# Projection Charts by zyb26520

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```									           PROJECTION CHART EXPLANATION

When reading to find the Author's Purpose, it is helpful to analyze
the title of the selection. It is also necessary to provide support that
proves the author's purpose (Persuade, Inform, Entertain).

By using the Projection Chart, students will be able to organize their

•   Direct students to a chapter or selection and have them enter
the title in the first box.

•   Have students project what they think the reading selection
will be about according to the title, and write it in the second
box.

•   After students read the selection have them decide what the
author's purpose is – Persuade, Inform, Entertain. Write this in
the third box.

•   Have students find supporting details that prove their choice
of the author’s purpose and write them in the fourth box.

Have students share and compare their projection charts with the
class. Have the class analyze the answers and make a decision as
to the BEST choice for author’s purpose and explain why one choice
is better than the other.
AUTHOR’S PURPOSE PROJECTION CHART
WRITE THE TITLE HERE.

WHAT DOES THE TITLE MAKE YOU THINK
THE SELECTION IS GOING TO BE ABOUT?

READ THE SELECTION AND THEN DECIDE
INFORM?, ENTERTAIN?

GIVE SUPPORTING DETAILS FROM THE SELECTION
TO SUPPORT YOUR CHOICE OF P.I.E.
CAUSE AND EFFECT CLUSTER EXPLANATION

This strategy helps students recognize cause and effect
relationships. This strategy may be used to look at one item as a
cause. It can also be used to show one item as an effect.

1. Have students create two circles on their papers.

2. Students fill in one circle with a cause and one circle with an
effect.

3. For the cause circle, the arrows representing the effects point
outward (graphic #1). Students write the effects of the concept
or event in the circle on the arrows.

4. For the effect circle, the arrows representing the causes point
inward (graphic #2). Students write the causes leading to the
particular effect on the arrows.
CAUSE AND EFFECT CLUSTER ORGANIZER

Graphic #1
(cause)

Graphic #2
(effect)
CAUSE AND EFFECT CHAIN EXPLANATION

This strategy helps students recognize cause and effect
relationships. The cause and effect chain may be used to look at a
series of events that are a result of one another or are caused by
one another, like a chain reaction. The cause and effect chain graphic
organizer reinforces the idea that each CAUSE brings about a related
EFFECT, that in turn each EFFECT becomes a CAUSE for the next
effect, and that all CAUSES lead to the final EFFECT. The example
of a trail of dominoes being knocked over often helps students
visualize this relationship. If one domino does not fall, the final effect
will change.

1. Distribute the Cause and Effect Chain graphic organizer.

2. Students begin the chain by writing the initial cause in the first
box labeled “C.” Students continue filling in effects and causes
until the chain is complete.

3. Students may be directed to enter signal words on the lines
provided between the boxes.
CAUSE AND EFFECT CHAIN

C

E

C

E

E
C

C

E

E
C

C

E

E
C
FRAMED PARAGRAPH EXPLANATION

This strategy helps students recognize that one effect was the result
of many causes.

Using the FRAMED PARAGRAPH as a guide, select an issue, topic,
or event relative to your lesson. Have students analyze the issue,
topic, or event, and fill in causes and effects in the appropriate
spaces. Encourage students to use a variety of signal words for
their transitions.
FRAMED PARAGRAPH ORGANIZER: CAUSE/EFFECT

FILL IN THE BLANK WITH THE APPROPRIATE ANSWER.

In what we studied, we learned _________________.

The possible causes for this (effect) might be

_______________, ___________________, and

___________________.

One problem /issue, ________________, happened

because of __________________. Another

reason this might have happened is because

of ________________.
VENN DIAGRAM EXPLANATION

This strategy helps students compare and contrast information.

1. Have students draw overlapping circles.

2. Have students label the paper with a general topic heading.
Then label each circle or box to represent the two concepts
being compared and contrasted.

3. As the two concepts are compared, similarities should be
recorded in the overlapping section. These are the things they
have in common. As the two concepts are contrasted,
differences should be recorded in the non-overlapping
section. These are the things about the two concepts that are
different.
VENN DIAGRAM ORGANIZER
H-MAP EXPLANATION

This strategy is helpful for students comparing two topics.

1. Students create an H-Map.

2. Students label sections Topic A, Topic B, and Both A & B.

3. In the left hand column, students list qualities or
characteristics that only apply to Topic A. In the right hand
column, students list qualities or characteristics that apply
only to Topic B. In the center section, students list all qualities
or characteristics that Topic A and Topic B have in common.
H-MAP ORGANIZER

TOPIC A                     TOPIC B

BOTH A & B
FRAMED PARAGRAPH EXPLANATION

This strategy provides students with a framework (consisting of a
main idea and transition words) which can be used as a pre-writing
tool. This framed paragraph guides students in developing well-
formed paragraphs using the compare and contrast skill.
FRAMED PARAGRAPH ORGANIZER

(A)______________ and (B)_______________can be compared

because they both __________________ and

________________.

But they can be contrasted because (A) _____________ has

(have)__________________ and_______________, whereas

(B)____________has (have)_________________

and________________.
VOCABULARY OVERVIEW GUIDE EXPLANATION

This strategy helps students develop an association with a significant
clue to a word’s meaning, as well as determine its definition.

1. Model the Vocabulary Overview Guide (V.O.G.) on a transparency
or board. Guide students to follow along on their own paper.

2. Select a section to be read. Teacher or students skim the section
to find new and difficult words. Limit to six words.

3. Direct students to write these words on their V.O.G.

4. With students, complete the definition of one of the words. First
have students write clues which help them define the word. Then
model the linking of the definition with student’s prior knowledge.
Word: Avalanche
Clue: snow, mountains, crashing down

7. Using information from the selected reading, students should write
the definition on the designated lines.

8. Monitor students as they find definitions and clues for the
vocabulary words.

9. V.O.G. can be used as a study tool. Students can pair up and use
the guide, reveal the vocabulary word, and then use the clues to
help remember the definition.

Suggestion: Dictionaries should be used selectively. Do not let students
copy the definitions. A better alternative is to encourage the use of a
thesaurus.
VOCABULARY OVERVIEW GUIDE

Main
Topic
Category

Word                           Word
Clue                           Clue
Definitions(s)                 Definitions(s)

Word                           Word
Clue                           Clue
Definitions(s)                 Definitions(s)

Word                           Word
Clue                           Clue
Definitions(s)                 Definitions(s)
CONTEXT CLUES—WORD HUNT EXPLANATION

1. Review the chapter and select important or unfamiliar
vocabulary terms. Distribute copies of the Word Hunt
Organizer or instruct students how to set up their paper.

2. The word column is filled in with the chosen vocabulary
words. Next, students begin reading the selection looking for
clues or signal words located near the chosen word or that
are related to the chosen word. Students list clues or signal
words next to the appropriate vocabulary in the clue/signal
words column.

3. Guide students in selecting the context type. The context type
column is filled with one of the five types: definition, synonym,
antonym, mood, or example.

4. The meaning of each vocabulary word is then found by
looking at the words and phrases surrounding the vocabulary
word.
CONTEXT CLUES — WORD HUNT ORGANIZER
WORD     CLUE/SIGNAL        CONTEXT          MEANING
WORD(S)           TYPE
STORY OUTLINE EXPLANATION

1. Before reading, discuss the elements of a story: character,
setting, plot, point of view, theme.

2. During reading, have students fill in the information on the
outline as they find it in their reading.

3. After reading, review with students all sections of the story
map. Demonstrate how this outline can be used as a test
review for any story or as a framework for writing a summary
essay.
STORY OUTLINE ORGANIZER

Title:

Character(s):

Setting:

Plot - Conflict:

Plot - Rising Action:

Plot - Climax:

Plot - Falling Action (Denouement):

Plot - Resolution:

Point of View:

Theme:
STICKMAN NOTEMAKING EXPLANATION

The purpose of this activity is to allow students the opportunity to
focus on the characters or people in a reading selection.

STEP 1

•   Display the Stickman for students.
•   Explain that this exercise is used to focus on what people or
characters say, do, think, and feel.
•   Choose a familiar character or person and fill in the Stickman
so students can see the process.

STEP 2

•   Choose a story or reading passage for the class to read and
analyze.
•   Fill in each section of the Stickman as a class.

STEP 3

•   Distribute the Stickman organizer to students.
•   Assign one story or reading assignment for all students to
•   Have students individually fill in the Stickman.
•   Have students share their work with the class and compare
what they’ve written to that of their classmates.
STICKMAN NOTEMAKING ORGANIZER

Ideas

Visions/Hopes

Feelings

Strengths

What S/he Did

Weaknesses

Stickman Notemaking
For describing People or a Group
ELEMENTARY STORY MAP EXPLANATION

STEP 1

•   Display the Elementary Story Map for students.
•   Explain that the five elements of a story have the same
meaning as the common headings shown in each section of
the Map.
•   Explain that each story they read or write has these five
elements.
•   Fill in the map using a common story (Cinderella, Little Red
Riding Hood) so students can see the process.

STEP 2

•   Choose a common story for the class to read and analyze.
•   Fill in each section of the Elementary Story Map as a class.

STEP 3

•   Distribute Elementary Story Map to students.
•   Assign one story for all students to read.
•   Have students individually fill in the Elementary Story Map.
•   Have students share their work with the class and compare
what they’ve written to that of their classmates.
ELEMENTARY STORY MAP
SETTING         SOMEBODY     WANTED          BUT          SO
when and where    character      conflict     climax   falling action
rising action              resolution
FIVE COMPONENTS OF PLOT DEVELOPMENT
EXPLANATION
1. Distribute and display Five Components of Plot Development
#1.

2. Discuss the five components of plot development. Explain that
all fictional stories have a plot and that any plot can be broken
down into these five components.

3. Choose a story familiar to the students and guide them
through the process of completing the graphic organizer.

4. Distribute Five Components of Plot Development #2. Select a
story and have students individually complete the organizer.

5. Have students share their ideas with the class.
FIVE COMPONENTS OF PLOT DEVELOPMENT #1
CLIMAX
_______________
_______________
RISING ACTION             _______________
DENOUEMENT
(FALLING ACTION)
RISING ACTION
___                           ___
___
___ ______                        ___ __
___            _                  ___ ___ _
CONFLICT
(PROBLEMS)            ___ ______ _____                   ___ ___ ___
(PROBLEM)
CONFLICT              ___ ______                     ___ ____ ____                RESOLUTION
___ ____
___
___
_______________
_______________
_______________
_______________
_______________
_______________
FIVE COMPONENTS OF PLOT DEVELOPMENT #2
_________________
_______________
_______________
_______________
___________________                                                 __________________
RISING ACTION
___                     ___
___
___ ______                  ___ __
___            _            ___ ___ _
(PROBLEMS)
_______________             ___ ______ _____             ___ ___ ___            ________________
CONFLICT                 ___ ______               ___ ____ ____
___ ____
___
___
_______________
_______________
_______________
_______________
_______________
_______________
BIO-POEM EXPLANATION

This assignment can be very useful for character analysis, the study
of historical figures, or for creative writing. One of the best uses of a
Bio-Poem is to have students create an Auto-Bio-Poem about
themselves.

•   Distribute Bio-Poem HANDOUT #1.

•   Discuss the components with students.

•   Read and discuss the sample so students can appreciate the
flow and rhythm of the Bio-Poem.

•   As a group, select an individual and fill in the template so that
students can understand the process.

•   Distribute the Bio-Poem HANDOUT #2 and have students
individually create a Bio-Poem on a person of their choice.
BIO-POEM HANDOUT #2

Bio-Poem Handout # 2

______________________
(First Name)

__________, __________, __________, __________
(Four Characteristics that describe the person)

Relative of ___________________
(brother, sister, daughter, son.)

Lover of __________, __________, __________
(lists three things or people)

Who feels __________, __________, __________

Who needs __________, __________, _________

Who fears __________, __________, __________

Who gives __________, __________, __________

Who would like to see ___________, ___________,
___________
Resident of _________________

______________________
(Last Name)
STORY FRAME EXPLANATION

1. Distribute the Story Frame Organizer to the students.

2. First, model the activity using a familiar story.

3. Have all students read the same story and fill out their own
story frames.

4. Invite students to share and compare their story frames.

5. Once these preliminary activities have been done, have
students use the story frame as an organizer for future
STORY FRAME ORGANIZER

Title of Story: ____________________________________

In this story, the problem starts when _________________

_______________________________________________.

After that, ______________________________________

_______________________________________________

_______________________________________________.

Next, __________________________________________

_______________________________________________

_______________________________________________.

Then, __________________________________________

_______________________________________________

_______________________________________________.

The problem is finally solved when __________________

_______________________________________________

_______________________________________________.

The story ends ___________________________________

_______________________________________________.
CHARACTER MAP EXPLANATION

Conclusions about the characters in a story can be drawn by paying
attention to what the characters say, do, think, and feel.

1. Distribute the Character Map Organizer or have students
draw the organizer on their own paper.

2. During reading, have students use the information the author
gives about the characters to fill in the map.

• Appearance - the way the character looks
• Personality - the way the character thinks or feels
• Behavior - the way the character acts and reacts
CHARACTER MAP ORGANIZER

Appearance                              Personality

1.                                      2.

How does the character
look?                      Character         What does the
character think or feel?

Behavior
3.

How does the character act or react?
SQ3R EXPLANATION
Survey - Question - Read - Recite - Review
Step 1    S: SURVEY

1. Have students preview the entire selection.
2. Instruct them to think about the chapter title, introductory
paragraphs, headings, and pictorial information as they
survey the selection.
3. Instruct students to ask themselves the following questions:
"What do I think this selection is about?” "What information
might the author be telling me?"

Step 2    Q: QUESTION

1. Distribute the SQ3R chart or instruct students to draw a line
down the middle of their papers.
2. Have students translate each heading of the selection into a
question. Students write the questions in the left column.
3. Direct students to use open-ended questions - questions that
cannot be answered with "yes" or "no".
4. Encourage students to write questions that begin with words
such as, "Who," "What," "Where," "Why," "How," or "List,"
"Name."

the selection to find the answers to their questions. Students
may need to ask more questions and some of their questions
may need to be revised.
2. Have students write answers to the questions in the right
column.
SQ3R EXPLANATION
(cont’d)

Step 4   R2: RECITE

1. Have students cover the material they just read.
2. Students ask themselves each question and say or write the

Step 5   R3: REVIEW

1. Have students review their notes. They should try to recall the
main points of the selection.
that were important. Remind students that more reviewing
helps them to remember longer.
3. Encourage students to review again before a test or exam
SQ3R ORGANIZER

K-W-L CHART EXPLANATION
KNOW - WANT - LEARN

The K-W-L strategy provides a structure for organizing information
students know about a topic, noting what students want to know,
and listing what has been learned and is yet to be learned.

1. Ask students to fold a sheet of paper into three columns.
Label the columns K, W, and L.

2. Have students preview the text, surveying the title, section
headings, pictures, captions, etc. to familiarize themselves
with the topic. This introduction to the material may be done
as a whole-class brainstorming activity.

3. In the first column (K), have students list what they already
know or think they know about the topic.

4. In the second column (W), have students list questions about
what they want to know or want to learn from the text.

their questions in the third column (L). Not all of the students'
questions may be answered in the text. For these questions
have students state a standard response, i.e., "The text did
not provide the answer," or "The story did not provide enough
information."
KWL
K                  W                 L
WHAT YOU KNOW   WHAT YOU WANT TO KNOW WHAT YOU LEARNED
SEQUENCE CHART EXPLANATION

This strategy helps students recognize organizational patterns in
text, steps in a process, and the importance of sequential order.

1. Distribute copies of the Sequence Chart or on lined notebook
paper, have students create their own organizer:
• Draw rectangular boxes that run the width of the paper.
• Skip two lines and draw another box.
• Each box should be three to four lines long.
• Students should be able to fit five rectangular boxes on one
page.
• In the space between each box, draw a down arrow to show
that each box sequentially leads to the one below.

2. Students use this sequence chart to show the flow of
information. This chart may be used for:

•    Following instructions - What do you do first? Next?
Then? After that?

•    Sequence of events - What happened first? Second?
Third? Last?

To help students further understand the links between the boxes,
have students provide transition words or phrases between the
boxes.
SEQUENCE CHART ORGANIZER

↑
↑
↑
↑
↑

↑
↑
↑
↑
↑

↑
↑
↑
↑
↑

↑
↑
↑
↑
↑
WEBBING MAP EXPLANATION

Webbing shows students how to link ideas to text. It helps students
determine relationships between ideas. This strategy can be used
before, during, and after reading. It is also useful when organizing
information for reports.

1. Choose a word or concept that relates to the lesson and write
it in a circle on the board.

2. Have students brainstorm what they know or think they know
about the subject and write a list.

3. Next, have students find common relationships in the
brainstorming list and categorize them under general

4. Attach sub-circles (see organizer) to the center circle. Write
the general headings in the sub-circles and attach arms to
each one so that appropriate information for each general

they learned from the text to their brainstorming list.

2. Ask students to organize any new information under existing
WEBBING MAP ORGANIZER

Brainstorming
List

KNOW

LEARNED
QAR EXPLANATION
This strategy helps students recognize where the answers to
questions come from.

1. Read or post the questions that need to be answered from
reading the selection. Study or review questions will work, or
you can also make up questions of your own.

2. Questions should be created so that they belong to one of the
following four categories:

Right There - The information for the answer is found directly in the
text and is easy to find.

Think and Search - The information for the answer is found in the
text, but is pulled from different parts of the text. The wording in the
question may be different form the wording in the text. These
questions are a little more difficult to answer.

Author and Me - The information for the answer is found in two
places, in the text and from students' background knowledge and
experiences. Students will need to put together information the author
tells them and information they already know.

On My Own - The information for the answer is not in the text.
own experiences to answer this type of question. These questions
QAR EXPLANATION
(cont’d)
Provide an overview of the different places students can find answers
to questions, emphasizing that not all answers are directly stated in
the text.

In the four-column QAR organizer, have students write the questions
in column one. In column two, students identify which of the four
types of questions it is. In column three, students write their answer
to the question. In column four, students write what they had to do
QAR
Question    Type of Question     Answer   What did you do to
FREE FORM MAPPING EXPLANATION

1. Present and distribute the Free Form Mapping Rubric so that
students know what is expected of them from this activity and
how they will be evaluated.

2. After students have read an assignment, organize them into
cooperative groups. Give each group a large sheet of paper
and a set of colored markers. Tell them to decide upon the
important ideas in their reading assignment and come up with
a way of presenting ideas on paper through words, pictures,
and diagrams. The result is not nearly as important as the
thinking process involved in discussing content and deciding
how to organize it. No two maps will be the same.

3. Explain to students that there is no right way to map their
ideas. The only criterion is to represent the main ideas and
their inter-relationships. Encourage students to use words,
pictures, phrases, circles, squares, or whatever creative
shapes or designs they feel best depict the information or
their analysis of the information. Students should create a
one-sentence summary at the bottom of the map.

4. Have each group switch maps with another group. Using the
rubric, each group evaluates the other group’s map. Then
each group presents the evaluated map and explains their
evaluations. Maps can be posted to classroom walls to be
used as review.
FREE FORM MAPPING RUBRIC

This rubric should be shared with students so that they will know what is
expected of them. It can be used to evaluate student work, and it can be
distributed to students to evaluate their own work.

FORMAT                        4           3           2           1
Pictures                      ____        ____        ____        ____

Develops One-Sentence
Summary                       ____        ____        ____        ____

Neat                          ____        ____        ____        ____

Title                         ____        ____        ____        ____

CONTENT                       4           3           2           1
Uses Key Vocabulary
Words                         ____        ____        ____        ____

Identifies Text               ____        ____        ____        ____

Reflects Main Idea            ____        ____        ____        ____

Uses Examples                 ____        ____        ____        ____
Locate, Organize, and Interpret Information
Reference Materials
Almanacs

An almanac is a terrific source of up-to-date facts about all kinds of
topics. Almanacs are largely made up of lists, which are updated
once a year. Almanacs include facts and figures on a wide variety of
topics, including countries around the world, federal and state
governments, the economy, current events, and sports statistics.

Use an almanac to find facts from a particular year, such as:

•   the number of music videos that sold 50,000 copies or more
•   the number of immigrants to the United States from the West
Indies
•   the population of Florida

Not everything in an almanac appears in a list, however. Almanacs
also contain tightly condensed, fact-filled paragraphs on a number of
topics, including the following:

•   an overview of world history
•   biographical sketches of the presidents of the United States
•   brief discussions of the features and history of each state
•   an overview of major events occurring during the year

Atlases

An atlas is a book of maps and other geographical information. World
atlases cover the globe while regional atlases cover a specific area.
Historical atlases may show a place over a period of time. The name
of the atlas almost always gives an indication of what kind of maps it
contains.
Locate, Organize, and Interpret Information
Reference Materials
Use an atlas to find:

•   correct spellings of place names
•   borders and boundaries
•   bodies of water (oceans, glaciers, rivers, lakes, etc.)
•   land formations (continents, mountain ranges, deserts, plains,
etc.)
•   lines of longitude, such as the prime meridian
•   lines of latitude, such as the equator
•   the international date line (and in some cases, time zones)
•   population statistics (of countries and major cities)

Encyclopedias

One of the best sources of general information is an encyclopedia.
It contains facts and explanations about almost any topic. Many
encyclopedia entries contain drawings, diagrams, maps, and
photographs. Some encyclopedias contain general information about
a wide variety of topics, others deal only with a particular field. For
example, an encyclopedia of sports or medical information is devoted
to a specific topic.

There are two ways to find information in an encyclopedia. One is to
look up the topic being researched in the index. An encyclopedia
index is usually found in a separate volume or two. Each topic in the
index will have one or more listings that tell you where to look in
other volumes.
Locate, Organize, and Interpret Information
Reference Materials
Another way to find a topic is to use the letters on the spines of the
encyclopedia volumes. For example, if “panther” is being researched
look in the “P” volume. Then use the guide words at the top of each
page to locate the topic within the book.

Dictionaries

Dictionaries tell us what words mean and how to spell and pronounce
them. They also show the history of the word.

Use a dictionary to find:

•   correct spellings
•   definitions
•   parts of speech (such as whether a word is used as a verb, a
•   plurals (one mouse, two mice; one house, two houses)
•   verb tenses (run, running, ran, has run)
•   word origins (a history of the other languages the word was
once a part of)
•   synonyms (other words that have the same meaning)
•   sample sentences

Thesauruses

A thesaurus is a book that contains synonyms and antonyms for
words. It is very useful for writing a report or doing crossword puzzles
and can also be used to find definitions.
Locate, Organize, and Interpret Information
Reference Materials
Newspapers

Newspapers are usually printed daily, but some may be issued
weekly. They contain very current news articles, interesting
feature stories on topics of local or widespread interest, editorials
that tell the editors’ opinions about the topic, and letters to the editor
written by community members who have something they want to
say to the newspaper editor or the public.

also contain public information such as announcements of recent
births, engagements, weddings, anniversaries, and obituaries; police
bulletins telling who was arrested for what type of crime; and
government notices, such as city council proceedings or other civic

Magazines

Magazines are usually printed either weekly or monthly, though some
are issued less often than that. Magazines almost always focus on a
particular topic, such as sports, current events, or famous people.

Magazines are published less often than newspapers. Major stories
are usually covered in greater depth in a magazine than they would
be in a newspaper. Like a newspaper, magazines often contain news
articles, feature stories, editorials, letters to the editor, and advertising.
Magazines usually restrict themselves to specific topics or areas of
interest.
Locate, Organize, and Interpret Information
Reference Materials
To identify the type of resource, remember:

•   titles of books, movies, and magazines are printed in italics
•   titles of articles and stories are printed in regular type within
quotation marks

Journals

An even more narrowly focused type of magazine is called a
professional journal. This type of periodical is targeted to a particular
group of professionals.

The targeted audience can usually be determined by looking carefully
at the title. For example, The Science Teacher, is a journal for high
school science teachers.

Another type of journal is a personal journal. A personal journal is
actually a diary and is rarely ever published. A notable exception is
Anne Frank’s Diary of a Young Girl.

Various kinds of personal journals include a scientist’s observations,
a record of daily events and a person’s thoughts and feelings about
them, or a person’s experiences while traveling.

Biographies

A biography is a book someone has written about another person’s
life. Biographies rely heavily on fact, but may also give the writer’s
opinion.
Locate, Organize, and Interpret Information
Reference Materials
Autobiographies

An autobiography is a book someone has written about his or her
own life. Autobiographies combine facts with opinions. Readers
should keep in mind that the author may want to present the most
flattering view of his or her own life.

THE 5 W’S & HOW CHART EXPLANATION

The 5 W’s & How Chart is used to help students identify the main
idea and the related supporting ideas of a lesson, text, or concept.
The organizer contains six questions that help students organize
the details of the text. The visual pattern of the chart creates a
framework for students to sort the information.

1. Distribute copies of the 5 W’s & How Chart Organizer or have
students create their own.

2. Before reading a text or introducing a new concept, remind
students to look for and identify the answers to the six
questions while they are reading the text or listening to the
presentation. Remind students that the question "Who?" will
not always be answered with a person’s name. Sometimes
the "Who?" of a text can be an event.

3. After reading, students should fill in the answers to the six
questions.

4. After all six questions have been answered, students should
create a main idea sentence from the information they have
Idea or students could write their main idea sentence on the
back of their paper.

Note: Stress that the main idea always includes specifically
"Who...did what." Some of the other information may be included
but is not necessary to create a main idea sentence.
5W’s and HOW CHART ORGANIZER

Who?

What?

When?

Where?

Why?

How?
FACTS CHART EXPLANATION

This strategy is used to help students identify the main idea of a
paragraph of text and its supporting facts. This strategy is helpful
for students who have difficulty comprehending text. With this
strategy the text is broken down paragraph by paragraph, fact by
fact.

1. Distribute copies of the Facts Chart Organizer. Students
should enter the concept or subject of the reading selection.
Each column represents a paragraph of the text and should
be labeled to correspond to the paragraph being read.
Students can create their own organizers (see sample
organizer).

2. Before reading, remind students to look at the text one
paragraph at a time, selecting the main idea and supporting
facts for each paragraph.

3. After reading the paragraph, students should fill in the
information on their Facts Chart. Multiple pages can be
created. A whole chapter or section may be selected for this
activity based on the students’ grasp of the content.
FACTS CHART ORGANIZER

Concept:    ________________________
Paragraph 1        Paragraph 2        Paragraph 3

Main Idea         Main Idea           Main Idea

Supporting Facts   Supporting Facts   Supporting Facts
HERRINGBONE TECHNIQUE EXPLANATION

This graphic organizer is used to help students identify the main
idea and the related supporting ideas of a lesson, text or concept. It
contains six questions that help students organize the details of the
text. The visual pattern of the herringbone creates a framework for
students to sort the information.

1. Students label all of the lines of the herringbone with the six
questions as shown on the sample organizer.

2. Remind students to look for and identify the answers to the six
questions while they are reading the text or listening to the
presentation. Remind students that the question “Who?” will
not always be answered with a person’s name, or proper
noun. Discuss which topics may be considered a character or
subject of a text.

3. After reading, students should fill in the answers to the six
questions.

4. After all six questions have been answered, students should
create a main idea sentence from the information they have
organized. This main idea can be written across the backbone
of the herringbone, or for easier readability, as a sentence at
the bottom of the page.

Note: Stress that the main idea always includes specifically
"Who...did what." Some of the other information may be included
but is not necessary to create a main idea sentence.
HERRINGBONE TECHNIQUE ORGANIZER

MAIN IDEA
1.                     WH
E?                                        O?

2.
H   ER
W
2.

1.
(D
?                              ID
)W
OW
1.

HA
2.

H                                                       T?
2.

1.

W
Y?                         HE
1.

H                                    N?
2.

W
UMBRELLAS OF UNDERSTANDING EXPLANATION

This graphic organizer is used to help students identify the main
idea and the related supporting ideas of a lesson, text or concept.
The visual effect allows students to see how the main idea covers
the primary idea of the material and the details are used to support
it.

1. Inside the umbrella, write the main idea in a complete
sentence.

2. On the lines next to the handle, write details that support
the main idea.
UMBREALLAS OF UNDERSTANDING
ORGANIZER

1. Inside the umbrella, write the main idea in a complete sentence.
2. On the lines next to the handle, write details that support the main
idea.

_______________________                     _________________________

_______________________                     _________________________

_______________________                     _________________________

_______________________                     _________________________

_______________________                     _________________________

_______________________                     _________________________

_______________________                     _________________________
MIND MAP EXPLANATION

A mind map is a graphic representation of thought using imagery,
key words, art, color, and creativity. It is a whole brain activity that
allows visual learners to tap the right side of their brain. It can be
used during all stages of learning: before, during, and after.

1. On a blank sheet of paper draw an image at the center of
the paper. Label the image or symbol with a word.

2. Draw other items associated with that central image
around the page.

3. Draw lines between the images on the page establishing
connections. Label items or connections with key words.

Use color, symbols, signs, and codes for additional emphasis.

This activity allows students to confirm they have chosen the correct
main idea or theme because all of their images/details will directly
connect to the center of their papers. If students do not have the
correct main idea, they will quickly see this because they will not be
able to make any connections.
FACT OR OPINION CHART EXPLANATION

1. Discuss the difference between fact and opinion with
students.

2. Preview the chapter or selection and create statements of fact
and opinion based on the reading.

3. Write each statement in the first column of the Fact and
Opinion Chart.

4. After reading each statement, the student decides if the
statement can be proven. If the statement can be proven, it is
a fact. If it cannot be proven, it is an opinion. Have students
write “Fact” or “Opinion” in the second column.

5. During reading, students give evidence that proves the factual
statements and give explanations for the opinion statements.
Students put their answers in the third column.

6. Review the statements and evidence with the students to
ensure mastery of the concept.

Note: A statement can be negative, but still be a factual statement
because it can be proven. The statement, “Abraham Lincoln was
not president during World War I,” can be proven, therefore, it is
fact.
Fact or Opinion Chart
it is an opinion.
Statement                      Fact or Opinion                      Explanation
UNIVERSAL FACTS
COMMONLY KNOWN FACTS AND “UNIVERSALLY” HELD OPINIONS

This strategy is used to help students understand the difference between
commonly known facts and “universally” held opinions. Students think that when
most people agree with something, it must be a fact. This is often seen in
advertisements, where a fact and an opinion are put next to each other, where
the opinion buys the power of a fact.

Ask students to contribute statements that they think everyone in the class would
agree with.

After 10 or so “universally held statements” have been gathered, discuss which
are facts and which are opinions and the reasons why. Point out that commonly
known facts and ”universally” held opinions are going to be believed by most
people, but the difference is that the fact can be proven and the opinion cannot.

Commonly Known Facts
1. If you put your hand on a red-hot burner of a stove you will burn your
hand.
2. George W. Bush is the President of the United States of America.
3. If you take ice cream out of the freezer, it will melt.

“Universally” Held Opinions
1. Osama Bin Laden deserves to be punished for masterminding the
destruction of the Twin Towers.
2. You should brush your teeth twice a day.
3. The United States of America deserved to win its gold medals in the
Olympics.

It is also important to point out that unpopular facts are still facts because THEY
CAN BE PROVEN and “universally” held opinions are still opinions because
they cannot be proven. For example:

“The Northside High School’s football team trounced our school 49 to 0.”

Just because the team lost the game with an embarrassingly lopsided score,
does NOT mean that this statement is not a fact.

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