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Taking the Stairs

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					Taking the Stairs

Spatial Measures that Influence Stair Use




Gayle Nicoll
Georgia Institute of Technology
Ryerson University




Research funded by a
Robert Wood Johnson Foundation grant
Research Design

Create a theoretical & methodological framework for
exploring the physical environmental influences of stair
use

Develop tools and measures for stair use in the physical
environment

Examine the influence of identified variables on natural
patterns of stair use in buildings-in-use

Identify strategies for stair use in the design of buildings
Previous Stair Use Research

Behavioral Change or Lifestyle
Modification


                   Motivational, educational or
                      enforced behavioral
                          interventions




   Personal factors                           Increased
 Psychologicial, cognitive                     physical
 & emotional attributes
 behavior attributes and
                                                activity
 skills, social and cultural
 factors
Previous Stair Use Research

 Environmental Enhancement
 and Restructuring


                             Environmental
                             enhancement



                                                          BEFORE
     Personal factors
 Demographic and biological                  Increased
 factors, psychologicial,                     physical
 cognitive & emotional
 attributes behavior attributes
                                               activity
 and skills, social and cultural
 factors




                                                           AFTER
Social Ecological Approach
                                                                            Examine the relationship
                                                                            between stair use and
   Personal factors
Demographic and biological
                                             Social/ organizational
                                                     factors
                                                                            building design
factors, psychologicial,                     Structure, culture and rules
cognitive & emotional                            of the organization
attributes behavior
attributes and skills, social
and cultural factors
                                                                            10 Academic Program
                                                                            Buildings
                                Increased
                                 Stair Use
                                                                            38 stairs
                                                                            Optimize variance in
                Physical environmental factors                              building design and
             Physical features and attributes that
             operationalize usability, access, sensory and                  layout
             intellectual appeal, comfort, safety,
             convenience, legibility
Theoretic Framework
                     Personal Factors                                                                      Social/Organizational Factors
                                                                                                         Organizational Structure
           Demographic & Biological Factors
                                                                                                         Functional factors
           Psychological, Cognitive & Emotional Factors
                                                                                                         Operational factors
           Behavior Attributes
                                                                                                         Organizational Attitudes & Policies
           Social & Cultural Factors
                                                                         Voluntary
                                                                         Stair Use




  Spatial Levels                                                  Physical Environmental factors
  of
  Decision-making       Aesthetics            Comfort                    Convenience                     Legibility                 Safety

                                              Tread/riser dimensions     Visual/Physical                 Stair imageability         Uniformity &
  Local                 Quality of interior
                                              & ratios                   accessibility                   Visual accessibility       intensity of lighting
                        finishes
                                              Number of steps            Connectivity of                 Identification signage     levels
                        Presence of
                                              between landings           stairs/elevator to                                         Visibility of tread
                        visually pleasing
                                              Stair width/occupancy      destinations within                                        edge
                        features
                                              load                       building                                                   Slip-resistant
                        Architectural
                                              Stair/Elevator vibration   Angular orientation of                                     treads
                        articulation of
                                              and operational            stair/elevator to path of                                  Maintenance level
                        stair/elevator
                                              stability                  travel                                                     Presence of
                                                                         Motivational/Directional                                   hazards/graffiti
                                                                         signage
                                              Shelter/Access to                                          Visibility of stair from   Surveillance
                        Views from & to
                                              outdoors                   Relative distance & time        path of travel             into/from
                        stair/elevator
  Relational                                  History of elevator        of travel between walking       Visibility of other        stair/elevator
                                              operations disruption      routes using stair or           spaces from stair or       Security
                                                                         elevator                        elevator                   provisions/devices
                                                                         Elevator speed & capacity

                                                                         Location of stair relative to   Intelligibility of         Conformance to
                                                                         most integrated paths           building’s circulation     building codes
  Global                                                                 Integration value of stair      paths
Constructs of Voluntary Stair Use


  Appeal      Comfort       Convenience      Legibility         Safety




               Gait
            Compatibility
                             Proximity                          Natural
    Stair                                     Visibility
                                                              Surveillance
   Appeal     Exertion
            Compatibility
                            Distribution    Intelligibility
                                                              Maintenance
  Setting
  Appeal      Social
            Operational     Accessibility
            Compatibility
Constructs of Voluntary Stair Use


  Appeal      Comfort       Convenience      Legibility         Safety




               Gait
            Compatibility
                             Proximity                          Natural
    Stair                                     Visibility
                                                              Surveillance
   Appeal     Exertion
            Compatibility
                            Distribution    Intelligibility
                                                              Maintenance
  Setting
  Appeal      Social
            Operational     Accessibility
            Compatibility
Proximity
Distance between Stair and Building Entrance



    Building Entrance




 Stair A    58 ft.
 Stair B 146 ft.
 Elevator 90 ft.
Proximity
Distance between Stair and Elevator




 Stair A   152 ft
 Stair B   59 ft
Distribution
Effective Area of each Stair




 Stair A   58.9%
 Stair B   41.1%
Distribution
Occupant Load within Effective Area of each Stair




 Stair A    78.3%
 Stair B    21.7%
 Elevator
Visibility
Area of Isovist




 Stair A   467 sf
 Stair B   178 sf
 Elevator 250 sf
Intelligibility –Space Syntax
Integration Plan




 Stair A
 Stair B
 Elevator
Intelligibility
Most Integrated Path (MIP)
(Red line)




 Stair A
 Stair B
 Elevator
Intelligibility
Number of Turns from the MIP




Stair A   0 turns
Stair B   2 turns
Elevator 1 turn
Intelligibility
Number of Turns from the Entrance




 Stair A   1 turns
 Stair B   2 turns
 Elevator 1 turn
High Stair Use Concentrated on One Stair
      Figure 3 Building 1




                                             Elevator
                                             Vertical Travel
                                             24.7%



          Stair 1A                           Stair 1B
          Effective Area                     Effective Area
          58.9%                              41.1%

          Occupant Load                      Occupant Load
          78.3%                              21.7%

          Vertical Travel   2nd Floor Plan   Vertical Travel
          65.6%                              8.7%




                                                                   Building Entrance


                                                               Axial Line representing Most
                                                               Integrated path


                                                               Border of Stair Effective




                                                               Isovists
                            1st Floor Plan                     Stair 1A

                                                               Stair 1B

                                                               Elevator
High Stair Use Concentrated on One Stair

        Stair 3B
        Effective Area
                  35.7%
        Occupant Load
                  25.2%
        Stair Use
                   5.0%


   Building Entrance

   Axial Line representing
   Most Integrated Path


   Border of Stair
   Effective Areas           Stair 3A
                             Effective Area
   Isovists                            34.7%                  2nd Floor Plan   Stair 3C
                             Occupant Load     Elevator                        Effective Area
   3A                                  46.9%                                             32.5%
                                               Elevator Use
                             Stair Use                                         Occupant Load
                                                      14.8%
                                       77.6%                                             27.9%
   3B
                                                                               Stair Use
                                                                                          2.5%
   3C
High Stair Use Distributed amongst many Stairs


                                           Stair 4B                                                                            Stair 4E
     Building Entrance                     Effective Area                                                                      Effective Area
                                                                             Elevator                                                      25.1%
                                                       17.9%
                                           Occupant Load
                                                                             Elevator Use                                      Occupant Load
     Axial Line representing                           12.4%                            12.5%                                              23.7%
                                           Stair Use                                                                           Stair Use
     Most Integrated Path                                                                                                                  15.6%
                                                       11.8%


     Border of Stair Effective Areas




     Isovists

    4A

    4B

    4C
                      Stair 4C
                      Effective Area
                                                                                                Stair 4A                Stair 4D
    4D                            19.5%                                                         Effective Area          Effective Area
                      Occupant Load
                                                                                                                 8.7%               19.5%
                                  13.8%
                                                                                                Occupant Load           Occupant Load
    4E                Stair Use                                                                             10.0%                   40.1%
                                    5.7%                                                        Stair Use               Stair Use
                                                            1st Floor Plan                                  18.7%                   35.5%
    4ELV
High Elevator Use

                                                          Stair 5A          Stair 5B
                                                          Effective Area    Effective Area
                                                                    49.2%             50.8%
                               Elevator                   Occupant Load     Occupant Load
                               Elevator Use                         36.0%             64.0%
                                                          Stair Use         Stair Use
                                      60.2%
                                                                    27.0%             12.8%
       Building Entrance

     Axial Line representing                  DOWN   UP
                                                                                              UP




     Most Integrated Path


     Border of Stair
     Effective Areas


   Isovists

     5A

     5B

     Elevator                                                                1st Floor Plan
Future Direction in Research
 Large Sample
    •increase validity
    •use multi-level analysis techniques
 Other Domains
    •government office workplaces
    •Examine the relevance of all variables of the 5 thematic
    concepts of stair use in older, less active populations
 Refine the Spatial Variables
    •Determine relative influences, refine variables
    •understand the interrelationship between variables

				
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