CHAPTER 13 DEBATES: First, what are emotions? Turn to your neighbor(s) and compile a list of measurable and unique emotions. Which comes first our physiological arousal and then our emotional response or vice versa? Does cognition always precede emotion? THEORIES OF EMOTION James-Lange theory: Your emotions follow your physiological response. We feel our heart pounding and express fear, we strike out and express anger. BUT are our body’s responses distinct enough to evoke different emotions? Does a racing heart signal fear, anger, or love? James-Lange review To experience emotion means that we are aware of our body’s response to an arousing event. Basically, our brain interprets what our body is feeling and we label it as an emotion. THEORIES OF EMOTION Cannon-Bard theory: physiological arousal and our emotional experience occur simultaneously. The stimulus is routed to both the cortex for emotion and the sympathetic nervous system for physical responses. The implication is that our heart begins to pound as we experience fear. One does not cause the other. THEORIES OF EMOTION It would seem Cannon-Bard is more plausible than James-Lange, but some research strengthens J-L such as… Therapy to control emotions by “going through the motions” of the emotion we want to feel, ie “smile therapy” (mini experiment, next slide) THEORIES OF EMOTIONS Spinal cord injured patients feel less intense emotions mentally when they cannot feel the physical part but more intensely when they do feel the physical part (lump in throat) This research supports the necessity for the physiological arousal being necessary for emotions, but it doesn’t support J-L or C-B specifically. THEORIES OF EMOTION Schachter’s two-factor theory: physical arousal + cognitive label >> emotions. For example, heart pounding, thought, “I feel scare.” >> fear emotion. Arousal fuels emotion and cognitions channels it. There is often a spill over effect of arousal from one emotion to other emotions. Two-Factor theory review TWO components of emotion: physical arousal and a cognitive label (J-L and C-B did not consider cognition) This allows for distinction between emotions that have similar physical responses such as increase respiration and heart rate, sweating…is it anxiety or is it love (OR is there a difference??) http://www.thepsychfiles.com/2008/01/29/episode- 44-human-emotions-the-two-factor-theory/ PHYSIOLOGY OF EMOTION Different parts of the limbic system when stimulated can evoke fear to anger. (Charles Whitman) Right hemisphere, more negative emotions Left hemisphere, with more dopamine receptors, more positive emotions. States of arousal look and feel differently…or do they??? PHYSIOLOGY OF EMOTION Polygraphs pick up on our physical responses to arousal. By using control questions, polygraphers are able to detect low levels of arousal. High levels are a sign of discomfort and possibly a lie. What are some problems with polygraphs? GENDER DIFFERENCES IN EMOTIONS Females Better at reading emotional cues More likely to describe selves as “empathetic” More likely to express empathy (though little difference in genders’ physiology with regards to feeling empathy) Tend to show more emotional expressions CULTURE AND EMOTIONS Most emotions and expressions are universal across cultures and ages. Differences exist in the amount of emotion expressed. INDIVIDUALISTIC cultures (western and Australia) members tend to be more expressive of emotions. COLLECTIVISTIC cultures (more communal oriented) such as eastern/Asian, tend not to show as much emotion except those emotions that encourage interdependence (sympathy, respect…) in order to preserve social order and harmony. *Money does NOT buy happiness! Though Americans are twice as rich (as they used to be) they are not twice as happy. Economic growth in affluent countries has shown no apparent boost to morale or social well-being. Research shows those who strive for the most wealth tend to have lower sense of well-being. So, just how many emotions are there? Izard says 10: joy, interest/excitement, surprise, sadness, anger, disgust, contempt, fear, shame, and guilt. Others say to include love, but Izard feel love is a combination of joy and interest. FEAR People can learn to fear almost anything through observation or through experience. There are some things we are genetically predisposed to more easily learn to fear (spiders vs. flowers) Phobias are fears beyond the normal range. Some people express fear below a normal range such as adventurers and sociopaths. ANGER Is expressing anger constructive or destructive? The catharsis theory believes it is constructive. It allows for emotional release BUT Research shows the expression of anger often breeds more anger (though a temporary calmness may immediately follow). ANGER How should be handle anger? Wait for arousal to decrease. Deal with it in a way that does not lead to chronic anger or passive sulking; rehearse your reasons Express grievances in ways that promote reconciliation not retaliation. Ignore the trivial but express the significant. HAPPINESS Psychology has focused less on happiness that sadness (for obvious reasons) but there is a push for more positive research. Feel Good Do Good Phenomenon Emotional highs and lows tend to balance HAPPINESS Adaption-Level Phenomenon: tendency to judge various stimuli relative to those we have previously experienced (ex: computer speed satisfaction, cell phone capabilities) This concept helps explain why material wants are insatiable. “LUCKY” magazine just made me unhappy…. HAPPINESS • Relative Deprivation Principle: sense that we are worse off than others whom we compare ourselves (ex: Canseco’s $4.7 million vs. Henderson’s $3 million) “There will always be someone better than you.” “I cried because I had no shoes, until I met a man with no feet.” Relative deprivation principle p. 486 The effect of comparison with others helps explain why students of a given level of academic ability tend to have a higher academic self-concept if they attend a school where most other students are not exceptionally able. (Marsh & Parker, 1984). If you were near the top of your class in high school, you might feel inferior upon entering a college where everyone was near the top of their class. HAPPINESS IS RELATED HAPPINESS IS NOT TO: RELATED TO: High self-esteem Age Optimistic, out going, Gender agreeable Levels of education Close friendships and/or Parenthood satisfying marriage Physical attractiveness Work and leisure that engage skills Meaningful religious faith Sleep well exercise STRESS STRESS is the process by which we appraise and cope with environmental threats and challenges. Lazarus noted stress arises less from events themselves but from how we appraise those events. Adversity leading to stress can often have positive outcomes (stronger person emotionally). BUT severe and prolonged exposure to stress can have life altering effects!!! Post traumatic stress disorder and suicide Abused children showed increased chance of chronic disease later in life RESPONSE TO STRESS Cannon’s research stress is a mind-body response: Release of epinephrine & norepinephrine Increase heart rate and respiration Decrease digestion process Fight or flight response General Adaptation Syndrome (Selye) Phase 1: ALARM (mobilize resources) Phase 2: RESISTANCE (cope with stressor) Phase 3: EXHAUSTION (depletion of resources) HOW DO YOU MANAGE STRESS??