The Nixon Years to by liaoqinmei


									The Nixon Years
     1968 to 1974

     Chapter 24
         I.) The Election of 1968
A. Republican candidate=
   Richard Nixon
B. Democrat candidate=
   Hubert Humphrey
C. Independent candidate=
   George Wallace

D. Outcome:
   1. Nixon elected 37th
      president of U.S.
             II.) New Direction
A. Transform American into “Conservative” direction to
   decrease the size and influence of federal government
B. Nixon’s Plan:
   1. New Federalism: distribute portion of federal power
      to state and local governments
C. Nixon’s New Federalism Actions:
   1. State & Local Fiscal Assistance Act of 1972: enacts
      Revenue Sharing
   2. Family Assistance Plan of 1969: welfare reform;
      defeated in the Senate
   3. Worked to dismantle some of the nations social
      programs enacted by Johnson’s Great Society
       a. impoundment (withholding funds for programs)
D. Law and Order Policy
   1. supported by: “Silent Majority”
     (middle class Americans who wanted to restore law and order)

   2. illegal enforcement:
       - wiretaps
       - CIA investigations
       - IRS audits
       - enemies list
F. Southern Strategy:
   1. Goal: attract southern conservative Democrats who
            felt Democrats had become too liberal
   2. How: try to slow country’s desegregation efforts
   3. Actions: worked to reverse civil rights policies
   4. Outcome: Congress resists

               G. Supreme Court:
                  1. four justices retire (Earl Warren retires)
                  2. nominates conservative judges (Warren Burger)
                Outcome: Conservative face on Supreme Court
H. Economic Problems:
   1. Stagnation: high inflation and high
     unemployment (1967-1973)

                               2. Caused by:
                                  - deficit spending
                                  - competition
                                  - foreign oil dependency

   3. Fixes:
      - raise interest rates
      - price & wage controls
      - wants tax hike & budget cuts
G. Nixon’s Foreign Policy:
   1. Realpolitik: based on nations power not on moral principles
                    (ignore less powerful focus on powerful)
      Henry Kissinger- national security advisor and secretary of state
  2. Détente: U.S. policy to ease Cold War tensions
      - Nixon visits communist China (February 1972)
      - Nixon visits Soviet Union (May 1972)
      - SALT I Treaty (reduce/limit nuclear arms)
      - End war in Vietnam
        III.) The Imperial Presidency
A. Executive Branch had become
   most powerful govt. branch
B. Nixon expands the power of
   the presidency with disregard
   for constitutional checks

                                   C. The Inner Circle
                                     1. H.R Haldeman (Chief of Staff)
                                     2. John Ehrichman (Domestic Advisor)
                                     3. John Mitchell (Attorney General)
                                     4. John Dean (Presidential Counsel)
         IV.) The Watergate Scandal
A. Definition: Nixon administration’s attempt to cover up a
   burglary of the Democratic National Committee headquarters at
   the Watergate complex in Washington D.C.

  B. Outcome: House will vote to
  impeach (remove) Nixon from
  office and Nixon will resign the
  presidency (Aug. 8, 1974)
      “The Events of Watergate”
  June 17, 1972: 5 men are caught breaking into DNC HQ at
                     Watergate complex

     John McCord former CIA agent is groups leader and
                 has ties to John Mitchell

Cover-up begins: shred evidence, pay-off burglars not to speak,
                ask CIA/FBI to stop investigation

  Washington Post (Bob Woodward & Carl Bernstein) begin
       investigation that links administration to burglary

               little public interest in Watergate

      November 1972: Nixon is re-elected by a landslide
        January 1973: trial of Watergate burglars begins;
                        John Sirica judge

      James McCord hints to judge he lied under oath and
     Powerful members of Nixon’s administration involved

Public interest grows due to possible White House involvement

April 30, 1973: John Dean dismissed, Hardeman, Ehrlichman, and
             Kleindienst (Mitchell’s replacement) resign

   May 1973: Senate begins a Watergate investigation with
        “President’s Men” testifying one after another

         John Dean testifies Nixon involved in cover-up

Presidential aide Alexander Butterfield testifies Nixon had taped
   all Oval Office conversations; Nixon refuses to give up tapes
    October 1973: Saturday Night Massacre: Nixon wants
      Archibald Cox fired; Richardson refuses & resigns;
                 Solicitor General fires him

            Days before VP Spiro Agnew resigns;
           Gerald Ford nominated as replacement

 March 1974: seven presidential aides indicted by grand jury

July 24, 1974: Supreme Court votes Nixon must give up Oval
   Office tapes; Nixon argues goes against National Security

    July 27, 1974: House Judiciary Committee approves
                 3 articles of impeachment

August 5, 1974: Nixon release tapes; 18 min gap missing (“The
                         Smoking Gun”)
     Tapes prove Nixon knew about break-in and agreed
                     To cover them up

August 8, 1974: House of Rep. about to vote on impeachment;
           Nixon resigns from office of the presidency

   August 8, 1974: Gerald Ford sworn in as 38th president

To top