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Puerto Rico Employment and Labor Law

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Puerto Rico Employment and Labor Law Powered By Docstoc
					       Universidad de Puerto Rico
          Recinto de Mayagüez
      Colegio de Ciencias Agrícolas
      Servicio de Extensión Agrícola




 SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT:
THE PUERTO RICO EXPERIENCE
    RULE Institute, January 2007
                   By
        Prof. Carmen González-Toro
     Environmental Education Specialist
     Sustainable Development:
    The Puerto Rico's experience

   Background information
       Puerto Rico as a territory
       Economy
   Sustainable development definition
       The ecological footprint
   Puerto Rico’s experience and results
   Discussion
    Puerto Rico as a territory has
   USA citizenship (since 1917)
       US Constitution and US federal law
   USA currency
   English and Spanish languages
   US Social Security benefits
   Minimum wage
   USA border patrol rules and regulations
    (INS)
        Puerto Rico as territory has
   One resident commissioner with voice,
    but no vote in Congress
   No vote in Presidential elections
   USA defense
       Army, Navy, Reserve, National and
        Coast Guard
   USA Postal Service
   No federal tax for individuals
       Puerto Rico as a territory

   Puerto Ricans have been fighting in the
    U.S. armed forces since World War I,
    when the island became a U.S. territory
    and its residents became citizens.
   Altogether, more than 150,000 Puerto
    Ricans served in World War II, Korea
    and Vietnam.
                                               Map of Puerto Rico

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                                        GUANICA                                                                    ISABEL
                 Puerto Rico
   Island – 100 miles long, 35 miles wide
   3.9 million people
      1,124 persons per sq mile

      9,000 persons per sq mile in San Juan
       metro
   71% Urban – 29% Rural
   78 municipalities or townships
   Unemployment rate: 12.5%
   58% live under US poverty guidelines
               Economy

   Agriculture…………… 1%
   Industry……………….45%
      Pharmaceuticals

      Construction

   Services……………..54%
      Tourism

      Retail stores
    Employment Alternatives

 Industry

 Servicejobs
 Farming
           Puerto Rico - Agriculture
   1% gross national income
        (3% labor force)
   Major agricultural productos
      Milk

      Poultry

      Starchy crops
         (bananas, root crops)
      Coffee

   50% fertile soils
      27% land has 36-60% slope

      30% land has over 60% slope
           Coffee Production

   The economy of 22 municipalities depend
    on the coffee production
   2004-05 coffee production was 175,000
    hundred weight (quintales)
   We do not produce enough coffee to
    supply the local demand
Coffee plantation
Coffee shrub with green fruits
                   Industry

   Historically, Puerto Rico,
    (manufacturing makes up roughly
    42% of the economy), has
    underemphasized the territory's
    $3 billion tourism industry because its
    leaders concentrated on bringing
    in U.S. companies by offering
    federal tax breaks.
      Tourists choosing Caribbean
      neighbors over Puerto Rico
              USA TODAY 9/2006

   Puerto Rico's weak performance comes as
    other Caribbean nations with lower operating
    costs are successfully courting travelers —
    including a growing number of upscale
    vacationers — and investing significant
    resources to enhance their tourism
    infrastructure and hotel room counts,
    according to the study.
               Industry

 Most manufacturing companies
  are gone
 Factories are closing or outsourcing

 Pharmaceuticals are reducing
  operations
 Construction prevails as the main
  industry
    Sustainable Development

Definition

 Economic development
 that is achieved without
 undermining the incomes,
 resources, or environment for future
 generations.
  Sustainable development

Requires action to
 promote the:
   Economy

   Community   involvement
   Natural Resources

   Social values

   Security
           Ecological footprint
   Used to depict the amount of land and
    water area a human population would
    hypothetically need to provide the
    resources required to support itself and to
    absorb its wastes, given prevailing
    technology.
   The term was first coined in 1992 by
    Canadian ecologist and professor at the
    University of British Columbia, William
    Rees.
           Ecological Footprint
   Footprinting is widely used around the
    globe as an indicator of environmental
    sustainability. It can be used to measure
    and manage the use of resources
    throughout the economy.
   It is commonly used to explore the
    sustainability of individual lifestyles, goods
    and services, organizations, industry
    sectors, regions and nations.
    Why measure our use of nature?

   If we cannot measure, we cannot
    manage. To make sustainability a reality,
    we must know where we are now, and
    how far we need to go. These are
    essential tools for government, business
    management and grassroots for
    organizing the use of natural resources.
   The ecological footprint concept is used to
    assess the sustainability of nations.
           Ecological footprint

We need measuring rods to
 track progress for:
   Sustainability and people's
    use of nature
   Measures of carrying capacity and
    human impact on the Earth
PR Ecological Footprint

   Carl Axel Soderberg, EPA Director for PR
    indicated that PR FP = 2 X Cuba
   Cuba (745mi x 124mi) = 7 X PR
   It means that we need an island
    26 times bigger to be sustainable
My footprint quiz results
CATEGORY:
ACRES FOOD 3.5; MOBILITY 1; SHELTER 6.4;
GOODS/SERVICES 6.7                TOTAL FOOTPRINT18

IN COMPARISON, THE AVERAGE ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT IN
YOUR COUNTRY IS     24 ACRES PER PERSON.

WORLDWIDE, THERE EXISTS 4.5 BIOLOGICALLY PRODUCTIVE
ACRES PER PERSON.


        IF EVERYONE LIVED LIKE YOU,
        WE WOULD NEED 3.9 PLANETS.
        Puerto Rico’s Experience

   Puerto Rico has been a United States
    territory for more than a century.
   Considered self-governing, with no voting
    representation in the U.S. Congress.
   This Commonwealth status has given
    Puerto Rico many advantages over other
    low-income economies.
       Puerto Rico’s Experience
   During the 1950s and 1960s, Puerto Rico
    consistently outperformed similarly
    populated countries such as
    South Korea, Taiwan and Singapore.
   All that has changed - the prosperity of the
    post-World War II decades has ended.
   The island economy has become recognized
    for its destitution and joblessness.
        Puerto Rico’s Experience
   Since the 1970s, Puerto Rico's economy
    has steadily deteriorated,
    (poverty levels twice those of Mississippi).
   Unemployment (officially reported 12 – 14 %)
    is more likely to be 40 - 50 % because of
    the island's low labor participation rate.
   Only 46 % of the population has a formal
    job, and nearly half (1/2) of the island's
    salaried employees work directly or
    indirectly for the government.
          Puerto Rico’s Experience
   The Commonwealth's government
    expenditures are now over $9.6
    billion, leaving the tiny nation with a
    steadily-rising deficit of $3 billion.
   Puerto Rico's paternalistic
    bureaucratic and political policies
    have turned the island into
    a no-growth, debt-ridden economy.
         Puerto Rico’s Experience
Puerto Rico's drastic economic decline can be
blamed on many factors:
   the unintended consequences of an expanding
    government role in the provision of welfare
    services.
   a sharp rise in the amount of federal transfer
    payments to citizens (increased from $69 million in
    1968 to over $8 billion in 2002 for disability,
    unemployment, and welfare payments) now account
    for one-fifth of the island's personal income.
   This massive social spending, which began in the
    1970s and continues today, has resulted in
    severe domestic disinvestment in the economy.
       Puerto Rico’s Experience
   Domestic capital investment has declined
    from 32 % of Gross Domestic Product
    (GDP) in 1970 to 16 % in 2000.
   This means that the Puerto Rican
    government, rather than supporting the
    creation of jobs and market incentives,
    relies primarily on tax-induced revenue
    and foreign investment for any growth in
    the island's GDP.
         Puerto Rico’s Experience
   Changing the island's economic activity from
    production to distribution, the Puerto Rican
    bureaucracy has crowded out community
    solutions and business incentives.
   These policies have created:
    labor distortions, private disinvestment, and
    have left a large segment of the population
    without the skills or ambition necessary to
    achieve economic mobility.
       Puerto Rico's experience

   Puerto Rico's rising welfare
    expenditures have created
    unsustainable economic trends,
    and have brought devastating
    consequences to the
    island's entire population.
            Results of our experience

   Puerto Rico to continue its
    present urban sprawl in 60
    years, half of the Island will
    be urban and in 75 years,
    all the Island will be
    urbanized.
       (Based on a study by the
        Metropolitan University,
        San Juan)
        Results of our experience

   This dramatic transformation has resulted
    in:
       Climate changes
       Pollution
       Health related problems
       Diminished tourism
       Lost of social and
        cultural legacy
       Economic decline
        Puerto Rico experience
   Community – Environmental concerns
•Water quality problems
•Reservoirs reduced storage capacity
•High unemployment rate
•Poor infrastructure (maintenance)
•High demand for land use
•Lack of environmental understanding
•Need for collaborative work
•Loss of family values
•Waste management problems
Puerto Rico’s Experience

     Soil erosion


                    Water pollution




       Endanger coral reef
       Puerto Rico’s Experience
   Conclusion

    As Puerto Rico has shown, when public
     solutions (government) replace market
     forces, the loss of privately-produced
     goods and services can lead to economic
     stagnation and decline
     Lets talk about…
   What relevance does
    this situation have to
    the state of
    Pennsylvania or your
    home district?

   What can be done to
    make it sustainable?
             Recommendations
   Community land use is
    fundamental to sustainability
       plan the physical layout,
   Change from poorly-managed sprawl
    to land use planning to maintain efficient
    infrastructure
       Restoration and rehab of urban centers/
        vertical construction
       Less vehicle dependency
       Create public space/land preservation
       Educate citizens and elected officials
"We do not inherit
 the earth from our
 ancestors,
 we borrow it from
 our children"
                    References
   The Ecological Footprint of Nations by Mathis
    Wackernagel
   Smart Communities Network
    http://sustainable.doe.gov/landuse/luintro.shtml
   The Smarter Land Use Project
    http://landuse.org/guidebook.html
   To calculate your footprint
    http://www.mec.ca/Apps/ecoCalc/ecoCalcHousing.jsp
   USDA-NRCS Area-wide Conservation Planning Course,
    National Employee Development Center.
   Smart Growth, Lorri Jones, Lifescapes Texas A&M,
    Vol.4, No. 2, Summer 2004, P. 6-8.
  Virtual visit -




www.geog.nau.edu/courses/alew/ggr346/ft/overseas/?epr

				
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