Projectiles on Inclined Planes by oxm16432

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									                  Oh,
                  What A Wonder!

       MASTER    Anthony Madison and Patsy Partin
     TEACHERS
  LESSON TITLE   Oh, What A Wonder!

  GRADE LEVELS   This lesson targets students in grades 5 through 9 but maybe
                 adapted to other grade levels.

TIME ALLOTMENT   This lesson is designed to take five to six 60-minute class periods
                 to complete all lab and group activities.

     OVERVIEW    Motion is constantly happening all around us. It is as much a part
                 of the universe as matter and energy. Through the use of hands-
                 on activities, video, Internet and work in cooperative learning
                 groups, students will come to understand the laws of motion and
                 the forces that effect them.

SUBJECT MATTER   Physical Science


     LEARNING    Students will be able to:
                 • Explain the effect that gravity and friction have on objects.
    OBJECTIVES   • Explain the relationships among mass, force and distance
                    traveled.
                 • Explain how slope affects the amount of force.
                 • Differentiate between speed and velocity.
                 • Analyze and apply Newton’s three laws of motion.
                 • Use technology and other sources for research.

    STANDARDS    National Standards:
                 Science – McREL
                 http://www.mcrel.org/compendium/standardDetails.asp?subjectID=2&standardID=12
                 Nature of Science
                 Standard 12: Understanding the nature of scientific inquiry
                 Level I(Grade 3-5)
                 3. Plans and conducts simple investigation (e.g., formulates a
                 testable question, makes systematic observation, develops logical
                 conclusions)
                 Level II (Grade6-8)
                 5. Uses appropriate tools (including computer hard ware and
                  software) and techniques to analyze, and interpret scientific data
                  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
                  4. Uses technology (e.g., hand tools, measurement instruments
                  calculators, computers)and mathematics (e.g., measurement,
                  formulas, charts graphs) to perform accurate scientific
                  investigations and communications

                  State Standards:
                  Physical Science - TN
                  http://www.state.tn.us/education/ci/cistandards2001/sci/ciscience.htm
                  Forces and Motion:
                  5.11.1 Recognize that gravity is the force that pulls object toward
                  the earth.
                  5.11.2 Recognize the relationship between force and motion
                  8.11.1 Distinguish between speed and velocity.
                  8.11.2 Demonstrate an understanding of Newton’s three laws of
                  motion
                  Physics (9-12) -TN
                  Standard Number: 1.0 Mechanics
                  1.2 analyze and apply Newton’s three laws of motion
                  Physical Science (9-12) - TN
                  Standard Number: 1.0 Force and Motion
                  1.1 investigate the relationship between speed, velocity and
                  acceleration

          MEDIA   CD/AUDIO
                  Star Wars: Episode I “The Phantom Menace” Tracks 1, 5, 6, 11
     COMPONENTS
                  WEB SITES
                  NPT's United Streaming
                  http://wnpt.unitedstreaming.com/login_wnpt.cfm
                  This site allows teachers to download, or stream videos into the
                  classroom using the computer. (Requires username and password
                  to access.) Download: “Let’s move It: Newton’s Laws of Motion”
                  (15:00)

                  Newton’s Laws of Motion Mini-Labs
                  http://www.teachers.net/lessons/posts/661.html
                  The mini-labs are designed to provide students with
                  demonstrations of Newton’s Laws of Motion. The teacher will
                  download the instructions for preparing the classroom labs.

                  Fear of Physics
                  http://www.fearofphysics.com
                  This site contains a lot of animation to show physics in action.

                  For Extensions and Connections:
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                      Sci. American Frontiers: Building a Better Mousetrap Car
                      http://www.pbs.org/saf/1208/teaching/menu.htm
                      Learn how to build a mousetrap car.

                      WHO2
                      http://www.who2.com/index.html
                      This website is a great resource for information about famous
                      people.

                      Nova: Galileo’s Battle for the Heavens
                      http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/galileo#
                      This site contain an interactive part where the students can repeat
                      Galileo’s famous experiments on falling objects, projectiles,
                      inclined planes and pendulums

                      Six flags
                      http://www.sixflags.com/
                      This web site will allow students to find out specific information
                      about the Six Flags Theme Park.

          MATERIALS   PER CLASS: 5-6 lava lamps of different colors, black butcher
                      paper to cover windows and doors, one radio with CD player and
                      CD with some type of space music for example Space Odyssey,
                      Star Wars, etc. In this lesson, the sound track Episode I The
                      Phantom Menace was used: tracks 1,5,6,and11, video camera and
                      compatible tape for recording.

                      PER GROUP: (3-4 students) paper 8X11,construction paper
                      colored pencils, crayons, scissors, stapler and notebook paper all
                      of items should be shared by all the students to complete their art
                      and motion station booklet, computer with Internet, Inspiration
                      Software, PowerPoint software
                      STATION #1: Clothespin Lab: goggles for each student,
                      clothespin, string, 2 broken pencils (one smaller than the other),
                      cookie sheet (or other unburnable flat surface), safety stick
                      matches
                      STATION #2: Dominoes: 6 dominoes, ruler, book to use as a
                      barrier
                      STATION #3: Egg and Coin Lab: nickel, dime, penny, piece of
                      paper, hard boiled egg, raw egg
                      STATION #4: Dropping Objects: ruler with a groove in the center, 3
                      marbles of different sizes, pieces of paper, other objects: ping-
                      pong ball, cork, small rubber bouncy balls, cotton balls, etc.
                      STATION #5: Car Crash: toy car: needs to be a convertible or
                      truck, several textbooks to form a ramp and barrier, clay figure or
                      Ping Pong ball, string or thread
                      STATION #6: Vinegar and Soda Demo: safety goggles, vinegar,
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                       soda, tissue paper or toilet tissue (do not use paper towel)
                       straws, 16 ounce plastic bottle, cork or rubber stopper to fit bottle,
                       petroleum jelly, beaker of at least 100 mL, tablespoon

                       PER STUDENT: Pencil, 5 8 ½ x 11 sheets of paper for art work, 2
                       sheets of colored paper and 10 sheets of college ruled notebook
                       paper to make motion station booklet.

            PREP FOR   Prior to the lesson bookmark all websites used in the lesson.
                       Load Macromedia Flash Player plug-in needed to run the Six Flags
           TEACHERS    web site.

                       Download: “Let’s move It: Newton’s Laws of Motion” (15:00) from
                       NPT's United Streaming located at
                       http://wnpt.unitedstreaming.com/login_wnpt.cfm. This site allows
                       teachers to download or stream videos into the classroom using
                       the computer for use in all subject areas. (Requires username and
                       password to access.)

                       Prepare the hands-on element of the lesson by sorting like items
                       together for the culminating activities.

                       The teacher will need to download the mini-labs from Newton’s
                       Laws of Motion Mini-Labs located at
                       http://www.teachers.net/lessons/posts/661.html
                       There are eight lab stations, which should be placed around the
                       room. Two copies of each lab should be placed at each station
                       (each lab has a material list and a set of questions related to the
                       station.) The teacher will need to check the list and place the
                       items at the correct station.

   INTRODUCTORY        (Teacher Note: The following activity will give you insight into the
                       students’ prior knowledge about motion. It will provide the students
         ACTIVITY:     an opportunity to use their imagination and artistic skills. The
      SETTING THE      students’ will be listening to music and observing the movement of
                       lava lamps for about 15 minutes to visualize motion in action.)
            STAGE
                       Step 1. Before class, use black butcher paper to darken the room;
                       cover the windows and door. Have students remain outside of the
                       classroom. Line them up against the wall. Explain that they will be
                       learning about Newton’s laws of motion. When they go into the
                       room, they will need to be extremely quiet. As a FOCUS FOR
                       MEDIA INTERACTION, ask them to listen, look and make mental
                       observations about what is happening in the room. No talking at
                       this point. They should be prepared to discuss their conclusions.
                       (Have the music from Star Wars: Episode 1 “ The Phantom
                       Menace” PLAYING before students enter the room.) Play the
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                        music for about fifteen minutes.

                        Step 2. After playing the CD for fifteen minutes, STOP for
                        illustrations. Ask your students to draw what they saw happening in
                        the room. They are still very quite during the art activity. They
                        should use the materials you have provided for them on their table
                        to complete the art project.

                        Step 3. Using K-W-L chart, ask your students what they know
                        about Newton’s Laws of Motion and how today’s virtual art lab
                        experience demonstrated any of those laws. Explain to your
                        students that in this lesson you will be examining Newton’s laws of
                        motion in action.

           LEARNING     Step 1. Explain to students that you will now be examining the
                        concept of Motion using a downloaded video segment “Let’s Move
           ACTIVITIES   It: Newton’s Laws of Motion” from NPT’s United Streaming web
                        site located at http://wnpt.unitedstreaming.com/login_wnpt.cfm. CUE the
                        segment to the title “Let’s Move It: Newton’s Laws of Motion.“
                        Provide your students with a FOCUS FOR MEDIA INTERACTION
                        by asking them to be able to name the three laws of motion. PLAY
                        until the last law is given. (for every action there is an equal and
                        opposite reaction) PAUSE to check for students’ comprehension.
                        Ask someone to give you three laws of motion. REWIND and
                        REPLAY, if necessary until students can give all three laws.

                        Step 2. Provide your students with a FOCUS FOR MEDIA
                        INTERACTION by asking them to raise their hands when they
                        hear the definition of inertia. RESUME PLAY. PAUSE to highlight
                        a point when you see the word inertia in yellow. Define the word
                        inertia. (It is the resistance an object has to a change in its state of
                        motion.) Discuss a real-world example of inertia.

                        Step 3. Provide your students with a FOCUS FOR MEDIA
                        INTERACTION by asking them to raise their hands when they
                        hear the name of the forces affecting motion. RESUME PLAY.
                        To enhance students listening and observation skills, PAUSE
                        when the little girl slides down the sliding board and asks, ”Can
                        anyone give me three of the four examples of friction mentioned in
                        the last segment?” (water/boat, man on a bike, moving parts ,and
                        a bird in the air.) RESUME PLAY to identify the other force acting
                        on motion. (Gravity). PAUSE to name the force acting on motion
                        after you hear “gravity.”

                        Step 4. Ask the students to watch the next segment carefully.
                        Provide your students with a FOCUS FOR MEDIA INTERACTION
                        by asking them to identify the relationship between mass,
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                    acceleration and force as it relates to Newton’s second law of
                    motion. RESUME PLAY. PAUSE to highlight a point as the girls
                    are pushing the big car. Ask students if they can tell you the
                    relationship between mass, force and acceleration. (Greater the
                    mass, more force will be needed to accelerate the object and the
                    reverse is true of an object with less mass.) Discuss the
                    relationship.

                    Step 5. To provide your students with a FOCUS FOR MEDIA
                    INTERACTION, tell them that you are going turn the sound down
                    and you want them describe what is happening as the man in the
                    boat releases the ball. What happens when the ball is shot from
                    the canon? RESUME PLAY. PAUSE when you see the hockey
                    players to check students’ observation skills. Ask students what
                    happened in the case of the man in the boat and in the canon
                    situation? (Equal and opposite reaction took place in both cases)
                    REWIND the tape segment to the beginning of the segment with
                    the words Newton’s Three Laws and a picture of a canon. To
                    provide your students with a FOCUS FOR MEDIA INTERACTION,
                    compare their interpretations with what really happened in the last
                    segment. REPLAY the video until the end of the segment. Ask
                    students to look around the room at their artwork to see if it
                    illustrates Newton’s Laws of Motion. If so, ask them to describe
                    how.

      CULMINATING   Step 1. In order for students to be able to understand force and
                    motion, they need to observe objects in motion. The students will
         ACTIVITY   rotate through the six mini-labs on motion. Students will perform
                    the experiments at each station and answer the related questions
                    into their motion booklet. This booklet is student-made and should
                    include the Title, Procedure, observations and questions from each
                    station. (Teacher Note: The instructions and materials lists are
                    available in the Teacher Prep and Materials area of this lesson.
                    The Questions are in the Student Materials area.)

                    Step 2. Have your students log on to the Fear of Physics site
                    located at http://www.fearofphysics.com. To understand how an
                    object moves, we have to understand three things about “what it
                    means to be moving” and they are position, speed and
                    acceleration. To provide your students with a FOCUS FOR
                    MEDIA INTERACTION, instruct them to play with the lab to
                    investigate position, velocity and acceleration for two objects at the
                    same time. Use the animated .gif Speed and Acceleration to
                    learn about these three motion properties by comparing
                    differences in two objects in motion. Instruct students to be
                    responsible for the following things:
                    • How does the acceleration change as you change the object
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                        from the big red truck, sport utility vehicle, scooter or
                        motorcycle?
                    •   Change the settings and run the experiment several times
                        using different variables.
                    •   Describe how this website illustrates Newton’s laws of motion.
                        If you finish early surf this site for about 20 minutes. Find an
                        animated gif you like and write a paragraph about what you
                        learned and be willing to discuss it with your learning group.

                    Step 3. Review all of the things students have learned about
                    motion. As an assessment, ask each student, or pair of students,
                    to create an Inspiration graphic representation of the Laws of
                    Motion, or make a five-minute movie explaining motion using a
                    video camcorder. These will be shared with the class to close the
                    unit.

           CROSS-   Math/Science
                    Have the students work with a partner to design a vehicle powered
       CURRICULAR   by the release of a mousetrap spring. Have students download
       EXTENSIONS   the instructions on how to make the mouse trap car from
                    Scientific American Frontiers: Building a Better Mousetrap
                    Car located at
                    http://www.pbs.org/saf/1208/teaching/menu.htm.

                    Social Studies/Language Arts
                    The students can log on to WHO2 located at
                    http://www.who2.com/index.html as a reference for finding
                    information about famous people. To provide your students with a
                    FOCUS FOR MEDIA INTERACTION, have students work with a
                    partner to research the life of Sir Isaac Newton, Galileo, Aristotle or
                    Kelper. They will present their information in a poster, or
                    PowerPoint presentation.

                    Science/Language Arts
                    Students can log on to Nova: Galileo’s Battle for the Heavens
                    site located at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/galileo/#. To provide
                    your students with a FOCUS FOR MEDIA INTERACTION, have
                    students repeat Galileo’s experiments on falling objects,
                    projectiles, inclined planes and pendulums. Then, create a written
                    report on what they learned for oral presentation.




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       COMMUNITY      Take students on a field trip to an amusement park during the
                      park’s Physic Day. Before they go on trip they can use the Six
     CONNECTIONS      Flags website at http://www.sixflags.com/ to find out specific
                      information about six flags Theme Park.

                      Have a quest speaker from a local college to come in talk to
                      students about physic and he/she uses it help them do their job.

                      Invite parents to come and participate with their child in a class day
                      of motion activities.

                      Contact a local high school physic class to see if your students
                      could work with their students on a physic project. One example
                      might be making a roller coaster.

           STUDENT        NEWTON’S LAWS -- STUDENT LAB QUESTIONS
          MATERIALS
                      STATION #1 Clothespin
                      1. Describe what you observed using terms that we have
                         learned in this unit.
                      2. Was the force on each pencil the same? Explain.
                      3. Give some practical examples of this activity.
                      STATION #2 Dominoes
                      1. What happened when you hit the dominoes sharply?
                      2. What happened when you hit the pile gently?
                      3. Were you able to reduce the pile completely? Why do
                         you think this was possible?
                      STATION #3 Eggs and Coin
                      1. Were you able to move the coin without disrupting it?
                      2. Why is this trick possible?
                      3. What happened when you spun each egg?
                      4. How does inertia help you decide which is the hard-
                         boiled egg?
                      STATION #4 Dropping Object
                      1. Could you tell which object hit the floor first? If so,

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                   explain why you think that object hit the floor first.
                2. Were forces caused by air important in the investigation?
                   Why, or why not?
                3. What did you observe when you used different objects?
                STATION #5 Car Crash
                1. What happened to the passenger in the first trial? Why?
                2. How far did the passenger travel from the vehicle in the
                   first trial?
                3. Did the height of the ramp make a difference in how far
                   the passenger traveled? How? Why?
                4. Could you make a better seat belt? Explain it.
                STATION #6 Vinegar and Soda

                1. What happened when the vinegar and soda mixed?

                2. Did the stopper fly out of the bottle? If so, in which
                   direction did it go?

                3. Did the bottle move? If so, which direction?

                4. How could Newton’s 3rd Law be used to explain what
                   happened?

                5. How could Newton’s 2nd Law be used to explain what
                   happened?




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