Docstoc

Eight Empathy

Document Sample
Eight Empathy Powered By Docstoc
					      Development Through the Lifespan
                              2nd edition
                        Laura E. Berk
                               Chapter 8
 Emotional and Social Development in
           Early Childhood
PowerPoint Presentations Produced by:
           Joe Rizzo - Professor of Behavioral Sciences
           Rick Lizotte - Curriculum Developer
           Felix Rizvanov - Instructional Designer
             Northern Essex Community College


                         001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e   1
     Development Through the
         Lifespan 2nd edition
                     Berk




           Chapter 8

Emotional and Social Development
       in Early Childhood

           001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e   2
          ERIKSON’S STAGES
Infancy                          Basic Trust vs. Mistrust
Toddlerhood                      Autonomy vs. Shame/Doubt
Early Childhood                  Initiative vs. Guilt

Middle Childhood                 Industry vs. Inferiority
Adolescence                      Identity vs. Identity Confusion
Early Adulthood                  Intimacy vs. Isolation
Middle Adulthood                 Generativity vs. Stagnation
Late Adulthood                   Ego Integrity vs. Despair
                   001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e              3
            ERIKSON’S THEORY
• Basic conflict of early
  childhood:
  Initiative versus Guilt

  – Play fosters initiative and
    develops a conscience
    that is not too strict.
  – Play develops new skills.




                        001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e   4
          Erikson’s Theory


• Negative outcome is an overly strict
  superego.
• Causes child to feel too much guilt




               001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e   5
SELF-DEVELOPMENT

  • Self-concept
    – Sum total of attributes, abilities,
      attitudes, and values of an
      individual
  • Defines who he or she is




       001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e   6
     Foundations of Self-Concept

• Describe self in
  concrete terms.
  – By 3 1/2, describe self
    in terms of beliefs,
    emotions, and attitudes
  – Do not reference
    dispositions


                  001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e   7
Foundations of Self-Concept (cont.)

• Struggles over objects are efforts at
  boundaries between self and others.
  – Firmer sense of self permits cooperation.




                001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e   8
   Emergence of Self-Esteem

• Self-esteem
  – Sense of self-worth
  – Competencies affect emotions, behavior,
    and adjustment.
  – Preschoolers usually rate own ability high.
  – High self-esteem      initiative
  – Criticism undermines self-esteem.

                001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e    9
 EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT

• Gains in representation, language, and
  self-concept support emotional
  development.

• Rise in self-conscious emotions such as
  shame, embarrassment, guilt, envy, and
  pride

              001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e   10
         Understanding Emotion
• Children refer to signs of emotion.
• Ability to interpret, predict, and change
  others' feelings
• Conflicting cues
  – Focus on most obvious
  – Neglecting the relevant




                  001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e   11
    Emotional Self-Regulation

• Language contributes to
  self-regulation.
• Emotions blunted by
  – Restricting sensory input,
    talking to oneself or
    changing goals
• Emotional outbursts less
  frequent through
  preschool
                001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e   12
 Emotional Self-Regulation (cont.)

• Temperament affects
  self-regulation.
• Environment affects
  capacity to cope.
• Imagination
  – Difficulty separating
    reality and appearance 
    fears

                  001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e   13
     Self-Conscious Emotions
• Injury or enhancement of self
• Audience necessary for self-conscious
  emotions
  – Achievement and moral behaviour




               001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e   14
                       Empathy

• Altruistic behaviour
• Does not always yield kindness
• Can escalate into distress.
   – Focuses on self rather than on
     person in need
• React to suffering of others in
  same way parents respond to
  them


                      001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e   15
            Hoffman -EMPATHY
seeing how others feel and relating that to oneself

 • Global Empathy (see the feeling of another & mirror
   that behaviour- innate behaviour, mostly emotional)
 • Egocentric (see the feeling of another & relate to how
   you would want comfort -some cognition strong
   emotion)
 • Empathy for feelings (see the feeling and match for
   understanding but action relate to helping -more
   cognition than emotion)
 – Empathy for condition (see the feeling, know the
   context & possibilities -strongly cognitive + emotion)

                   001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e           16
                         Eisenberg
Moral behaviour is caring, sharing or doing “good” for others
          called prosocial behaviour or altruism

   • Hedonistic (self)
   • Needs- oriented (others needs related to how
     the individual would feel)
   • Approval oriented (parents, friends approve)
   • Self-reflective, empathetic (good of group, a
     good thing to do)
   • Internalised value system


                     001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e        17
                  PEER RELATIONS
• Advances in Peer Sociability (Parten)
   – Nonsocial activity
      • Onlooker behavior and solitary play
   – Parallel play
      • Plays near other children with similar materials
          – Does not interact.
   – Highest level
      • Associative play
          – Engaged in separate activities, but interact
      • Cooperative play
          – Actions are directed toward a common goal



                              001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e   18
Recent Evidence on Peer Sociability

 • Play emerges in Parten’s order.
    – Forms overlap.
 • Type, not just amount, of social activity
   changes.
 • Most play is positive and constructive.
 • Sociodramatic play is common.
    – Supporting cognitive and social development


                    001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e   19
    Cultural Variations

• Collectivist societies
  – Peer sociability takes different forms than
    in individualistic cultures.
• Beliefs about play affect interaction.




           001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e   20
               First Friendships

• Basic to emotional and social development
• 4- to 7-year-olds regard friendship as pleasurable
  play.
• Spontaneity and intimacy characterise
  friendships.
• Parental influences
  – Show children how to initiate their own peer contacts.
  – Guidance and examples of how to act
• Some children have difficulty with peer relations.
                     001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e     21
                 MORALITY

•   By 2, act with alarm to aggression
•   At first morality is externally controlled
•   Later regulated by inner standards
•   Moral individuals have principles that
    they follow in a variety of situations.



                  001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e   22
    Psychoanalytic Perspective
• Freud places burden on parents.
  – Moral development complete by 5 to 6
  – Superego
• Children whose parents use threats or
  physical force
  – Show little guilt after harming others
  – Show poor self-control
• Induction
  – Effects of misbehaviour are communicated to the
    child.
  – Encourages empathy and prosocial behaviour

                   001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e     23
 Behaviorism and Social Learning Theory
• Imitate models who demonstrate
  appropriate behaviour
• More likely to copy prosocial actions of
  person if:
  –   Consistent between assertions and behaviour
  –   Warm
  –   Competent
  –   Powerful



                     001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e   24
             Punishment

• Justified when immediate obedience is
  necessary
  – Long term: Warmth and reasoning better


• Punishment promotes momentary
  compliance.


               001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e   25
            Harsh Punishment

• Provides model of aggression

• Teaches to avoid the punishing adult

• Offers relief to adults, who are then
  reinforced for using coercive discipline

              001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e   26
Alternatives to Harsh Punishment

• Time out
  – Removal from setting until ready to act
    appropriately
• Withdrawal of privileges




                001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e   27
Alternatives to Harsh Punishment
• Effectiveness of
  punishment is
  increased when
  – Used consistently
  – In a warm parent-
    child relationship
  – Accompanied by
    an explanation
• Encourage and
  reward good
  conduct                 Figure 8.1
                   001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e   28
     Cognitive-Developmental
           Perspective
• Children actively think about social rules.
• React to violations of moral rules more than
  social conventions
• Understand moral rules because they protect
  people's rights and welfare
• Preschoolers who are disliked by peers due
  to aggression show difficulties with moral
  reasoning.

                001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e   29
   Development of Aggression
• Instrumental aggression
  – Obtaining an object, privilege, or space
    with no intent to harm
  – Declines with age

• Hostile aggression
  – Intended to harm another individual
  – Increases between 4 and 7.


                001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e   30
  Development of Aggression (cont.)

– Overt aggression
  • Harms others by injury or threat




– Relational aggression
  • Damages peer relationships




                      001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e   31
      Gender and Aggression
• Boys more aggressive
• Male sex hormones contribute.
• As 2-year-olds become aware of gender
  stereotypes
  – Aggression drops off in girls.
  – Maintained in boys
• Girls express hostility through relational
  aggression.

                 001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e   32
           Family and Aggression
• Boys expect less disapproval and
  are less guilty over aggression.
• Spreads from one member to
  another
• More likely to command and punish
  sons
• Overlook fighting among boys
• Aggressive children
  – Rejected by peers, fail in school, and
    seek out deviant peer groups


                      001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e   33
         Television and Aggression

• 62% of U.S./Aust programs contain
  violence.
• Preschoolers do not understand much of
  what they see.
  – May increase willingness to imitate.
• TV violence hardens children to
  aggression.
                 001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e   34
      Controlling Aggression

• Teach adaptive ways of interacting

• Social problem-solving training
  – Teaches how to resolve conflicts through
    discussing and trying successful strategies




                001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e   35
GENDER TYPING
• Process of developing
  gender roles
• Gender-linked preferences
  and behaviours




001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e   36
        Gender-Stereotyped
       Beliefs and Behaviour
• Age 2, children begin to label their own
  sex and others
• Categorise sex-type behaviours
  – Boys: Active, assertive, and aggressive
  – Girls: Fearful, dependent, compliant, and
    sensitive
• Gender beliefs stronger in preschool
  years
                001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e   37
         Genetic Influences on
           Gender Typing
• Maccoby argues hormones lead to rough,
  noisy boys and calm, gentle girls.
• Children choose same-sex partners with
  interests and behaviours compatible with own.
• Social forces build on heredity to develop
  gender roles.


                 001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e   38
   Environmental Influences on
         Gender Typing

• Family
  – Parents promote play with gender-appropriate
    toys.
  – Believe boys and girls should be raised
    differently
  – Children with opposite-sex siblings have
    opportunity to imitate and cross-gender play.
  – Boys more gender-typed by parents
             001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e   39
   Environmental Influences on
     Gender Typing (cont.)
• Teachers
  – Encourage gender role conformity
  – Girls encouraged in adult activities at preschool
• Peers
  – Same-sex peers reinforce gender-typed play
• Television
  – Gender stereotyping in programs for children



                   001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e       40
            Gender Identity
• Image as masculine or feminine
• Androgyny
  – Identity high on both masculine and
    feminine traits
• Masculine and androgynous people
  – Higher self-esteem




                001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e   41
  Emergence of Gender Identity

• Social learning
  – Acquired through modelling and
    reinforcement


• Cognitive-developmental
  – Acquire gender constancy before gender-
    typed responses

               001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e   42
          Gender Constancy

• Understanding that sex remains the
  same even if clothing, hairstyle, and
  activities change

  – Not present until the end of preschool
  – May be due to lack of opportunity to learn
    about genital differences


                001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e   43
         Gender Schema Theory
• Information-
  processing approach
  – Environmental
    pressures, child's
    cognitions shape
    gender role
• Organize experiences
  into gender schemes.
  – Masculine and                    Figure 8.2
    feminine categories




                         001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e   44
  Reducing Gender Stereotyping in
         Young Children

• Society promotes gender equality.
• Adults can remove stereotyping from
  own behaviour.
• Explain that interests and skills should
  determine a person's occupations and
  activities.


               001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e   45
               CHILD REARING

• Child-Rearing Styles
  – Demandingness
    • High standards for children
  – Responsiveness
    • Accepting and responsive


  – Authoritative Child Rearing
    • Demanding and responsive; fair and
      reasonable
       – Children happier and relaxed

                       001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e   46
001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e   47
    Child-Rearing Styles (cont.)

• Authoritarian Child Rearing
  – Demanding but not responsive to
    needs/rights
  – Obedience valued
  – Children anxious, withdrawn, unhappy, and
    hostile if frustrated
     • Boys: Anger and defiance
     • Girls: Dependent and retreat from challenges

                  001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e      48
    Child-Rearing Styles (cont.)

• Permissive Child Rearing
  – Responsive but undemanding
  – Overly tolerant
  – Children
    •   Immature
    •   Have difficulty controlling impulses
    •   Demanding and dependent on adults
    •   Less persistent

                   001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e   49
 What Makes Authoritative Child
    Rearing So Effective?
• Associated with maturity, self-esteem, and
  academic achievement in children
• Fair and reasonable control
• Provides model of concern and assertiveness
• Parents’ demands are tied to children’s
  capacities.



                001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e   50
           Cultural Variations
• Chinese describe parenting as demanding.
• Hispanic and Asian Pacific Islanders
  – Parental control by the father paired with maternal
    warmth
• African-American mothers often rely on adult-
  centered approach.
  – Expect immediate obedience
• Uninvolved parents
  – Little commitment to caregiver role
  – Can be a form of child neglect

                   001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e     51
          Child Maltreatment
• Increase in public concern
  – Qld Government responses
• Many cases now reported (teachers, parents,
  church, family, friends)
• Includes physical, sexual, emotional, or
  psychological abuse or neglect
• Largest number of sexual abuse victims
  identified in middle childhood.



                 001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e   52
  Origins of Child Maltreatment
• The Family
  – More likely to be abused
    • Premature or sick babies
    • The difficult, inattentive, and overactive
    • Those with developmental problems
  – Once started, becomes self-sustaining
    family relationship
  – Parental stress


                  001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e   53
Origins of Child Maltreatment (cont.)
• The community
  – Abusive parents isolated from social supports
  – Mistrust and avoid others
  – Few links between family and community
• The larger culture
  – Society views violence as appropriate to solve
    problems.
  – In U.S., laws against maltreatment, but support for
    the use of physical force in parent-child relations.
  – Child abuse rare where physical punishment is not
    accepted.

                   001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e     54
 Consequences of Maltreatment

• Abused children show learning and
  adjustment problems.
• Aggressive behaviour
• At school
  – Noncompliance, poor motivation, cognitive
    immaturity interfere with achievement.


                001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e   55
   Preventing Maltreatment

• Family, community, and overall societal
  interventions (criminal codes, publicity,
  community standards)

• Social supports to ease parental stress

• Separating abusive parent from child
               001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e   56

				
DOCUMENT INFO