Prototyping Template

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					    Rapid Prototyping:
An Alternative Instructional Design Strategy
      S. D. Tripp and B. Bichelmeyer (1990)
A Practical Discussion
 What is it?
 Why use it?
 Why does it work?
 What does it look like?
 What are the pitfalls?
 Why doesn’t everyone use it?
     Rapid Prototyping

     What Is It?
    Rapid prototyping. In a design process, early
      development of a small-scale prototype used to test
      out certain key features of the design.
   Roots from                   Tripp’s Model of Rapid
    engineering design:           Prototyping:
       scientific approach          Design methodology
       phased -state model          Applicable to
                                      instructional design for
   Prototyping
       testing ideas                 instruction
       mock-up                      Extend into a new domain
    Classical approach to software
    development -- the waterfall cycle

   concept definition
   requirements definition
   preliminary design
   detailed design
   code implementation
   test and acceptance
   [griping]
Rapid prototyping -- the spiral cycle:

   concept definition
   implementation of a skeletal system
   user evaluation and concept refinement
   implementation of refined requirements
   user evaluation and concept refinement
   implementation of refined requirements
   etc., etc., in a continuous cycle.
What is it?
Determine     Study Present       Define
Feasibility      System          Prototype
  Prototyping Approach to                 Prototype
      Software Design                        Exercise

                                                Convert          Install

    Assess Needs and
    Analyze Content           Set Objectives
                       Construct Prototype
                         Utilize Prototype
The Rapid Prototyping                                Install and
                                                   Maintain System
        ISD Model
Why use it?
   Traditional Design                  Rapid Prototyping:
       extensive documentation             users can try out the
        but doesn’t reduce                   system, discover
        communication problems.              problems, provide input.
       thorough, but doesn’t               pleases users.
        please users.                       reduces development
       ID phases but doesn’t                time.
        decrease project time.              reduces development
       tracks project cost but              costs.
        doesn’t reduce them.                produces the right
       describes system but                 system for the
        doesn’t guarantee it’s the           designated task.
        right system.
  Rapid Prototyping May Be
1. to test out a user interface;
2. to test the database structure and flow of information in a
    training system;
3. to test the effectiveness and appeal of a particular
    instructional strategy;
4. to develop a model case or practice exercise that can serve as
    a template for others;
5. to give clients and sponsors a more concrete model of the
    intended instructional product;
6. to get user feedback and reactions to two competing
Rapid Prototyping

Why Does It Work?
   Requires the                Appropriate
    Appropriate                  Medium Examples:
    Medium (Tools):                 HyperCard
       computer software           PowerPoint
          with modularity          HTML
          with plasticity          other object-oriented
                                     computer programs
    An example of rapid prototyping
   First pass:
         – A lot of text, kids don't want to read this much text off of a
           computer screen

   Second attempt:
         – More graphics in this one.

   Third generation:
         – This version goes to an opening imagemap, rather than text.
First version
Second version
Third version
     Different views about RP
   Rapid prototyping should include all the
    required database, the major program modules,
    screen displays, and inputs and outputs for the
    interacting systems. (Tripp, Bichelmeyer)
   Tessmer (1994) also considers rapid prototyping
    to be a working part of the final product,
    Jones, Li, and Merrill (1992) say that rapid
    prototyping is essentially a feasible version of the
    final product.
     Different views about RP
   On the other hand, Dorsey, Goodrum, and Schwen
    (1995) define rapid prototyping as a graphic
    cartoon of the possible solutions that will be
    incorporated into the basic functional components,
   Boling and Frick (1998) use the term “rapid holistic
    prototype” because the prototyping will be rapid
    but not include everything that the final version
    will contain. Hence, Dorsey, Goodrum, and
    Schwen (1995), as well as Boling and Frick (1988),
    emphasize the earlier versions of prototyping
    rather than other researchers.
Rapid Prototyping

What Are the Pitfalls?
   Can lead to a design-by-repair philosophy.
   Does not eliminate front-end analysis.
   Cannot substitute for a paper analysis.
   Some ISD principles may not be addressed.
   May lead to premature commitment.
   Creeping featurism may lead to designs that
    are out of control!
Rapid Prototyping
Why Doesn’t Everyone Use It?

   “Rapid prototyping methodology
    represents a paradigmatic shift in
    understanding the nature and purpose
    of the field of instructional design.”
           Similarities and Differences of
           Formative Evaluation and RP
                      Formative evaluation                      Rapid prototyping
            S                                  Quality Control
Purpose D  Error finding                              Revision
                 Revision                             Validation
                 Improvement of quality               Formative + Summative evaluation
Effective- S        Both intend to increase effectiveness and efficiency of design process
ness and
            D  Low sensitivity to time                High sensitivity to speedy
                 Medium sensitivity to cost           High sensitivity to low investment
                                                        during initial designs
User        S        Both require adequate number of users with a range of experiences
            D  Users as testees                       Designer and users as partners
                 Short period of involvement          Long-term, continuous involvement
                 Collaboration of experts,            Collaboration of users and designers
                  designers, and users
Process S                          Gradual revision and refinement process
            D  Linear, Systematic                     Non-linear iterations
                 From simple to complex testing       Systemic
                  methods                              Discovery design
                 Normative design
S= Similarities, D= Differences
     Contrast Between RP and Traditional
           ID on Selected Factors
                    Factor                        Conventional ID   Rapid Prototyping

Time and effort devoted to goal specification          High             Medium

Amount of initial task and hierarchical                High               Low
Amount of initial detailed design specification        High               Low

Cost of first prototype                                High               Low

Completeness of first prototype                        High               Low

Number of iterative tryouts                            Low                High

Amount of revision expected to be needed               Low                High
after first tryout

Amount of user input to design                         Low                High

Difference of final product from initial               Low            Medium/High
Project – Step one
   Find the topic
   Analysis (Submit a report)
       needs, analysis
       learner analysis
       content/task analysis
       statement of the general goal
       Pedagogical approach and justification for the
   You have 2 weeks to finish the analysis

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