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					          The Document
       In The 21st Century
            William J. “Bill” McCalpin
             MIT, LIT, CDIA, EDP
                  Principal, MHE



MHE - Consultants for Document and Datament Technologies
                Who MHE Is...
MHE is the consulting firm which specializes in
 the transition of information both within and
 between the electronic printing, imaging, and
             Internet environments.



  MHE - Consultants for Document and Datament Technologies
                Introduction

            The Hegelian Dialectic




MHE - Consultants for Document and Datament Technologies
    Thesis, Antithesis, Synthesis
In the philosophy of Hegel,
   these words show the
   inevitable transition of
   thought, by contradiction
   and reconciliation, from
   an initial conviction to its
   opposite and then to a
   new, higher conception
   that involves but
   transcends both of them
  MHE - Consultants for Document and Datament Technologies
         The Hegelian Dialectic
• Thesis: Most business have well-established,
  productive legacy systems
• Antithesis: XML is springing forth everywhere
  and will replace most legacy systems
• Synthesis: XML will be integrated with legacy
  systems - enhancing some processes, changing
  many others, and eliminating some altogether
• In short, XML will change - not destroy - what
  you do
  MHE - Consultants for Document and Datament Technologies
            The Document
         In The 21th Century




MHE - Consultants for Document and Datament Technologies
          What Is A Document?
• The American Heritage
  Dictionary defines a
  document as
  “information in writing
  placed on a medium
  such as paper, often
  used as a record.”
• Documents have been
  placed on clay tablets,
  gold leaf, animal skins,
  all types of paper,
  microfilm, optical
  MHE - Consultants for Document and Datament Technologies
  storage, and so on
  Information And Presentation
• In every case, the document represents a
  fundamental union of information and
  presentation
• But “presentation” presumes that the
  primary audience for the document is a
  human being
• With the coming of the Internet, this is no
  longer the case
 MHE - Consultants for Document and Datament Technologies
    The Curse Of Presentation
                                           • Composition
                                             products
                                             require that
                                             you specify a
                                             printer, even
                                             before you
                                             know where
                                             the
                                             document
                                             will print
MHE - Consultants for Document and Datament Technologies
   Why Are Print, Image, And
     Presentation Formats
        Incompatible?




MHE - Consultants for Document and Datament Technologies
  Printing And Imaging Formats
• Many printing formats: AFP, Metacode,
  DJDE, XES (UDK), PostScript, PCL, etc.
• All formats use external resources like
  fonts, forms, graphics, etc., although
  sometimes inconsistently
• Most are escape-sequence based, some are
  formal data architectures, and some are
  almost programming languages
 MHE - Consultants for Document and Datament Technologies
  Printing And Imaging Formats
• Many imaging formats - while most use
  CCITT Group 4 for image compression,
  most also have proprietary data wrappers
• Later systems adopted text-based formats
  such as PDF, although storing other print
  streams is not unknown
• Systems which store text-based formats
  must wrestle with resource issues
 MHE - Consultants for Document and Datament Technologies
       Different Print Formats
• Why do printers have different formats?
  Because of physical constraints imposed by
  the hardware:
  – resources reduce the amount of data sent
    through pipeline to printer
  – pages must be imaged in less than a fraction of
    a second
  – complex graphics can be developed on the
    printer, but this needs a special language
 MHE - Consultants for Document and Datament Technologies
    Different Imaging Formats
• Why do imaging systems have different
  formats: because of physical constraints
  imposed by the hardware:
  – Mass storage was expensive
  – Indexing schemes were too close to the
    application
  – Text is avoided sometimes because of resource
    issues
  – Interoperability with other products an issue
 MHE - Consultants for Document and Datament Technologies
                       Result
• In each case, data architecture decisions
  were made in order to enhance some aspect
  of legibility of the stored objects.
• If there were no requirement to present the
  information (to a human reader), then the
  requirement for custom data formats for
  each vendor would probably disappear!

 MHE - Consultants for Document and Datament Technologies
           Information Exchanges
•   B2C - business to consumer
•   B2B - business to business
•   B2B2C - business to business to consumer
•   *2C requires presentation information
•   B2B requires no presentation information, if
    the recipient is a process, not a person


    MHE - Consultants for Document and Datament Technologies
                  Why B2B?
• NYSE (New York Stock Exchange)
  – Formerly, 100 million trades in a day was
    considered very heavy
  – Now 1 billion trades a day is considered very
    heavy
  – The difference is automation; the same
    multiplier applies to B2B
• #1 effect of XML is the separation of
  information from presentation
 MHE - Consultants for Document and Datament Technologies
         The Nature Of XML




MHE - Consultants for Document and Datament Technologies
            XML And SGML
• XML is eXtensible Markup Language
• XML is an instance of SGML, Standard
  Generalized Markup Language, an ISO
  standard (ISO 8879)
• XML is “extensible” because people and
  enterprises with common interests get
  together to define the tags which describe
  their data
 MHE - Consultants for Document and Datament Technologies
      XML And Print Formats
• In most print formats, something like an
  account number would be:
  – AMB 200 AMI 300 SCFL 01 STO 0, 90 TRN
    12345-67890
• In XML, the same information is:
  <account_number>12345-67890</account_number>




 MHE - Consultants for Document and Datament Technologies
      XML and Image Formats
• Raster-based image formats contain only
  bitmaps
• To read the text data within the bitmap
  requires an OCR/ICR process, which can
  fail
• Most usable data is extracted from the
  document and placed in the index

 MHE - Consultants for Document and Datament Technologies
  XML And Electronic Formats
• The nature of all electronic presentation
  formats is to be focused on the presentation
  of the information.
• The nature of XML is focused on the
  “author‟s content”, that is, information is
  described as what it is, not how it looks.


 MHE - Consultants for Document and Datament Technologies
      Separating Information From
              Presentation
                              • XML enables the total
XML
                                separation of information
                                from presentation
                              • Thus, some XML objects
XML                             have only tagged
                                information, while others
                                have content and
                                presentation information
XSL


 MHE - Consultants for Document and Datament Technologies
       How To Relate XML to
            Everyman
• You might think that XML is too esoteric
  for most people to understand
• But XML is based on the basic human need
  exchanging information
• XML couples the communication skills we
  have used over the last several thousand
  years to modern, Internet technology
• So how can you understand it?
 MHE - Consultants for Document and Datament Technologies
  Communication Difficulty #1
• In order for any communication to take
  place, both parties must share the same
  fundamental mechanism which carries
  information
• For example, in writing, if a boy and girl
  don‟t even share the same writing schemes,
  they can‟t possibly understand...

 MHE - Consultants for Document and Datament Technologies
  Chinese Characters vs Latin
          Alphabet


                                    “I Love You”




MHE - Consultants for Document and Datament Technologies
  Underlying Structure of XML
• Text characters
• Tags are delimited by “<“ and “>”, i.e.
  <xml>
• Ending tags have “/”, e.g., </xml>
• Parameters are indicated by double quotes,
  e.g., <PAPER track="Application">
• XML is a series of tags and data, e.g.,
  <STATE>Texas</STATE>
 MHE - Consultants for Document and Datament Technologies
  Communication Difficulty #2
• Once both parties agree to the fundamental
  syntax, then both parties must next agree to
  the words to be used
• In the case of XML, how do both parties
  know that <STATE> means a political
  subdivision and not one of
  {gas,liquid,solid}?

 MHE - Consultants for Document and Datament Technologies
            A Date Gone Bad
                             • One evening in the
                               hotel lobby bar, two
                               young Italian men
                               spend a while talking
                               to an attractive
                               Venezuelan girl...and
                               her aunt
                             • They spoke Italian and
                               she spoke Spanish, but
                               they communicated
                               passably
MHE - Consultants for Document and Datament Technologies
        A Date Still Going Bad
• However, the aunt
  wanted to go up to her
  room with her niece
• The Italians wanted to
  take the young lady
  out dancing...
• So they asked her:



  MHE - Consultants for Document and Datament Technologies
                         Oops
• What the boys said:          • What the young lady
                                 needed to hear:


“Vuoi andare con noi           “Quisieras ir con
  „sta sera?                     nosotros esta tarde?”




  MHE - Consultants for Document and Datament Technologies
           Miscommunication
• Even though Italian and Spanish use the
  same sounds, the same grammar, and have a
  common ancestry in Latin, some words are
  different
• Unfortunately, the most common words in
  both languages are likely to be the most
  different

 MHE - Consultants for Document and Datament Technologies
 The Cost Of Data Differences
                             “NASA lost a $125
                               million Mars orbiter
                               because one
                               engineering team used
                               metric units while
                               another used English
                               units for a key
                               spacecraft
                               operation...” CNN
                               9/30/99
MHE - Consultants for Document and Datament Technologies
                XML “Words”
• HTML has a certain
  number of fixed tags -
  everyone knows what
  they are, but they can‟t
  be augmented
• In XML, everyone can
  make up their own
  tags to suit their needs
  - but how do we avoid
  a Tower of
  CyberBabel?
  MHE - Consultants for Document and Datament Technologies
  Communication Difficulty #3
• Even when you agree to common tags, you
  still need to agree to a common
  understanding
• In XML, the Schema (now replacing the
  DTD) defines what tags are allowed to
  describe a particular collection of data
• For example, in the field of human
  relations, what is a “date”?
 MHE - Consultants for Document and Datament Technologies
         One DTD For A “Date”
• A woman thinks:             • <!DOCTYPE Date [
  – Invitation - formal       • <!ELEMENT Date (Invitation, Dress,
                                Meal, Entertainment+, Intimacy) >
  – Dress-up - nicely         • <!ELEMENT Invitation (#PCDATA) >
  – Eat out – dinner with     • <!ELEMENT Dress (#PCDATA) >
    wine at nice restaurant   • <!ELEMENT Meal (#PCDATA) >
                              • <!ELEMENT Entertainment
  – Entertainment – see a       (#PCDATA) >
    movie                     • <!ELEMENT Intimacy (#PCDATA) >
  – Private moment – good
    night kiss


   MHE - Consultants for Document and Datament Technologies
A Woman‟s View Of A “Date”
                             <date>
                                 <invitation>Telephone
                                    call</invitation>
                                 <dress>Long dress</dress>
                                 <meal>4-star
                                    restaurant</meal>
                                 <entertainment>the
                                    theatre</entertainment>
                                 <intimacy>A passionate,
                                    romantic kiss</intimacy>
                             </date>


MHE - Consultants for Document and Datament Technologies
      Another DTD For A “Date”

• A man thinks:              •   <!DOCTYPE Date [
  – Eat out – six-pack of    •   <!ELEMENT Date (Meal,Intimacy+) >
    beer                     •   <!ELEMENT Meal (#PCDATA) >
                             •   <!ELEMENT Intimacy (#PCDATA) >
  – Private moment –
    necking




   MHE - Consultants for Document and Datament Technologies
  A Man‟s View Of A “Date”
                               <date>
                                   <meal>six-pack of
                                      beer</meal>
                                   <intimacy>necking
                                     </intimacy>
                               </date>




MHE - Consultants for Document and Datament Technologies
  When Men And Women Agree
<date>                            <date>
    <invitation>Telephone             <invitation>Honking
       call</invitation>                 </invitation>
    <dress>Long dress</dress>         <dress>Not the shirt he
    <meal>4-star                         changed the oil in</dress>
       restaurant</meal>              <meal>food and beer</meal>
    <entertainment>the                <entertainment>rent a
       theatre</entertainment>           video</entertainment>
    <intimacy>A passionate,           <intimacy>A passionate,
       romantic kiss</intimacy>          romantic kiss while
</date>                                  necking</intimacy>
                                  </date>

  MHE - Consultants for Document and Datament Technologies
    The Four Stages Of XML
           Evolution




MHE - Consultants for Document and Datament Technologies
  The Evolution Of Technology
• Creation of basic technology
• Growth of technical tools
• Conversion of technology into business
  applications - the penetration into verticals
• Reduction to commodity



 MHE - Consultants for Document and Datament Technologies
                #1
       Creation Of The Basic
       Technology Of XML




MHE - Consultants for Document and Datament Technologies
Creation Of Basic Technology
                             • In 1998, the World Wide
                               Web Consortium declared
                               XML to be a
                               “recommendation”, that is,
                               a world-wide standard
                             • This phase began in 1990
                               with the creation of the
                               Web and browsers, and is
                               now substantially complete
MHE - Consultants for Document and Datament Technologies
            #2
The Growth Of Technical Tools




MHE - Consultants for Document and Datament Technologies
    Growth Of Technical Tools
• Once the underlying technology has been
  created, tools and utilities are built to use
  this technology
• These tools are often somewhat primitive
  and are not focused on the business problem
• This phase has been going furiously since
  1998

 MHE - Consultants for Document and Datament Technologies
        The World Wide Web
        Consortium and XML




MHE - Consultants for Document and Datament Technologies
  World Wide Web Consortium
• The World Wide Web Consortium was
  created in October 1994 to develop
  common protocols that promote the Web‟s
  evolution and ensure its interoperability
• The W3C has more than 500 Member
  organizations from around the world
• The W3C has many roles

 MHE - Consultants for Document and Datament Technologies
           The Roles of the W3C
•   Standards Body (XML and others)
•   Software and Services
•   Working Groups
•   Initiatives
•   Activities with other standards bodies



    MHE - Consultants for Document and Datament Technologies
              W3C and Standards
•   XML                          • PNG
•   XSL                          • RDF
•   CSS1 & CSS2                  • SMIL
•   DOM                          • SVG
•   HTML                         • XHTML
•   MathML                       • XPath, XPointer,
•   PICS                           XML Base, Xlink
                                 • XML Schema
    MHE - Consultants for Document and Datament Technologies
                    Standards
• XML (eXtensible Markup Language) is the
  universal format for structured documents
  and data on the Web. The base
  specifications are XML 1.0 Feb '98, and
  Namespaces, Jan '99.




 MHE - Consultants for Document and Datament Technologies
             Standards (Cont.)
• XSL (eXtensible Style Sheets)
  – XSL is a language (in XML) for expressing
    stylesheets. It consists of two parts:
     •    XSL Transformations (XSLT): a language for
       transforming XML documents
     •    An XML vocabulary for specifying formatting
       semantics (XSL Formatting Objects)




 MHE - Consultants for Document and Datament Technologies
             Standards (Cont.)
• CSS (Cascading Style Sheets) CSS1 and
  CSS2 describe how documents are
  presented on screens, in print, or perhaps
  how they are pronounced
• Authors and readers can influence the
  presentation of documents without
  sacrificing device-independence or adding
  new HTML tags
 MHE - Consultants for Document and Datament Technologies
             Standards (Cont.)
• CSS3 is now a Working Draft
• The main purpose of CSS3 is to modularize
  the specification, so that dozens of changes
  don‟t have to be “shove(d) ... into a single
  monolithic specification”
• Devices which are constrained (such as an
  aural browser) can choose to support only
  certain modules instead of all of CSS.
 MHE - Consultants for Document and Datament Technologies
         Why Two Style Sheet
            Languages?
Style Sheet Format                   CSS           XSL

Can be used with HTML?               Yes           No

Can be used with XML?                Yes           Yes

Transformation language?             No            Yes

Syntax                               CSS           XML


 MHE - Consultants for Document and Datament Technologies
             Standards (Cont.)
• DOM (Document Object Model)
  – a standard API to the document structure and
    aims to make it easy for programmers to access
    components of a document and delete, add or
    edit their content, attributes and style.
• HTML (HyperText Markup Language)
  – The current language of the Internet, which is
    being redefined as XHTML 1.0

 MHE - Consultants for Document and Datament Technologies
                Standards (Cont.)
• MathML (Mathematical Markup Language)
  – provides a much needed foundation for the inclusion
    of mathematical expressions in Web pages.
• PICS – Platform for Internet Content Selection
  – The PICS specification enables labels (metadata) to
    be associated with Internet content. It was originally
    designed to help parents and teachers control what
    children access on the Internet.

    MHE - Consultants for Document and Datament Technologies
             Standards (Cont.)
• PNG – Portable Network Graphics
  – a patent-free replacement for GIF and many
    common uses of TIFF
• RDF – Resource Description Framework
  – provide a lightweight metadata system to
    support the exchange of knowledge on the
    Web.


 MHE - Consultants for Document and Datament Technologies
             Standards (Cont.)
• SMIL – Synchronized Multimedia
  Integration Language
  – for television-like multimedia on the Web
• SVG – Scalable Vector Graphics
  – SVG is a language for describing two-
    dimensional graphics in XML



 MHE - Consultants for Document and Datament Technologies
             Standards (Cont.)
• XHTML – eXtensible HyperText Markup
  Language
  – What is the difference between XHTML 1.0,
    XHTML Basic and XHTML 1.1?
     • XHTML 1.0 = HTML 4.01
     • XHTML Basic - subset for mobile apps
     • XHTML 1.1 - modularized tags to help support
       other applications


 MHE - Consultants for Document and Datament Technologies
               Standards (Cont.)
• XPath, XPointer, XML Base, Xlink
  – defines linking, pointers, base URIs, etc.
• XML Schema
  – offers facilities for describing the structure and
    constraining the contents of XML 1.0 documents
  – The major difference between DTDs and Schemas
    is that Schemas allow better data typing (and
    Schemas are in XML)
  – Became a recommendation on May 2, 2001
   MHE - Consultants for Document and Datament Technologies
        Software and Services
• Amaya - W3C's Editor/Browser
  – Amaya is a browser/authoring tool that allows
    you to publish documents on the Web.
  – From http://www.w3.org/Amaya/
• CSS Validator - W3C CSS Validation
  Service
  – At http://jigsaw.w3.org/css-validator/


 MHE - Consultants for Document and Datament Technologies
  Software and Services (cont.)
• HTML Tidy
  – Tidy is a utility which is able to fix up a wide
    range of HTML problems.
  – From http://www.w3.org/People/Raggett/tidy/
• HTML Validator
  – It checks HTML documents for conformance to
    W3C HTML and XHTML Recommendations
    and other HTML standards.
  – From http://validator.w3.org/
 MHE - Consultants for Document and Datament Technologies
    Software and Services (cont.)
• Jigsaw – W3C‟s Java Server
  – Jigsaw is W3C's leading-edge Web server platform,
    providing a sample HTTP 1.1 implementation on top
    of an advanced architecture implemented in Java.
    From http://www.w3.org/Jigsaw/
• Libwww
  – Libwww is a highly modular, general-purpose client
    side Web API written in C for Unix and Windows
    (Win32). From http://www.w3.org/Library/
   MHE - Consultants for Document and Datament Technologies
                Working Groups
• CC/PP – Composite Capabilities/Preference
  Profiles
  – Automating the way in which your agent (PC, cell
    phone, PDA) identifies its capabilities and
    preferences
• Device Independence Activity
  – These Groups are working towards making the
    information of the World Wide Web accessible to
    various devices and achieving Web device
    independent authoring.

    MHE - Consultants for Document and Datament Technologies
       Working Groups (cont.)
• Internationalization Working Group and
  Internationalization Interest Group
  – These groups promote the use of Unicode in
    other recommendations and activities
• Micropayments
  – The Internet enables commerce in intangibles
    (like information), but conventional payment
    methods are too expensive for this

 MHE - Consultants for Document and Datament Technologies
       Working Groups (cont.)
• XForms - Interactive forms in XML
• XML Encryption - encrypting/decrypting
  XML documents and their contents
• XML Protocol - using XML as an
  encapsulation language in communications
• XML Query - enabling collections of XML
  files to be accessed like databases

 MHE - Consultants for Document and Datament Technologies
       Working Groups (cont.)
• Voice Browser Activity
  – This group has created a number of working
    drafts, such as on a Speech Recognition
    Grammar and a Speech Synthesis Markup
    Language
  – The W3C working group is basing its proposal
    for Dialog Markup Language on VoiceXML,
    from the VoiceXML Forum
    (www.voicexml.org), which is an IEEE group

 MHE - Consultants for Document and Datament Technologies
                    Initiatives
• Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI)
  – These guidelines explain how to make Web
    content accessible to people with disabilities
• P3P - Platform for Privacy Preference
  – P3P is an industry standard providing a simple,
    automated way for users to gain more control
    over the use of personal information on Web
    sites they visit.

 MHE - Consultants for Document and Datament Technologies
          Where Can I find...?
• Each of the preceding items can be found
  (today) at www.w3c.org
• Everyone should check here periodically to
  obtain updates
• Members can participate in projects and
  setting standards
• www.xml.com is a commercial site with a
  newsletter and a huge amount of
  educational material
 MHE - Consultants for Document and Datament Technologies
             #3
Conversion Of Technology Into
   Business Applications




MHE - Consultants for Document and Datament Technologies
        XML In The Verticals
• The next step in the evolution of XML is
  the integration of XML objects into the
  processes of “verticals”, e.g., insurance,
  telecommunications, banking, finance, etc.
• In each vertical, groups will come together
  to create standards for that vertical
• This phase is just beginning in most
  verticals
 MHE - Consultants for Document and Datament Technologies
        The Insurance Vertical
• ACORD (www.acord.org) is a well-known
  body in the insurance vertical
• ACORD, the Association for Cooperative
  Operations Research and Development,
  describes itself as “the insurance industry's
  nonprofit standards developer”
• ACORD initially developed standard forms
  to enable information sharing in the vertical
 MHE - Consultants for Document and Datament Technologies
            ACORD And P&C
• “In the Property and Casualty business, the main
  driver to the Internet is the real-time exchange of
  data between producers, carriers, rating bureaus,
  service providers, and more.”
• “The ACORD XML standard is designed to
  address the real-time requirement by defining
  P&C transactions that include both a request and a
  response message.”
• from http://www.acord.org/xml_frame.htm

  MHE - Consultants for Document and Datament Technologies
               #4
    Reduction To Commodity




MHE - Consultants for Document and Datament Technologies
     Reduction To Commodity
• In the last phase, the “technology”
  disappears from the view of the user
• Older technologies are invisibly replaced
  with the newer technology, e.g. EDI by
  XML
• Users perform business-oriented tasks
  without being aware of underlying
  technology
 MHE - Consultants for Document and Datament Technologies
 Past Progressions - Example #1
• #1 - Computer chips
• #2 - assembler
• #3 - COBOL, Fortran, PL/I, C, and a host of
  3rd generation languages
• #4 - GUI-based code generators
• We are now well into phase #4


 MHE - Consultants for Document and Datament Technologies
 Past Progressions - Example #2
• #1 - Laser printer
• #2 - FDL (Xerox), PPFA (IBM), etc.
• #3 - Business-user friendly composition and
  formatting tools
• #4 - GUI-based products with multiple,
  transparent drivers
• We are now in phase #4

 MHE - Consultants for Document and Datament Technologies
The Growth Of The XML Bubble




 MHE - Consultants for Document and Datament Technologies
                                                                Com-
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                Policy
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CRM

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Campaign                         Billing
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                 EDI                        Pol. &
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              EDI                                      Pol. &
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              EDI                                      Pol. &
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              EDI                                        Pol. &
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MHE - Consultants for Document and Datament Technologies
        Today‟s Billing Process

Data            Billing          Print/            Post
Base            Extract          Format            Process




  MHE - Consultants for Document and Datament Technologies
 Today‟s Billing Process + XML

Data            Billing          Print/            Post
Base            Extract          Format            Process




                XML
                App.




  MHE - Consultants for Document and Datament Technologies
                  As the Bubble Grows
                                                               Print/
                                                               Format

 Data
 Base
                                XML                             Post
                                App.                            Process


Billing
Extract




          MHE - Consultants for Document and Datament Technologies
                              Driver




                               Driver

        XML
        Applications
        with business
        rules                 Driver




                                               Email
                             Driver



MHE - Consultants for Document and Datament Technologies
 Composition Systems Before
         XML - #1
            Business
            Rules




                          Compo-
Data                      sition
base




MHE - Consultants for Document and Datament Technologies
 Composition Systems Before
         XML - #2
            Business
            Rules




                          Compo-
Data                      sition
base




MHE - Consultants for Document and Datament Technologies
                             Compo-
                             sition

      Business
      Rules

                               Driver

        XML
        Applications
        with business
        rules                 Driver




                                               Email
                             Driver



MHE - Consultants for Document and Datament Technologies
 The Effect on Complex Systems
• Over time, simple tools became complex
  systems
• Due to competition, these systems added
  functionality beyond the core product
• The XML Bubble will cause these systems
  to split again
• Much of the added functionality was and
  will be vertically specific, and fall into the
  XML Bubble
 MHE - Consultants for Document and Datament Technologies
                   Reference
• www.w3c.org - the official World Wide Web
  Consortium site (you‟ll find links to the XML
  spec here)
• http://www.w3.org/XML/ - a long but not
  exhaustive list of XML sites, software, and
  information
• “Taming The Web With XML” - an entry
  level article describing XML at
  http://www.mhe-consulting.com/writep1.html
 MHE - Consultants for Document and Datament Technologies
   William J. “Bill” McCalpin
         MIT, LIT, CDIA, EDP
            Principal, MHE
          1400 Cheyenne Dr.
     Richardson, Texas 75080-3921
   972-231-3660 (v) 972-690-4521 (f)
     mccalpin@mhe-consulting.com

MHE - Consultants for Document and Datament Technologies

				
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