emotion Empathy

					CHAPTER 13
DEBATES:
 First, what are emotions?
    Turn to your neighbor(s) and compile a list of
     measurable and unique emotions.

 Which comes first our physiological arousal and then
  our emotional response or vice versa?
 Does cognition always precede emotion?
THEORIES OF EMOTION
 James-Lange theory: Your emotions follow your
  physiological response. We feel our heart pounding
  and express fear, we strike out and express anger.
 BUT are our body’s responses distinct enough to evoke
  different emotions? Does a racing heart signal fear,
  anger, or love?
James-Lange review
 To experience emotion means that we are aware of our
  body’s response to an arousing event.
 Basically, our brain interprets what our body is feeling
  and we label it as an emotion.
THEORIES OF EMOTION
 Cannon-Bard theory: physiological arousal and our
 emotional experience occur simultaneously. The
 stimulus is routed to both the cortex for emotion and
 the sympathetic nervous system for physical
 responses. The implication is that our heart begins to
 pound as we experience fear. One does not cause the
 other.
THEORIES OF EMOTION
 It would seem Cannon-Bard is more plausible than
  James-Lange, but some research strengthens J-L
  such as…
 Therapy to control emotions by “going through the
 motions” of the emotion we want to feel, ie “smile
 therapy” (mini experiment, next slide)
THEORIES OF EMOTIONS
 Spinal cord injured patients feel less intense emotions
  mentally when they cannot feel the physical part but more
  intensely when they do feel the physical part (lump in
  throat)
 This research supports the necessity for the physiological
  arousal being necessary for emotions, but it doesn’t
  support J-L or C-B specifically.
THEORIES OF EMOTION
 Schachter’s two-factor theory: physical arousal +
  cognitive label >> emotions. For example, heart
  pounding, thought, “I feel scare.” >> fear emotion.
 Arousal fuels emotion and cognitions channels it.
 There is often a spill over effect of arousal from one
  emotion to other emotions.
Two-Factor theory review
 TWO components of emotion: physical arousal and a
  cognitive label (J-L and C-B did not consider
  cognition)
 This allows for distinction between emotions that have
  similar physical responses such as increase respiration
  and heart rate, sweating…is it anxiety or is it love (OR
  is there a difference??)
  http://www.thepsychfiles.com/2008/01/29/episode-
  44-human-emotions-the-two-factor-theory/
PHYSIOLOGY OF EMOTION
 Different parts of the limbic system when stimulated
  can evoke fear to anger. (Charles Whitman)
 Right hemisphere, more negative emotions
 Left hemisphere, with more dopamine receptors, more
  positive emotions.
 States of arousal look and feel differently…or do
  they???
PHYSIOLOGY OF EMOTION
 Polygraphs pick up on our physical responses to
  arousal.
 By using control questions, polygraphers are able to
  detect low levels of arousal. High levels are a sign of
  discomfort and possibly a lie.
 What are some problems with polygraphs?
GENDER DIFFERENCES IN EMOTIONS
 Females
    Better at reading emotional cues
    More likely to describe selves as “empathetic”
    More likely to express empathy (though little difference
     in genders’ physiology with regards to feeling empathy)
    Tend to show more emotional expressions
CULTURE AND EMOTIONS
 Most emotions and expressions are universal across
  cultures and ages.
 Differences exist in the amount of emotion expressed.
   INDIVIDUALISTIC cultures (western and Australia)
    members tend to be more expressive of emotions.
   COLLECTIVISTIC cultures (more communal oriented)
    such as eastern/Asian, tend not to show as much
    emotion except those emotions that encourage
    interdependence (sympathy, respect…) in order to
    preserve social order and harmony.
*Money does NOT buy happiness!
 Though Americans are twice as rich (as they used to
  be) they are not twice as happy.
 Economic growth in affluent countries has shown no
  apparent boost to morale or social well-being.
 Research shows those who strive for the most wealth
  tend to have lower sense of well-being.
So, just how many emotions are
there?
 Izard says 10: joy, interest/excitement, surprise,
  sadness, anger, disgust, contempt, fear, shame, and
  guilt.
 Others say to include love, but Izard feel love is a
  combination of joy and interest.
                       FEAR
 People can learn to fear almost anything through
  observation or through experience.
 There are some things we are genetically predisposed
  to more easily learn to fear (spiders vs. flowers)
 Phobias are fears beyond the normal range.
 Some people express fear below a normal range such as
  adventurers and sociopaths.
                       ANGER
 Is expressing anger constructive or destructive?
 The catharsis theory believes it is constructive. It
  allows for emotional release BUT
 Research shows the expression of anger often breeds
  more anger (though a temporary calmness may
  immediately follow).
                       ANGER
 How should be handle anger?
   Wait for arousal to decrease.
   Deal with it in a way that does not lead to chronic anger
    or passive sulking; rehearse your reasons
   Express grievances in ways that promote reconciliation
    not retaliation.
   Ignore the trivial but express the significant.
                  HAPPINESS
 Psychology has focused less on happiness that sadness
  (for obvious reasons) but there is a push for more
  positive research.
 Feel Good Do Good Phenomenon
 Emotional highs and lows tend to balance
                 HAPPINESS
 Adaption-Level Phenomenon: tendency to judge
 various stimuli relative to those we have previously
 experienced (ex: computer speed satisfaction, cell
 phone capabilities)
 This concept helps explain why material wants are
 insatiable.

“LUCKY” magazine just made me unhappy….
                  HAPPINESS
• Relative Deprivation Principle: sense that we are
  worse off than others whom we compare ourselves
  (ex: Canseco’s $4.7 million vs. Henderson’s $3 million)

“There will always be someone better than you.”

“I cried because I had no shoes, until I met a man with
   no feet.”
Relative deprivation principle
p. 486 The effect of comparison with others helps
  explain why students of a given level of academic
  ability tend to have a higher academic self-concept if
  they attend a school where most other students are not
  exceptionally able. (Marsh & Parker, 1984). If you
  were near the top of your class in high school, you
  might feel inferior upon entering a college where
  everyone was near the top of their class.
HAPPINESS IS RELATED         HAPPINESS IS NOT
  TO:                          RELATED TO:
 High self-esteem            Age
 Optimistic, out going,      Gender
  agreeable                   Levels of education
 Close friendships and/or    Parenthood
  satisfying marriage         Physical attractiveness
 Work and leisure that
  engage skills
 Meaningful religious
  faith
 Sleep well
 exercise
STRESS
 STRESS is the process by which we appraise and cope
  with environmental threats and challenges.
 Lazarus noted stress arises less from events themselves
  but from how we appraise those events.
 Adversity leading to stress can often have positive
  outcomes (stronger person emotionally).
 BUT severe and prolonged exposure to stress can have
  life altering effects!!!
   Post traumatic stress disorder and suicide
   Abused children showed increased chance of chronic
    disease later in life
RESPONSE TO STRESS
 Cannon’s research stress is a mind-body response:
    Release of epinephrine & norepinephrine
    Increase heart rate and respiration
    Decrease digestion process
    Fight or flight response
 General Adaptation Syndrome (Selye)
    Phase 1: ALARM (mobilize resources)
    Phase 2: RESISTANCE (cope with stressor)
    Phase 3: EXHAUSTION (depletion of resources)
 HOW DO YOU MANAGE STRESS??

				
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