PROJECTION CHART EXPLANATION When reading to find the Author's Purpose, it is helpful to analyze the title of the selection. It is also necessary to provide support that proves the author's purpose (Persuade, Inform, Entertain). By using the Projection Chart, students will be able to organize their interpretations of the reading selection. • Direct students to a chapter or selection and have them enter the title in the first box. • Have students project what they think the reading selection will be about according to the title, and write it in the second box. • After students read the selection have them decide what the author's purpose is – Persuade, Inform, Entertain. Write this in the third box. • Have students find supporting details that prove their choice of the author’s purpose and write them in the fourth box. Have students share and compare their projection charts with the class. Have the class analyze the answers and make a decision as to the BEST choice for author’s purpose and explain why one choice is better than the other. AUTHOR’S PURPOSE PROJECTION CHART WRITE THE TITLE HERE. WHAT DOES THE TITLE MAKE YOU THINK THE SELECTION IS GOING TO BE ABOUT? READ THE SELECTION AND THEN DECIDE PERSUADE?, INFORM?, ENTERTAIN? GIVE SUPPORTING DETAILS FROM THE SELECTION TO SUPPORT YOUR CHOICE OF P.I.E. CAUSE AND EFFECT CLUSTER EXPLANATION This strategy helps students recognize cause and effect relationships. This strategy may be used to look at one item as a cause. It can also be used to show one item as an effect. 1. Have students create two circles on their papers. 2. Students fill in one circle with a cause and one circle with an effect. 3. For the cause circle, the arrows representing the effects point outward (graphic #1). Students write the effects of the concept or event in the circle on the arrows. 4. For the effect circle, the arrows representing the causes point inward (graphic #2). Students write the causes leading to the particular effect on the arrows. CAUSE AND EFFECT CLUSTER ORGANIZER Graphic #1 (cause) Graphic #2 (effect) CAUSE AND EFFECT CHAIN EXPLANATION This strategy helps students recognize cause and effect relationships. The cause and effect chain may be used to look at a series of events that are a result of one another or are caused by one another, like a chain reaction. The cause and effect chain graphic organizer reinforces the idea that each CAUSE brings about a related EFFECT, that in turn each EFFECT becomes a CAUSE for the next effect, and that all CAUSES lead to the final EFFECT. The example of a trail of dominoes being knocked over often helps students visualize this relationship. If one domino does not fall, the final effect will change. 1. Distribute the Cause and Effect Chain graphic organizer. 2. Students begin the chain by writing the initial cause in the first box labeled “C.” Students continue filling in effects and causes until the chain is complete. 3. Students may be directed to enter signal words on the lines provided between the boxes. CAUSE AND EFFECT CHAIN C E C E E C C E E C C E E C FRAMED PARAGRAPH EXPLANATION This strategy helps students recognize that one effect was the result of many causes. Using the FRAMED PARAGRAPH as a guide, select an issue, topic, or event relative to your lesson. Have students analyze the issue, topic, or event, and fill in causes and effects in the appropriate spaces. Encourage students to use a variety of signal words for their transitions. FRAMED PARAGRAPH ORGANIZER: CAUSE/EFFECT FILL IN THE BLANK WITH THE APPROPRIATE ANSWER. In what we studied, we learned _________________. The possible causes for this (effect) might be _______________, ___________________, and ___________________. One problem /issue, ________________, happened because of __________________. Another reason this might have happened is because of ________________. VENN DIAGRAM EXPLANATION This strategy helps students compare and contrast information. 1. Have students draw overlapping circles. 2. Have students label the paper with a general topic heading. Then label each circle or box to represent the two concepts being compared and contrasted. 3. As the two concepts are compared, similarities should be recorded in the overlapping section. These are the things they have in common. As the two concepts are contrasted, differences should be recorded in the non-overlapping section. These are the things about the two concepts that are different. VENN DIAGRAM ORGANIZER H-MAP EXPLANATION This strategy is helpful for students comparing two topics. 1. Students create an H-Map. 2. Students label sections Topic A, Topic B, and Both A & B. 3. In the left hand column, students list qualities or characteristics that only apply to Topic A. In the right hand column, students list qualities or characteristics that apply only to Topic B. In the center section, students list all qualities or characteristics that Topic A and Topic B have in common. H-MAP ORGANIZER TOPIC A TOPIC B BOTH A & B FRAMED PARAGRAPH EXPLANATION This strategy provides students with a framework (consisting of a main idea and transition words) which can be used as a pre-writing tool. This framed paragraph guides students in developing well- formed paragraphs using the compare and contrast skill. FRAMED PARAGRAPH ORGANIZER (A)______________ and (B)_______________can be compared because they both __________________ and ________________. But they can be contrasted because (A) _____________ has (have)__________________ and_______________, whereas (B)____________has (have)_________________ and________________. VOCABULARY OVERVIEW GUIDE EXPLANATION This strategy helps students develop an association with a significant clue to a word’s meaning, as well as determine its definition. 1. Model the Vocabulary Overview Guide (V.O.G.) on a transparency or board. Guide students to follow along on their own paper. 2. Select a section to be read. Teacher or students skim the section to find new and difficult words. Limit to six words. 3. Direct students to write these words on their V.O.G. 4. With students, complete the definition of one of the words. First have students write clues which help them define the word. Then model the linking of the definition with student’s prior knowledge. Word: Avalanche Clue: snow, mountains, crashing down 7. Using information from the selected reading, students should write the definition on the designated lines. 8. Monitor students as they find definitions and clues for the vocabulary words. 9. V.O.G. can be used as a study tool. Students can pair up and use the guide, reveal the vocabulary word, and then use the clues to help remember the definition. Suggestion: Dictionaries should be used selectively. Do not let students copy the definitions. A better alternative is to encourage the use of a thesaurus. VOCABULARY OVERVIEW GUIDE Main Topic Category Word Word Clue Clue Definitions(s) Definitions(s) Word Word Clue Clue Definitions(s) Definitions(s) Word Word Clue Clue Definitions(s) Definitions(s) CONTEXT CLUES—WORD HUNT EXPLANATION 1. Review the chapter and select important or unfamiliar vocabulary terms. Distribute copies of the Word Hunt Organizer or instruct students how to set up their paper. 2. The word column is filled in with the chosen vocabulary words. Next, students begin reading the selection looking for clues or signal words located near the chosen word or that are related to the chosen word. Students list clues or signal words next to the appropriate vocabulary in the clue/signal words column. 3. Guide students in selecting the context type. The context type column is filled with one of the five types: definition, synonym, antonym, mood, or example. 4. The meaning of each vocabulary word is then found by looking at the words and phrases surrounding the vocabulary word. CONTEXT CLUES — WORD HUNT ORGANIZER WORD CLUE/SIGNAL CONTEXT MEANING WORD(S) TYPE STORY OUTLINE EXPLANATION 1. Before reading, discuss the elements of a story: character, setting, plot, point of view, theme. 2. During reading, have students fill in the information on the outline as they find it in their reading. 3. After reading, review with students all sections of the story map. Demonstrate how this outline can be used as a test review for any story or as a framework for writing a summary essay. STORY OUTLINE ORGANIZER Title: Character(s): Setting: Plot - Conflict: Plot - Rising Action: Plot - Climax: Plot - Falling Action (Denouement): Plot - Resolution: Point of View: Theme: STICKMAN NOTEMAKING EXPLANATION The purpose of this activity is to allow students the opportunity to focus on the characters or people in a reading selection. STEP 1 • Display the Stickman for students. • Explain that this exercise is used to focus on what people or characters say, do, think, and feel. • Choose a familiar character or person and fill in the Stickman so students can see the process. STEP 2 • Choose a story or reading passage for the class to read and analyze. • Fill in each section of the Stickman as a class. STEP 3 • Distribute the Stickman organizer to students. • Assign one story or reading assignment for all students to read. • Have students individually fill in the Stickman. • Have students share their work with the class and compare what they’ve written to that of their classmates. STICKMAN NOTEMAKING ORGANIZER Ideas Visions/Hopes Feelings Strengths What S/he Did Weaknesses Stickman Notemaking For describing People or a Group ELEMENTARY STORY MAP EXPLANATION STEP 1 • Display the Elementary Story Map for students. • Explain that the five elements of a story have the same meaning as the common headings shown in each section of the Map. • Explain that each story they read or write has these five elements. • Fill in the map using a common story (Cinderella, Little Red Riding Hood) so students can see the process. STEP 2 • Choose a common story for the class to read and analyze. • Fill in each section of the Elementary Story Map as a class. STEP 3 • Distribute Elementary Story Map to students. • Assign one story for all students to read. • Have students individually fill in the Elementary Story Map. • Have students share their work with the class and compare what they’ve written to that of their classmates. ELEMENTARY STORY MAP SETTING SOMEBODY WANTED BUT SO when and where character conflict climax falling action rising action resolution FIVE COMPONENTS OF PLOT DEVELOPMENT EXPLANATION 1. Distribute and display Five Components of Plot Development #1. 2. Discuss the five components of plot development. Explain that all fictional stories have a plot and that any plot can be broken down into these five components. 3. Choose a story familiar to the students and guide them through the process of completing the graphic organizer. 4. Distribute Five Components of Plot Development #2. Select a story and have students individually complete the organizer. 5. Have students share their ideas with the class. FIVE COMPONENTS OF PLOT DEVELOPMENT #1 CLIMAX _______________ _______________ RISING ACTION _______________ DENOUEMENT (ROADBLOCKS) (FALLING ACTION) RISING ACTION ___ ___ ___ ___ ______ ___ __ ___ _ ___ ___ _ CONFLICT (PROBLEMS) ___ ______ _____ ___ ___ ___ (PROBLEM) CONFLICT ___ ______ ___ ____ ____ RESOLUTION ___ ____ ___ ___ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ FIVE COMPONENTS OF PLOT DEVELOPMENT #2 _________________ _______________ _______________ _______________ ___________________ __________________ RISING ACTION ___ ___ ___ ___ ______ ___ __ ___ _ ___ ___ _ (PROBLEMS) _______________ ___ ______ _____ ___ ___ ___ ________________ CONFLICT ___ ______ ___ ____ ____ ___ ____ ___ ___ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ BIO-POEM EXPLANATION This assignment can be very useful for character analysis, the study of historical figures, or for creative writing. One of the best uses of a Bio-Poem is to have students create an Auto-Bio-Poem about themselves. • Distribute Bio-Poem HANDOUT #1. • Discuss the components with students. • Read and discuss the sample so students can appreciate the flow and rhythm of the Bio-Poem. • As a group, select an individual and fill in the template so that students can understand the process. • Distribute the Bio-Poem HANDOUT #2 and have students individually create a Bio-Poem on a person of their choice. BIO-POEM HANDOUT #2 Bio-Poem Handout # 2 ______________________ (First Name) __________, __________, __________, __________ (Four Characteristics that describe the person) Relative of ___________________ (brother, sister, daughter, son.) Lover of __________, __________, __________ (lists three things or people) Who feels __________, __________, __________ Who needs __________, __________, _________ Who fears __________, __________, __________ Who gives __________, __________, __________ Who would like to see ___________, ___________, ___________ Resident of _________________ ______________________ (Last Name) STORY FRAME EXPLANATION 1. Distribute the Story Frame Organizer to the students. 2. First, model the activity using a familiar story. 3. Have all students read the same story and fill out their own story frames. 4. Invite students to share and compare their story frames. 5. Once these preliminary activities have been done, have students use the story frame as an organizer for future reading assignments. STORY FRAME ORGANIZER Title of Story: ____________________________________ In this story, the problem starts when _________________ _______________________________________________. After that, ______________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________. Next, __________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________. Then, __________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________. The problem is finally solved when __________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________. The story ends ___________________________________ _______________________________________________. CHARACTER MAP EXPLANATION Conclusions about the characters in a story can be drawn by paying attention to what the characters say, do, think, and feel. 1. Distribute the Character Map Organizer or have students draw the organizer on their own paper. 2. During reading, have students use the information the author gives about the characters to fill in the map. • Appearance - the way the character looks • Personality - the way the character thinks or feels • Behavior - the way the character acts and reacts CHARACTER MAP ORGANIZER Appearance Personality 1. 2. How does the character look? Character What does the character think or feel? Behavior 3. How does the character act or react? SQ3R EXPLANATION Survey - Question - Read - Recite - Review Step 1 S: SURVEY 1. Have students preview the entire selection. 2. Instruct them to think about the chapter title, introductory paragraphs, headings, and pictorial information as they survey the selection. 3. Instruct students to ask themselves the following questions: "What do I think this selection is about?” "What information might the author be telling me?" Step 2 Q: QUESTION 1. Distribute the SQ3R chart or instruct students to draw a line down the middle of their papers. 2. Have students translate each heading of the selection into a question. Students write the questions in the left column. 3. Direct students to use open-ended questions - questions that cannot be answered with "yes" or "no". 4. Encourage students to write questions that begin with words such as, "Who," "What," "Where," "Why," "How," or "List," "Name." Step 3 R1: READ 1. Have students read the information under the first heading in the selection to find the answers to their questions. Students may need to ask more questions and some of their questions may need to be revised. 2. Have students write answers to the questions in the right column. SQ3R EXPLANATION (cont’d) Step 4 R2: RECITE 1. Have students cover the material they just read. 2. Students ask themselves each question and say or write the answer. 3. Have students reread the text to find answers for questions they could not answer. Step 5 R3: REVIEW 1. Have students review their notes. They should try to recall the main points of the selection. 2. Have students reread each main heading and think of details that were important. Remind students that more reviewing helps them to remember longer. 3. Encourage students to review again before a test or exam SQ3R ORGANIZER QUESTIONS ANSWERS K-W-L CHART EXPLANATION KNOW - WANT - LEARN The K-W-L strategy provides a structure for organizing information students know about a topic, noting what students want to know, and listing what has been learned and is yet to be learned. 1. Ask students to fold a sheet of paper into three columns. Label the columns K, W, and L. 2. Have students preview the text, surveying the title, section headings, pictures, captions, etc. to familiarize themselves with the topic. This introduction to the material may be done as a whole-class brainstorming activity. 3. In the first column (K), have students list what they already know or think they know about the topic. 4. In the second column (W), have students list questions about what they want to know or want to learn from the text. 5. After reading the text, students should write the answers to their questions in the third column (L). Not all of the students' questions may be answered in the text. For these questions have students state a standard response, i.e., "The text did not provide the answer," or "The story did not provide enough information." KWL K W L WHAT YOU KNOW WHAT YOU WANT TO KNOW WHAT YOU LEARNED SEQUENCE CHART EXPLANATION This strategy helps students recognize organizational patterns in text, steps in a process, and the importance of sequential order. 1. Distribute copies of the Sequence Chart or on lined notebook paper, have students create their own organizer: • Draw rectangular boxes that run the width of the paper. • Skip two lines and draw another box. • Each box should be three to four lines long. • Students should be able to fit five rectangular boxes on one page. • In the space between each box, draw a down arrow to show that each box sequentially leads to the one below. 2. Students use this sequence chart to show the flow of information. This chart may be used for: • Following instructions - What do you do first? Next? Then? After that? • Sequence of events - What happened first? Second? Third? Last? To help students further understand the links between the boxes, have students provide transition words or phrases between the boxes. SEQUENCE CHART ORGANIZER ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ WEBBING MAP EXPLANATION Webbing shows students how to link ideas to text. It helps students determine relationships between ideas. This strategy can be used before, during, and after reading. It is also useful when organizing information for reports. Before Reading: 1. Choose a word or concept that relates to the lesson and write it in a circle on the board. 2. Have students brainstorm what they know or think they know about the subject and write a list. 3. Next, have students find common relationships in the brainstorming list and categorize them under general headings. 4. Attach sub-circles (see organizer) to the center circle. Write the general headings in the sub-circles and attach arms to each one so that appropriate information for each general heading can be added. During and After Reading: 1. Have students read the assignment, jotting notes about new ideas while they are reading. Have students add all new ideas they learned from the text to their brainstorming list. 2. Ask students to organize any new information under existing categories, adding additional categories as needed. WEBBING MAP ORGANIZER Brainstorming List KNOW LEARNED QAR EXPLANATION QUESTION-ANSWER RELATIONSHIP This strategy helps students recognize where the answers to questions come from. 1. Read or post the questions that need to be answered from reading the selection. Study or review questions will work, or you can also make up questions of your own. 2. Questions should be created so that they belong to one of the following four categories: Right There - The information for the answer is found directly in the text and is easy to find. Think and Search - The information for the answer is found in the text, but is pulled from different parts of the text. The wording in the question may be different form the wording in the text. These questions are a little more difficult to answer. Author and Me - The information for the answer is found in two places, in the text and from students' background knowledge and experiences. Students will need to put together information the author tells them and information they already know. On My Own - The information for the answer is not in the text. Students need to think about what they already know from their own experiences to answer this type of question. These questions can be answered without reading the text. QAR EXPLANATION (cont’d) Provide an overview of the different places students can find answers to questions, emphasizing that not all answers are directly stated in the text. In the four-column QAR organizer, have students write the questions in column one. In column two, students identify which of the four types of questions it is. In column three, students write their answer to the question. In column four, students write what they had to do to get their answer. QAR Question Type of Question Answer What did you do to (question category) find the answer? FREE FORM MAPPING EXPLANATION 1. Present and distribute the Free Form Mapping Rubric so that students know what is expected of them from this activity and how they will be evaluated. 2. After students have read an assignment, organize them into cooperative groups. Give each group a large sheet of paper and a set of colored markers. Tell them to decide upon the important ideas in their reading assignment and come up with a way of presenting ideas on paper through words, pictures, and diagrams. The result is not nearly as important as the thinking process involved in discussing content and deciding how to organize it. No two maps will be the same. 3. Explain to students that there is no right way to map their ideas. The only criterion is to represent the main ideas and their inter-relationships. Encourage students to use words, pictures, phrases, circles, squares, or whatever creative shapes or designs they feel best depict the information or their analysis of the information. Students should create a one-sentence summary at the bottom of the map. 4. Have each group switch maps with another group. Using the rubric, each group evaluates the other group’s map. Then each group presents the evaluated map and explains their evaluations. Maps can be posted to classroom walls to be used as review. FREE FORM MAPPING RUBRIC This rubric should be shared with students so that they will know what is expected of them. It can be used to evaluate student work, and it can be distributed to students to evaluate their own work. FORMAT 4 3 2 1 Pictures ____ ____ ____ ____ Develops One-Sentence Summary ____ ____ ____ ____ Neat ____ ____ ____ ____ Title ____ ____ ____ ____ CONTENT 4 3 2 1 Uses Key Vocabulary Words ____ ____ ____ ____ Identifies Text ____ ____ ____ ____ Reflects Main Idea ____ ____ ____ ____ Uses Examples ____ ____ ____ ____ Locate, Organize, and Interpret Information Reference Materials Almanacs An almanac is a terrific source of up-to-date facts about all kinds of topics. Almanacs are largely made up of lists, which are updated once a year. Almanacs include facts and figures on a wide variety of topics, including countries around the world, federal and state governments, the economy, current events, and sports statistics. Use an almanac to find facts from a particular year, such as: • the number of music videos that sold 50,000 copies or more • the number of immigrants to the United States from the West Indies • the population of Florida Not everything in an almanac appears in a list, however. Almanacs also contain tightly condensed, fact-filled paragraphs on a number of topics, including the following: • an overview of world history • biographical sketches of the presidents of the United States • brief discussions of the features and history of each state • an overview of major events occurring during the year Atlases An atlas is a book of maps and other geographical information. World atlases cover the globe while regional atlases cover a specific area. Historical atlases may show a place over a period of time. The name of the atlas almost always gives an indication of what kind of maps it contains. Locate, Organize, and Interpret Information Reference Materials Use an atlas to find: • correct spellings of place names • borders and boundaries • bodies of water (oceans, glaciers, rivers, lakes, etc.) • land formations (continents, mountain ranges, deserts, plains, etc.) • lines of longitude, such as the prime meridian • lines of latitude, such as the equator • the international date line (and in some cases, time zones) • population statistics (of countries and major cities) Encyclopedias One of the best sources of general information is an encyclopedia. It contains facts and explanations about almost any topic. Many encyclopedia entries contain drawings, diagrams, maps, and photographs. Some encyclopedias contain general information about a wide variety of topics, others deal only with a particular field. For example, an encyclopedia of sports or medical information is devoted to a specific topic. There are two ways to find information in an encyclopedia. One is to look up the topic being researched in the index. An encyclopedia index is usually found in a separate volume or two. Each topic in the index will have one or more listings that tell you where to look in other volumes. Locate, Organize, and Interpret Information Reference Materials Another way to find a topic is to use the letters on the spines of the encyclopedia volumes. For example, if “panther” is being researched look in the “P” volume. Then use the guide words at the top of each page to locate the topic within the book. Dictionaries Dictionaries tell us what words mean and how to spell and pronounce them. They also show the history of the word. Use a dictionary to find: • correct spellings • definitions • parts of speech (such as whether a word is used as a verb, a noun, or an adjective) • plurals (one mouse, two mice; one house, two houses) • verb tenses (run, running, ran, has run) • word origins (a history of the other languages the word was once a part of) • synonyms (other words that have the same meaning) • sample sentences Thesauruses A thesaurus is a book that contains synonyms and antonyms for words. It is very useful for writing a report or doing crossword puzzles and can also be used to find definitions. Locate, Organize, and Interpret Information Reference Materials Newspapers Newspapers are usually printed daily, but some may be issued weekly. They contain very current news articles, interesting feature stories on topics of local or widespread interest, editorials that tell the editors’ opinions about the topic, and letters to the editor written by community members who have something they want to say to the newspaper editor or the public. Newspapers carry advertisements designed to sell products. They also contain public information such as announcements of recent births, engagements, weddings, anniversaries, and obituaries; police bulletins telling who was arrested for what type of crime; and government notices, such as city council proceedings or other civic business. Magazines Magazines are usually printed either weekly or monthly, though some are issued less often than that. Magazines almost always focus on a particular topic, such as sports, current events, or famous people. Magazines are published less often than newspapers. Major stories are usually covered in greater depth in a magazine than they would be in a newspaper. Like a newspaper, magazines often contain news articles, feature stories, editorials, letters to the editor, and advertising. Magazines usually restrict themselves to specific topics or areas of interest. Locate, Organize, and Interpret Information Reference Materials To identify the type of resource, remember: • titles of books, movies, and magazines are printed in italics • titles of articles and stories are printed in regular type within quotation marks Journals An even more narrowly focused type of magazine is called a professional journal. This type of periodical is targeted to a particular group of professionals. The targeted audience can usually be determined by looking carefully at the title. For example, The Science Teacher, is a journal for high school science teachers. Another type of journal is a personal journal. A personal journal is actually a diary and is rarely ever published. A notable exception is Anne Frank’s Diary of a Young Girl. Various kinds of personal journals include a scientist’s observations, a record of daily events and a person’s thoughts and feelings about them, or a person’s experiences while traveling. Biographies A biography is a book someone has written about another person’s life. Biographies rely heavily on fact, but may also give the writer’s opinion. Locate, Organize, and Interpret Information Reference Materials Autobiographies An autobiography is a book someone has written about his or her own life. Autobiographies combine facts with opinions. Readers should keep in mind that the author may want to present the most flattering view of his or her own life. Adapted from: Florida FCAT Reading Coach & Sharpen Up! THE 5 W’S & HOW CHART EXPLANATION The 5 W’s & How Chart is used to help students identify the main idea and the related supporting ideas of a lesson, text, or concept. The organizer contains six questions that help students organize the details of the text. The visual pattern of the chart creates a framework for students to sort the information. 1. Distribute copies of the 5 W’s & How Chart Organizer or have students create their own. 2. Before reading a text or introducing a new concept, remind students to look for and identify the answers to the six questions while they are reading the text or listening to the presentation. Remind students that the question "Who?" will not always be answered with a person’s name. Sometimes the "Who?" of a text can be an event. 3. After reading, students should fill in the answers to the six questions. 4. After all six questions have been answered, students should create a main idea sentence from the information they have organized. An additional box can be added and labeled Main Idea or students could write their main idea sentence on the back of their paper. Note: Stress that the main idea always includes specifically "Who...did what." Some of the other information may be included but is not necessary to create a main idea sentence. 5W’s and HOW CHART ORGANIZER Who? What? When? Where? Why? How? FACTS CHART EXPLANATION This strategy is used to help students identify the main idea of a paragraph of text and its supporting facts. This strategy is helpful for students who have difficulty comprehending text. With this strategy the text is broken down paragraph by paragraph, fact by fact. 1. Distribute copies of the Facts Chart Organizer. Students should enter the concept or subject of the reading selection. Each column represents a paragraph of the text and should be labeled to correspond to the paragraph being read. Students can create their own organizers (see sample organizer). 2. Before reading, remind students to look at the text one paragraph at a time, selecting the main idea and supporting facts for each paragraph. 3. After reading the paragraph, students should fill in the information on their Facts Chart. Multiple pages can be created. A whole chapter or section may be selected for this activity based on the students’ grasp of the content. FACTS CHART ORGANIZER Concept: ________________________ Paragraph 1 Paragraph 2 Paragraph 3 Main Idea Main Idea Main Idea Supporting Facts Supporting Facts Supporting Facts HERRINGBONE TECHNIQUE EXPLANATION This graphic organizer is used to help students identify the main idea and the related supporting ideas of a lesson, text or concept. It contains six questions that help students organize the details of the text. The visual pattern of the herringbone creates a framework for students to sort the information. 1. Students label all of the lines of the herringbone with the six questions as shown on the sample organizer. 2. Remind students to look for and identify the answers to the six questions while they are reading the text or listening to the presentation. Remind students that the question “Who?” will not always be answered with a person’s name, or proper noun. Discuss which topics may be considered a character or subject of a text. 3. After reading, students should fill in the answers to the six questions. 4. After all six questions have been answered, students should create a main idea sentence from the information they have organized. This main idea can be written across the backbone of the herringbone, or for easier readability, as a sentence at the bottom of the page. Note: Stress that the main idea always includes specifically "Who...did what." Some of the other information may be included but is not necessary to create a main idea sentence. HERRINGBONE TECHNIQUE ORGANIZER MAIN IDEA 1. WH E? O? 2. H ER W 2. 1. (D ? ID )W OW 1. HA 2. H T? 2. 1. W Y? HE 1. H N? 2. W UMBRELLAS OF UNDERSTANDING EXPLANATION This graphic organizer is used to help students identify the main idea and the related supporting ideas of a lesson, text or concept. The visual effect allows students to see how the main idea covers the primary idea of the material and the details are used to support it. 1. Inside the umbrella, write the main idea in a complete sentence. 2. On the lines next to the handle, write details that support the main idea. UMBREALLAS OF UNDERSTANDING ORGANIZER 1. Inside the umbrella, write the main idea in a complete sentence. 2. On the lines next to the handle, write details that support the main idea. _______________________ _________________________ _______________________ _________________________ _______________________ _________________________ _______________________ _________________________ _______________________ _________________________ _______________________ _________________________ _______________________ _________________________ MIND MAP EXPLANATION A mind map is a graphic representation of thought using imagery, key words, art, color, and creativity. It is a whole brain activity that allows visual learners to tap the right side of their brain. It can be used during all stages of learning: before, during, and after. 1. On a blank sheet of paper draw an image at the center of the paper. Label the image or symbol with a word. 2. Draw other items associated with that central image around the page. 3. Draw lines between the images on the page establishing connections. Label items or connections with key words. Use color, symbols, signs, and codes for additional emphasis. This activity allows students to confirm they have chosen the correct main idea or theme because all of their images/details will directly connect to the center of their papers. If students do not have the correct main idea, they will quickly see this because they will not be able to make any connections. FACT OR OPINION CHART EXPLANATION 1. Discuss the difference between fact and opinion with students. 2. Preview the chapter or selection and create statements of fact and opinion based on the reading. 3. Write each statement in the first column of the Fact and Opinion Chart. 4. After reading each statement, the student decides if the statement can be proven. If the statement can be proven, it is a fact. If it cannot be proven, it is an opinion. Have students write “Fact” or “Opinion” in the second column. 5. During reading, students give evidence that proves the factual statements and give explanations for the opinion statements. Students put their answers in the third column. 6. Review the statements and evidence with the students to ensure mastery of the concept. Note: A statement can be negative, but still be a factual statement because it can be proven. The statement, “Abraham Lincoln was not president during World War I,” can be proven, therefore, it is fact. Fact or Opinion Chart Remember: Ask yourself” Can it be proven?” If your answer is “yes,” it is a fact. If your answer is “no,” it is an opinion. Statement Fact or Opinion Explanation UNIVERSAL FACTS COMMONLY KNOWN FACTS AND “UNIVERSALLY” HELD OPINIONS This strategy is used to help students understand the difference between commonly known facts and “universally” held opinions. Students think that when most people agree with something, it must be a fact. This is often seen in advertisements, where a fact and an opinion are put next to each other, where the opinion buys the power of a fact. Ask students to contribute statements that they think everyone in the class would agree with. After 10 or so “universally held statements” have been gathered, discuss which are facts and which are opinions and the reasons why. Point out that commonly known facts and ”universally” held opinions are going to be believed by most people, but the difference is that the fact can be proven and the opinion cannot. Commonly Known Facts 1. If you put your hand on a red-hot burner of a stove you will burn your hand. 2. George W. Bush is the President of the United States of America. 3. If you take ice cream out of the freezer, it will melt. “Universally” Held Opinions 1. Osama Bin Laden deserves to be punished for masterminding the destruction of the Twin Towers. 2. You should brush your teeth twice a day. 3. The United States of America deserved to win its gold medals in the Olympics. It is also important to point out that unpopular facts are still facts because THEY CAN BE PROVEN and “universally” held opinions are still opinions because they cannot be proven. For example: “The Northside High School’s football team trounced our school 49 to 0.” Just because the team lost the game with an embarrassingly lopsided score, does NOT mean that this statement is not a fact.
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