Projectiles on Inclined Planes by oxm16432

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```									                  Oh,
What A Wonder!

MASTER    Anthony Madison and Patsy Partin
TEACHERS
LESSON TITLE   Oh, What A Wonder!

GRADE LEVELS   This lesson targets students in grades 5 through 9 but maybe

TIME ALLOTMENT   This lesson is designed to take five to six 60-minute class periods
to complete all lab and group activities.

OVERVIEW    Motion is constantly happening all around us. It is as much a part
of the universe as matter and energy. Through the use of hands-
on activities, video, Internet and work in cooperative learning
groups, students will come to understand the laws of motion and
the forces that effect them.

SUBJECT MATTER   Physical Science

LEARNING    Students will be able to:
• Explain the effect that gravity and friction have on objects.
OBJECTIVES   • Explain the relationships among mass, force and distance
traveled.
• Explain how slope affects the amount of force.
• Differentiate between speed and velocity.
• Analyze and apply Newton’s three laws of motion.
• Use technology and other sources for research.

STANDARDS    National Standards:
Science – McREL
http://www.mcrel.org/compendium/standardDetails.asp?subjectID=2&standardID=12
Nature of Science
Standard 12: Understanding the nature of scientific inquiry
3. Plans and conducts simple investigation (e.g., formulates a
testable question, makes systematic observation, develops logical
conclusions)
5. Uses appropriate tools (including computer hard ware and
software) and techniques to analyze, and interpret scientific data
4. Uses technology (e.g., hand tools, measurement instruments
calculators, computers)and mathematics (e.g., measurement,
formulas, charts graphs) to perform accurate scientific
investigations and communications

State Standards:
Physical Science - TN
http://www.state.tn.us/education/ci/cistandards2001/sci/ciscience.htm
Forces and Motion:
5.11.1 Recognize that gravity is the force that pulls object toward
the earth.
5.11.2 Recognize the relationship between force and motion
8.11.1 Distinguish between speed and velocity.
8.11.2 Demonstrate an understanding of Newton’s three laws of
motion
Physics (9-12) -TN
Standard Number: 1.0 Mechanics
1.2 analyze and apply Newton’s three laws of motion
Physical Science (9-12) - TN
Standard Number: 1.0 Force and Motion
1.1 investigate the relationship between speed, velocity and
acceleration

MEDIA   CD/AUDIO
Star Wars: Episode I “The Phantom Menace” Tracks 1, 5, 6, 11
COMPONENTS
WEB SITES
NPT's United Streaming
(15:00)

Newton’s Laws of Motion Mini-Labs
http://www.teachers.net/lessons/posts/661.html
The mini-labs are designed to provide students with
demonstrations of Newton’s Laws of Motion. The teacher will

Fear of Physics
http://www.fearofphysics.com
This site contains a lot of animation to show physics in action.

For Extensions and Connections:
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Sci. American Frontiers: Building a Better Mousetrap Car
Learn how to build a mousetrap car.

WHO2
http://www.who2.com/index.html
This website is a great resource for information about famous
people.

Nova: Galileo’s Battle for the Heavens
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/galileo#
This site contain an interactive part where the students can repeat
Galileo’s famous experiments on falling objects, projectiles,
inclined planes and pendulums

Six flags
http://www.sixflags.com/
This web site will allow students to find out specific information
about the Six Flags Theme Park.

MATERIALS   PER CLASS: 5-6 lava lamps of different colors, black butcher
paper to cover windows and doors, one radio with CD player and
CD with some type of space music for example Space Odyssey,
Star Wars, etc. In this lesson, the sound track Episode I The
Phantom Menace was used: tracks 1,5,6,and11, video camera and
compatible tape for recording.

PER GROUP: (3-4 students) paper 8X11,construction paper
colored pencils, crayons, scissors, stapler and notebook paper all
of items should be shared by all the students to complete their art
and motion station booklet, computer with Internet, Inspiration
Software, PowerPoint software
STATION #1: Clothespin Lab: goggles for each student,
clothespin, string, 2 broken pencils (one smaller than the other),
cookie sheet (or other unburnable flat surface), safety stick
matches
STATION #2: Dominoes: 6 dominoes, ruler, book to use as a
barrier
STATION #3: Egg and Coin Lab: nickel, dime, penny, piece of
paper, hard boiled egg, raw egg
STATION #4: Dropping Objects: ruler with a groove in the center, 3
marbles of different sizes, pieces of paper, other objects: ping-
pong ball, cork, small rubber bouncy balls, cotton balls, etc.
STATION #5: Car Crash: toy car: needs to be a convertible or
truck, several textbooks to form a ramp and barrier, clay figure or
Ping Pong ball, string or thread
STATION #6: Vinegar and Soda Demo: safety goggles, vinegar,
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soda, tissue paper or toilet tissue (do not use paper towel)
straws, 16 ounce plastic bottle, cork or rubber stopper to fit bottle,
petroleum jelly, beaker of at least 100 mL, tablespoon

PER STUDENT: Pencil, 5 8 ½ x 11 sheets of paper for art work, 2
sheets of colored paper and 10 sheets of college ruled notebook
paper to make motion station booklet.

PREP FOR   Prior to the lesson bookmark all websites used in the lesson.
Load Macromedia Flash Player plug-in needed to run the Six Flags
TEACHERS    web site.

NPT's United Streaming located at
the computer for use in all subject areas. (Requires username and

Prepare the hands-on element of the lesson by sorting like items
together for the culminating activities.

Laws of Motion Mini-Labs located at
http://www.teachers.net/lessons/posts/661.html
There are eight lab stations, which should be placed around the
room. Two copies of each lab should be placed at each station
(each lab has a material list and a set of questions related to the
station.) The teacher will need to check the list and place the
items at the correct station.

INTRODUCTORY        (Teacher Note: The following activity will give you insight into the
students’ prior knowledge about motion. It will provide the students
ACTIVITY:     an opportunity to use their imagination and artistic skills. The
SETTING THE      students’ will be listening to music and observing the movement of
lava lamps for about 15 minutes to visualize motion in action.)
STAGE
Step 1. Before class, use black butcher paper to darken the room;
cover the windows and door. Have students remain outside of the
classroom. Line them up against the wall. Explain that they will be
learning about Newton’s laws of motion. When they go into the
room, they will need to be extremely quiet. As a FOCUS FOR
MEDIA INTERACTION, ask them to listen, look and make mental
observations about what is happening in the room. No talking at
this point. They should be prepared to discuss their conclusions.
(Have the music from Star Wars: Episode 1 “ The Phantom
Menace” PLAYING before students enter the room.) Play the
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Step 2. After playing the CD for fifteen minutes, STOP for
the room. They are still very quite during the art activity. They
should use the materials you have provided for them on their table
to complete the art project.

about Newton’s Laws of Motion and how today’s virtual art lab
experience demonstrated any of those laws. Explain to your
students that in this lesson you will be examining Newton’s laws of
motion in action.

LEARNING     Step 1. Explain to students that you will now be examining the
ACTIVITIES   It: Newton’s Laws of Motion” from NPT’s United Streaming web
site located at http://wnpt.unitedstreaming.com/login_wnpt.cfm. CUE the
segment to the title “Let’s Move It: Newton’s Laws of Motion.“
Provide your students with a FOCUS FOR MEDIA INTERACTION
by asking them to be able to name the three laws of motion. PLAY
until the last law is given. (for every action there is an equal and
opposite reaction) PAUSE to check for students’ comprehension.
Ask someone to give you three laws of motion. REWIND and
REPLAY, if necessary until students can give all three laws.

Step 2. Provide your students with a FOCUS FOR MEDIA
INTERACTION by asking them to raise their hands when they
hear the definition of inertia. RESUME PLAY. PAUSE to highlight
a point when you see the word inertia in yellow. Define the word
inertia. (It is the resistance an object has to a change in its state of
motion.) Discuss a real-world example of inertia.

Step 3. Provide your students with a FOCUS FOR MEDIA
INTERACTION by asking them to raise their hands when they
hear the name of the forces affecting motion. RESUME PLAY.
To enhance students listening and observation skills, PAUSE
when the little girl slides down the sliding board and asks, ”Can
anyone give me three of the four examples of friction mentioned in
the last segment?” (water/boat, man on a bike, moving parts ,and
a bird in the air.) RESUME PLAY to identify the other force acting
on motion. (Gravity). PAUSE to name the force acting on motion
after you hear “gravity.”

Step 4. Ask the students to watch the next segment carefully.
Provide your students with a FOCUS FOR MEDIA INTERACTION
by asking them to identify the relationship between mass,
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acceleration and force as it relates to Newton’s second law of
motion. RESUME PLAY. PAUSE to highlight a point as the girls
are pushing the big car. Ask students if they can tell you the
relationship between mass, force and acceleration. (Greater the
mass, more force will be needed to accelerate the object and the
reverse is true of an object with less mass.) Discuss the
relationship.

Step 5. To provide your students with a FOCUS FOR MEDIA
INTERACTION, tell them that you are going turn the sound down
and you want them describe what is happening as the man in the
boat releases the ball. What happens when the ball is shot from
the canon? RESUME PLAY. PAUSE when you see the hockey
players to check students’ observation skills. Ask students what
happened in the case of the man in the boat and in the canon
situation? (Equal and opposite reaction took place in both cases)
REWIND the tape segment to the beginning of the segment with
the words Newton’s Three Laws and a picture of a canon. To
provide your students with a FOCUS FOR MEDIA INTERACTION,
compare their interpretations with what really happened in the last
segment. REPLAY the video until the end of the segment. Ask
students to look around the room at their artwork to see if it
illustrates Newton’s Laws of Motion. If so, ask them to describe
how.

CULMINATING   Step 1. In order for students to be able to understand force and
motion, they need to observe objects in motion. The students will
ACTIVITY   rotate through the six mini-labs on motion. Students will perform
the experiments at each station and answer the related questions
into their motion booklet. This booklet is student-made and should
include the Title, Procedure, observations and questions from each
station. (Teacher Note: The instructions and materials lists are
available in the Teacher Prep and Materials area of this lesson.
The Questions are in the Student Materials area.)

Step 2. Have your students log on to the Fear of Physics site
located at http://www.fearofphysics.com. To understand how an
object moves, we have to understand three things about “what it
means to be moving” and they are position, speed and
acceleration. To provide your students with a FOCUS FOR
MEDIA INTERACTION, instruct them to play with the lab to
investigate position, velocity and acceleration for two objects at the
same time. Use the animated .gif Speed and Acceleration to
learn about these three motion properties by comparing
differences in two objects in motion. Instruct students to be
responsible for the following things:
• How does the acceleration change as you change the object
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from the big red truck, sport utility vehicle, scooter or
motorcycle?
•   Change the settings and run the experiment several times
using different variables.
•   Describe how this website illustrates Newton’s laws of motion.
If you finish early surf this site for about 20 minutes. Find an
animated gif you like and write a paragraph about what you
learned and be willing to discuss it with your learning group.

Step 3. Review all of the things students have learned about
motion. As an assessment, ask each student, or pair of students,
to create an Inspiration graphic representation of the Laws of
Motion, or make a five-minute movie explaining motion using a
video camcorder. These will be shared with the class to close the
unit.

CROSS-   Math/Science
Have the students work with a partner to design a vehicle powered
EXTENSIONS   the instructions on how to make the mouse trap car from
Scientific American Frontiers: Building a Better Mousetrap
Car located at

Social Studies/Language Arts
The students can log on to WHO2 located at
http://www.who2.com/index.html as a reference for finding
FOCUS FOR MEDIA INTERACTION, have students work with a
partner to research the life of Sir Isaac Newton, Galileo, Aristotle or
Kelper. They will present their information in a poster, or
PowerPoint presentation.

Science/Language Arts
Students can log on to Nova: Galileo’s Battle for the Heavens
site located at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/galileo/#. To provide
your students with a FOCUS FOR MEDIA INTERACTION, have
students repeat Galileo’s experiments on falling objects,
projectiles, inclined planes and pendulums. Then, create a written
report on what they learned for oral presentation.

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COMMUNITY      Take students on a field trip to an amusement park during the
park’s Physic Day. Before they go on trip they can use the Six
CONNECTIONS      Flags website at http://www.sixflags.com/ to find out specific
information about six flags Theme Park.

Have a quest speaker from a local college to come in talk to
students about physic and he/she uses it help them do their job.

Invite parents to come and participate with their child in a class day
of motion activities.

Contact a local high school physic class to see if your students
could work with their students on a physic project. One example
might be making a roller coaster.

STUDENT        NEWTON’S LAWS -- STUDENT LAB QUESTIONS
MATERIALS
STATION #1 Clothespin
1. Describe what you observed using terms that we have
learned in this unit.
2. Was the force on each pencil the same? Explain.
3. Give some practical examples of this activity.
STATION #2 Dominoes
1. What happened when you hit the dominoes sharply?
2. What happened when you hit the pile gently?
3. Were you able to reduce the pile completely? Why do
you think this was possible?
STATION #3 Eggs and Coin
1. Were you able to move the coin without disrupting it?
2. Why is this trick possible?
3. What happened when you spun each egg?
boiled egg?
STATION #4 Dropping Object
1. Could you tell which object hit the floor first? If so,

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explain why you think that object hit the floor first.
2. Were forces caused by air important in the investigation?
Why, or why not?
3. What did you observe when you used different objects?
STATION #5 Car Crash
1. What happened to the passenger in the first trial? Why?
2. How far did the passenger travel from the vehicle in the
first trial?
3. Did the height of the ramp make a difference in how far
the passenger traveled? How? Why?
4. Could you make a better seat belt? Explain it.
STATION #6 Vinegar and Soda

1. What happened when the vinegar and soda mixed?

2. Did the stopper fly out of the bottle? If so, in which
direction did it go?

3. Did the bottle move? If so, which direction?

4. How could Newton’s 3rd Law be used to explain what
happened?

5. How could Newton’s 2nd Law be used to explain what
happened?

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