The Integumentary System by jizhen1947

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									The Integumentary System II


      March 1, 2007
       BIOL 203
      Karen Kraus
                        Metamorphosis

• Ceruminous glands
     • modified apocrine sweat gland
     • cerumen
• Mammary glands
     • modified apocrine sweat gland
     • milk
                        Every 3000 miles

•   Sebaceous, or oil glands
•   Associated with hair follicles
•   simple acinar (alveolar), holocrine glands
•   sebum
       • moisturizes skin and hair
       • prevents dehydration
       • bactericide
       • androgen-regulated release
                               Metabolism

• BMR is the MR under standardized
  conditions
      • fasting state, reclined, relaxed, normal
        room temperature, rested
• determined by surface area (size),
  fat/muscle ratio (gender), age
• other conditions : exercise, pregnancy, heat,
  stress, hormones, some foods
                  Human thermostat

•   Radiation
•   Conduction
•   Convection
•   Evaporation
                      Temperate Zone

• Core of the body
• Shell of the body
         Controlling the thermostat

• Turning it up
     • metabolism, shivering,
       vasoconstriction, behavior
• Turning it down
     • radiation, convection/conduction,
       sweating, vasodilation, behavior
                     Negative feedback

• Thermoreceptors
• Afferent pathways to the hypothalamus
• Efferent pathways to muscles, blood
  vessels, sweat glands or other effectors
         Are you trying to refrigerate the neighborhood?


•   Hypothermia
•   Hyperthermia
•   Heat stroke
•   Heat exhaustion
•   Fever
              It’s getting hot in here

• Pyogenic substances
• Endogenic vs. exogenic pyogens
• Homeostatic mechanism
                        Burn, baby, burn

•   Extreme thermal injury (heat or cold)
•   Corrosives (acids, bases)
•   Electrical injury
•   UV radiation
                         6 Degrees of….

•   First degree burn
•   Second degree burn
•   Third degree burn
•   Rule of 9s
                          Unbalanced

• Cancers
     • squamous cell
     • basal cell
     • melanoma
     • Kaposi’s sarcoma
                            Still unbalanced
•   Carbuncle (furuncle)
•   Fever blister
•   Contact dermatitis
•   Bed sore (decubitus ulcer)
•   Epidermolysis bullosa
•   Impetigo
•   Psoriasis
•   Vitiligo
•   Acne vulgaris
       Mummy, mummy, I’m scared!

•   Bones
•   Joints
•   Associated cartilages
•   Support
•   Protection
•   Movement
•   Minerals
•   Hematopoiesis
           That bone’s got some class

•   Classified by shape and origin
•   Cartilage vs. membrane bone
•   Long
•   Short
•   Flat
•   Irregular
                    Electives

•   Sesamoid
•   Wormian
•   Pneumatic
•   Heterotrophic
•   Accessory
         Macroscopic Bone Anatomy

•   Periosteum
•   Cancellous (spongy) bone
•   Compact (dense, lamellar) bone
•   Long bone structure
        • diaphysis
        • epiphysis
        • medullary cavity
        • endosteum
                        More Mac

• Flat bone structure
     • diploe
     • red marrow
       cavity
     • trabeculae
               He’s a growing boy...

• Nutrient foramen
• Osteogenic layer
• Epiphyseal plate

								
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