Psychology of Emotions

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					Science and Society

      Class 4
       Human Limitations and the Need for
            Explanatory Systems

                                  -4 -3 -2 -1 NOW +1 +2 +3 +4
                                 Duration of consciousness: 5 secs +/- 2

Fovea -- tiny area responsible
for focused vision

Biases and Errors: Egocentric biases, social biases, reasoning
fallacies and limits.
Fears and Drives: Mortality fears, need to belong, need to
control, sexual, territorial, and acquisitive drives.
Need for Meaning: Dissonance reduction, Zeigarnik effect.
Limits and Needs Lead to Explanatory Systems
Science: A Revolutionary Explanatory System

 Acknowledges biases

 Methods and approach designed to overcome biases

 Democratic rather than authoritarian

 Evolutionary rather than canonical
             Incident of a Fingerpost –
              The ―Charming‖ Chemist
Murder investigation: is sludge at base of wine bottle poison?
        a. Compares sludge to known poison (arsenic)
        b. Conducts multiple tests (heat, weight, reaction to other
           substances, affects on organisms (cats)).
        c. Identical results -- sludge and arsenic behave the same
        d.     a.___ Concludes that substance is arsenic
               b.___ Does not conclude that substance is arsenic

Chemist described as highly odious person: Filthy, smelly, rotted
teeth, rude, self-important, arrogant, lewd. Why?

 Hint: Does chemist’s character affect his findings?
   “A Beautiful Theory Destroyed by an Ugly Fact”
      Basic Assumptions Overturned by Science
      ―Beautiful‖ Theory                   ―Ugly‖ Fact

Earth center of universe         Copernicus, Galileo: Earth a
                                 satellite in far corner of cosmos
Humans are a select creation     Darwin: humans are an
                                 advanced primate
Time and space are fixed,        Einstein: Time and space are
constant                         relative
Sexualized thinking is deviant   Freud: Sexualized thinking is
 Disease, illness a spiritual    Pasteur: Disease, illness a
 problem                         microbial problem
     Acts of Selfless (?) Heroism

The ―fifth man‖ in Air Florida crash

Polish Concentration Camp Guard

Question: What motivates this behavior?
         Why Do People Help Others?
Altruistic explanation – Empathy + Opportunity  helping
                        People help because they care.

Egoistic explanations

          Negative state relief: Stop personal discomfort

          Avoid social/self punishments: Shame, guilt

          Seek social/self rewards: Honor, pride
               Batson Test of Empathy Theory

Empathy: People will help others in need IF they feel empathy
Avoid social punishments: People help only to avoid social censure.

 Prediction                People will help if they feel
                           empathy, EVEN IF they can
                           escape from helping
 Empathy vs. Social Censure Factorial Design

               Difficult Escape   Easy Escape

Low Empathy        Helps             Doesn’t

High Empathy       Helps             ???
Performance on Test to Switch Places with Elayne

             “Social Censure” Predictions
    Justification     Low Empathy      High Empathy
   for not helping     Condition         Condition
   Weak Justif.       High Score            High Score
   Strong Justif.      Low Score        Low Score

           “Empathy and Altruism” Predictions
     Justification    Low Empathy       High Empathy
    for not helping    Condition          Condition
    Weak Justif.       High Score            High Score
    Strong Justif.      Low Score           High Score
Effort Made to Help "Elayne" as a Function of Felt
 Empathy and Opportunity for Face-Saving Out
                                Batson et al., 1988

NOTE: Outcome is number of correct responses on qualifying test.

  Correct Answers

                                                      Easy Test
                                                      (difficult escape)
                     6                                Hard Test
                     4                                (easy escape)

                         Low Empathy   High Empathy
             The Attributes of Science
Concerned with discovery, and new ways of seeing
Explores questions empirically—strives for reliability
       Assumes objective reality     Accurate measures
       Controlled designs            Replicable
Investigates relations between variables
       Is A related to B?      Does A cause B?
       Is relation between A and B determined by C?
 Attributes of Science, continued


         Open to public scrutiny
         Subject to peer review


         (theory  hyps  observations  theory)


Moves by small steps and by huge leaps (Kuhn –
generative crises)
         Steps in Scientific Method

   Identify Problem

   Construct Problem Statement

   Form Hypothesis

   Deductive and Inductive Reasoning
               Steps in the Scientific Method
1. Identifying problems

―There is a troubled, perplexed, trying situation, where the difficulty is, as it
were, spread throughout the entire situation, infecting it as a whole‖.

EXAMPLE: Some people believe that the way to cope with bad events is to
act in a positive manner, and your feelings will follow. Others say you should
express your negative feelings in order to get over them.

Problem: how can both explanations be true?

Problem identification is therefore an emotional event.
      Schema Violation, Emotions, and Discovery

A fizzy soft drink, rival of Pepsi       Coke

A short funny story with a punch line.   Joke

Blue/gray vapors emitted by fire         Smoke

Mighty tree that shed acorns             Oak

The white part of an egg                 Albumin
2. Articulate problem

―Without some statement of the problem, the scientist can rarely go further
    and expect the work to be fruitful‖

EXAMPLE: ―Does expression of emotions promote coping?‖

3. Hypothesis formation

Hypothesis: A formal statement of conjecture, that can be stated in
   ―ifthen‖ terms, or A  B terms.
A (people who are emotionally stressed)  B (will cope better if
    they express their disturbing thoughts and feelings).
4. Reasoning and Deduction: If general hypothesis is true,
then specific instances must also be true. Deducing specific from
general allows for experiment design.

GENERAL HYPOTHESIS: Expression of distress promotes
SPECIFIC INSTANCE: College freshmen will get sick less often
if they express their thoughts and feelings about starting college.

5. Observation and Induction: If something is true in a specific
instance, it may also be true in general.

EXAMPLE: When I talk about my problems, I feel better. Maybe
this is true for everybody.
     Science and Facilitated Communication

                                         Facilitated Communication
              Science                              Studies
Hypotheses arise form emotional      Prosecutor worried about
problem, feeling of un-ease          veracity of FC. OD Heck want to
                                     show that FC works

Problem statement                    ―… were these communications
                                     coming from the autistic children?‖

Hypothesis statement, presented in   If FC real, then it should work when
falsifiable form                     facilitator blind to what child sees.

                                     Facilitator and child see same vs
Experiment framed.                   diff. pix; how is accuracy affected?
            Science and Facilitated Communication

              Science                   Facilitated Communication

Conduct objective, varied, and       Double blind study;
replicable measures                  Pix naming, mesg. passing, eyes on
New hypothesis—FC a sham—makes       Kids type w/o looking at keypad
other discrepancies evident          Why so many autistic so verbally
New hypothesis has powerful social   Devastates believers; liberates kids;
consequences                         redeems ―abusers‖

Serendipity (unexpected discovery)   Uncons. drives overt behavior; D.
               Framing of Facilitated Communication
                                       Kid Sees
Facilitator Sees             Cup                    Dog

       Cup                     I                      II

       Dog                    III                    IV

1. Which are the criterion cells?
2. If FC is valid, what should be facilitator's response in criterion