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					Alex Rontey

World Civ B

Mr. Loughead

                                 Child Soldiers in Burma

                                       Introduction

       This paper concerns the employment of child soldiers (peoples under 18), by The

Burma Army and various other resistance forces in present day Burma. It has been

estimated that there are currently about 50,000 – 70,000 child soldiers serving in the

Burma Tatmadaw (the military). They are forcibly conscripted with usually no word to

their families, and forced to commit abuse upon civilians and fight in dangerous battle

conditions. They are often simply picked up off the street and brought to a recruitment

center and are detained until being sent off to a training camp. Beaten often and forced to

perform dangerous training activities and fight in battles where they are often killed. The

government says it has a policy of only accepting soldiers who are above 18.

                                    Global Background

       Child soldiers are any persons who voluntarily or are forced to, join any kind of

armed forces. Children have been used in many cultures throughout all of civilization as

members of military forces. It goes back as far as pre middle ages in cultures such as the

Greeks, Roman, Hittites, and even other parts of Europe such as France. They were

employed in the Napoleonic army, and even into the 2 World Wars, notably the

HitlerJugend that were used as a fighting force as Germany began to fall in the last

months of WWII, and in WWI where British recruiters knowingly recruited boys as

young as 16.
         Today children are still being used as combatants and/or accessories to militaries

and armed forces around the world. Often they are forced to perform dangerous acts of

combat, live in difficult hash conditions, abused and beaten, forcibly removed from their

homes, forced to commit atrocities such as killing family members and others, drugged,

starved, and used as sex slaves. Children who are able to leave or escape the army often

are not able to go home as a result of their families being killed, or for the fear that they

might be re-captured and beaten and re-absorbed into the force they escaped. Often they

are traumatized, and suffer from symptoms of PTSD and other mental health issues.

       Currently at least 300,000 child soldiers are being used around the world in

countries such as Uganda, Dominican Republic, Palestinian, Liberia, Iraq, Sri Lanka,

Sierra Leone, and the USA even will enlist and train 17 year olds, although for strictly

non-combatant use. However it is believed that the country of Myanmar (formerly Burma)

currently employs the largest number of active duty child soldiers; in both the

governmental army (Tatmadaw) and in the many other rebel armed forces.

                                        Country Background

       Myanmar, or Burma as it is called by people who do not believe the current

government to be legitimate, is a country in South East Asia, it lies between Laos and

Bangladesh. It is unknown what the exact population is, but is estimated around 50

million. The population is made up mostly of the Burmese speaking Bamar who form an

estimated 68% of the population. The religion is made up mostly of Theravada school

Buddhism, with a very small percentage of Christianity and Islam. From 1962 to 1988

ruled by General Ne Win under a military junta. He ruled under strict control and
effectively crushed any political uprisings, and threw the economy into an extremely

xenophobic state. He died in 2002 after a military uprising put him under house arrest.

        When Ne Win was overthrown by the SLORC Than Shwe was appointed one of

its 21 members and later took head chairmen where he currently rules as Dictator.

        There are many (as many as 15) other armed forces operating in Myanmar other

then the official government run Tatmadaw, who employ the use of child soldiers.

Although most of them have ceasefire agreements with the Myanmar government, many

still actively scout out new child recruits.

                                      Discussion of The Problem

        It is declared illegal by the “United Nations International Human Rights Law”:

        "State parties shall take all feasible measures to ensure that persons who have not

attained the age of 15 years do not take a direct part in hostilities."

        And the recent Optional Protocol:

        “State Parties shall take all feasible measures to ensure that persons below the

age of 18 do not take a direct part in hostilities and that they are not compulsorily

recruited into their armed forces.”

        The Geneva Conventions has similar restrictions on children being used as

soldiers.

        The Myanmar government claims that it does not allow people under the age of

18 to join the military, and that it does not forcibly conscript any of its recruits. These

statements have been disproved countless times by interviews with former and current

soldiers, who have recounted many brutal experiences as child soldiers from recruitment

to training, to battle.
        Typically the required service in the Tatmadaw can last the majority of a person’s

life and it is very difficult for a person to be able to leave. Often a soldier is able to apply

for dismissal from service if he can fill his quota of new recruits. Sometimes 5 sometimes

10 and even then it is not guaranteed to get him a dismissal, along with this, a recruited

child will often equal a monetary reward and some rice. These soldiers often resort to

recruiting children because they are easily intimidated and are easy to influence. Usually

they sift through crowded market places and train stations where children can be found

working to support their families. The soldier will commonly approach the child and ask

to see his ID. Children of young ages rarely ever have ID and do not know the law

concerning them. When the child does not have the ID the soldier will tell him that he has

to either serve a very long prison sentence or join the military. Not wanting to have to go

to prison they join the military “by choice”. Not all are forced to recruit, some join on

their own freewill. If a child’s family is unable to support it, or if the child wishes to

support his family, he will join the military to receive a relatively fair amount of pay.

There are also special programs called “Ye Nyunt” that are aboy scouts like education

program for Myanmar children similar to the HitlerJugend, as it prepared them for the

military, and they are recruited directly from the schools.

        Upon recruitment all new soldier are held in a Su Saun Yay recruitment camps for

sometimes longer then a week. They are kept in a small fenced enclosure and constantly

in danger of being beaten. Many of then get sicknesses like cholera and malaria. After

being processed and organized into training groups in the recruitment camps they are sent

off to the training camps to be trained for about 5 months. They receive the same training

as the adult soldiers and this is often very harsh on their younger bodies, they penalty for
mistakes is often a group beating, or being locked in the stocks. These children are

recorded as being 18 years old in official military records, as they are pressured to lie

about their age at recruitment.

       These are only the practices of the official Myanmar Tatmadaw, the many other

rebel forces have not been researched enough to know their practices very well, but their

use of children is similar to the Tatmadaw. Girls are not usually recruited; however there

are certain factions that have been know to recruit girls under the age of 18.

       After training they are assigned to a battalion and deployed into active duty.

Between the times that they are on duty they have a months rest period where they

generally do labor and guard duty. Often the labor or orders issued to them are nearly

impossible to fulfill, and they are severely beaten by their commanding officers. This can

sometimes be so bad the soldier will require medical help, but the camp wards are of poor

quality and they usually need to be rushed to a real hospital, though by they arrive it is

usually too late and they are already dead.

       Active duty consists of mostly going into the population and detaining them for

forced labor. They are also forced into live battle where their small stature gives them a

severe disadvantage, in many accounts from former child soldiers, they recall that they

are too scared to fight, but are afraid of being beaten when the commanders discover that

they had not fired any bullets so they hide them selves and fire their guns into the air.

Though many do fight and die, some do not have problems with fighting. They witness

other children being killed and are forced to kill members of the opposing force, that

often are comprised of children just like themselves.
       Many desert the army, which is a very dangerous task that has severe

consequences for the soldier and even his family. Some commit suicide because they

believe that it is impossible for them to safely escape, and that they have no future

anymore.

       After legally leaving the army, although it may be hard to re-adapt, it is much

more favorable then deserting. Some children report that they desert the army only to the

rejoin and pretend that they were never in the army in fear that they will be discovered

and punished.

       It is estimated that as much as 45% of the Myanmar Tatmadaw is comprised of

children under 18. The country has not taken steps to stop the use of child soldiers as they

employ them for their own use. Many other countries have pressured Myanmar to abolish

the child soldier policy, and they maintain that they do not use child soldiers. This is

proven to be untrue.

                                        Conclusion

       It is uncertain whether this crisis can ever be solved without the assistance of

other countries. While the treatment of these child soldiers is much less severe then is is

in places such as Africa (LRA), these children do not have any government actively

trying to help them, it is all recommendations to cease their employment from other

countries. Unless action is taken children will continue to be used as soldiers in Myanmar.

The world is too preoccupied with other parts of the world, like the middle east, and I

cannot see a solution to this crisis for what could possibly be many years.
                           Works Cited
1. Human Rights Watch. _My Gun Was As Tall As Me_. Human Rights Watch.

   United States of America: n.p., 2002.

2. Wikipedia Contributors. "wikipedia.org." Wikimedia Foundation. 07:26, 24 April

   2006. Wikipedia. Wikipedia. [Include the DATE you accessed the file.].

   <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Military_use_of_children>.

3. Wikipedia Contributors. "wikipedia.org." Wikimedia Foundation. 16:25, 20 April

   2006. Wikipedia. Wikipedia. [Include the DATE you accessed the file.].

   <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Than_Shwe>

4. Wikipedia Contributors. "wikipedia.org." Wikimedia Foundation. 08:17, 22 April

   2006. Wikipedia. Wikipedia. [Include the DATE you accessed the file.]. <

   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Myanmar>.

5. Wikipedia Contributors. "wikipedia.org." Wikimedia Foundation. 18:52, 12 April

   2006. Wikipedia. Wikipedia. [Include the DATE you accessed the file.]. <

   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ne_Win>.

6. The Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers. "http://www.child-soldiers.org/."

   2004.

				
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