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					       CAN PROFESSIONAL
   SUPERVISION PROVIDE A
   SUPPORT FUNCTION FOR
TODAY’S SOCIAL WORKERS?
Can professional supervision provide
   a support function for today’s
          social workers?
   A spotlight on the evidence behind
               the practice

           Presenter: Christine Saxby
Clinical Supervision
definition

 “a working alliance between practitioners in
 which they aim to enhance clinical practice…
 meet ethical, professional and best practice
 standards…while providing personal support
 and encouragement in relation to professional
 practice”
 (Kavanagh et al.:2002:247).
Functions
Proctor’s model (1992)
• Normative (promoting competency standards)
• Formative (educational aspects)
• Restorative (support component)

Kadushin’s model (1976) has similar functions
• Administrative
• Educational
• Supportive
Complex work environments
Stressors:
• worker role ambiguity
• competing and often conflicting demands
• high direct contact time with clients
• indeterminate outcomes
• pressure attaining work targets
• access to shrinking material and human resources
• a high level of public scrutiny
• rapidly changing and often politically driven
                   agendas
(Allan & Ledwith: 1998; Ellett: 2003; Howard: 2008; Kim & Stoner: 2008; Lloyd &
    King: 2001; Lloyd et al.: 2002; McCracken & Wallace: 2000).
Burnout
• a syndrome that can result from chronic stress in
  workers who have frequent and intense
  interactions with other people (Maslach et al.: 1997).

• “a psychological syndrome of emotional
  exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced
  personal accomplishment " (Maslach et al.: 1997:192).
Burnout
Frequencies
• A study of social service workers in New York reported
  that 57% of mental health workers and 71% of family
  workers described themselves as having moderate to
  severe burnout (Martin and Schinke:1998, in Lloyd et al.:2002).

• Results from a study of 176 field social workers in Nth.
  Ireland showed that 47% scored in the moderate range
  for burnout (Gibson et al.:1989, in Lloyd et al.:2002).

• A UK Survey of 211 senior OTs found one-third identified
  high or very high levels of stress (Allan and Ledwith :1998)
Consequences of Burnout
• represents considerable (and preventable) costs
  to workers, organisations and clients
• linked to high staff turnover
• affects workforce stability
• disrupts continuity of care provision and can
  lead to reduction in quality of services
• linked to workers’ experience of higher levels of
  anxiety and depression
• linked to workers’ experience of higher levels of
  family disharmony
                (Bishop: 2007; Ellett et al.: 2003; Lloyd et al.: 2002; Maslach
  and Jackson: 1986; Sikora and Saha: 2009;Stalker et al.: 2007)
Conflicting findings in the literature
• Methodologically complex area (there are many
  mediator variables that can influence an
  individual worker’s performance)
• Research design problems
• Majority of studies undertaken with nursing
  populations
(Bishop: 2007; Crow: 2008; Hyrkas et. al.: 2006; Roche et al.: 2007; Spence et
    al.: 2001; White & Winstanley: 2006)
Evidence
• Study of 22 supervised mental health nurses
  found no change in levels of occupational stress
  or job strain (Berg and Hallway: 1999 in Hyrkas: 2005).

• A Finnish University Hospital that ran a
  supervision program for three years did
  demonstrate a reduction in stress-related sick
  leave taken by clinical staff in a 22 bed surgical
  ward, however 40% of the original participants
  had withdrawn from the study (Hyrkas et al.: 2001).
Evidence
however …
• A Californian study of 211 social workers in
  health care found that supervision was
  negatively associated with burnout, esp. when it
  incorporated job-relevant communication (Kim and
  Lee: 2009).


• In a larger sample of Californian social workers,
  Kim and Stoner found that a supportive working
  environment can be helpful even when workers
  perceive high role stress (2008).
Evidence
• A 2004 Qld survey of allied health mental health
  staff found when supervision provided an
  avenue for debriefing, it led to reported
  reductions in stress levels (Kavanagh et al.: 2004).

• Findings from a study of 211 OTs found that
  more opportunities to offload negative feelings
  and more opportunitites for professional support
  and feedback in supervision were associated
  with lower levels of stress (Allan and Ledwith: 1998)
Evidence

In summary, while we are unable to make
  definitive claims, the evidence suggests that
  clinical supervision is likely to provide support to
  social workers and be a mitigation strategy
  against burnout, providing it is high quality
  supervision based on best practice principles.
(Hyrkas: 2005; Kim & Lee: 2009; Roche et al.: 2007; Spence et al.: 2001)
Principles of high quality
supervision
• Supervisor interested in well-being of the
  supervisee
• Provision of respectful, constructive and clear
  feedback
• Assistance to develop new skills and to problem-
  solve
• Style adapted to developmental level of the
  supervisee
• Facilitation of “safe” place for reflective
  exploration of practice
• Supervisor receives supervision of their
  supervisory role
(Clare: 2001; Kavangh et al.: 2003; Roche et al.: 2007; Spence et al.:2001; Strong et al.: 2001)
Principles of high quality
supervision
• clear policies and processes in place
• training for supervisors and supervisees
• separation of clinical supervisor role from
  administrative supervisor role
• supervisee has some choice in selection of
  supervisor
• dedicated time for supervision
• organisational culture where supervision is
  valued
(Clare: 2001; Kavangh et al.: 2003; Roche et al.: 2007; Spence et al.:2001; Strong et al.:
    2001)
    Mitigating strategies in high quality
                supervision
• Opportunities for expression of emotion
• Reinforcement of self-care strategies
• Support to problem solve
• Facilitate development of skills to build resilience
• Development of worker’s self-efficacy
• Enabling recognition of success after application
  of new skills
• Fostering supervisee’s belief in their
  professional competency

                  Within a trusting supervisory relationship
   Proposed research evaluation

Research to be conducted as part of the research
   higher degree program within The School of
    Social Work and Applied Human Services
         The University of Queensland
Aims of proposed research
Identify whether clinical supervision delivered
  under a new program is:
• Perceived by supervisees to be effective
• Has a positive effect on perceived job
  satisfaction
• Has a negative effect on perceived burnout
• Demonstrates any discipline specific differences
In conclusion

We all need to consider whether the clinical
 supervision that is currently provided to
 social workers meets standards that are
 likely to provide real support against
 burnout.
Questions ?


 Thank You
        SOCIAL WORK AND
            MANAGEMENT
– CONGRUENCE OR SELL OUT
AASW Conference 2009
Social Work in Management &
         Leadership
   Congruence or Sell-out?
Tensions for the Social Work Manager

1. Sense of loss of identity as a Social
   Worker
2. Perceptions that Social Workers are not
   equipped to manage and lead
3. Role appears focused on:
   - social / workplace control
   - meeting the bottom line
   - risk management priority
 What do they say?
• When did you stop being a Social Worker?
• Do I have to go to the dark side to survive…?
• Now I can‟t trust anyone….when you manage,
    you have to watch your back
•   I haven‟t identified myself as a social worker for
    15 years
•   I might be hired because I‟m social work
    trained, but my work doesn‟t reflect that
•   They don‟t really care about any social work
    values
•   If I start managing my peers they‟ll see it as a
    „sell-out‟ to the enemy
Contributing variables:
• Poor articulation of what Social Work is, and
    what the profession stands for
•   Ignorance regarding the „Scope of influence‟
•   Difference between disciplines
•   Failure to link the Code of Ethics and Standards
    to workforce management
•   Poor post graduate supervision
•   Understanding the relationship between
    business and not-for-profit enterprise
•   Acknowledgement of the „power‟ differential
    within the workforce
Remediation Strategies

1. Emphasise the „systems discipline‟ nature of
     Social Work
2.   Acknowledge the nature of business
     enterprise; workforce advocacy; market forces
3.   Gain an understanding of organisations as
     sustainable systems:
     - Rational aspects
     - Non-rational aspects
4. Develop a Management Framework
informed by knowledge about:
• Leadership & management & the difference
    between them
•   A theoretical base congruent with professional
    orientation
•   Differentiating strategic and operational practice
    & thinking
•   Acknowledging the role of „culture‟ in
    organisations
•   Managing change within the contemporary
    empowered workplace
•   Understanding governance processes
Management Framework (cont)
• Managing the team dynamic
• Communication as a management tool
• Differentiate: mentoring, counselling, coaching,
    professional supervision and line management
•   Skills around the „theatre of management‟
    - power of non-verbal communication
    - having the difficult conversation
    - story telling and role models
    - know when to „switch‟ hats
    - be prepared to „call it‟
    - lateral thinking / reframe / functionality of
         behaviour
The Managers Lament

• “They should know better”
• “They are professionals, so why do I have to
  spoon feed them?
• “It‟s not the clients that will drive me nuts, it‟s
  the staff”

Understandable perhaps, but to a large extent
  when you become a manager / leader, your
  employees become your primary stakeholder.
Conclusion
• I believe that Social Workers make good - and
  sometimes even great - Managers and Leaders.
  Our discipline specialties provide a sound base
  for application to the Management function. The
  principles of sound management resonate with
  our philosophical orientation, and the correct
  selection of like theories and managerial
  approaches, is congruent with our practice
  ethos.
•  Thank you
• Debra Doherty (MAASW; AFAIM)
  IS THERE ANYTHING NEW
UNDER THE SUN? EVIDENCE
     BASED PRACTICE AND
             INNOVATION
     CAN MEDICO LEGAL
    DOCUMENTATION AND
REFLECTIVE PRACTICE CO-
                 EXIST?
Life Is Not Experienced
       Under Neat
     Sub-Headings?

          Presented by Erica Summers
                   on behalf of
  Janine Kemp, Renay Green and Miriam Locke
            Royal Children’s Hospital
       (Children’s Health Service District)
                 November 2009
Introduction
Schon in his work on reflective practice, writes of the
‘swampy lowlands’ of front line practice and contrasts
this with the ‘high ground’ of theory and research.
When we ‘wade in’ to become social workers we quickly
understand the complexities that arise when working with
families.
At the Royal Children’s Hospital Social Work Department, we
have encouraged our staff to combine the high ground with the
lowlands. The outcome has been an increase in practice
standards that utilize reflective practice supported by theory
and linked with the assessment and documentation process
that we, as Social Workers, carry in our backpacks.
The Social Work role…
IS NOT ABOUT:
• ‘Good actions’ and ‘good intentions’
IS ABOUT:
• Thinking, assessing, planning, and empowering.
NEEDS:
• Workers to develop a conscious awareness of their own
   approach, their own knowledge base, skills and personal
   and professional values.
• An understanding of society, wider political issues and
   agency agendas.
CAN BE SUPPORTED BY:
• The consistent use of thorough documented assessments
   and reflective practice.
‘The Shadow Side of helping’
(Egan (1994)


Egan uses this term to explain
the range of factors that have
an adverse effect on practice
and therefore undermine our
efforts to achieve high
standards.
We identify these as:

• Workload expectations

• Devaluing of profession

• Over-simplification of role

• Discouragement of learning

• Multidisciplinary tensions

• Reluctant / disgruntled clients

• Social Work seen as vague and woolly

• Unreliable standards

• Bureaucratic framework
Shadow side of practice
continued…       Ineffective team work - all
                                     staff rotating in different
                                     directions by different
The ‘Shadow Side’ of acute           standards.
hospital Social Work practice left
staff with five main issues:

• Emotional exhaustion

• Lack of individual achievement

• Depersonalization

• Feeling professionally unsafe

• High turnover of staff
Managing workload
Having too many demands on our time
is a fact of life in Social Work.
At RCH we:
• Take workload management seriously
• Do not feel guilty
• Accept we cannot meet everybody’s
needs
• Do not volunteer for more than we can
cope with
• Do not let ‘ward, units, medical teams
etc’ bully us into taking on more work
than we can effectively manage within a
practice standard
Blow out the ‘shadows’ and in
with the ‘light’
High quality Social Work practice involves
being able to:
• Gather, shift and process relevant
information in order to form an overall
picture of the situation
• Be selective and set priorities
• Use analytical skills to recognise
significant patterns and interconnections
• Undertake a critical evaluation; to weigh
advantages and disadvantages
• Marshal a set of arguments to support or
justify a particular decision or course of
action, and
• Be able to document clinical practice
competently which reflects AASW Direct
practice standards.
From ship wreck to sailing with
practice standards
  The impact of ‘change’ could be likened to that of being
    shipwrecked on strange shores: immediate escape is
       difficult or impossible, the future is unknown but
    threatening, human contacts are unpredictable but will
   probably be prone to misunderstanding, the customs and
    ways of the people yet to be encountered are unknown
        and likely to be anticipated with apprehension.
             With this in mind - Where to start?
Three areas were identified in
2005 for development within the
Department

1.   Assessment and documentation project



2.   Theory to Practice



3.   Supervision standards
Formal Assessment and Medico
Legal Documentation

           The First Reaction
The Royal Children’s Hospital
approach
Identification of the dangers of not undertaking a

full Psychosocial Assessment

• Important issues such as significant grief and loss, coping
  mechanisms, family history and trauma experiences can be missed
• Resources can be wasted
• High risk areas missed (DV, CP, DA and MH)
• Significant issues / losses can receive no attention at all
• Practice becomes narrow, routine and reduced to administrative
• Shortfalls and gaps in services not identified and services
  become under funded
• Job satisfaction is limited
• De-professionalization of Social Work practice
Process for when to do Psychosocial
Assessments
• All new diagnoses and chronic / complex conditions require a
  full Psychosocial Assessment.
• All Child Protection cases require a full Psychosocial Assessment
  to be undertaken.
• For short term and brief pieces of work a ‘tick and flick’
  Psychosocial Assessment is required to be undertaken.
• Psychosocial Assessments to be reviewed and modified on an
  ongoing basis.
• Following handover to a new social worker, record in the progress
  notes that the new allocated worker has read the Psychosocial
  Assessment, and if appropriate that it is still current. A new plan
  needs to be identified by the new worker. If the Psychosocial
  Assessment is not current, an updated Psychosocial Assessment
  is required to be undertaken.
• When completed, file Psychosocial Assessments in the Allied Health
  section of the chart, if available, and write progress notes referring
  to where the Psychosocial Assessments are filed. If no Allied Health
  section exists, create an Allied Health section using the appropriate
  divider.
• Give consideration to where and how you share information from
  the Psychosocial Assessment with relevant team members.
    Developed a Paediatric Psychosocial Assessment
    template
Demographic information including the preface statement.
Presenting Problem
Family Structure, Functioning, Intrapersonal Factors and History (Include Geno gram; immediate & extended family members; who in
      Brisbane & who home; relationships; support level for each other; communication styles; and individual history of violence, grief and loss, trauma,
      abuse)
Child’s Details (Including education, physical, emotional and behavioural development; interests; other issues i.e. aspersers, downs syndrome, etc.)
Support Network (Including significant non-familial relationships and community links; friends / family; access to resources; links to community groups
      i.e. church, cultural, etc.)
Employment / Finances (Employer details; leave entitlements; benefits; access to any savings)
Accommodation (Who in household; rent / mortgage; PTS needs)
Response / Adjustment to Diagnosis / Hospitalisation (including child’s / family’s adjustment to child’s condition; child and family’s
      understanding of current situation; child and family’s current coping, coping styles, and coping with past crises; explore feelings i.e. guilt, blame,
      shock, fear, anger, etc; history of hospitalisation; understanding of health status / diagnosis / prognosis / treatment; resources known to family or
      previously used)
Child / Parents’ Emotional State / Affect / Presentation (Distress i.e. crying; child’s possible phobias re procedures / needles; presentation i.e.
      avoidant, flat, happy, blank, etc; engagement with SW)
Attachment / Parenting (Explore attachment /relationship of child and parent; is parent responding to child’s needs appropriately)
Additional Stressors (Other issues re family members i.e. health, stress, etc; loss of income/job; bullying; other grief or loss)
Assessment of Situation (Summary & draw conclusions based on evidence)
Interventions (Used during assessment – supportive counselling, reassurance, normalisation, psychosocial supports, etc.)
Plan (to be mutually developed with the client) (e.g. referral to OT, Centre link, community supports)

OTHER AREAS OF ASSESSMENT WHEN RELEVANT:
•      Significant Mental health
•      Drug and alcohol history
•      Pregnancy / birth / post-natal issues
      (Planned or unplanned, prenatal & antenatal care, birth trauma, if a new baby how coping)
•      Protective factors and strengths
•      Social risk factors and/or degree of risk
•      Referral (client to be involved in referral process)
Support provided to promote
change
All staff had:

    • ‘Review   and reflect on Psychosocial Assessment’ added
       to their PAD to discuss in formal supervision sessions
    • Mandatory skills training on Psychosocial Assessment
    • Mandatory training on ‘How to document
       Psychosocial Assessment’
    • Informal support around documentation of
       assessments provided from senior staff
    • Chart audit with QH audit tool to review compliance
       around Psychosocial Assessments after 6 months
Formal review via chart audit of
compliance of Psychosocial
Assessment in medical record
undertaken using traditional QH audit
tool
Findings:

• No standardisation of assessment across staff
• No consistently documented coherent aims / goals for every
  contact
• No continuity between the assessment and ongoing
  interventions / activity at future sessions
• QH chart audit tool inadequate to assess professional
  clinical content of charts
• No discharge summary consistently documented
New audit tool



• Review of AASW Direct Practice Standards 1 to 12
  which led to the development a new chart audit tool
  for Social Work direct clinical practice.
CHART REVIEW                                                                                              UR Number: __________________

CLINICAL AUDIT TOOL – SOCIAL WORK –Royal Children’s Hosptial                                     Discharged: _____ / _____ / _____

      STANDARD                      INDICATORS                          COMPLIANCE               COMMENTS                                 EVIDENCE
1.1                             The social worker, as a          Full    Partial   No      N/A
                                member of an agency or as a
The social worker has the       private practitioner, makes
necessary knowledge, skills     an appropriate assessment of
and resources to bring to       the client’s situation
the client situation.           Where the social worker          Full   Partial    No     N/A
                                does not have the necessary
                                knowledge, skills or
                                resources to offer an
                                appropriate and satisfactory
                                service to the client, the
                                client is advised and referred
                                to another worker or agency.
1.2                             The social worker explains       Full   Partial    No     N/A
The client is made aware of     the service to the client and
the nature and extent of the    describes any limitations
social work service being       with what is being offered,
offered and this information    and/or provides the Social
is recorded.                    Work Department brochure
                                to the client and documents
                                that the brochure has been
                                given.

       STANDARD                      INDICATORS                          COMPLIANCE              COMMENTS                                 EVIDENCE
1.4                             Relevant information is          Full    Partial   No      N/A
                                gathered regarding the
The social work assessment      client’s psychosocial
and the intervention taken is   situation.
appropriate to the client’s
situation, in keeping with
ethical and legislative         The client situation is assessed including identification of
requirements and directed
towards appropriate
                                relevant:
outcomes reached in             a) Physical factors including    Full    Partial   No      N/A
agreement with the client       family structure and
wherever possible.              functioning, significant
                                relationships, social contacts
                                and supports.
                                b) Psychological factors,        Full    Partial   No      N/A
                                including developmental and
                                life span factors, significant
                                life events, grief and loss,
                                exposure to violence, abuse
                                and neglect.
________________________ Date: _____ / _____ / _____
How we supported change in
assessment and documentation
standard which incorporated
reflective practice
• Individual coaching
• Formal supervision
• Informal supervision of both assessments and
  documentation
• Group supervision
• Peer support group work
• Theory to Practice
• Training and Professional Development fortnightly
• Promoted transparent documentation practice
• Informal chart audit ‘practice run’
• Strength based change reflecting quality principle of
  ‘growth and development’ rather than inadequacy of skill
Incorporation reflective practice,
assessment and documentation
              Reflective practice within supervision




                     Incorporated within staff’s PAD


        Audit tool                                     Documented
                                                       assessment
                                                       framework

The three points on the triad have been combined to enhance the
RCH Social Worker’s clinical practice standards. We believe this
has been due to staff having a greater understanding and ability
to articulate and document what, why and how they practice.
Evaluation of Primary Assessment documentation
using AASW Direct Practice standard 1-12 (new audit
tool used)
                                                                                                                          Relevant Information Is Gathered of the
Standard 1.4 The Social Work Assessment And The Intervention Taken Is Appropriate To The Client's Situation, In Keeping   Psychosocial Situation
With Ethical And Legislative Requirements and Directed Towards Appropriate Outcomes Reached In Agreement With The
                                                                                                                          Physical Factors
Client Wherever Poss.

                                                                                                                          Psychological Factors


                                                                                                                          Environmental Factors

 16
                                                                                                                          Personal and Other Resources

 14
                                                                                                                          Attachment/ Parenting

 12
                                                                                                                          Response to Diagnosis/
                                                                                                                          Hospitalisation/Adjustment to Condition/
 10                                                                                                                       Understanding
                                                                                                                          Nature/ Level/ Intervention of Risk

  8
                                                                                                                          Understanding, Strenghts and Capacities
                                                                                                                          in Assessment and Plan
  6
                                                                                                                          Outcomes Identified Discussed & Agreed

  4
                                                                                                                          Appropriate Assessment Framew ork
                                                                                                                          Utilised
  2
                                                                                                                          Preface Statement Included
  0
                Full                  Partial                  No                     N/A                                 Relevant Others Involved or Advised of
                                                                                                                          Plan
Is documentation compatible with
reflective practice?
       Identifies gaps in assessment and encourages worker to reflect on
                               reasons for omission


  18
                                                                     16
  16
  14
  12
  10
   8
   6
   4                                              3
   2
              0                0
   0
       Not significant     Somewhat           Significant     Highly significant
                           significant
Coaching

        The tool enables supervisors to coach in reflective practice as
                             they review cases


 16                                                                  15

 14

 12

 10

 8

 6

 4                                                3

 2                             1
             0
 0
      Not significant      Somewhat           Significant     Highly significant
                           significant
Complex cases

         Assists with identification of cases that may become complex
                              political / legal matters


  16                                                                15

  14

  12

  10

  8
  6

  4                                              3

  2
              0                0
  0
       Not significant     Somewhat          Significant     Highly significant
                           significant
Personal practice framework


           Enables the social worker to discuss ‘personal practice
      framework’ and how that impacted on case work. (Discussion of
        contradictions between ppf and organisation demands / client
                                 demands)


 18                                                               16
 16
 14
 12
 10
  8
  6
  4                                            2
  2                          1
             0
  0
      Not significant    Somewhat          Significant     Highly significant
                         significant
Identification of impact on
clinician
        Assists with identification of cases that could potentially impact
                              emotionally on worker


  18
                                                                       16
  16
  14
  12
  10
  8
  6
  4
                                                    2
  2                             1
              0
  0
       Not significant      Somewhat            Significant     Highly significant
                            significant
Critical reflective practice

          Offers a structure for ‘critical reflective practice’ (what is the
       problem, how is it a problem, why it is a problem and how do we
                       respond?) (Goddard and Carew 1996)


  18                                                                    17
  16
  14
  12
  10
  8
  6
  4
  2                              1                   1
              0
  0
       Not significant      Somewhat            Significant      Highly significant
                            significant
Organizational outcomes


This is evidenced by:

• Increase in relevant Social Work referrals.
• Increase in requests from medical teams in areas
  traditionally unfunded for Social Work.
• Demand for increase in SW FTE under QCH across all areas.
• Increase staffs’ confidence and retention.
• Increase in understanding and demand for formally
  documented Psychosocial Assessment to inform
  multidisciplinary teams interaction / practice with clients.
Outcomes for staff

Improvement in:

• Assessment skills
• Documentation skills
• Team cohesion
• Supportive practice
• Transparent practice
• Self awareness
• Disciplined use of self
• Professional confidence
• Understanding of AASW
standards.
Question to be reflected on

We are all Psychosocial ‘beings’ and this is our lived
experience.

SO…
How do we promote professional respect for Social
Work’s understandings around assessment and
clinical interventions as well as acknowledgement
of the repercussions for children and families if not
performed and documented correctly?
IS SELF AWARENESS THE
  MISSING INGREDIENT IN
           LEADERSHIP?
 SCIENTISM TO SOPHISM

            Sophism
Modern definition: Confusing illogical
    argument to deceive someone
   Original meaning: Anyone with
   expertise in a specific domain
  WE CAN BECOME EXPERTS ABOUT
            OURSELVES
IS SELF AWARENESS THE
MISSING INGREDIENT IN
      LEADERSHIP?

WHERE DOES SELF AWARENESS FIT
   IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF
KNOWLEDGE FOR OUR PROFESSION
HOW WE LEARN

      EXPERIENTIAL
        Learning

       RATIONAL
        Learning

      DEVOTIONAL
        Learning
       3 Level Approach

               Self
Individual   Awareness
                             Mindfulness




Community    Connectedness   Leadership




 Society       Purpose       Social Work
3 Level        What's          Self Awareness       Leadership        Our              What is
Approach       Possible?                                              profession
Individual     Ethical         Mindfulness          Less Ego          Social Work      Ego based self
Self           Integrity       Neuroscience         leadership        Practise         attachment to
Awareness      Obedience       Taking               Neuro             Critical         self identity
               to the                                                                  “Self”
Sceptical                      responsibility for   leadership        reflection
               unenforceable                                                           awareness not
Experiential                   and changing         Being
                                                                                       on the agenda
Learning                       how we think         reflective with
                               feel and act         less ego
                                                    Breath & Body
                                                    awareness
Community      From            Equanimity           A connected       Systems Theory   Us v them
                                                                      communication    stance
Connections    Duality to      Impermanence         relationship      skills
Sceptical      Unity           Attention            with others                        Social workers
                                                                      community
                                                                                       can be
Experiential                   Observation          Not               development
                                                                                       uncomfortable
Learning                                            attachment                         about leading

Society        Information     Neuro plasticity     A liberating      Code of          Critical analysis
Purpose        to              Formal Practise      Intent            Ethics           which criticises
Sceptical      Inspiration     Breath               Understanding     Human            without
                                                    power before                       inspiring
Experiential                   Awareness of                           Rights
                                                    promoting                          Sense of
Learning                       body sensations      freedom                            Powerlessness
             MINDFULNESS

      2 complementary definitions
1.Sustained attention: “…paying attention on
  purpose, from moment to moment, and non-
  judgementally” (Kabat-Zinn, 1994).
2.Inhibitory control: “…mindfulness is achieved
  through the development of experiential
  awareness and equanimity, which is the ability
  to remain unperturbed by an event
  experienced within the framework of one’s
  body and thoughts as a result of objective
  observation” (Cayoun, 2003).
             SELF AWARENESS
“We can improve self awareness the same way we
 can improve our ability to speak a language, play
 tennis....we need to pay attention and activate the
 relevant circuitry regularly.” David Rock Neuroleadership

“Sometimes the obstacle to doing leadership
 differently is oneself........Our attachment to
 particular understandings of ourselves – our –
 identities and the ego’s need to protect those selves
 is the problem” Amanda Sinclair 2007
3 Level        What's          Self Awareness       Leadership        Our              What is
Approach       Possible?                                              profession
Individual     Ethical         Mindfulness          Less Ego          Social Work      Ego based self
Self           Integrity       Neuroscience         leadership        Practise         attachment to
Awareness      Obedience       Taking               Neuro             Critical         self identity
               to the                                                                  “Self”
Sceptical                      responsibility for   leadership        reflection
               unenforceable                                                           awareness not
Experiential                   and changing         Being
                                                                                       on the agenda
Learning                       how we think         reflective with
                               feel and act         less ego
                                                    Breath & Body
                                                    awareness
Community      From            Equanimity           A connected       Systems Theory   Us v them
                                                                      communication    stance
Connections    Duality to      Impermanence         relationship      skills
Sceptical      Unity           Attention            with others                        Social workers
                                                                      community
                                                                                       can be
Experiential                   Observation          Not               development
                                                                                       uncomfortable
Learning                                            attachment                         about leading

Society        Information     Neuro plasticity     A liberating      Code of          Critical analysis
Purpose        to              Formal Practise      Intent            Ethics           which criticises
Sceptical      Inspiration     Breath               Understanding     Human            without
                                                    power before                       inspiring
Experiential                   Awareness of                           Rights
                                                    promoting                          Sense of
Learning                       body sensations      freedom                            Powerlessness
                         LEADERSHIP
“Leadership is a relationship not a job or a position
 but a way of influencing others towards ends
 recognised as valuable & fulfilling.” Amanda Sinclair leadership
 for the disillusioned 2007



“When a leader can forget the self, let go of the all
 important personal narrative it allows one to be with
 others without looking for gratitude, or the self to be
 reflected heroically through the eyes of others”
 organisational theorist John Roberts Leadership for the Disillusioned 2007
3 Level        What's          Self Awareness       Leadership        Our              What is
Approach       Possible?                                              profession
Individual     Ethical         Mindfulness          Less Ego          Social Work      Ego based self
Self           Integrity       Neuroscience         leadership        Practise         attachment to
Awareness      Obedience       Taking               Neuro             Critical         self identity
               to the                                                                  “Self”
Sceptical                      responsibility for   leadership        reflection
               unenforceable                                                           awareness not
Experiential                   and changing         Being
                                                                                       on the agenda
Learning                       how we think         reflective with
                               feel and act         less ego
                                                    Breath & Body
                                                    awareness
Community      From            Equanimity           A connected       Systems Theory   Us v them
                                                                      communication    stance
Connections    Duality to      Impermanence         relationship      skills
Sceptical      Unity           Attention            with others                        Social workers
                                                                      community
                                                                                       can be
Experiential                   Observation          Not               development
                                                                                       uncomfortable
Learning                                            attachment                         about leading

Society        Information     Neuro plasticity     A liberating      Code of          Critical analysis
Purpose        to              Formal Practise      Intent            Ethics           which criticises
Sceptical      Inspiration     Breath               Understanding     Human            without
                                                    power before                       inspiring
Experiential                   Awareness of                           Rights
                                                    promoting                          Sense of
Learning                       body sensations      freedom                            Powerlessness
               CONNECTEDNESS
“others experiences become more accurately
 perceived when we are not so attached to and
 protective of our sense of self” Dr Bruno Cayoun MiCBT 2009


“Any community is a living network – an
 interconnected system that constantly assembles,
 disassembles disperses, then reconnects and
 recreates itself every day.” Think of an Elephant Paul Bailey 2007
                    SOCIAL WORK
“In order to operate within a public sector so heavily
 influenced by managerialism, social workers have had to
 compromise their values, and undertake work that is not
 consistent with principles such as self determination
 empowerment and community accountability.” Ife Rethinking
 social work 1999


“Critical reflection should allow us to not take anything for
 granted, to actually reanalyse situations in ways which allow
 new actions and to change power relations at both macro and
 micro levels. It is an attitude and approach rather than a set
 of new skills.” Jan Fook Critical Transforming social work practice 1999
  WITH SELF AWARENESS & LESS EGO
  LEADERSHIP SOCIAL WORK COULD
• Move from duality to unity: Rather than engaging in
  oppositional stances i.e. “war against this or that”
  look for connection where traditionally opposing
  ideas have a commonality.
• Assist ethical integration : In all levels of our working
  lives, from service delivery, to interactions with
  colleagues to interagency collaboration to our
  relationships with CEO’s
• Transform information to inspiration : In form data
  to in spirit creativity
 IS SELF AWARENESS THE
 MISSING INGREDIENT IN
       LEADERSHIP?

WHERE DOES SELF AWARENESS FIT
     IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF
KNOWLEDGE FOR OUR PROFESSION
  Jill_Maybir@health.qld.gov.au
 AASW Conference
 Queensland Branch,
 8 November, 2009




Evidence Based Practice
and Innovation
                                   Helen Redfern,
                                      Lecturer
                                 Australian Catholic
                                     University
                               McAuley Campus, Banyo



                          http://www.flickr.com/photos/87719210@N00/3860175298/
Key Points
•   Innovation is a concept not clearly defined in
    social work

•   While EBP argues that innovation occurs in the
    research context, innovation in social work is more
    likely to occur in the practice context

•   EBP logic does not adequately guide decision
    making where there is no research evidence or
    where innovation occurs in the practice context

•   There is a need to develop a clear logic for EBP
    around practice innovation that should be ethically
    and theoretically based and leads to the building of
    research evidence
The Logic of EBP

                            1
                      Best Evidence




          3                                    2
  Client values and                      Practitioner’s
    expectations                      individual expertise
           EBP and Innovation


Research                        Practice
evidence       Innovation       change
   A New EBP Logic -
Ethics informed evidence


                           3. Building
                            research
                            evidence

     2. Client values                         1. Practitioner’s
            and                             individual expertise
      expectations           Ethical
                                            (Based on practice and
                             decision       theoretical knowledge)
                             making


 Practice innovation     Practice change     Ethical decision
 making      Building research evidence to demonstrate effectiveness
 and professional accountability.

				
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