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									Mapping Government: Understanding
Key Policy-making Processes and the
 Poverty Reduction Strategy Review

Report of a Workshop Held February 17-18, 2004, at the Golden
                    Rose Hotel, Arusha

               Workshop Organized and Facilitated by:

                        Hakikazi Catalyst
                     Wildlife Working Group
                         PINGO’s Forum
                 Sand County Foundation-Tanzania

List of Acronyms                                                     3
1.0: Introduction                                                    4
2.0: Day 1, February 17: Policy-Making
and the Poverty Reduction Strategy                                   5
        2.1: Workshop Overview & Objectives                          5
        2.2: Opening of Workshop                                     6
        2.3: Legislative Roadmap- An Overview of Tanzania
        Government Institutions                                      7
        2.4: The Poverty Reduction Strategy Process and Review       7
        2.5: Poverty& Environment Links                              10
        2.6: Day 1 Group Work                                        15
3.0: Day 2, February 18: Budgeting Processes and PRS Review
Consultation and Action Planning                                     16
        3.1: Budget Processes: Public Expenditure Review &
        Medium Term Expenditure Framework                            16
        3.2: Poverty Reduction Strategy Review Consultation Guide    17
        3.3: Experiences in Grassroots PRS Consultation              20
        3.4: Group Work: Action Plans for Grassroots Consultations   20
        3.5: Closing Remarks                                         21
Annex 1: Participants List                                           22
Annex 2: Workshop Agenda                                             34
Annex 3: CSO Action Plans for PRS Review, February 19-March 21       35

List of Acronyms

ANGONET            Arusha NGO Network
CSO                Civil Society Organization
EIA                Environmental Impact Assessment
ENR                Environment & Natural Resources
GDP                Gross Domestic Product
GoT                Government of Tanzania
HIPC               Highly Indebted Poor Countries
IMTC               Inter-ministerial Technical Committee
IUCN               The World Conservation Union
MTEF               Medium Term Expenditure Framework
NGO                Non-government organization
NPES               National Poverty Eradication Strategy
NPF                NGO Policy Forum
PAF                Performance Action Framework
PER                Public Expenditure Review
PINGO‘s            Pastoralist Indigenous NGO‘s
PRS                Poverty Reduction Strategy
PRBS               Poverty Reduction Budgetary Support
PRSC               Poverty Reduction Support Credit
PRSP               Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper
RAS                Regional Administrative Secretary
SDP                Sector Planning/Development Programme
TAPHGO             Tanzania Pastoralists and Hunter-Gatherer Organizations
TAS                Tanzania Assistance Strategy
UNDP               United Nations Development Programme
VPO                Vice President‘s Office

1.0: Introduction

This workshop was held in Arusha on February 17-18 at the Golden Rose Hotel. The main
purpose of the workshop was to facilitate the engagement of civil society organizations in the on-
going Poverty Reduction Strategy (PRS) Review which is being coordinated by the Vice
President‘s Office. In order to do this the workshop combined elements of training and action
planning so that the participants would be armed with the appropriate knowledge to effectively
engage in the Review process. The workshop first explored some of the fundamentals of
governance and policy-making structures as contained in the PACT-Tanzania publication,
Legislative Roadmap. After these basics had been reviewed the workshop provided presentations
and discussion on the Poverty Reduction Strategy, in terms of content of the strategy itself and the
process of the current PRS review. This was followed by an additional presentation looking
specifically on the linkages between poverty reduction and environmental issues and efforts to
incorporate environment and natural resource management into the PRS review.

The second day of the workshop expanded on the previous day‘s discussions to look at the links
between the PRS and the budgeting process, in particular the Public Expenditure Review (PER)
which is an annual evaluation of Tanzanian government expenditures. The workshop culminated
in the afternoon of the second day with group work action planning for soliciting and synthesizing
local community in-put to the PRS review. These action plans will be executed by the various
participants prior to March 22-23, when there will be a follow-up workshop in Arusha to present,
collect, and summarize the local feedback.

2.0: Day 1, February 17: Policy-Making and the Poverty Reduction Strategy

2.1: Workshop Overview & Objectives

The workshop began with Alan Mswila of Hakikazi Catalyst welcoming the participants and the
lead facilitator for the workshop, Emmanuel Kallonga, the Director of Hakikazi Catalyst. Mr.
Kallonga provided an overview of the workshop‘s objectives and agenda, making a number of
broad points about the PRS and the current review process:
         This workshop, and the PRS review, is about our fundamental democratic rights to get
             involved in government processes, in this case a process which has been initiated by
         Background of workshop- ‗Who are we and why are we here?‘:
                 o We are a wide array of civil society groups, including many advocating for
                     pro-poor laws and policies and in particular those that relate to the management
                     of natural resources and environmental conservation;
                 o All stakeholders need to have clear understanding of the machinery of
                     government- how laws and policies are formulated- in order to carry out such
                 o The origin of laws are often unknown- this is an information gap that we must
                 o Civil society organizations (CSO‘s) often fail to recognize windows of
                     opportunity to engage in government processes;
                 o Transparency, accountability, and participation are promoted by government,
                     but CSO‘s need to have the capacity to hold government accountable
                 o A practical example of a window of opportunity for influencing policies and
                     for holding government accountable is the PRS Review:
                          We need to create knowledge about PRS in order to engage in the
                 o Voices of the people should be included of the rewriting of the next PRS and
                     government is calling for CSO‘s to facilitate this.
         Workshop will share knowledge and experience on four key areas:
                 o Policy and law making processes
                 o Overview of government structure with respect to environmental issues and
                     natural resource management including with respect to the PRS
                          How can you influence processes relevant to natural resource
                 o Practical involvement of CSO‘s in the PRS review
                          Creating knowledge on PRS process and content among various
                          Consultation guide: how can people get involved
                          Having created an understanding of legal framework, how can get
                             involved in PRS Review—need to understand important link to budget
                 o Budgeting processes are key to poverty reduction. The PER and MTEF- what
                     are they, how they link to the PRS
                          Need adequate knowledge to engage effectively
                          How can CSO‘s get involved?
         The workshop is expected to have three key outcomes:
                 o Increased understanding of government processes among the CSO participants

               o Broader involvement of grassroots communities in the next PRS
                      Need for commitment to action plan at grassroots level to engage in
                        PRS Review
                      Need for broad consultation process in second PRS (first PRS only had
                        official in-put from 870 people out of entire country)
                             Cannot participate until we have capacity/ understanding of
               o Follow up second workshop focused on feedback from action planning. March
                 23-24 those committed to this process will re-convene in Arusha.
                      Following VPO format- capturing key points to input into PRS
                             Consolidated report submitted to regional governments and up-
                                streamed to national level through VPO and NPF

Mr. Kallonga gave thanks to the Vice President‘s Office (VPO), as well as UNDP, for
participation and funding of the workshop, thus ensuring that capacity built and voices are heard.
He reiterated that this is an action-orientated workshop- group discussion with specific focus and
goals requiring the commitment of the participants.

Prior to the official opening of the workshop by the Regional Administrative Secretary, there was
a mime play performed by a troupe from the Mkombozi Centre for street children. This play was
titled ‗Voice of the Marginalized‘ and dealt with issues of accountability, transparency,
participation in governance in Tanzania.

2.2: Opening of Workshop: Mr. J.K. Kileo, Regional Administrative Secretary,
Arusha Region

Mr. Kileo reiterated that the objectives of this unique gathering would be to:
               o Enable CSO‘s from northern Tanzania to create an understanding of policy and
                   law making processes
               o Overview of government structures
               o Generating knowledge and understanding of PRS process, content and review-
                   in order to effectively contribute to new PRS
               o Explanation of budgeting process

He stated that CSO‘s are demonstrating increased capacity to work with government on policy
issues and increase the participation of people in policies that affect their lives, and that the
commitment to involvement in the PRS Review is an example of CSO commitment to working
with government. Now the Review process has begun and government has invited all
stakeholders to participate. This requires that the views of all participants be respected regardless
of age, sex, education, etc. The engagement in PRS Review at a grass roots should be guided by
the following:
                o Key issues in social service delivery
                o Key poverty reduction priorities
                o Participation in monitoring process at local levels
                o Sustainability of already achieved benefits

Mr. Kileo reiterated that consultation is not just communicating downwards, but needs to
upstream feedback to government policy makers. He concluded by saying that he was impressed
with the range of stakeholders assembled but that people in and out of government have been

good at making resolutions and statements but poverty reduction requires implementation and
action. The workshop was declared open, and Fred Nelson of Sand County Foundation-Tanzania
thanked the guest of honor for his speech and noted the importance of focusing on action rather
than rhetoric, as the RAS had emphasized.

Following the opening there was a brief introduction by each of the participants and introductions
of the assisting facilitators and organizers. Mr. Kallonga clarified that both English and Kiswahili
could be used freely during the workshop and participants should endeavor to keep their
comments and questions focused, specific, and as brief as possible.

2.3: Legislative Roadmap- An Overview of Tanzania Government Institutions:
Anna Mgwira, Legal Advocate

Ms. Mgwira provided a brief overview of some of the institutional structures and roles in terms of
policy-making in Tanzania. These processes are the key to the functioning of any democratic
society, she noted, and we have to understand these processes inter terms of the future of our
country and our own ability to participate in policy-making. She provided an extensive discussion
in the relative levels of participation in policy-making and law-making in Tanzania, and engaged
the plenary in a discussion of participation and the issue of where policies come from. Many of
the participants noted that policies do not come from the local people, although this is what should
be occurring, but are devised in a top-down manner.

Ms. Mgwira provided a brief overview of the Constitution in terms of content and provisions,
highlighting the importance of this document in all law-making and policy processes in Tanzania.

Following this there was further discussion and elaboration on the sources of laws and policies
within the government structure, including the respective roles of the executive, the legislature,
and the judiciary. There was also discussion among the participants relating to lack of
participation and knowledge of legislative processes, transparency, and problems related to
harmonization of laws and policies.

2.4: The Poverty Reduction Strategy Process and Review: Abdallah Shah, Poverty and
Environment Program, Vice President’s Office

Mr. Shah provided an overview of the PRS and the review process. His presentation is
summarized as follows:

       1. Some facts on poverty reduction in Tanzania:
        Macro economic indicators have improved
             o GDP growth 6.3%
             o Inflation 4.6%
        But poverty levels still high:
             o 18.7% below food poverty line
             o 35.7% below basic needs poverty line

       2. Some PRS targets:
             o Reduce by half the population below basic needs & food poverty line by 2010
             o Reduce proportion of rural poor by half by 2010
             o GDP growth >6% by 2003

       o Agric growth >5% by 2003
       o Focus on health, education, rural roads, agriculture & water

3. What is the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP)?
      o Developed in 2000 – response to National Poverty Eradication Strategy &
            Highly Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) initiative
      o Sets out government priorities/targets
                Reduce income poverty
                Improve human capabilities, survival & social well being
                Contain extreme vulnerability
      o Directs financial resources to meet these objectives and highlights priorities for
      o Requires sectoral policies and plans to address these objectives & targets

4. PRSP is a policy document but:
      o Drives other policies & strategies
      o Sets targets for progress of poverty reduction
      o Is dynamic so can & will change

5. National Strategies that relate to poverty reduction and PRS:
       o Vision 2025
       o National Poverty Eradication Strategy (NPES)
       o Tanzania Assistance Strategy (TAS)
       o Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP)
       o Sector Strategies/Development Programmes (SDP)

6. PRS Pillars:
      o The reduction of income poverty.
      o The improvement in the quality of life and social well being.
      o The achievement and sustaining of a conducive development environment, and
          the promotion good governance and accountability

7. Why is PRSP Important to Us?
     o PRS sets objectives for Public Expenditure Review (PER)
     o PER informs Medium Term Expenditure Framework (MTEF)
     o MTEF informs budget guidelines
     o PRS sets priorities for donors
     o Thus determines availability of resources for Government and NGOs
     o But overall it‘s the central vehicle for coordinating poverty reduction.

8. PRS Review:
      o Govt of Tanzania has now decided to undertake a review of PRS with the
         following purposes:
              To up-date the current PRS by making it more comprehensive and pro-
              What are the gaps or areas for improvement in the PRS?
              How can we strengthen awareness and ownership of the PRS?
      o Key principles in the Review:
              Nationally owned - driven by country‘s interests.

                 Realistic & achievable – in content & timeframe.
                 Set in the context of the country‘s long term strategies (Nat. Poverty
                  Eradication Strategy, Vision 2025)
                 Built on what we have and not start a new PRSP. Use of existing data
                  and analysis
                 Go hand in hand with the harmonization process & efforts to address
                  capacity constraints in PRS.

9. PRS Review occurring in four phases:
     I - Preparatory phase (Aug – Oct ‗03): Consultations and finalisation of plans by
          PRS tech. committee, and submission to Inter Ministerial Committee.
     II – Launch & preliminary phase (Oct – Dec ‗03): Launched at Poverty Policy
          Week, consultations on scope, identification of knowledge gaps, focused studies
          to address gaps, analysis of existing data and reports, and preparation of TOR
          for drafting of the PRS review.
     III - Revision of PRS phase (Jan – Sep ‗04): Analysis of data, drafting of PRS,
          extensive public consultation, and preparation of final draft.
     IV - Approval & dissemination (Oct – Dec ‘04): Submission to Inter-Ministerial
          Committee, Cabinet and Parliament for formal approval. Awareness raising and
          dissemination of revised PRSP in October 2004.

10. Focus of the PRS Review:
      o Increased grassroots participation in the PRS.
      o Greater ownership of PRS across government.
      o Re-examination of macro-micro linkages between growth and poverty
      o Review “priority” sectors and greater impact on poverty reduction by ―non-
          priority‖ sectors.
      o Integration of cross-cutting issues - HIV/AIDS, environment, gender,
          disabled, and age.
      o Attention to governance, security, and peace as fundamentals for poverty

11. Where are we now?
      o Review now formally launched and approved by Ministerial Committee
      o Review guide prepared
      o Stakeholders have developed consultation plans for support from VPO
      o Consultation guide prepared
      o Meeting to review stakeholder plans – many stakeholders still to finalise plans
      o Consultation process has started. PRS technical committee has met.

12. What next?
     o Respond to requests and participate in stakeholder consultations.
     o Implement actions to:
              Raise awareness on PRS and importance of E & NR to poverty
              Undertake analytical work on poverty-environment linkages
              Prepare submissions to VPO on proposed content and priorities for
               revised PRS

                     Sector engagement with PRS technical com.
               o Don‘t miss the boat, the PRS does matter to us. We mustn't miss this
                 opportunity to help achieve sustainable poverty reduction!

Following Mr. Shah‘s presentation, the lead facilitator asked a number of central questions arising
from the presentation in order to stimulate further discussion among the participants. Mr.
Kallonga posed the following questions to the participants:
        What have we learned in terms of the current existing PRS?
        How are we prepared to engage with Parliamentarians and other representatives to
           ensure that our voices are heard?
        Do we have the confidence and knowledge to engage in the PRS Review?

The floor was then opened up to participants for questions and answers by Mr. Shah regarding the
PRS and the PRS Review process. Some of the following issues emerged as central concerns
within this dialogue:
                o Over-coming sectoral rigidities and finding ways for the PRS to be enforced is
                   a key issue in poverty reduction and in particular with respect to cross-cutting
                o Fostering public ownership of the PRS, in contrast to the existing donor-driven
                   and non-participatory PRS, is both important and challenging.
                o Participation must be genuine and not just a ‗rubber-stamping‘ exercise of
                o The current PRS includes a few priority sectors but the nature of the reforms
                   needed to address poverty reduction issues goes well beyond these priority
                o Tanzania is rich in resources but one of the poorest countries in the world- how
                   is it that this situation persists and why has the situation not improved since
                   1960 or 1970? This fundamental issue is at the heart of the PRS and its review.
                o How do we deal with critical macro-level issues like corruption and
                   inflation/currency devaluation? These are also fundamental to the PRS.
                o Overcoming the perception that people have lost hope, motivation, and the
                   confidence to confront poverty issues.

2.5: Poverty& Environment Links: David Howlett, Poverty and Environment Advisor, Vice
President’s Office and UNDP

The following is a summary of Mr. Howlett‘s presentation on links between environment and
natural resource management issues and poverty reduction in Tanzania, with respect to the PRS
and PRS Review:

       1. Key questions:
              o Mainstreaming of environmental issues is now accepted as a priority but what
                 do we mean?
              o How can the issue of environment as a cross cutting issue in the next PRS be
              o What are our respective roles in government, civil society and private sector to
                 ensure that environmental issues are adequately linked to poverty reduction

2. Poverty-Environment links include the following:
       o Livelihoods
       o Economic growth
       o Vulnerability
       o Water
       o Energy
       o Governance
       o Conflict
       o Gender
       o HIV/AIDS
       o Age (young & old)
       o Disabled

3. Livelihoods:
       o Majority of people (rural & urban) depend upon environment and nat.
           resources for their livelihoods (agric., forests, fisheries, & wildlife)
       o Environment and Natural Resources use was main economic activity for 63%
           of adults (76% in rural areas) in 2002
       o Degradation of environment is affecting poor (confirmed in Participatory
           Poverty Assessment)
       o We need to promote better and sustainable land use, land tenure, community
           management of forests/wildlife/fisheries

4. Water:
       o We need water for drinking, agriculture, energy and environmental services.
       o Access to improved water sources has improved, but time taken in rural areas
          has increased.
       o Emerging conflicts over water uses – e.g. Usangu wetlands (irrigators,
          pastoralists, park, hydroelectric prodution)
       o Pollution of sources increasing

5. Energy:
       o 2002 estimate 926,000 tonnes of charcoal consumed.
             Present poor management leading to deforestation (est. 91,000 ha/year!)
             But charcoal is renewable, it‘s a major ―industry‖ & source of
                livelihoods, no immediate substitute.
       o Similarly, main source in rural areas of energy is wood from trees.
       o Environment is also main source of electricity generation in Tanzania (hydro)

6. Economic Growth:
       o Main economic sectors in Tanzania depend upon environment and natural
          resources (ENR)
       o Agriculture – Tourism – Mining
               In 2000 ENR (not inc tourism/mining) contributed 48.3% to the
                 economy (monetary & non-monetary)
               Tourism depends on protecting the environment, yet impacts on the
                 env. Do the poor benefit from tourism as currently structured?

                  Mining has major env and social impacts, potential for conflicts (e.g.
                   artisanal vs commercial).
                  Agriculture – issues of degradation & water, impact of using marginal
                   lands & access/tenure.

7. Vulnerability:
       o Poor are most at risk from environmental related disasters:
                Floods (e.g. El Nino ‘98)
                Pollution
                Land degradation
       o Environment featured strongly in participatory poverty assessment on

8. Health:
       o People‘s health is dependent the good and clean environment
             Safe water
             Sanitation
             Solid waste management (2001 – 58% disposed in pit/bin, 42% thrown
             Water borne diseases
             Indoor air pollution (serious factor in child < 5 yr mortality)

9. Pollution:
        o Poor are most vulnerable from pollution:
        o Indoor air pollution from lamps/candles/stoves
        o Solid and liquid waste in water courses
        o Hazardous wastes mixed up in general waste
        o Agrochemicals – estimated 1700 tonnes laying around the country

10. Conflicts:
      o Abundance and scarcity of natural resources as triggers/fuels conflicts:
                E.g. Gold mining:
                      Commercial mines and artisanal mines
                      Police and artisanal mines
                      Districts vs National government
      o Land/water:
                agriculturalists vs pastoralists
                Refugees vs resident communities over fuelwood/water/land

11. Governance:
       o Access and control over ENR resources impacts on peoples‘ livelihoods:
       o Land tenure
       o Wildlife management
       o Joint forestry management
       o Fisheries
       o Environmental management – EIA process, by-laws

12. Other links:

      o   Gender, e.g. women & collection of water/fuel
      o   HIV/AIDs. e.g. vulnerability from poor sanitation & housing
      o   Age, e.g. young/old susceptibility to pollution
      o   Disabled, e.g. access and use of env resources
      o   Employment, e.g. most based on natural resource use

13. What are we doing to incorporate these issues into policy processes?
      o GoT recognise there is need to address environment issues
      o VPO/UNDP programme on integrating environment into PRS process
      o Issues:
               Challenge as environment cuts across many sectors
               Awareness of what we mean by environment
               Need to make poverty and environment linkages
               Env. & poverty monitoring & targets

      o Last year‘s activities
            Environment management Act drafted
            Env sustainability included in performance action framework of PRSC
            Poverty environment indicators
            Knowledge and awareness on Poverty-Environment issues
            Strategic Environment Assessment study
            Participatory poverty assessment – environment and vulnerability
               emerges as a key theme in nationwide survey
            Inputs into 2003/04 agricultural survey
            Environment Working Group formed
            Public Expenditure Review of environment commissioned
            PRS review – cross-cutting issues

      o This year we have already started:
            Commissioning of a study on poverty – environment indicators
            Support to UNDP/IUCN for lesson learning on poverty-environment
               links from small grants
            Support on solid waste management and poverty reduction
            Livelihoods & poverty reduction workshop, Bagamoyo Jan 2004
            PER environment being carried out
            PRS review and environment as cross-cutting issues

14. Quick Overview on:
      o Hierarchy of Strategies
              TAS – Tanzania Assistance Strategy
              PRSP
              Budget support (PRSC/PRBS)
              PER
      o National Strategies
              Vision 2025
              National Poverty Eradication Strategy (NPES)
              Tanzania Assistance Strategy (TAS)
              Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP)
              Sector Strategies/Development Programmes (SDP)

o TAS & Harmonisation
      Framework for promoting local ownership and harmonization to:
      Improving the Predictability of External Resources Flows
      Integrating Donor Funds into the Government Budget
      Capacity Building for Aid Coordination and External Resource
      Harmonization and Rationalization of Processes
      Developed 2000 – response to NPES & HIPC
      Sets out government priorities/targets
      Reduce income poverty
      Improve human capabilities, survival & social well being
      Contain extreme vulnerability
      Directs financial resources to meet these objectives
      Requires sectoral policies and plans top address these objectives &
o Poverty Reduction Budget Support (PRBS) & Poverty Reduction Support
  Credit (PRSC)
      Dev. partners & Government are moving towards increasing levels of
          direct budget support (basket funding):
      PRBS – bilateral donors
      PRSC – Poverty Reduction Support Credit – W. Bank
      Why these trends?
               Donor projects in past often unsustainable
               ―Competing‖ donor projects increased ―cost‖ to govt.
               Failure of Structural Adjustment Programmes and other
                  economic reforms
               Focus on getting policy, governance and reforms right
               Support government to achieve its polices
               Harmonisation agenda to increase aid effectiveness
      PRBS & PRSC
               Gov. has agreed with partners a set of actions and reforms.
               Directly linked to poverty reduction objectives as set out in
               These are set out in performance action framework (PAF) that is
                  reviewed each year.
               Dev partners make direct contributions to Govt
               Gov uses this to fund its annual budget
      What does it mean for us?
               Less donor projects
               Look for increase in budget
               Include environmental issues in PAF
o Public Expenditure Review (PER)
      Tool to assess/analyse levels of expenditure against govt objectives
          (particularly budget reduction so is linked to PRS)
      Informs Medium Term Expenditure Framework (MTEF) - linked to
          annual budget
      1st PER environment should be finished this month

                         PER Env. Objectives
                             To establish the levels, trends and distribution of environmental
                                expenditure by Government.
                             To assess the level of environmental expenditure required in
                                relation to the country‘s environmental priorities and poverty
                                reduction objectives.

       15. To Conclude
              o Great opportunities this year to address environmental policy issues:
                     PRS Review- VPO program to support env. integration into PRS
                     Inclusion of poverty-environment indicators in poverty monitoring
                     Environmental Management Act
                     PRSC/PRBS support thro PAF
                     PER environment to inform MTEF/budget
                     Strengthening links with CSO‘s & private sector

              o We mustn't miss this opportunity to help achieve sustainable poverty
                reduction- the door is open!

2.6: Day 1 Group Work

Following the presentation on poverty-environment linkages, the participants divided into four
groups, each with its own assignment and pre-assigned facilitator and reporter. The four group
assignments were as follows:
      Group A: 5 reasons why the PRS matters to the average Tanzanian
      Group B: 5 ways that the average Tanzanian can engage in the PRS Review process.
      Group C: 5 issues of poverty-environment linkages that should be incorporated into the next
      Group D: 5 groups that are vulnerable to poverty and disenfranchised. And why?

The objective of this group work was primarily to stimulate discussion on some of the key issues
from the first day‘s presentations and to prepare the participants for the more focal action
planning session for PRS review engagement on the next day.

3.0: Day 2, February 18: Budgeting Processes and PRS Review Consultation and Action

The second day began with a brief recapitulation of the first day‘s discussion. Emmanuel
Kallonga reiterated the importance of thinking about policy-making in terms of:
           o How does government work?
           o How do we engage to create change?

Elizabeth Singleton of the Wildlife Working Group continued on this theme by reiterating that the
PRS is a challenge to civil society, one which civil society must make a serious commitment to
engage with in order to influence positive change. Participation is a two-way street- government
has extended the opportunity and now civil society must take up this challenge.

Following the report back from group work of the previous afternoon, the workshop moved to the
first presentation on budgeting processes.

3.1: Budget Processes: Public Expenditure Review & Medium Term Expenditure Framework:
Mr. Kiondo, Ministry of Finance

Mr. Kiondo from the Ministry of Finance delivered a presentation on budgeting processes and
links to poverty reduction based on his paper titled, ‗Links between the Government Budget
Process PER and PRS.‘ The content of this presentation is summarized below:

       1. The budget is a key tool for the government to attain social, economic, and political
          goals. The PER is in turn a tool to monitor, evaluate, and assess the budget.

       2. The budget process is based on the country‘s legal institutions, including:
          o The Constitution of the United Republic of Tanzania. Chapter 7 contains
             provisions relating to financial management, preparation of the budget,
             authorization and approval of expenditures, etc.
          o The Public Finance Act of 2001
          o The Annual Appropriation Act
          o The Annual Finance Act

       3. There are four fundamental legal principles/elements governing budgetary processes in
          o No tax shall be imposed and no money spent without authority from the National
          o Expenditures shall only be made for the purposes authorized by Parliament
          o All revenues and expenditures are managed through a single fund (‗consolidated
          o All money from the consolidated fund must be accounted for before Parliament

       4. The structure of the government budget contains the following elements:
              o Domestic revenue (taxes)
              o External revenue (foreign donor grants and loans)
              o Ependitures
                      o Recurrent expenditures, including debt servicing and administrative

                      o Development budget including project and investment activities (e.g.
                        social infrastructure, economic infrastructure, etc.)

       5. The budget follows an annual cycle of events and activities which determines how
       government resources are used to attain government objectives. Key elements of this
       process are the following:
              o Review of macroeconomic indicators, including for the PRS sectoral priorities
              o The Public Expenditure Review which assesses the budget in terms of
                  performance with respect to targets

       6. The monitoring and assessments of the budget feed into the longer term budget
       planning process- the Medium Term Expenditure Framework.
              o The MTEF factors in projections of economic growth and inflation, financing,
                  and external funding.

       7. The Budget Guidelines are used in formulation of the annual budget and submitting it
       to the Cabinet after determining the MTEF based on the reviews and assessments, and
       combined with the policy priorities as defined by the PRS.

       8. Following preparation of the Budget Guidelines, the actual revenue expenditure
       estimates are prepared for Ministries and other departments. This process includes:
              o An Environmental Scan assessment of the various Ministries and departments
              o Budget performance reviews for the Ministries et al.

       9. The final phase of budget preparation involves donor consultations and scrutiny of the
       budget proposals by an Inter-Ministerial Technical Committee made up of all Permanent
       Secretaries. After review by this IMTC, the budget paper is then discussed by the Cabinet,
       and then submitted to Parliamentary Sector Committees before public debate and

After some discussion and questions and answers among the participants and Mr. Kiondo, the
facilitator noted that CSO‘s in Tanzania need to get involved in the budgeting process in more
detail given the opportunities for public scrutiny of government resources and decision-making
that these processes afforded, but that strategizing for this would have to wait for another
occasion. The next presentation returned to the focal topic of the on-going PRS Review.

3.2: Poverty Reduction Strategy Review Consultation Guide: Ibrahim Ugullumu, PRS Review
Coordinator, Vice President’s Office

The following is a summary of Mr. Ugullumu‘s presentation on the Consultation Guide for the
PRS Review:

       1. PRS Consultation Background:
              o PRS consultation is defined as a continuous process through which
                 stakeholders shape and share control over development initiatives
              o The first PRS consultation was led by Government (Government ‗s Led
                 Consultation) whereas the current PRS consultation is being led by the
                 stakeholders (Stakeholders‘ led consultation).

2. Challenges from the PRS of 2000:
       o Participatory structures were formed on an ad-hoc basis
       o Collaboration with stakeholders was less frequent and joint decision-making on
           relevant aspects of pro-poor policy was limited.
       o Tight time frame for consultation limited the participation of stakeholders.
           CSO involvement was limited and their impact on the outcome of the processes
           has been very limited.
       o Inadequate background and understanding of PRSP limited stakeholders‘
       o Inadequate resources to implement PRS
       o Problem of synchronization where TAS was supposed to provide PRS
           framework but was not completed before the PRSP.
       o Women, youth, people with disabilities, elderly, people living with HIV/AIDS,
           orphans were not adequately represented in PRSP process.
       o Inadequate analysis of ―Voice of the poor‖ through the zonal workshops.
       o Existence of narrow view of ―civil society‖.
       o Inadequate mechanism in dealing with cross cutting issues such as
           environment, HIV/AIDS, Gender, Employment.
       o Lack of PRS communication strategies.
       o Inadequate capacity in key Government institutions (PRS technical committee,
           PRS steering committee, PRS inter-ministerial committee).
       o The PRS process was exceptionally compressed (six months duration).
       o The consultative phase was short-lived; only 7 simultaneous zonal workshops
           were conducted at once.
       o The composition of participants in the workshop did not represent adequately
           all sections of the society.
       o CSO‘s lacked access to key documents and adequate mechanism to provide
       o Underestimation of resources required to building the capacity of CSO‘s to
           contribute effectively to policy formulation.

3. Purpose and Focus of the Review:
       o The overall purpose of the review process is to up date the current PRS by
           making it more comprehensive and pro-poor. The commitment of the
           government was to undertake a comprehensive review after every three years.
       o To expand and deepen interventions to reduce poverty. Make analysis of the
           gaps and design approach for improvement.
       o To raise awareness on the PRS to create the sense of ownership.

4. Time Frame for PRS Consultation:
       o October 2003-March 2004 1st round consultation.
       o April - PRS Drafting work start
       o May – June 2nd round consultation on the 1st PRS draft
       o July –Revision of the 1st draft and production of the 2nd PRS draft
       o August – 1st half of September 3rd round consultation on the 2nd PRS draft
       o 2nd half of September work on the final PRS draft starts
       o October –December 2004 Finalization and publication of PRS document
       o January 2005 Dissemination of PRS document

       5. Key principles of PRS Review:
             o Be Nationally owned and driven by country interests and agenda. The
                 government will foster country ownership through participatory consultations
                 by improving participation.
             o Be Realistic and achievable – both in content and timeframe. For the PRS
                 review, the timeframe will not be allowed to undermine quality of the strategy.
                 Emphasis will be placed on the importance of participatory dialogue, including
                 surveying the poor and effectively engaging elected officials and civil society

       6. PRS Formulation Process:
              o Identification of key poverty reduction priorities
              o Making public choices for implementation
              o Monitoring outcome
              o Steps for the PRS consultations
              o The internal stakeholder analysis
              o Scope of the PRS formulation process (Phases and issues)
              o Identify, classify and match the stakeholders with key poverty issues and
                 aspects of the participatory process
              o Analyze existing nature and frequency of engagement, participation,
                 mechanisms of accountability and channels of communication and information
              o Design appropriate participatory process.
              o Actual Consultation: Meetings, Workshop, Seminars, Radios, Television,
                 Newspapers, Letters, Fliers
                     o LEVELS OF CONSULTATIONS
                              National, Regional, District, community

       7. Report Format:
              o Refer PRS Consultation guide formats in the annex
              o We want to make assessments of first PRS
              o We want to choose public actions
              o We want to develop outcome indicators

       8. Conclusion: PRS Consultation Progress to Date
             o Poverty Policy Week in October 2003
             o Stakeholders Meeting at Karimjee
             o Stakeholders consultation guidelines
             o Stakeholders consultation workshops
             o Training of PRS consultation facilitators
             o Distribution of questionnaires
             o Radio programs
             o Television programs

The facilitator, E. Kallonga, provided some comments to follow up on Mr. Ugullumu‘s
presentation, noting that now the PRS Review responsibility falls on CSO‘s but time is not with
us as the key period for feedback to the review will last only until the end of March. Some further
discussion among the participants and Mr. Ugullumu raised questions of how many people know

about the PRS itself, let along the PRS Review process, how to ensure adequate coverage in terms
of participatory feedback to avoid repeating the mistakes of the first PRS in 2000, and how to
ensure participation of disenfranchised groups in preparation of the PRS.

3.3: Experiences in Grassroots PRS Consultation: Emmanuel Kallonga, Hakikazi Catalyst

Following the discussion of the PRS Review process, Mr. Kallonga presented on some of
Hakikazi Catalyst‘s experiences with grassroots consultative processes in and around Arusha.
This focused on a discussion of some of Hakikazi‘s extensive work in popularizing government
policy documents, including the PRSP, so that local people can understand their content and gain
knowledge of their aims and purposes. This popularization process employs what Mr. Kallonga
refers to as the 4 D‘s: to design, demystify, distribute, and discuss policy documents. This
process involves workshops, local skills training, establishment of local monitoring committees,
and then sharing information from the local consultations to a wider national audience.
Hakikazi‘s approach has enabled it to obtain high-quality feedback on some of the successes and
shortcomings of the existing PRS, to reach a large number of people in obtaining feedback (see
Table 1), and to develop a process based on active (rather than passive) participation at the
grassroots level.

Table 1: Level of participation in terms of numbers and types of people reached through Hakikazi
Catalyst grassroots consultations on poverty issues in Arusha Municipality and Arumeru District.
   • Number of people reached through community based meeting 985
   •    There were 14 community project locations and each location
       had a 16 committee members. Therefore the total number of         224
       village monitors was
   •    Number of representatives from civil society organizations, 5 of
       whom were from Hakikazi Catalyst                                  30
   •    Number of local Government officials                            11

   •    Number of community leaders                                     26

   •    Number of people in two districts reached through the
       distribution of PRSP popular booklets and budget advocacy        15,300
       materials produced by Hakikazi Catalyst.
   •    Total number of people reached by project                       16,576

   •    Total population in two district of Arusha Municipality         799,
       (282,712) and Arumeru district (516,8140)                        526
   •    Percentage of people reached                                    2.1%

3.4: Group Work: Action Plans for Grassroots Consultations

The final session in the workshop moved to action planning for the on-going PRS Review
process. This required the different organizations to commit to discrete actions for consulting
local people in producing in-puts in terms of feedback and analysis to the PRS and following the
consultation guide produced by the Vice President‘s Office. The participants were divided into

five groups based on their backgrounds and interests: pastoralists, natural resource management,
general conservation/development, gender/women/children, and media. The action plans
produced by each group are provided in full as Annex 3 to this report.

3.5: Closing Remarks

David Howlett of VPO/UNDP provided a few closing remarks, congratulating the participants for
their hard work over the past two days and for their many thought-provoking comments and
questions. The challenge now, he reiterated, is to go back to their areas of work and execute the
action plans produced in group work so that they would take advantage of the opportunity
provided by the PRS Review process. Mr. Howlett thanked Hakikazi Catalyst and the other
organizers and facilitators for their work in making this workshop happen so that civil society in
the region can actively engage in the PRS Review.

     Annex 1: Participants List

   NAME          ORGANIZATION               TITLE                     EMAIL                 PHONE/ADDRESS           ORGANIZATION                    AREA OF
                                                                                                                           FOCUS                  OPERATION
John Daniel      Osotwa Mount          Coordinator       0744-090203            Environmental                 Arumeru District –
Ole Mollel       Meru CBCO                                                               P.O. BOX 1257 Arusha   Conservation in relation to   Arusha Region
                                                                                                                poverty fighting
Subira L.        CADET – TRUST         Coordinator                                                               Women and Youth
Mawenya                                                                                                          Environment
                                                                                                                 Poverty reduction
                                                                                                                 HIV/AIDS
Elle Hughs       AMANI ECCD –          IEC Coordinator –   022 2150322            Early Childhood               Across Tanzania
                 Early   Childhood     Information,                                      P.O BOX 11245, DAR     Development –                 (Temeke, Morogoro,
                 Care          and     Education,                                                                Facilitation of             Mwanza)
                 Development           Communication.                                                                multisectoral approach
                                                                                                                     to ECD support
                                                                                                                 Advocacy and
                                                                                                                 Networking and
                                                                                                                     information sharing
Samwel           Ministry of Finance   Senior   Planning            0744 468257            Overall Management of         Tanzania
Kiondo                                 Officer                                           P.O BOX 9111 DAR       Public Financing
Brown Mathew     Maasai     Women      Board Member                                      0744 850844             Women Improvement              Monduli
Ole Suya         Dev. Organization                                                       P.O BOX 1326 Arusha     Girls Education                Simanjiro
                                                                                                                     particularly in the         Kiteto
                                                                                                                     nomadic Maasai
                                                                                                                 Working with Women
                                                                                                                     Economic Groups
Martha H.        Arusha Women          Coordinator          0744 580756            Provision of Legal services   Arusha Region
Lyimo            Legal and Human                                                         P.O BOX 695 Arusha     particularly for women and
                 Right Centre                                                                                   child
Mwaitete Cairo   PILGRIM VISION        Executive Director      0744 494533               Educatio – Early          Nationwide
                                                                                         P.O BOX 7184 Arusha        Childhood
                                                                                                                   Capacity building
                                                                                                                   Policy analysis and
Shermin         Mkombozi centre       Program            shermimoledina@mkombozi.or   0744 372582                   Strengthening                 Arusha Municipal
Moledina        for street children   Coordinator        g                            P.O BOX 9601 Moshi             Communities                   Kilimanjaro region
                                                                                                                     producing street
                                                                                                                     children in Kilimanjaro
                                                                                                                 Education Programmes
                                                                                                                 Arusha Referral
                                                                                                                 Protection projects
Boniface        Maarifa ni ufunguo    Progamme Officer            0744 944462               Education Advocacy for          Nationwide
Lyimo                                                                                 P.O BOX 15102 Arusha      developing capacity and
                                                                                                                motivation to address the
                                                                                                                problems of poverty and
Dorah Peter     Human Right                               0748 522161               Human Right Education           Nationwide
Kyamba          Education and                                                         P.O BOX 14963 Arusha      and Peace to grassroots,
                Peace International                                                                             Regional, National and
                (HUREPI –                                                                                       international levels, schools
                TRUST)                                                                                          and colleges
Nailejilej      WORDECO               Chairperson             P.O BOX 8335 Arusha        Women Right and                  Arusha
Mbaga                                                                                                                Young Girls                    Municipality
                                                                                                                 To reduce poverty at             Arumeru District
                                                                                                                     least to good position        Karatu - Town
                                                                                                                     of life (Women
                                                                                                                 HIV/AIDS
Stella Aloyce   WEGCC                 Consultations,           027 2500176               Provision of                       Arusha
Mollel                                Research and                                    P.O BOX 12272 Arusha       Saving and credit                 Municipality
                                      Mobilization                                                                   scheme                      Arumeru District
                                      Officer                                                                    Reproductive Health            Singida Urban and
                                                                                                                 Sustainable agriculture           Rural
                                                                                                                     and food security           Shinyanga
                                                                                                                 Community asset                Tabora
                                                                                                                     development                    Municipality
                                                                                                                 Food production                Nzega
                                                                                                                                                 Mara Region
Anna Mghwira    HRRCT/Independe       Coordinator           0744 430587               Human rights                    Nationwide
                nt Consultant in                                                      P.O BOX 254 USA River -
                Human Right Law                                                       Arusha
Samson          Legal and Human       Legal Officer          0744 440948               Raise public awareness on          Dar es Salaam

Rumende          Rights Centre                                                                              their Human Rights for          Morogoro
                                                                                                            advocating of Rule of Law       Mara
                                                                                                            and Democracy                   Arusha
                                                                                                                                            Manyara
Maanda           Pastoral Women     Coordinator                                      027 2502300               Working to advocate        Ngorongoro District
Ngoitiko         Council                                                             P.O. Box 72 Loliondo       Women Rights
                                                                                                             Working for women
                                                                                                                justice and Economic
Martine Makko    Pastoral Women     Board Member                                     2535055                Work to Transform and          Ngorongoro District
                 Council                                                             P.O BOX 72 Loliondo    improve the life standard of
                                                                                                            Maasai women and children
Mnyara Karia     Pastoral Women     Chair Person                                     027 2535055            Work to Transform and          Ngorongoro District
                 Council                                                             P.O. Box 72 Loliondo   improve the life standard of
                                                                                                            Maasai women and children
Jane Kuyatto     Pastoral Women     Administrator                                    027 2535055            Work to Transform and          Ngorongoro District
                 Council                                                             P.O. Box 72 Loliondo   improve the life standard of
                                                                                                            Maasai women and children
Njwaba           Arusha Municipal   Municipal Natural                                0744 094015
C.L.Mwaijibe     Council            Resource and                                     P.O BOX 3013 Arusha
Dunstan A.       Local Government   Community                                        0744 882317            To mobilize the                Arumeru District
Millao                              Development                                      P.O BOX 3083 Arusha    communities
Mary Kiondo      Arumeru Disrict    Natural Resource                                 0744 468662            To reserve and conserve the    Arumeru District
                 Council            Officer                                          P.O BOX 3083 Arusha    natural resources
Vicky Moshi      Arusha             Community                                        P.O BOX 3013 Arusha    To Mobilize people to          Arusha Municipality
                 Municipality       Development                                                             participate in development
R.M. Mbatian     Arusha Municipal   Planning Officer                                 P.O BOX 3013 Arusha    Servicing the communities      Arusha Municipality
                 Council                                                                                    by providing means and
                                                                                                            ways of fostering
                                                                                                            development at all levels of
                                                                                                            the community
Ibrahim          VPO                Consultation           P.O BOX 5380 DSM       All PRS issues including       Nationwide
Uguilumu                            Analyst                                                                 cross cutting
Kalista Higini   ENVIROCARE         Environmental        0744 281132             Human Rights and             Kilimanjaro Region
Shao                                Officer                                          P.O BOX 7246 Moshi          Legal Literacy
                                                                                                             HIV/AIDS and Youth

                                                                                                                        Environmental
                                                                                                                         Protection and
                                                                                                                     Economic
                                                                                                                         Empowerment ie.
                                                                                                                         Poverty Reduction
Lukas Kariongi   Ilaramatak –                                 250 9033                 Environmental care,              Arusha
Ole Sanago       Lorkonerei                                                                 P.O BOX 12785 Arusha         Human Rights, and             Kilimanjaro
                                                                                                                         Education on Gender           Manyara
                                                                                                                     Community Multi
Mustapha         Tanzania              Ex. Secretary            250 4188                To bring together               Nationwide
Akunaay          Association of Tour                                                        P.O BOX 6162 Arusha     stakeholders and players of
                 Operators                                                                                          the tourism sector
Cosmas J.        Wildlife              Ex. Officer         0744 626570              To promote                    Arusha, Manyara, and
Nguya            Conservation                                                               P.O BOX 2160 Arusha          stakeholders               Kilimanjaro Regions
                 Society of Tanzania                                                                                     communications,
                                                                                                                         collaboration and
                                                                                                                         information sharing
                                                                                                                         with regards to wildlife
                                                                                                                         conservation and
                                                                                                                         management in
Amani Mustafa    Tanzania              Programme                0744 408819              Labour/ Environmental         Mererani Mining Area –
Mhinda           Mineworkers           Manager                                              P.O BOX 12536 Arusha         Rights                     Simanjiro District -
                 Development                                                                                         HIV/AIDS in Mining            Manyara Region
                 Organization                                                                                            areas
                                                                                                                     Child Labour
Peter Bayo       Arusha NGO            Executive Secretary              0744 440096              Land, Environment and         Arusha and Manyara
                 Network                                                                    P.O BOX 152778 Arusha        Eco –Development           Regions
                 (ANGONET)                                                                                           Public Health and
                                                                                                                     Peace and Security,
                                                                                                                         crisis and conflicts
                                                                                                                     Gender, Children and
                                                                                                                         the Special need group

                                                                                                                     Education issues and
                                                                                                                      Human rights,
                                                                                                                      Democracy and Good
Josiah L.         Green Arusha         Director     0744 / 0748 383262     Awareness creation on          Arusha Region
Severre           Society                                                                 P.O BOX 11794 Arusha   environmental destruction
                                                                                                                 and conservation strategies
                                                                                                                 through different groups
Elias Y. Mollel   Osotwa Mt. Meru      Treasurer                                          0744 205941             Environmental                Arumeru District
                  CBCO                                                                    P.O BOX 1257 Arusha         conservation in
                                                                                                                      fighting poverty
                                                                                                                  Bee Keeping
                                                                                                                  Appropriate village
Jeremiah M        COMECA               Secretary            0748 275375            Sensitizing the community         Arumeru District
Sumari                                                                                    P.O BOX 1359 Arusha    in environmental                  Arusha
                                                                                                                 conservation and poverty           Municipality
                                                                                                                 reduction                       Karatu District
Petro Ahham       Multi-               Director               0744 467472             Environmental                 Arumeru District
                  Environmental                                                           P.O BOX 1304 Arusha         conservation               Karatu District
                  Society ( MESO)                                                                                     programme                  Other districts
                                                                                                                  Eco-Tourism and                  along the great Rift
                                                                                                                      rural/Urban based ICT         Valley area and Dar
                                                                                                                      Programm                      es Salaam
Elibariki         Urban                Coordinator         0744 251594             Collection of solid          Arusha Municipality
Malley            Environmental                                                           P.O BOX 13129Arusha         waste and HIV/AIDS        and
                  Dev. Association –                                                                                                            Manyara
Emanuel           Monduli NGO          Chairperson            P.O BOX 183 Monduli                                   Monduli District
Youze             Network
Patrick M.        KANGONET             Secretary General            0744 550552            Capacity building and          Karatu District
Mambea                                                                                    P.O BOX 260 Karatu     Empowering Districts
                                                                                                                 NGOs in development
Amani S. K.       KAMAMMA              Coordinator       P.O BOX 2371 Arusha     Primary and Adult            Arumeru District
Lukumay           INTERGRATED                                                                                         education improvement
                  DEV. TRUST                                                                                      Water supply and
                  FUND (KIDTF)                                                                                        Sanitation to the rural

                                                                                                                 Improving Food
                                                                                                                  Security to the rural
                                                                                                                 Gender Empowerment
                                                                                                                  esp. Women
                                                                                                                 Environmental
                                                                                                                 HIV/AIDS awareness.
Chauvin        PINGOS              Junior Researcher   mailychaurin@voilaofr          0745 851520
Mailys         University
               Bardeaux 3 France
               IFRA Nairobi
Abdalla Said   VPO- PED            Poverty           0744 091742                Develop, disseminate     Tanzania
Shah                               Environment                                                                    and Implement poverty
                                   Officer                                                                        reduction policies and
                                                                                                                 Support Sustainable
                                                                                                                  development of
William        PINGOS Forum        Programme Officer             250 8965                   Land Right                  Arusha
Olenasha                                                                              P.O BOX 14437 ARS          Sustainable                 Kilimanjaro
                                                                                                                  Development                 Manyara
                                                                                                                 Human Rights                Tanga
                                                                                                                                              Morogoro
                                                                                                                                              Shinyanga
                                                                                                                                              Iringa
                                                                                                                                              Mbeya

Kasilima       Mtawamu             Chair Person                                       0744 894213                Pastorals Unity in          Morogoro
Kambuni                                                                               P.O BOX 1083 Morogoro       MorogoroRegion               Urban

Timothy        HIMWA               Accountant               0744 683177                                             Morogoro Urban
Kamando                                                                               P.O BOX 2074 Morogoro      Raise awareness into
                                                                                                                  pastorals communities
Sophia         Oseremi                                  0744 990762                                             NgorongoroDistrict
Parkipuny                                                                             P.O BOX 94 Loliondo
SR. Mary       TAPHGO –            Director              255 27 2544571             Helping young               Arusha
Vutucci        Emusoi Centre                                                          P.O BOX 1547 Arusha         Pastoralist women gain       Municipality,
                                                                                                                  access to post primary      Ngorongoro

                                                                                                                            education                  Manyara
                                                                                                                           Advocating for places      Bagamoyo
                                                                                                                            in private secondary       Handeni
                                                                                                                            school                     Morogoro
                                                                                                                                                       Iringa
                                                                                                                                                       Mbeya Region

Kennedy         NAADUTARO            Programme          255 27 2552171                                              Manyara Region
George Ole      (Pastoralists        Treasurer                                             P.O BOX 46 Kibaya – Kiteto      Pastoralist Education
Mbuki           Survival Options –                                                         -Manyara                         Programme
                KITETO)                                                                                                    Community Resources
                                                                                                                           Women in
                                                                                                                           Community Health
                                                                                                                            education programme
Joseph Moloi    LADO                 Chair man                                             2535006                                                     Ngorongoro
                                                                                           P.O BOX 14 Loliondo             Livestock                   District
                                                                                                                           Education
                                                                                                                           Environment
Tera Kurbai     Uwama                Chair man                                             0744 677209                                                 Mbarali District -
                                                                                           P.O BOX 39 Mbeya                Education                   Mbeya
                                                                                                                           Livestock
Maluki Ngondi   Malambo              Executive                                             0744 677209                                                 Ngorongo District
                Pastoralist Dev.     Officer/Consultant                                    P.O BOX 63 Loliondo             Pastoral Development
                Assoc                                                                                                      Animal health care
                                                                                                                           Rangeland water
                                                                                                                           Education
Moses Sangale   TAPHGO               Coordinator          2505799                                                     Arusha
                                                                                           P.O BOX 12568 Arusha            Advocacy and               Manyara
                                                                                                                            Lobbying                   Kilimanjaro
                                                                                                                           Capacity building          Morogoro
                                                                                                                           Land Right                 Iringa
                                                                                                                           Networking and             Mbeya

                                                                                                                        collaboration             Tanga
                                                                                                                       Coordination/Member       Shinayanga
                                                                                                                       Research
Samwel         Pastoralist and        Executive Secretary                                    P.O BOX 94 Loliondo                                  Ngorongoro
Nangina        Livestock Services                                                                                      Food security and          District
                                                                                                                        Poverty Alleviation
                                                                                                                       Livestock
                                                                                                                       HIV/AIDS Awareness
                                                                                                                       Education Programme
Alais L.       Longido Com, Dev.      Coordinator              0744 845268/2539210                                  Longido, Monduli -
Meingarana     Organization                                                                  P.O BOX 12586 Arusha      Community                  Arusha
Kiboko O.      Pastoralist. Dev and                                                          0748 404561
Munga          Education Trust                                                               P.O BOX 108 SAME
Augustino      KIPOC                  Secretary                                              027 2533250                                          Hanang District
Dambi Maragu   BARABAIG                                                                      P.O BOX 1221 Hanang       Human Right
               PROG                                                                          Manyara                    Activities
                                                                                                                       Land Right issues
                                                                                                                       Advocacy and
                                                                                                                        Capacity Building
                                                                                                                       Education Activities
Silas Suyan    Pastoralist                                                                   P.O BOX 211 Mwanga
Kaika          Development and
               Education Trust
Mike Peneti    Ilkisongo              Programme Officer   P.O BOX 47 Monduli                                   Monduli District
Ole Mokoroa    Pastoralists                                 m                                                          Education support
               Initiatives                                                                                             Environmental

Laurence Ole   Enyuat E Moipo         Coordinator        0744 463845                                          Simanjiro District
Shongon                                                     m                                P.o box 12786 Arusha

Moses Oloseki     NGOPADEO            Secretary                                        P.O BOX 4 Ngorongoro                                    Ngorongoro
Chande            PINGOs Forum        Newsletter           0748 533422                                             Pastoralist
Kawawa                                Reporter                                         P.O BOX 14437 Arusha       Advocating for the           dominated areas
                                                                                                                   rights and development
                                                                                                                   of Indigenous
                                                                                                                   Pastoralists and
Bernadette        Hakikazi Catalyst   Community         2509860
Bachubila                             Governance                                        P.O BOX 781 Arusha
Florian      R.   DTV/CHANNEL         Journalist            0741- 231315
Kaijage           TEN
Khalifa           TVT                 Journalist and        0741- 512359
Mshana                                Camera man                                       P.O BOX 10726 Arusha
Omari Shaaban     Uhuru/Mzalendo      Journalist                 0744 316677
Hussein Iddi      DTV/CHANNEL         Camera man                                       0744 777664
                  TEN                                                                  P.O BOX 11843 Arusha
Frank S. Bayyo    Photographic        Photographer            0744 414304                                             Arusha
                  Group                                                                P.O BOX 10016 Arusha       Organize The                 Municipality
                                                                                                                   Photographer in
Shaaban Omari                         Journalist            0744 529119
Mdoe                                                                                   P.O BOX 11843 Arusha
Moses Kitururu    Daily News          Journalist           0744 417199
Hamza             Radio Uhuru         Journalist              2506447
Kalmera                                                                                P.OBOX 11843 Arusha
Mustafa Rasul     The African         Journalist      0745 380908
                                                                                       P.OBOX 7192 Arusha
Seif    Yustus    Business            Journalist           0744 460520/ 2503171,
Mangwange         Times/Daily Times                                                    P.OBOX 11100 Arusha
Nyamanoko         The Arusha Times    Journalist              0744 845954
Valentina                                                                              P.OBOX 212 Arusha
Daniel Nangasi                        Photographer                                     0744 616757
                                                                                       P.OBOX 12109 Arusha
Evance Roggie     Busisness Times     Journalist          0744 051344                                             National wide
                  LTD                                                                  P.OBOX 6058 Arusha         Collecting and

                                                                                                                    information to the
Prisca Libaga    Idara ya habari      Journalist                                         0741 338125                                          National wide
                 (Maeleo)                                                                P.OBOX 3054 Arusha        Collecting and
                                                                                                                    information to the
Simba            Radio Tanzania       Journalist          radiotanzania@comtz            2507392                                              National wide
Nyamaume                                                                                 P.OBOX 1236 Arusha        Collecting and
                                                                                                                    information to the
Pamela           Orkenenei    Radio   Journalist                                                              Arusha Region
Elisante         Service (ORS)                                                                                     Collecting and
                                                                                                                    information to the
Kessy            The Guardian Ltd     S/Journalist             0744 838839
Modestus                                                                                 P.O.BOX 14541 Arusha
Julieth          Hakikazi Catalyst    PO Research and          0744 647760                                          Arusha
Muchunguzi                            Statistics                                         P.O.Box 781 Arusha        Awareness creation         Municipality
                                                                                                                                              Arumeru District
Allan Nswila     Hakikazi Catalyst    Senoir Programme        2509860                                              Arusha
                                      Officer                                            P.O.Box 781 Arusha        Promoting Social and       Municipality
                                                                                                                    Economic justice          Arumeru District
                                                                                                                                              Manyara
Jennifer         Hakikazi Catalyst    Programme Officer   jsleboda-                      027 250 9860
Sleboda                                                 P.O.Box 781 Arusha
Abukarim         Hakikazi Catalyst    Researcher            0748 590864                                          Arusha
Hamisi                                                                                   P.O.Box 781 Arusha        Awareness Creation        Manyara Region
Seto Ojwando     Hakikazi Catalyst    Volunteer              255 27 2509860                                       Arusha
                                                                                                                   Awareness Creation        Manyara Region
                                                                                         P.O.Box 781 Arusha        Popularizing Policy
Christopher K.   Sand County          Project Officer            0744 376257                                          Monduli
Ole Memantoki    Foundation Tz                                                           P.O.Box 8372 Arusha                                  Simanjiro
                                                                                                                                              Ngorongoro
                                                                                                                                              Kiteto
Ben Gardner      Researcher/ Uc       PhD Student            0748 616944                                          Monduli
                 Berkeley                                                                P.O.Box 2325 Arusha       Research on Land          Simanjiro

                                                                                                                        Rights                     Ngorongoro

Fred Nelson     Sandy County         Coordinator            0744 375601                                               Arusha
                Foundation                                                               P.O.Box 8372 Arusha           Community based            Manyara Region
                                                                                                                        natural resource
Clive Jones     African Wildlife     Manyara Ranch               0744 3652511                                              Monduli District
                Foundation           Manager                                             P.O.Box 2658 Arusha           Natural Resource
                                                                                                                       Community Capacity
                                                                                                                       Sustainable
                                                                                                                        Community Livelihood
Daniel          EKABA                Coordinator            P.O.Box 146 Katesh                                        Hanang District
Murumbi                                                                                                                Environmental
                                                                                                                       Formal and non-formal
                                                                                                                       Advocacy on Human
                                                                                                                        rights issues
                                                                                                                       Livestock and
Ole Neselle,    Research Institute   Site                     0744 997765                                               Mnyara
Moses (Dr)      Simanjiro            Manager/Researche                                   P.O.Box 11613 Arusha          Better Policy and          Simanjiro
                                     r/Community                                                                        Management Option          Monduli
Godfrey Lehya   Oxfam GB             Programme Officer   0744 772759/ 027 2535048                                  Ngorongoro
                                                                                         P.O.Box 3 Loliondo            Land right for              District
                                                                                                                       Enhance basic service
                                                                                                                       Collaboration and
                                                                                                                        networking with NGOs
                                                                                                                        and CBOs
                                                                                                                       Livelihood
                                                                                                                       HIV/AIDS

Boniface        Community            Driver                    2502300                                                   Arusha Region
Kanshmeel       Resource Trust                                                           P.O.Box 115111 Arusha         Empowering local           Manyara

                                                                                                                     Communities to                Kilimanjaro
                                                                                                                     manage and benefit            Meatu
                                                                                                                     from their Natural
Dismas P.       Ujamaa-              Programme Officer                027 2502300                                               Arusha Region
Meitaya         Community                                                                P.O.Box 115111 Arusha      Promoting Natural             Manyara
                Resource Trust                                                                                       Resource Management           Kilimanjaro
                                                                                                                                                   Meatu
                                                                                                                                                   Korogwe
Hargy Kimei     Cullman and Hurt     AG Director                                         027 2505024/25                                            Monduli District
                Wildlife Project                                                         P.O.Box 8325 Arusha        Wildlife Conservation         Shinyanga
                                                                                                                                                   Rukwa
                                                                                                                                                   Tabora
                                                                                                                                                   Morogoro
Moses Mwangi    Oxfam Ireland        Programme Officer        027 27772726                                              Pastoralist District
                                                                                         P.O.Box 10962 DSM          Livelihood themes              of Tanzania
                                                                                                                    Gender and HIV/AIDS
Lara Foley      Tarangire Elephant   Researcher              0748 356241                                               Tarangire NP
                Project                                                                  P.O.Box 2703 Arusha                                       Simanjiro
                                                                                                                                                   Monduli
                                                                                                                                                   Babati District
Dominyk Lever   Friedkin             Community                0744 333370                                               All districts where
                Conservation Fund    Development                                         P.O.Box 2782 Arusha        Community                      TGTS and WWS
                                     Coordinator                                                                     Development                    carry out safaris
                                                                                                                    Anti-poaching                  from Monduli to
                                                                                                                    Field Research                 Kibondo and
Anne Lema       Hakikazi Catalyst    Programme                                           P.O.Box 781 Arusha                                     
                                     Services Manager

Elizabeth       Wildlife Working     Coordinator            0744-678875             Increasing communication          northern Tanzania
Singleton       Group/ Sand                                                                                      and collaboration on natural
                County Foundation                                                                                resource management
Emmanuel        Hakikazi Catalyst    Director  
Justo Maleo     Hakikazi Catalyst

Annex 2: Workshop Agenda

       Time                               Item                          Facilitator/ Resource Person
Day 1: February 17, 2004
   8:30 - 9:00                       Registration
   9:00 – 9:30              Workshop Overview & Objectives                  Emmanuel Kallonga,
                                                                              Head Facilitator
   9:30 – 10:15                   Theater Demonstration                  Mkombozi Street Children
  10:15 – 10:45                   Opening of Workshop                  Arusha Regional Administrative
  10:45 – 11:15                         Tea Break
  11:15 – 12:00       Legislative Roadmap: An Overview of Tanzania             Anna Mghwira,
                                  Government Institutions                      Legal Advocate
  12:00 – 13:00            Questions, Clarification & Discussion                 E Kallonga
  13:00 – 14:00                           Lunch
  14:00 – 14:45               The Poverty Reduction Strategy           Vice Presidents Office, Abdallah
                                    Process & Review                                Shah
  14:45 – 15:30            Questions & Clarification on the PRS                  E Kallonga
  15:30 – 16:00                         Tea Break
  16:00 – 16:45          PRS: Poverty and Environment Linkages                 David Howlett
  16:45 – 17:45                Group Work and Presentations:
                                      Key PRS Issues

Day 2: February 18, 2004
    9:00- 9:30             Overview of Day 1 & Goals for Day 2                   E Kallonga
   9:30 – 10:15        Budget Processes: Public Expenditure Review &         Ministry of Finance,
                          Medium Term Expenditure Framework                     Mr. Kiondo
  10:15 – 10:45                  Questions & Clarification                       E Kallonga
  10:45 – 11:15                          Tea Break
  11:15 – 11:45                   PRS Consultation Guide                   VPO, IbrahimUgullumu
  11:45 – 12:15           Experience in Grass Roots Consultation                E Kallonga
  12:15 – 12:45             Overview of Group Action Planning                   E Kallonga
  12:45 – 13:45                            Lunch
  13:45 – 15:15           Group Action Planning for Civil Society
                          Engagement in All Processes Discussed
  15:15 – 15:45                          Tea Break
  15:45 – 16:30                    Group Presentations &                         E Kallonga
                                  Summary of Key Issues
  16:30 – 17:00                    Closing of Workshop                              VPO
            Annex 3: CSO Action Plans for PRS Review, February 19-March 21

            Group 1: PASTORALISTS

                   What                              Who                          Where                    When                     How
                                                                                                                          Photocopy, Postal
    Distribution of Documents gathered                                                                From 19th Feb -     Services, Public Long
    from the workshop                      PINGOS                     8 Member Regions                19th Mar            Distance buses
    Meeting with representatives of                                                                   2nd week of         Will depend upon
1   PINGOS members                                                    Arusha                          March               fundings from the VPO
                                                                                                      Last week of
    Member meetings and Legwanan           MTAWAMO                    Mvomero, Kilosa and             February to First
2   meetings                                                          Morogoro Districts              week                Group resources
    Distribution of Documents gathered                                Fr villages in two districts    Beginning 21st      Group resources and
    from the workshop                                                 Mwanga and Same                 February and        support from PINGO
                                                                      (Bangaro, Ndea, Ruvu            end in two
                                                                      Mferejini, Ruvu Jiungeni)       weeks.
3                                          PADET
    Meeting with PADET Executive
    committee and meetings with village
    governments and other CBOs, and
    Mini Survey on PRS knowledge and                                                                                      Group resources
    understanding, and peoples needs                                  Partimbo and Ndedo wards in     Before 15           including staff and
4   and opinion on PRS.                    NAADUTARO                  Kiteto Districts                March               material
    Public Meetings
                                                                      4 villages (Bunge, Remit,
5                                          ENYUATE - MOIPO            Loiborsoit, Ngage) in                               Material and other
                                                                      Simanjiro District in Manyara   First Week of       resources of the
    Organisational meetings                                           Region.                         March               organisation
                                                                      Iringa - Sokoine, Kwambe                            Use HIMWA co-
    Women and Youth Meetings in Iringa                                and Kambala villages            Last week of        ordinator in Iringa and
6                                          HIMWA
                                                                                                      February to Mid     other resources of the
    Village government in Morogoro                                    Morogoro                        March               group.

                                                                 6 villages in 3 wards
                                                                 (Endulen, Kakesyo,
 7                                                               Ngorongoro) in Ngorongoro
     Public Meetings                                             district                        21st Feb - 28th    Group resources, Group
     Member meetings                       NGOPADEO                                              Feb                Leadership
     Executive committee meeting                                 Chimala wards - Matebete        1st Mar - 14th
 8   General Meeting of UWAMA              UWAMA                 Villages                        Mar                Volunteer
     Elders Meeting
     Village government meeting
                                           KIPOC Barbaig
     Local ELCT church                                           Bilalu, Mingenyu, Mureru and    15th Feb - 22nd    Volunteer and
 9   1 Primary School                                            Gehandu villages                Mar                organisatin's resources
     Combine the message during the                              4 wards 24 villages in          1st Mar - 20th     Organisation's
     Planned PRA meeting                                         Monduli Districts               Mar                Resources
     Community Leaders Meeting             IPASTORIN - ORG
     Community Development Groups
10   Meeting
     Distribution of Documents gathered                                                          1st week of
     from the workshop                                           Terat, Emboreti and Oljoro no   March up to 19th   Call radio listeners to
     Village government meetings                                 5                               march              phone the radio station
                                           ILARAMATA ORS
                                                                 to be aired to 4 regions                           and give their views
     Radio programme - make 6 debate                             where the radio station is                         during the programme.
11   programmes                                                  heard                                              Volunteer.
     Executive committee meeting                                 Malambo, Piyaya, Sale,
                                                                 Ngaresero and Pinyinyi          1st Mar to 20th
12   Community meetings                    MAPADA                villages                        Mar                Volunteer
     Distribution of Documents gathered    Longido Community     Four Villages of                Last week of       Volunteering of group
     from the workshop                     Development           Longido,Ngoswak,                February to 20th   leaders
                                           Organisation (LCDO)   Mundarara, Marrouwa             March
     Follow up Public comments and
     Opionions genereated by communities
13   after reading the documents
                                                                 Loliondo Ward - 4 villages
                                                                 (Sakala, E'sambu, Olorien,      1st to 20th        Organisation's
14   Village Government meeting            PALISEP               Loliondo)                       march              Resources


WHO           ACTIVITY       WHERE                                       WHEN            HOW

PWC           1-4            Ngorongoro district:                        By 23rd March   Each Organization will use their own
                             Soitsambu ward – 3 villages                                 methods, eg. Public meetings, Focused
                             Pinyi ward – 1 village                                      groups, Questionnaires, etc
MKOMBOZI      1-4            Arusha and Moshi ( Municipality): Street    By 23rd March
                             children centre, Moshi                                      Using Hakikazi‘s Popular PRSP Booklets
                             Street children in Arusha                                   and other documents from this workshop.
MAARIFA       1-4            Arusha Municipality:                        By 23rd March
                             Unga ltd, Olasiti and Ilboru (?)                            Members will use photocopied material in
MWEDO                        Monduli – 3 villages                                        that case they will need support to
CADET         1-4            Monduli – 1 village ( Mti mmoja0            By 23rd March

WOEDEC                       Arumeru:                                    By 23rd March
                             Kiranyi villages
                             Arusha Municipal:
                             Ngarenaro ward
AMANI ECCD    1-4            Throughout ECCD Stakeholders                By 23rd March
                             Throughout Tanzania
LHRC          1 (?)          Arusha Municipal                            By 23rd March

HUREPI        1-4            Arusha Municipal                            By 23rd March
                             3 Primary Schools
                             3 Secendary schools
AWLAHVIRC     1-4             Arusha Municipal:                          By 23rd March

 WEGCC                       1-4            Arumeru District                              By 23rd March
                                            Arusha Municipal
 LADO                        1-4            Ngorongoro                                    By 23rd March
                                            Arash – 2 villages
                                            Loliondo – 2 villages
 HAKIKAZI CATALYST           1–4            Arumeru                                       By 23rd March
                                                - King‘ori, Karangai, Olutushula,

                                            Arusha municipal
                                                - Terrat
                                                - Unga Ltd Ward

 PILGRIM‘S VISION            1–4            Ngulelo, Arumeru District                     By 23rd March



ACTIVITIY                          WHO                              WHERE                     WHEN                      HOW

1.   Conduct consultation          ANGONET                          Elerai and Terrat         1st week of March, 2004   Requirements
     meetings in order to          HKC (leading org)                Wards in Arusha                                         -   Transport
     disseminate information on    Others:                          Municipal                                               -   Meeting materials and
     PRS Review Process.           GAS, COMECA, AMC, VEDA,                                                                  -   Other related.
                                   WCST, ENVIROCARE

2.   Conduct consultation          OSOTWA, MOUNT MERU,              Olkokoa village           1st week of March, 2004       -   By organizing village meeting
     meetings in order to          ARUMERU DIST. COUNCIL,                                                                   -   Transport
     disseminate information on                                                                                             -   Reading materials
     PRS Review Process.           KIDTF, ARS COUNCIL, TMWD
                                                                    - Karangai village        1st week of March, 2004
                                                                    - Msitu wa mbogo
3.   Popularized Dissemination     KIDTF, ARUMERU COUNCIL,          Msitu wa mbogo,           2nd week of March, 2004   Village meeting discussion
     Policy and PRS Review         TMWD, OSOTWA,                    Karangai and
     guideline.                    MT, MERU ORG.                    Mererani

4.   Discuss report and share with     KIDTF, ARUMERU COUNCIL,               Msitu wa mbogo,           3rd week of March, 2004   Village meeting discussion
     District Council.                 TMWD, OSOTWA,                         Karangai and
                                       MT, MERU ORG                          Mererani

5.   Report submission to              KIDTF, ARUMERU COUNCIL,               Msitu wa mbogo,           4th week of March, 2004   Village meeting discussion
     consultative meeting PRS.         TMWD, OSOTWA,                         Karangai and
                                       MT, MERU ORG                          Mererani

6.   Identification of stake holders   KANGONET AND MESO                     In Karatu District        25.02.2004                Will encourage stakeholders to mobilize
     to be consulted and                                                                                                         resources to meet the cost of
     dissemination of PRS Review                                                                                                 consultation.
     mission to them and District
     authority, Arrange a meeting.                                                                                               Will also try to look for alternative
                                                                                                                                 finding from external sources.

7.   To conduct stakeholders           Invited stakeholders from various     KARATU TOWN               08.03.2004
     consultation workshop as per      parts, sectors and social groups in                                                       Will encourage stakeholders to mobilize
     PRS consultation Guideline.       the district.                                                                             resources to meet the cost of
                                       KANGONET & MESO                                                                           consultation.

                                                                                                                                 Will also try to look for alternative
                                                                                                                                 finding from external sources.

8.   Report writing and                KANGONET & MESO                       KARATU TOWN               15.03.2004                Will encourage stakeholders to mobilize
     compilation                                                                                                                 resources to meet the cost of

                                                                                                                                 Will also try to look for alternative
                                                                                                                                 finding from external sources.

9.   Report dissemination to the       KANGONET & MESO                       KARATU, ARUSHA            20-25/03/04               VPO, HAKIKAZI CATALYST, AND
     grassroots stakeholders and       Grassroot stakeholders                & D‘SALAAM                                          OTHER ORG.
     upstream to regional and          HAKIKAZI CATALYST, NPF
     national levels stakeholders.     AND VPO
                                       RAS OFFICE

  10. Dissemination of information   MON-NET/WEDAC                         -    Monduli         1st week of march, 2004-   Resources >MO
      about PRS undertaken.                                                     District                                   Consultative meeting
                                                                                                2nd week 0f march, 2004        - Stationary
                                                                           -    Engutoto                                       - Flears
  11. Convene meeting Why PRS        MON-NET/WEDAC                         -    Engutoto        3rd week of March, 2004    Participatory consultation
      matter? Specific issue for       - Youth                                  Ward                                            - Stationary
      consultation identified.         - Women                             -    Sinon                                           - Flears
                                       - PWDs                                   Ngarash                                         - Handouts
                                       - F/organization
                                       - P/S

                        Group 4: NATURAL RESOURCES

    Activity ( What)              WHO                        WHERE                            WHEN                                        HOW

Activity 1 - 4             CRT                  Loliondo                                                             
                                                Yaeda                                Before March 23rd               
Activity 1 - 4             TLCT/ILRI            Monduli District - Kwa Kuchinja      Before March 23rd                   Money
                                                 (Eslaki/Oltukai)                                                         Nccd Facilitation
                                                                                                                          HKC support
Activity 1 - 4             ILRI                 Simanjiro (Embaret Division)         Before March 23rd                   Ilaramatak Radio
                                                                                                                          Photocopying documents
Activity 1 - 4             SCF                  Monduli (Longido)                    Before March 23rd
Activity 1 - 4             WWG                  TANAPA/TAWIRI                        Before March 23rd                   Creating knowledge and understanding on
                                                                                                                           PRS Review
Activity 1 - 4             OXFAM GB             NCAA and Ngorongoro District         Before March 23rd                   Engage NCAA and Ngorongoro DC
Activity 1 - 4             EKABA                Hanang                               Before March 23rd                   Village and District levels
Activity 1 - 4             WWG/NPF              Nationwide                           Before March 23rd                   White Paper
                           E/NRM                                                                                          Breakfast Debate
                           Sub group
                           CHCWP                Monduli                              Before March 23rd
                                                Meatu
                                                Rukwa (?)

Create coordination of awareness raising workshop
Methodology – Grassroots consultation
              Present PRS Background
                       Use set of questions to stimulate discussion
                       Record key issues or feedback
                       Target social groups
              Give report forms to District
              Bring summary reports March 23.


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