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Applied Biblical Counseling


Essential Qualities of a
  Biblical Counselor
   •Galatians 6:1 – 2
     –   Caught
     –   Restore
     –   Gently
     –   Watch
     –   Carry
   •1 Timothy 4:16
   •Luke 6:43
                     Character Qualities
       Idolatry          The Way of Faith              Idolatry
•Controlling                 Humility            •―Build me up‖
•Can‘t receive              Accurate self-       •Fear of man
criticism/rebuke             assessment          •Lack of confidence in
•Wants power             Flexibility of spirit   God
•Dishonest optimism             Love       •Self-doubt
•Flattering people       Encouragement and •Slave to people
•Wants a ―notch in my          Hope        •Fear of confrontation
belt‖                     Servant Attitude
•Legalistic, rigid        Faithfulness           •Tendency to quit
•Principle over people     Dependability         •Unkept promises
•Façade of discipline       Discipline           •―wing it‖
covering weakness                                •Excuse failure
•―I have arrived‖         Sp. Maturity           •Overwhelmed with
•Unteachable                                     failure
                          Personal Holiness
•No need for study                               •Waffling
                           Biblical Wisdom
                                                 •Fuzzy use of Bible
                    Functional Qualities
      Weakness                   Skill                Weakness
•Law, no grace                  Love            •Aimless gentleness
•Dismiss people for sin       Gentleness,       •Compromising God‘s
•Insensitive to pain          Sympathy          agenda
•Stereotyping                Peacemaking        •Fear of confronting
•Sense of having people        Know             •Bible not driving
pegged                                          counsel
                           Data Gathering
•Impractical use of                             •Fear of specific
Scripture                                       applications
•Judgmental motives                             •Behavioristic
                            Heart issues
•Preachy                       Speak            •Mind-racing
•Principle over people         Listening        •Fear of saying hard
•Compassionless truth                           things
                          Clarity with Gospel
•Rigid plan                      Do             •General, not concrete
•Lack of patience         Application, Over-    •Fear of giving rebuke,
•Legalistic works         sight, Admonition     accountability
        What is Christianity?
             What I know
                                       My fight
                  Normal life
What I do

                        What I feel
History of the Care of Souls
• Pre-Reformation
  – Confession
  – Casuistry
Theological Underpinning of
      Natural Science
• Nature is real
• Nature is good, valuable
• Nature is not divine
• A rational God made an orderly world
• No such thing as an anomaly
• Universe is mathematical
• Order is discoverable
• God is not constrained by what seems
  logical to us—therefore, we must test our
  theories with experiment
History of the Care of Souls
• Pre-Reformation
  – Confession
  – Casuistry
• Roman Catholic: focus on works
• Lutheranism: focus on faith
• Puritan
  –   Idolatry of the heart
  –   ―pastoral conversations‖
  –   Sin was the problem
  –   The goal: to create a godly, obedient servant
      of God with a childlike faith
• Salvation is the solution!
     William Perkins‘ Ten Steps
1. Begins with a cross to bear, pain
2. Leads to awareness of the law
3. To awareness of the power of sin
4. Awakening to the fact that damnation is
5. Consideration of the promise of salvation
6. Contemplation of salvation
7. Travail of doubt and despair
8. Assurance of pardon
9. Evangelical sorrow, health grief over sin
10.Joyful obedience and a life of progressive
Westminster Confession of Faith
―Nevertheless, they may, through the
temptations of Satan and of the world, the
prevalency of corruption remaining in
them, and the neglect of the means of
their preservation, fall into grievous sins;
and, for a time, continue therein: whereby
they incur God‘s displeasure, and grieve his
Holy Spirit, come to be deprived of some
measure of their graces and comforts, have
their   hearts    hardened,     and    their
consciences wounded; hurt and scandalize
others, and bring temporal judgments
upon themselves.‖
   Theological Underpinning
    of Pastoral Counseling
• The problem is sin
• Your problem is about God
• Salvation in Christ is the answer
• The Goal is the glorify God and enjoy Him
• Counseling is the job of the pastor
• Christians grow in grace as they mature
• The Bible is sufficient for counseling
• The nature of the human being: mind,
  emotions, will, etc., in hierarchal relation
   First Wave: Psychoanalysis
• Five Core Assumptions:
  – Typographical, three levels of consciousness
  – Genetic
     • Oral
     • Anal
     • Phallic
     • Latency
     • Genital
  – Dynamic
     • Libidinal
     • Aggression and death
      First Wave: Psychoanalysis
• Five Core Assumptions:
  –   Typographical, three levels of consciousness
  –   Genetic
      Structural    Medical
       • Id
       • Ego
       • Superego
  – Economic Assumption, ―energy‖
• Methods
  – Free association
  – Dream analysis
  – Catharsis (abreaction)
       Freud and the Puritans
• The Problem is sin and     • The Problem is inner
  the solution is Christ       conflict and the solution
                               is catharsis
• The goal: to glorify God
                             • The goal: self-
• The Bible is guide for       satisfaction
  the pastor‘s ministry      • Science is the guide for
• God is the one with          the therapist
  whom we have to do         • God is the universal
• Our reason is not our        neurosis
  only motivation,           • We are mostly governed
  irrational impulses also     by our conflicted
  move us                      unconscious
• Idolatry of the heart      • What is subconscious
  must be exposed and          must be exposed and
                               dealt with
  repented of
      Second Wave: Behaviorism
• Only behavior can be observed
• Environmental determinism
• Operant learning
  –   Behavior modification
  –   Dehabituating and rehabituating
  –   Classical conditioning, Pavlov‘s dogs
  –   Chaining, shaping
  –   Systematic desensitization
• We treat behaviors
     Skinner and the Catholics
• The Problem is overt sin   • The Problem is poor
  and the solution is          responses and the
  Christ, using sacraments     solution is rehabituation
• The goal: to glorify God   • The goal: whatever the
                               behaviorist wants to
  by being moral               produce
• The Bible and tradition    • Science is the guide for
  are guides for the           the therapist
  pastor‘s ministry          • God is a nonsensical
• God is the one with          notion
  whom we have to do         • Who knows? Who cares?
• What we do is most           People are black boxes.
  important                  • Inner life is a nonsensical
• We must believe in           notion
  Christ first
Third Wave: Humanistic Psychology
• People are free and responsible
• One motivational force: self-
  actualization. The person             knows
  what is best for herself.
• Unconditional Positive Regard
• Distorted self-concept by other‘s
  judgments and expectations
• Reflect feelings
• Never:
  – Give advice, manipulate,
  – Shame, teach, interpret
  – Or any other non-authentic interaction
    Rogers and the Lutherans
• The Problem is lack      • The Problem is a
  of trusting God in         distorted self-concept
  Christ                   • The goal: to be set
• The goal: to live by       free from authority to
  faith                      live as you would
• The Bible is guide for   • The client is the guide
  the pastor‘s ministry      for the therapist
• God is the one with      • God is part of the
  whom we have to do         problem
• Our faith is most        • We need to trust in
  important                  ourselves
• We are called to         • People can choose and
  believe and obey           are free
 Skinner                               Freud
Behavior is the                       The conflicted
 beginning and                       subconscious is
end of therapy,                       the target for
  modified by                           counseling

                  Persons have all
                    they need in
                   themselves to
                     guide them
The Elephant Model of Reality
        What is Christianity?
             What I know
                                       My fight
                  Normal life
What I do

                        What I feel

• John Bettler at WTS
• Gary Collins
• Larry Crabb
• James Dobson
  – Law of Reinforcement
• John H. Coe
Two Channels of Revelation

   Nature        The Bible
  Integration or Inundation?
• Before the 50s therapists were liberals,
  following non-Christians
• From salvation to self-realization
• Evangelicals let the ball drop
• Since 50s Evangelicals have been
  enamored of psychology
• Narramore: body, soul, spirit
• 50s to 70s, Rogers was king
• Late 80s, all Evangelicalism went
  Integration or Inundation?
                                  Where the
                                 Bible Camps
The Church      Motivation           The Church
  Morals          Conflict              Mystical
              Problem solving          Experiences
                   Anger                 Miracles
 Will power
Commitment    Grieving process           blessing
Integration or Inundation?
 Whatever happened to …. ?
    • The believing heart
    • God‘s wrath
    • The Law
    • Discipleship
    • Christ
    • Repentance
    • The sovereignty of God
    • Holiness
    • The Holy Spirit
    • The Return of Christ
Integration or Inundation?
 • J. Harold Ellens
 • James Reynierse
   – Job as a laboratory rat
   – Reward and punishment
   – The four friends did good by Job
 • Jeanette Maas
   – The friends represent Job‘s psyche
   – Job heard voices
 • Jungian psychology
   – God is an antinomy
   – Job morally defeated God
   – Satan put God in a double bind
   Integration or Inundation?
• CAPS formed to
  develop a dynamic
  Calvinistic psychology
• WACPS, an Evangelical
  organization of
• They merged, and lost
  their Reformed
  impetus to radically
  reinvent psychology
      Jay Adams
―Where were Christians
before Freud? Up a tree?
Were they bereft of all
crucial knowledge about
man‘s relationship to God and his
neighbor? Was the church‘s counseling a
hopeless, primitive, stone-age activity
that should have disappeared with flint
knives? Were Christians shut up to
sinful, harmful living before the advent
of psychotherapy? Did God withhold
truth for living until our present age?‖
     Jay Adams
―How did Jesus Christ
become the perfect Coun-
selor that the Scriptures
report Him to be apart
from the ‗insights‘ of
clinical   psychology   and
psychiatry that are now
assured by unbelievers (and
many Christians who follow
them) are essential to
effective counseling?‖
       Jay Adams
• Authority to counsel
• The Bible is a Handbook on Counseling
• Sanctification
  – Definitive
  – Progressive
• A Need for Practical theological labor
• A non-reductionistic approach
  – God is man‘s environment
  – Consequence-laden world
• Personality theories—bad theology!
• Counseling belongs in the church
        Jay Adams
• Nouthetic confrontation
  –    Nouqete/w
  –   ―Admonish, correct, instruct‖
  –   Confrontation, Concern, Change
  –   All Christians should counsel one another
• Habituation
  –   Automatic, unconscious, comfortable, skillful
  –   Moral and immoral habits
  –   Put on / Put off
  –   The Spirit ―programs‖ the brain (Romans 6)
  –   The Christian life: discipline, walk, manner of
      living, custom, practice
Integrationists vs. Nouthetic
 Integrationists        Nouthetic Counselors

• Identity as           • Pastors
  professional          • Psychology is
  psychologists           flawed at the root
• Psychology just         level
  needs tweaking        • The Bible is all
                          you need anyway!
• The use of Biblical
                        • Biblical Counseling
  language dresses
  up psychological      • NANC
     The Christian Psychology

Integrationists        Counselors
Metaphor of Dr. Adams‘ Influence
  The Christian

                Adams‘ Habituation Model

   Counseling                     #2
     Model       #1             Search for           #3
             Submitted to       supportive        Re-submit
             the Bible          material          to Bible

                            The Bible

  Christianized         Superstructure
                                             don‘t teach
Behaviorist Model        of Prooftexts
                                             The model
         Fresh                                             New
         Interpretive                                      Interpretive
         Grid                                Re-define     Grid
                                             The model
    The Christian Psychology
Psychology                Bible

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