) Echo sounders bounce sound waves
  off the bottom of the ocean.
  D.) Diving can take sailors into deep
  water.
    Focus Strategy: Adjust Reading Rate
• Good readers use strategies, such as
  adjusting reading rate, to better
  understand what they read. Active
  readers know when they must slow
  down their reading rate to understand
  information in the text.
• This information about the causes of
  waves is all new to me. I can see that
  I need to read it slowly and carefully.
  When I do that, I understand that
  winds blowing for a long time at high
  speed causes big waves. I also learn
  that wind speeds affect what happens
  when the waves reach land.
• When you encounter new or more
  difficult material, you can adjust yoru
  reading rate to identify and better
  understand the main idea and
  supporting details.
                    Read Story
• Use the
                    Oceans by Seymour Simon
  following Main    Name ___________________________        Date __________________

  Idea and Detail
  Graphic           Main Ideas                         Supporting Details
  Organizer as
  you read the
  story.
          Day Three and Four
•   Re-Read story by listening to tape
•   Choral read for fluency
•   Answer comprehension questions
•   Think and respond
•   Review skill and strategy for week
                  Pages 300-301
• How is earth different from any other planet? (text structure-main
  idea and details)
• It is the only planet with liquid water on its surface.
• Why does the author explain how tides form? (author’s purpose)
• To explain why water at the ocean shore rises and falls every few
  hours.
• How do the diagrams on page on page 301 help you understand the
  information about tides? (text structure-graphic aids)
• The diagrams let you see the positions of the sun, moon, and earth
  and make it easier to understand how the moon and sun affect the
  oceans.
• What happens to ocean waters nearest the moon when the earth
  rotates? (Focus Strategy-Adjust Reading Rate)
• They are pulled outward in a traveling bulge called high tides.
• If I slow my reading rate when I read the page, I pick up on the
  details that explain how ocean waters are pulled outward in a
  traveling bulge. By reading more slowly, I also understand that a
  traveling bulge is called a high tide.
                  Pages 302-303
• Why does the author tell readers to think about a large pan of
  water? (author’s craft)
• To give the readers a mental picture of what happens in the ocean;
  to make the information easier to understand.
• What do the photographs on page 303 show? (Text Structure:
  Graphic Aids)
• How the water rises as a tsunami reaches shore.
• What do you notice when you compare the two photographs on
  page 302? (re-read to clarify; graphic aids)
• In one photograph, the water is low, indicating a low tide; in the
  other photograph, the water is high, indicating a high tide.
• When I look at the photos, I’m not sure what they show, so I go back
  and reread page 302. It says that the photos show an inlet in the
  Bay of Fundy, where high tide may be fifty feet higher than low tide.
  The two photos show the difference between low tide and high tide
  in the inlet.
                   Pages 304-305
• What can a swell be classified as? (classification)
• A type of wave.
• What is the main idea of the two paragraphs on page 305? (Focus
  Skill: Text Structure: Main Ideas & Details)
• That the wind creates waves and causes them to change form and
  direction.
• How are waves formed? (Focus Strategy: Adjust Reading Rate)
• By wind blowing across the surface of ocean waters.
• If I read the paragraphs on page 305 slowly, I see that the first
  sentence on the page tells me that when the wind blows across the
  surface of ocean water, it causes little ripples to form. As I continue
  to read, keeping my reading rate at a slow but steady rate, I
  understand that the speed of the wind, how long it blows, and the
  fetch – the distance over which the wave travels—all affect the size
  waves can become.
                  Pages 306-307
• What is the main idea of the last paragraph on page 306? (Focus
  Skill: Text Structure: Main Idea and Details)
• Waves caused by a storm can grow to great heights and become
  very forceful.
• What does the diagram on page 306 and 307 show? (Text
  Structure: Graphic Aids)
• What causes waves; the fetch, crest, trough, and wavelength of
  waves; what happens to waves when they reach shore.
• What information in the diagram on page 307 is not in the text on
  page 306? (Focus Skill: Text Structure: Main Ideas and
  Details/Graphic Aids)
• The base of a wave strikes the ocean floor and slows down.
                  Pages 308-309
• Explain how the author has organized the text on page 308? (Text
  Structure: Sequence)
• By explaining in sequence what happens to a wave as it approaches
  shore, then as it slows down, and finally when it breaks on the
  shore.
• What happens to waves as they slow down and approach the
  shore? (Focus Strategy: Adjust Reading Rate)
• Waves begin to pile up and change shape. They grow higher and
  start moving faster, crashing over waves in front of them until they
  break on the shore and begin the surf.
• If I read the paragraphs on page 308 slowly, I see that there are
  several steps or stages to a wave’s approach to land. The waves
  slow down and grow higher. Waves behind cannot slow down and
  end up falling over the waves in front of them. This creates breakers
  that hit the shore and eventually become surf.
• What have you learned from reading “Oceans”? (Summarize)
• Use your graphic organizer to write one paragraph summary.
 Think and Respond – page 310
• Why is it important for us to learn about the ocean? (Summarize)
• Oceans affect the land and people by means of tides, tsunamis, and
  hurricanes.
• How does the author help you understand the scientific facts in this
  selection? (Structures of Text)
• The author includes text, diagrams, and photos to help the reader
  visualize and better understand the concepts presented. He also
  makes comparisons to everyday events.
• Are tidal waves generated in the same way as regular ocean
  waves? Explain. (Compare and Contrast)
• No. Tidal waves, or tsunamis, are generated by undersea
  earthquakes or volcanoes. Regular waves are produced by the
  wind.
• Would you like to read other selections by this author? Why or why
  not? (Personal response)
• What reading strategies did you use to help you understand
  “Oceans”? When did you use them?

				
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