Science and Society Class 4 Human Limitations and the Need for Explanatory Systems -4 -3 -2 -1 NOW +1 +2 +3 +4 Duration of consciousness: 5 secs +/- 2 Fovea -- tiny area responsible for focused vision Biases and Errors: Egocentric biases, social biases, reasoning fallacies and limits. Fears and Drives: Mortality fears, need to belong, need to control, sexual, territorial, and acquisitive drives. Need for Meaning: Dissonance reduction, Zeigarnik effect. Limits and Needs Lead to Explanatory Systems Science: A Revolutionary Explanatory System Acknowledges biases Methods and approach designed to overcome biases Democratic rather than authoritarian Evolutionary rather than canonical Incident of a Fingerpost – The ―Charming‖ Chemist Murder investigation: is sludge at base of wine bottle poison? a. Compares sludge to known poison (arsenic) b. Conducts multiple tests (heat, weight, reaction to other substances, affects on organisms (cats)). c. Identical results -- sludge and arsenic behave the same d. a.___ Concludes that substance is arsenic b.___ Does not conclude that substance is arsenic X Chemist described as highly odious person: Filthy, smelly, rotted teeth, rude, self-important, arrogant, lewd. Why? Hint: Does chemist’s character affect his findings? “A Beautiful Theory Destroyed by an Ugly Fact” Basic Assumptions Overturned by Science ―Beautiful‖ Theory ―Ugly‖ Fact Earth center of universe Copernicus, Galileo: Earth a satellite in far corner of cosmos Humans are a select creation Darwin: humans are an advanced primate Time and space are fixed, Einstein: Time and space are constant relative Sexualized thinking is deviant Freud: Sexualized thinking is normal Disease, illness a spiritual Pasteur: Disease, illness a problem microbial problem Acts of Selfless (?) Heroism The ―fifth man‖ in Air Florida crash Polish Concentration Camp Guard Question: What motivates this behavior? Why Do People Help Others? Altruistic explanation – Empathy + Opportunity helping People help because they care. Egoistic explanations Negative state relief: Stop personal discomfort Avoid social/self punishments: Shame, guilt Seek social/self rewards: Honor, pride Batson Test of Empathy Theory Empathy: People will help others in need IF they feel empathy VERSUS Avoid social punishments: People help only to avoid social censure. Prediction People will help if they feel empathy, EVEN IF they can escape from helping Empathy vs. Social Censure Factorial Design Difficult Escape Easy Escape Low Empathy Helps Doesn’t Help High Empathy Helps ??? Performance on Test to Switch Places with Elayne “Social Censure” Predictions Justification Low Empathy High Empathy for not helping Condition Condition Weak Justif. High Score High Score Strong Justif. Low Score Low Score “Empathy and Altruism” Predictions Justification Low Empathy High Empathy for not helping Condition Condition Weak Justif. High Score High Score Strong Justif. Low Score High Score Effort Made to Help "Elayne" as a Function of Felt Empathy and Opportunity for Face-Saving Out Batson et al., 1988 NOTE: Outcome is number of correct responses on qualifying test. 16 Correct Answers 14 12 Easy Test 10 8 (difficult escape) 6 Hard Test 4 (easy escape) 2 0 Low Empathy High Empathy The Attributes of Science Concerned with discovery, and new ways of seeing Explores questions empirically—strives for reliability Assumes objective reality Accurate measures Controlled designs Replicable Falsifiable Investigates relations between variables Is A related to B? Does A cause B? Is relation between A and B determined by C? Attributes of Science, continued Self-correcting Open to public scrutiny Subject to peer review Recursive (theory hyps observations theory) Amoral Moves by small steps and by huge leaps (Kuhn – generative crises) Steps in Scientific Method Identify Problem Construct Problem Statement Form Hypothesis Deductive and Inductive Reasoning Steps in the Scientific Method 1. Identifying problems ―There is a troubled, perplexed, trying situation, where the difficulty is, as it were, spread throughout the entire situation, infecting it as a whole‖. EXAMPLE: Some people believe that the way to cope with bad events is to act in a positive manner, and your feelings will follow. Others say you should express your negative feelings in order to get over them. Problem: how can both explanations be true? Problem identification is therefore an emotional event. Schema Violation, Emotions, and Discovery A fizzy soft drink, rival of Pepsi Coke A short funny story with a punch line. Joke Blue/gray vapors emitted by fire Smoke Mighty tree that shed acorns Oak The white part of an egg Albumin 2. Articulate problem ―Without some statement of the problem, the scientist can rarely go further and expect the work to be fruitful‖ EXAMPLE: ―Does expression of emotions promote coping?‖ 3. Hypothesis formation Hypothesis: A formal statement of conjecture, that can be stated in ―ifthen‖ terms, or A B terms. A (people who are emotionally stressed) B (will cope better if they express their disturbing thoughts and feelings). 4. Reasoning and Deduction: If general hypothesis is true, then specific instances must also be true. Deducing specific from general allows for experiment design. GENERAL HYPOTHESIS: Expression of distress promotes coping. SPECIFIC INSTANCE: College freshmen will get sick less often if they express their thoughts and feelings about starting college. 5. Observation and Induction: If something is true in a specific instance, it may also be true in general. EXAMPLE: When I talk about my problems, I feel better. Maybe this is true for everybody. Science and Facilitated Communication Facilitated Communication Science Studies Hypotheses arise form emotional Prosecutor worried about problem, feeling of un-ease veracity of FC. OD Heck want to show that FC works Problem statement ―… were these communications coming from the autistic children?‖ Hypothesis statement, presented in If FC real, then it should work when falsifiable form facilitator blind to what child sees. Facilitator and child see same vs Experiment framed. diff. pix; how is accuracy affected? Science and Facilitated Communication Science Facilitated Communication Conduct objective, varied, and Double blind study; replicable measures Pix naming, mesg. passing, eyes on keypad New hypothesis—FC a sham—makes Kids type w/o looking at keypad other discrepancies evident Why so many autistic so verbally skilled? New hypothesis has powerful social Devastates believers; liberates kids; consequences redeems ―abusers‖ Serendipity (unexpected discovery) Uncons. drives overt behavior; D. Wegner Framing of Facilitated Communication Experiments Kid Sees Facilitator Sees Cup Dog Cup I II Dog III IV 1. Which are the criterion cells? 2. If FC is valid, what should be facilitator's response in criterion cells?