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					Building with Earth




       1   Introduction
Gernot Minke




Building with Earth
Design and Technology of a Sustainable Architecture




Birkhäuser – Publishers for Architecture
Basel · Berlin · Boston
         3   Appendices
            Preface 7                                             6 Working with earthen blocks 61
                                                                    History 61
I The technology of earth building                                  Production of earth blocks 62
                                                                    Material composition 65
          1 Introduction 11                                         Laying earth blocks 65
            History 11                                              Surface treatment 66
            Earth as a building material: the essentials 13         Fixing fasteners to walls 67
            Improving indoor climate 15                             Lightweight loam blocks 67
            Prejudices against earth as a building material 18      Special acoustic green bricks 68


          2 The properties of earth as a building material 19     7 Large blocks and prefabricated panels 69
            Composition 19                                          Large blocks 69
            Tests used to analyse the composition of loam 21        Prefabricated wall panels 70
            Effects of water 24                                     Floor slabs 70
            Effects of vapour 29                                    Floor tiles 71
            Influence of heat 31                                    Extruded loam slabs 71
            Strength 32
            pH-value 35                                           8 Direct forming with wet loam 72
            Radioactivity 35                                        Traditional wet loam techniques 72
            Shelter against high-frequency electromagnetic          The “Dünne loam loaf” technique 74
                 radiation 35                                       The stranglehm technique 75


          3 Preparing of loam 36                                  9 Wet loam infill in skeleton structures 80
            Soaking, crushing and mixing 36                         Thrown loam 80
            Sieving 38                                              Sprayed loam 80
            Mechanical slurrying 38                                 Rolls and bottles of straw loam 81
            Water Curing 38                                         Lightweight loam infill 82
            Thinning 38                                             Infill with stranglehm and earth-filled hoses 82


          4 Improving the earth’s characteristics                10 Tamped, poured or pumped lightweight loam 83
                 by special treatment or additives 39               Formwork 83
            Reduction of shrinkage cracks 39                        Tamped lightweight straw loam walls 83
            Stabilisation against water erosion 40                  Tamped lightweight wood loam walls 84
            Enhancement of binding force 42                         Tamped, poured or pumped lightweight
            Increasing compressive strength 43                         mineral loam walls 85
            Strength against abrasion 47                            Pumped lightweight mineral loam floors 88
            Increasing thermal insulation 47                        Loam-filled hollow blocks 89
                                                                    Loam-filled hoses 90
          5 Rammed earthworks 52
            Formwork 53                                          11 Loam plasters 92
            Tools 54                                                Preparation of ground 92
            Method of construction 55                               Composition of loam plaster 92
            Shaping of openings 55                                  Guidelines for plastering earth walls 94
            New wall construction techniques 56                     Sprayed plaster 95
            Rammed earth domes 59                                   Lightweight mineral loam plaster 95
            Drying 59                                               Thrown plaster 95
            Labour input 60                                         Plastered straw bale houses 95
            Thermal insulation 60                                   Wet formed plaster 96
            Surface treatment 60                                    Protection of corners 96


                                        4    Appendices
          12 Weather protection of loam surfaces 98                      Residence and studio at Gallina Canyon,
             Consolidating the surface 98                                    New Mexico, USA 162
             Paints 98                                                   Residence at Des Montes, near Taos,
             Making surfaces water-repellent 101                             New Mexico, USA 164
             Lime plasters 101                                           Casita Nuaanarpoq at Taos, New Mexico, USA 166
             Shingles, planks and other covers 103                       Residence and office at Bowen Mountain,
             Structural methods 103                                          New South Wales, Australia 167
                                                                         Vineyard Residence at Mornington Peninsula,
          13 Repair of loam components 104                                   Victoria, Australia 168
             The occurrence of damage in loam components 104             Residence, Helensville, New Zealand 170
             Repair of cracks and joints with loam fillers 104           Residence, São Francisco Xavier, Brazil 172
             Repair of cracks and joints with other fillers 105
             Repairing larger areas of damage 105                        Cultural, Educational and Sacral Buildings
             Retrofitting thermal insulation with lightweight loam 106   Panafrican Institute for Development, Ouagadougou,
                                                                             Burkina Faso 174
          14 Designs of particular building elements 107                 Office building, New Delhi, India 176
             Joints 107                                                  School at Solvig, Järna, Sweden 178
             Particular wall designs 108                                 Kindergarten, Sorsum, Germany 180
             Intermediate floors 110                                     Cultural Centre, La Paz, Bolivia 182
             Rammed earth floorings 112                                  Mosque, Wabern, Germany 183
             Inclined roofs filled with lightweight loam 115             Druk White Lotus School, Ladakh, India 184
             Earth-covered roofs 115                                     Mii amo Spa at Sedona, Arizona, USA 186
             Earth block vaults and domes 117                            Tourist resort at Baird Bay, Eyre Peninsula,
             Earthen storage wall in winter gardens 131                      South Australia 188
             Loam in bathrooms 132                                       Charles Sturt University at Thurgoona,
             Built-in furniture and sanitary objects from loam 133           New South Wales, Australia 189
             Wall heating systems 134                                    Youth Centre at Spandau, Berlin, Germany 190
             Passive solar wall heating system 134                       Chapel of Reconciliation, Berlin, Germany 192
                                                                         Center of Gravity Foundation Hall at Jemez Springs,
          15 Earthquake-resistant building 135                               New Mexico, USA 194
             Structural measures 136
             Openings for doors and windows 140
             Bamboo-reinforced rammed earth walls 141                    Future prospects 196
             Domes 144                                                   Measures 197
             Vaults 145                                                  Bibliographical references 198
             Textile walls with loam infill 147                          Acknowledgements 199
                                                                         Illustration credits 199

II Built examples

             Residences
             Two semi-deatched houses, Kassel, Germany 150
             Residence cum office, Kassel, Germany 153
             Farmhouse, Wazipur, India 156
             Honey House at Moab, Utah, USA 157
             Three-family house, Stein on the Rhine,
                 Switzerland 158
             Residence, La Paz, Bolivia 160
             Residence, Turku, Finland 161


                                       5    Appendices
                         Preface



                          Written in response to an increasing world-          experience he gathered in the course of
                          wide interest in building with earth, this           designing earth buildings in a number of
                          handbook deals with earth as a building              countries have also found their way into this
                          material, and provides a survey of all of its        book.
                          applications and construction techniques,
                          including the relevant physical data, while          This volume is loosely based on the German
                          explaining its specific qualities and the pos-       publication Das neue Lehmbau-Handbuch
                          sibilities of optimising them. No theoretical        (Publisher: Ökobuch Verlag, Staufen), first
                          treatise, however, can substitute for practical      published in 1994 and now in its sixth
                          experience involving actually building with          edition. Of this publication a Spanish and
                          earth. The data and experiences and the              a Russian edition have also appeared.
                          specific realisations of earth construction
                          contained in this volume may be used as              While this is first and foremost a technical
                          guidelines for a variety of construction             book, the introductory chapter also provides
                          processes and possible applications by engi-         the reader with a short survey on the history
                          neers, architects, entrepreneurs, craftsmen          of earth architecture. In addition it describes
                          and public policy-makers who find them-              the historical and future roles of earth as a
                          selves attempting, either from desire or             building material, and lists all of the signifi-
                          necessity, to come to terms with humanity’s          cant characteristics that distinguish earth
                          oldest building material.                            from common industrialised building materi-
                                                                               als. A major recent discovery, that earth can
                          Earth as a building material comes in a              be used to balance indoor climate, is
                          thousand different compositions, and can             explained in greater detail.
                          be variously processed. Loam, or clayey soil,
                          as it is referred to scientifically, has different   The book’s final chapter deserves special
                          names when used in various applications,             mention insofar as it depicts a number of
                          for instance rammed earth, soil blocks, mud          representative earth buildings from various
                          bricks or adobe.                                     regions of the world. These constructions
                                                                               demonstrate the impressive versatility of
Next page Minaret of      This book documents the results of experi-           earth architecture and the many different
the Al-Mihdar Mosque      ments and research conducted continuously            uses of the building material earth.
in Tarim, Yemen; it is
                          at the Forschungslabor für Experimentelles
38 m high and built of
                          Bauen (Building Research Institute) at the                                   Kassel, February 2006
handmade adobes
                          University of Kassel in Germany since 1978.                                           Gernot Minke
                          Moreover, the specialised techniques which
                          the author developed and the practical


                    7     Preface
I The technology of earth building




  9   Appendices
                   1 Introduction




                                                                              ly from the building site when excavating
                                                                              foundations or basements. In the industri-
                                                                              alised countries, careless exploitation of
                                                                              resources and centralised capital combined
                                                                              with energy-intensive production is not only
                                                                              wasteful; it also pollutes the environment
                                                                              and increases unemployment. In these
                                                                              countries, earth is being revived as a build-
                                                                              ing material.
                                                                              Increasingly, people when building homes
                                                                              demand energy- and cost-effective build-
                                                                              ings that emphasise a healthy, balanced
                                                                              indoor climate. They are coming to realise
                                                                              that mud, as a natural building material, is
                                                                              superior to industrial building materials such
                                                                        1.1
                                                                              as concrete, brick and lime-sandstone.
1.1 Storage rooms,          In nearly all hot-arid and temperate climates,    Newly developed, advanced earth building
temple of Ramses II,        earth has always been the most prevalent          techniques demonstrate the value of earth
Gourna, Egypt               building material. Even today, one third of       not only in do-it-yourself construction, but
                            the human population resides in earthen           also for industrialised construction involving
                            houses; in developing countries this figure is    contractors.
                            more than one half. It has proven impossible      This handbook presents the basic theoret-
                            to fulfil the immense requirements for shel-      ical data concerning this material, and it pro-
                            ter in the developing countries with industri-    vides the necessary guidelines, based on
                            al building materials, i.e. brick, concrete and   scientific research and practical experience,
                            steel, nor with industrialised construction       for applying it in a variety of contexts.
                            techniques. Worldwide, no region is en-
                            dowed with the productive capacity or
                            financial resources needed to satisfy this        History
                            demand. In the developing countries,
                            requirements for shelter can be met only          Earth construction techniques have been
                            by using local building materials and relying     known for over 9000 years. Mud brick
                            on do-it-yourself construction techniques.        (adobe) houses dating from 8000 to 6000
                            Earth is the most important natural building      BC have been discovered in Russian Turke-
                            material, and it is available in most regions     stan (Pumpelly, 1908). Rammed earth foun-
                            of the world. It is frequently obtained direct-   dations dating from ca. 5000 BC have been


                       11   Introduction
                                                                                                   1.2 Fortified city,
                                                                                                   Draa valley, Morocco
                                                                                                   1.3 Citadel of Bam,
                                                                                                   Iran, before earth-
                                                                                                   quake of Dec. 2003




                                                                                             1.2

discovered in Assyria. Earth was used as the
building material in all ancient cultures, not
only for homes, but for religious buildings as
well. Illustration 1.1 shows vaults in the Tem-
ple of Ramses II at Gourna, Egypt, built from
mud bricks 3200 years ago. Illustration 1.2
shows the citadel of Bam in Iran, parts of
which are ca. 2500 years old; 1.3 shows
a fortified city in the Draa valley in Morocco,
which is around 250 years old.
The 4000-year-old Great Wall of China was
originally built solely of rammed earth; only
a later covering of stones and bricks gave
it the appearance of a stone wall. The core
of the Sun Pyramid in Teotihuacan, Mexico,
built between the 300 and 900 AD, consists
of approximately 2 million tons of rammed
                                                                                                                          1.3
earth.
Many centuries ago, in dry climatic zones         walls in northern Europe, found in the Heu-
where wood is scarce, construction tech-          neburg Fort near Lake Constance, Germany
niques were developed in which buildings          (1.8) dates back to the 6th century BC. We
were covered with mud brick vaults or             know from the ancient texts of Pliny that
domes without formwork or support during          there were rammed earth forts in Spain by
construction. Illustration 1.6 shows the          the end of the year 100 BC.
bazaar quarter of Sirdjan in Persia, which is     In Mexico, Central America and South
covered by such domes and vaults. In China,       America, adobe buildings are known in
twenty million people live in underground         nearly all pre-Columbian cultures. The
houses or caves that were dug in the silty        rammed earth technique was also known in
soil.                                             many areas, while the Spanish conquerors
Bronze Age discoveries have established           brought it to others. Illustration 1.7 shows
that in Germany earth was used as an infill       a rammed earth finca in the state of São
in timber-framed houses or to seal walls          Paulo, Brazil, which is 250 years old.
made of tree trunks. Wattle and daub was          In Africa, nearly all early mosques are built
also used. The oldest example of mud brick        from earth. Illustration 1.9 shows one from


                                            12    Introduction
                            the 12th century, 1.4 and 1.5 show later            the entire roof structure rest on the solid
                            examples in Mali and Iran.                          rammed earth walls that are 75 cm thick at
                            In the Medieval period (13th to 17th cen-           the bottom and 40 cm thick at the top floor
                            turies), earth was used throughout Central          (the compressive force at the bottom of the
                            Europe as infill in timber-framed buildings,        walls reaches 7,5 kg/cm2). Illustration 1.12
                            as well as to cover straw roofs to make             shows the facades of other rammed earth
                            them fire-resistant.                                houses at Weilburg, built around 1830.
                            In France, the rammed earth technique,
                            called terre pisé, was widespread from the
                      1.4
                            15th to the 19th centuries. Near the city of        Earth as a building material:
                            Lyon, there are several buildings that are          the essentials
                            more than 300 years old and are still inhab-
                            ited. In 1790 and 1791, Francois Cointeraux         Earth, when used as a building material, is
                            published four booklets on this technique           often given different names. Referred to in
                            that were translated into German two years          scientific terms as loam, it is a mixture of
                            later (Cointeraux, 1793). The technique             clay, silt (very fine sand), sand, and occasion-
                            came to be known all over Germany and in            ally larger aggregates such as gravel or
                            neighbouring countries through Cointeraux,          stones.
                            and through David Gilly, who wrote the              When speaking of handmade unbaked
                      1.5
                            famous Handbuch der Lehmbaukunst (Gilly,            bricks, the terms ”mud bricks”or “adobes”
1.4 Large Mosque,           1787), which describes the rammed earth             are usually employed; when speaking of
Djenne, Mali, built 1935    technique as the most advantageous earth            compressed unbaked bricks, the term ”soil
1.5 Mosque, Kashan, Iran
                            construction method.                                blocks” is used. When compacted within a
1.6 Bazaar, Sirdjan, Iran
                            In Germany, the oldest inhabited house with         formwork, it is called ”rammed earth”.
                            rammed earth walls dates from 1795 (1.10).          Loam has three disadvantages when com-
                            Its owner, the director of the fire depart-         pared to common industrialised building
                            ment, claimed that fire-resistant houses            materials:
                            could be built more economically using this
                            technique, as opposed to the usual timber           1 Loam is not a standardised building
                            frame houses with earth infill.                     material
                            The tallest house with solid earth walls in         Depending on the site where the loam is
                            Europe is at Weilburg, Germany. Completed           dug out, it will be composed of differing
                            in 1828, it still stands (1.11). All ceilings and   amounts and types of clay, silt, sand and
                                                                                aggregates. Its characteristics, therefore, may
                                                                                differ from site to site, and the preparation
                                                                                of the correct mix for a specific application
                                                                                may also differ. In order to judge its charac-
                                                                                teristics and alter these, when necessary, by
                                                                                applying additives, one needs to know the
                                                                                specific composition of the loam involved.


                                                                                2 Loam mixtures shrink when drying
                                                                                Due to evaporation of the water used to
                                                                                prepare the mixture (moisture is required to
                                                                                activate its binding strength and to achieve
                                                                                workability), shrinkage cracks will occur. The
                                                                                linear shrinkage ratio is usually between 3%
                                                                                and 12% with wet mixtures (such as those
                                                                                used for mortar and mud bricks), and
                                                                                between 0.4% and 2% with drier mixtures
                                                                          1.6

                      13    Introduction
(used for rammed earth, compressed soil
blocks). Shrinkage can be minimised by
reducing the clay and the water content, by
optimising the grain size distribution, and
by using additives (see p. 39).


3 Loam is not water-resistant
Loam must be sheltered against rain and
frost, especially in its wet state. Earth walls
can be protected by roof overhangs, damp-
proof courses, appropriate surface coatings
etc. (see p. 40).


On the other hand, loam has many advan-
tages in comparison to common industrial
                                                                                                                               1.7
building materials:
                                                   a climatic chamber at 95% humidity for six
1 Loam balances air humidity                       months, adobes do not become wet or lose
Loam is able to absorb and desorb humidity         their stability; nor do they exceed their equi-
faster and to a greater extent than any            librium moisture content, which is about 5%
other building material, enabling it to bal-       to 7% by weight. (The maximum humidity a
ance indoor climate. Experiments at the            dry material can absorb is called its “equilib-
Forschungslabor für Experimentelles Bauen          rium moisture content”).
(Building Research Laboratory, or BRL) at          Measurements taken in a newly built house
the University of Kassel, Germany, demon-          in Germany, all of whose interior and ex-
strated that when the relative humidity in         terior walls are from earth, over a period of
a room was raised suddenly from 50% to             eight years, showed that the relative humid-
80%, unbaked bricks were able, in a two-           ity in this house was a nearly constant 50%
day period to absorb 30 times more humidi-         throughout the year. It fluctuated by only
ty than baked bricks. Even when standing in        5% to 10%, thereby producing healthy living
                                                   condition with reduced humidity in summer
                                                                                                                               1.8
                                                   and elevated humidity in winter. (For more
                                                   details, see p. 15).                              1.7 Rammed earth finca,
                                                                                                     São Paulo, Brazil
                                                                                                     1.8 Reconstruction of
                                                   2 Loam stores heat
                                                                                                     mud-brick wall, Heune-
                                                   Like all heavy materials, loam stores heat.       burg, Germany, 6th cen-
                                                   As a result, in climatic zones with high diur-    tury BC
                                                                                                     1.9 Mosque at Nando,
                                                   nal temperature differences, or where it
                                                                                                     Mali, 12th century
                                                   becomes necessary to store solar heat gain
                                                   by passive means, loam can balance indoor
                                                   climate.


                                                   3 Loam saves energy and reduces environ-
                                                   mental pollution
                                                   The preparation, transport and handling
                                                   of loam on site requires only ca. 1% of the
                                                   energy needed for the production, transport
                                                   and handling of baked bricks or reinforced
                                                   concrete. Loam, then, produces virtually no
                                                   environmental pollution.
                                             1.9

                                             14    Introduction
                           4 Loam is always reusable
                           Unbaked loam can be recycled an indefinite
                           number of times over an extremely long
                           period. Old dry loam can be reused after
                           soaking in water, so loam never becomes a
                           waste material that harms the environment.


                           5 Loam saves material and transportation
                                                                                                                        1.10
                           costs
                           Clayey soil is often found on site, so that       tions. In such cases, the straw may rot when
                           the soil excavated for foundations can then       remaining wet over long periods (see p. 83).
                           be used for earth construction. If the soil
                           contains too little clay, then clayey soil must   8 Loam absorbs pollutants
                           be added, whereas if too much clay is pres-       It is often maintained that earth walls help
                           ent, sand is added.                               to clean polluted indoor air, but this has yet
                    1.11
                           The use of excavated soil means greatly           to be proven scientifically. It is a fact that
                           reduced costs in comparison with other            earth walls can absorb pollutants dissolved
                           building materials. Even if this soil is trans-   in water. For instance, a demonstration plant
                           ported from other construction sites, it is       exists in Ruhleben, Berlin, which uses clayey
                           usually much cheaper than industrial build-       soil to remove phosphates from 600 m3 of
                           ing materials.                                    sewage daily. The phosphates are bound by
                                                                             the clay minerals and extracted from the
                           6 Loam is ideal for do-it-yourself construc-      sewage. The advantage of this procedure is
                           tion                                              that since no foreign substances remain in
                           Provided the building process is supervised       the water, the phosphates are converted
                           by an experienced individual, earth con-          into calcium phosphate for reuse as a fer-
                           struction techniques can usually be execut-       tiliser.
                           ed by non-professionals. Since the process-
                           es involved are labour-intensive and require
                    1.12
                           only inexpensive tools and machines, they         Improving indoor climate
1.10 Rammed earth          are ideal for do-it-yourself building.
house, Meldorf, Germany,                                                     In moderate to cold climates, people usually
1795
                           7 Loam preserves timber and other                 spend about 90% of their time in enclosed
1.11 Rammed earth
house, Weilburg, Germa-    organic materials                                 spaces, so indoor climate is a crucial factor
ny, 1828                   Owing to its low equilibrium moisture con-        in well-being. Comfort depends upon the
1.12 Rammed earth
                           tent of 0.4% to 6% by weight and its high         temperature, movement, humidity, radiation
houses, Weilburg, Germa-
ny, about 1830             capillarity, loam conserves the timber ele-       to and from surrounding objects, and pollu-
                           ments that remain in contact with it by           tion content of the air contained in a given
                           keeping them dry. Normally, fungi or insects      room.
                           will not damage such wood, since insects          Although occupants immediately become
                           need a minimum of 14% to 18% humidity             aware when room temperatures are too
                           to maintain life, and fungi more than 20%         high or too low, the negative impacts of
                           (Möhler 1978, p. 18). Similarly, loam can pre-    excessively elevated or reduced humidity
                           serve small quantities of straw that are          levels are not common knowledge. Air
                           mixed into it.                                    humidity in contained spaces has a signifi-
                           However, if lightweight straw loam with a         cant impact on the health of inhabitants,
                           density of less than 500 to 600 kg/m3 is          and earth has the ability to balance indoor
                           used, then the loam may lose its preserva-        humidity like no other building material. This
                           tive capacity due to the high capillarity of      fact, only recently investigated, is described
                           the straw when used in such high propor-          in detail later in this section.


                     15    Introduction
Air humidity and health                                                                                                      1.13 Section through
                                                                                              Relative Humidity   =          trachea with sane
Research performed by Grandjean (1972)
                                                                                                                             mucous membrane (left)
and Becker (1986) has shown that a relative                                                                                  and dried out one (right)




                                                  Water Content in air in g/m 3
humidity of less than 40% over a long peri-                                                                                  (Becker, 1986)
                                                                                                                             1.14 Carrier Diagram
od may dry out the mucous membrane,
                                                                                                                             1.15 Absorption of sam-
which can decrease resistance to colds and                                                                                   ples, 15 mm thick, at
related diseases. This is so because normally                                                                                a temperature of 21°C
the mucous membrane of the epithelial tis-                                                                                   and a sudden increase
                                                                                                                             of humidity from 50%
sue within the trachea absorbs dust, bacte-
                                                                                                                             to 80%
ria, viruses etc. and returns them to the
mouth by the wavelike movement of the
epithelial hair. If this absorption and trans-
portation system is disturbed by drying,
                                                                                  Temperature in °C
then foreign bodies can reach the lungs and                                                                           1.14

may cause health problems (see 1.13).
A high relative humidity of up to 70% has         The impact of air exchange on air humidity
many positive consequences: it reduces the        In moderate and cold climates, when the
fine dust content of the air, activates the       outside temperatures are much lower than
protection mechanisms of the skin against         inside temperatures, the greater degree of
microbes, reduces the life of many bacteria       fresh air exchange may make indoor air so
and viruses, and reduces odour and static         dry that negative health effects can result.
charge on the surfaces of objects in the          For example, if outside air with a tempera-
room.                                             ture of 0°C and 60% relative humidity
A relative humidity of more than 70% is           enters a room and is heated to 20°C, its
normally experienced as unpleasant, proba-        relative humidity decreases to less than 20%.
bly because of the reduction of oxygen            Even if the outside air (temperature 0°C)
intake by the blood in warm-humid condi-          had 100% humidity level and was warmed
tions. Increasing rheumatic pains are             up to 20°C, its relative humidity would still
observed in cold humid air. Fungus forma-         drop to less than 30%. In both cases, it
tion increases significantly in closed rooms      becomes necessary to raise the humidity as                                        1 Cement concrete M 25     4 Lightweight bricks
                                                                                                                                    2 Lime-sand brick          5 Solid brick
when the humidity rises above 70% or              soon as possible in order to attain healthy                                       3 Porous concrete          6 Clinker brick
80%. Fungus spores in large quantities can        and comfortable conditions. This can be
lead to various kinds of pain and allergies.      done by regulating the humidity that is
From these considerations, it follows that        released by walls, ceilings, floors and furni-
the humidity content in a room should be a        ture (see 1.14).
minimum of 40%, but not more than 70%.
                                                  The balancing effect of loam on humidity
                                                  Porous materials have the capacity to
                                                  absorb humidity from the ambient air and
                                                  to desorb humidity into the air, thereby
                                                  achieving humidity balance in indoor
                                                  climates. The equilibrium moisture content
                                                  depends on the temperature and humidity
                                                  of the ambient air (see p. 29) and illustration
                                                  2.29). The effectiveness of this balancing
                                                  process also depends upon the speed of
                                                  the absorption or desorption. Experiments
                                                                                                                                    1 Clayey loam            4 Lime-cement plaster
                                                  conducted at the BRL show, for instance,                                          2 Clayey loam plaster    5 Gypsum plaster
                                                  that the first 1.5-cm-thick layer of a mud                                        3 Spruce, planed

                                           1.13   brick wall is able to absorb about 300 g of                                                                                    1.15


                                           16     Introduction
                                                                                                            (If the humidity were lowered from 80% to
                                                                                                            50%, the same amount would be released).
                                                                                                            The same walls, if built from solid baked
                                                                                                            bricks, would absorb only about 0.9 litres of
                                                                                                            water in the same period, which means
                                                                                                            they are inappropriate for balancing the
                                                                                                            humidity of rooms.
                                                                                                            Measurements taken over a period of five
                                                                                                            years in various rooms of a house built in
                                                                                                            Germany in 1985, all of whose exterior and
                                                                                                            interior walls were built of earth, showed
                                                                                                            that the relative humidity remained nearly
                                                                                                            constant over the years, varying from 45%
                                                                                                            to 55%. The owner wanted higher humidity
                                                                                                            levels of 50% to 60% only in the bedroom.
                                                                                                     1.18
1   Spruce, planed        5 Loam plaster with coir                                                          It was possible to maintain this higher level
2   Limba, planed         6 Lime-cement plaster
3   Clayey loam
                                                            water per m2 of wall surface in 48 hours if     (which is healthier for people who tend to
                          7 Gypsum plaster
4   Clayey loam plaster                              1.17   the humidity of the ambient air is suddenly     get colds or flues) by utilising the higher
                                                            raised from 50% to 80%. However, lime-          humidity of the adjacent bathroom. If bed-
                                                            sandstone and pinewood of the same              room humidity decreased too much, the
                                                            thickness absorb only about 100 g/m2,           door to the bathroom was opened after
                                                            plaster 26 to 76 g/m2, and baked brick only     showering, recharging the bedroom walls
                                                            6 to 30 g/m2 in the same period (1.15).         with humidity.
                                                            The absorption curves from both sides of
                           1.16 Absorption curves
                                                            11.5-cm-thick unplastered walls of different
                           of 11.5-cm-thick interior        materials over 16 days are shown in 1.16.
                           walls with two sides             The results show that mud bricks absorb
                           exposed at a temperature
                                                            50 times as much moisture as solid bricks
                           of 21°C after a sudden
                           rise in humidity from            baked at high temperatures. The absorption
                           50% to 80%                       rates of 1.5-cm-thick samples, when humidi-
                           1.17 Absorption curves           ty was raised from 30% to 70%, are shown
                           of 15-mm-thick samples,
                           one side exposed, at a
                                                            in 1.17.
                           temperature of 21°C after        The influence of the thickness of a clayey
                           a sudden rise in humidity        soil on absorption rates is shown in 1.18.
                           from 30% to 70%
                                                            Here we see that when humidity is raised
                           1.18 Effect of the thick-
                           ness of loam layers at a         suddenly from 50% to 80%, only the upper
                           temperature of 21°C on           2 cm absorbs humidity within the first
                           their rate of absorption         24 hours, and that only the upper layer
                           after a sudden rise in
                           humidity from 50% to
                                                            4 cm in thickness is active within the first
                           80%                              four days. Lime, casein and cellulose glue
                                                            paints reduce this absorption only slightly,
                                                            whereas coatings of double latex and single
                                                            linseed oil can reduce absorption rates to
                                                            38% and 50% respectively, as seen in 1.19.
                                                                                                               1   Silty loam            7   Porous concrete (400)
                                                            In a room with a floor area of 3 x 4 m,
                                                                                                               2   Clayey loam (1900)    8   Expanded clay loam (750)
                                                            a height of 3 m, and a wall area of 30 m2          3   Straw loam (1400)     9   Expanded clay loam (1500)
                                                            (after subtracting doors and windows), if          4   Straw loam (700)     10   Porous bricks (800)
                                                                                                               5   Straw loam (550)     11   Solid brick (1800)
                                                            indoor air humidity were raised from 50%           6   Pine                 12   Cement concrete (2200)
                                                            to 80%, unplastered mud brick walls would                                   13   Cement concrete M 15
                                                            absorb about 9 litres of water in 48 hours.                                                           1.16



                                                     17     Introduction
                                                                                                            The anxiety that mice or insects might live in
                                                                                                            earth walls is unfounded when these are
                                                                                                            solid. Insects can survive only provided there
                                                                                                            are gaps, as in “wattle-and-daub” walls. In
                                                                                                            South America, the Chagas disease, which
                                                                                                            leads to blindness, comes from insects that
                                                                                                            live in wattle-and-daub walls. Gaps can be
                                                                                                            avoided by constructing walls of rammed
                                                                                                            earth or mud bricks with totally filled mud
                                                                                                            mortar joints. Moreover, if the earth contains
                                                                                                            too many organic additives, as in the case of
                                                                                                            lightweight straw clay, with a density of less
                                                                                                            than 600 kg/m3, small insects such as wood
                                                                                                            lice can live in the straw and attack it.
                                                                                                            Common perceptions that loam surfaces are
                                                                                                            difficult to clean (especially in kitchens and
                                                                                                            bathrooms) can be dealt with by painting
                                                                                                            them with casein, lime-casein, linseed oil
                                                                                                            or other coatings, which makes them non-
                                                                                                            abrasive. As explained on p. 132, bathrooms
                                                                                                            with earth walls are more hygienic than
M    Silty loam, 2 Sand without coating                        M    Loam plaster without aggregate          those with glazed tiles, since earth absorbs
KQ   2x 1 Lime : 1 Quark : 1.7 Water                           I2   with 2.0% coconut fibres                high humidity quickly, thereby inhibiting fun-
KL   2x Chalk cellulose glue paint                             C1   with 2.0% cellulose fibres
LE   1x Double-boiled linseed oil                              E1   with 2.0% water glass                   gus growth.
D2   2x Biofa dispersible paint                                I1   with 1.0% coconut fibres
LA   1x Biofa glaze with primer                                L1   with 3.0% saw dust
AF   2x Acrylic paint                                          J1   with 2.0% wheat straw
DK   2x Synthetic dispersion paint exterior                    F1   with 3.0% cement
LX   2x Latex                                                  D2   with 2.0% boiled rye flour
UD   2x Dispersion paint without solvent                       B1   with 0.5% cellulose glue                Note
D1   2x Dispersion paint for interior                          H1   with 6.0% casein/lime                   For the conversion of metric values into
                                                   1.19                                              1.20   imperial ones, see page 197.

                              1.19 Influence of coatings   Prejudices against earth as a building
                              on 1.5-cm-thick, one-        material
                              side-exposed loam pla-
                              sters at a temperature of
                              21°C (clay 4%, silt 25%,     Owing to ignorance, prejudices against
                              sand 71%) after a sudden     loam are still widespread. Many people
                              rise in humidity from 50%
                                                           have difficulty conceiving that a natural
                              to 80%. Thickness of
                              coating is 100 ± 10 µm.      building material such as earth need not be
                              1.20 Influence of diffe-     processed and that, in many cases, the
                              rent aggregates on the       excavation for foundations provides a mate-
                              absorption of humidity.
                              Same conditions as men-
                                                           rial that can be used directly in building.
                              tioned in 1.19               The following reaction by a mason who had
                                                           to build an adobe wall is characteristic:
                                                           ”This is like medieval times; now we have
                                                           to dirty our hands with all this mud.” The
                                                           same mason, happily showing his hands
                                                           after working with adobes for a week, said,
                                                           ”Have you ever seen such smooth mason’s
                                                           hands? The adobes are a lot of fun to
                                                           handle as there are no sharp corners.”


                                                    18     Introduction
                                                               2 The properties of earth as a building material




2.1 Soil grain size dis-   2.1                              Clay        Silt              Sand                 Gravel        Composition
tribution of loams with                               100

high clay content                                     90
                                                      80
                                                                                                                             General
(above), high silt con-
                                 Percentage passing




tent (middle), and high                                70                                                                    Loam is a product of erosion from rock in
sand content (below)                                  60                                                                     the earth’s crust. This erosion occurs mainly
                                                      50                                                                     through the mechanical grinding of rock via
                                                      40                                                                     the movement of glaciers, water and wind,
                                                      30
                                                                                                                             or through thermal expansion and contrac-
                                                      20
                                                                                                                             tion of rock, or through the expansion of
                                                       10
                                                        0                                                                    freezing water in the crevices of the rock.
                                                            0.002 0.006 0.02 0.06       0.2      0.6   2   6       20   60   Due to organic acids prevalent in plants,
                                                                                                           Grain size (mm)
                                                                                                                             moreover, chemical reactions due to water
                                                            Clay        Silt              Sand                 Gravel        and oxygen also lead to rock erosion. The
                                                      100
                                                                                                                             composition and varying properties of loam
                                                      90
                                                                                                                             depend on local conditions. Gravelly moun-
                                                      80
                                                                                                                             tainous loams, for instance, are more suit-
                                 Percentage passing




                                                       70
                                                      60                                                                     able for rammed earth (provided they con-
                                                      50                                                                     tain sufficient clay), while riverside loams are
                                                      40                                                                     often siltier and are therefore less weather-
                                                      30                                                                     resistant and weaker in compression.
                                                      20
                                                                                                                             Loam is a mixture of clay, silt and sand, and
                                                       10
                                                        0
                                                                                                                             sometimes contains larger aggregates like
                                                            0.002 0.006 0.02 0.06       0.2      0.6   2   6       20   60   gravel and stones. Engineering science
                                                                                                           Grain size (mm)   defines its particles according to diameter:
                                                                                                                             particles with diameters smaller than
                                                            Clay        Silt              Sand                 Gravel
                                                      100                                                                    0.002 mm are termed clay, those between
                                                      90                                                                     0.002 and 0.06 mm are called silt, and
                                                      80
                                                                                                                             those between 0.06 and 2 mm are called
                                 Percentage passing




                                                       70
                                                                                                                             sand. Particles of larger diameter are termed
                                                      60
                                                      50                                                                     gravels and stones.
                                                      40                                                                     Like cement in concrete, clay acts as a
                                                      30                                                                     binder for all larger particles in the loam. Silt,
                                                      20                                                                     sand and aggregates constitute the fillers in
                                                       10                                                                    the loam. Depending on which of the three
                                                        0
                                                            0.002 0.006 0.02 0.06       0.2      0.6   2   6       20   60
                                                                                                                             components is dominant, we speak of a
                                                                                                           Grain size (mm)   clayey, silty or sandy loam. In traditional soil


                                                                   19    Properties of earth
mechanics, if the clay content is less than                Kaolinite                            Illite                              Montmorillonite
15% by weight, the soil is termed a lean
clayey soil. If it is more than 30% by weight,
it is termed a rich clayey soil. Components
that form less than 5% of the total by
weight are not mentioned when naming
                                                                                                                                                      2.2
the soils. Thus, for instance, a rich silty,
sandy, lean clayey soil contains more than        charge, which endows them with a high                  2.2 Structure of the
30% silt, 15% to 30% sand, and less than          interlamellary binding force (see 2.3).                three most common
                                                                                                         clay minerals (accord-
15% clay with less than 5% gravel or rock.        Because each layer of aluminium hydroxide
                                                                                                         ing to Houben,
However, in earth construction engineering,       is connected to a layer of silicon oxide, the
                                                                                                         Guillaud, 1984)
this method of naming soils is less accurate      double-layered Kaolinite has a low ion-bind-           2.3 Lamellar structure
because, for example, a loam with 14% clay        ing capacity, whereas with the three-layered           of clay minerals
which would be called lean clayey in soil         mineral Montmorillonite, one aluminium                 (according to Houben,
mechanics, would be considered a rich             hydroxide layer is always sandwiched                   Guillaud, 1984)
                                                                                                         2.4 Soil grain size dis-
clayey soil from the point of view of earth       between two layers of silicon oxide, thereby
                                                                                                         tribution depicted on
construction.                                     displaying a higher ion binding capacity.
                                                                                                         a triangular grid (after
                                                  Most of the clay minerals have interchange-            Voth, 1978)
Clay                                              able cations. The binding force and com-
Clay is a product of the erosion of feldspar      pressive strength of loam is dependent on
and other minerals. Feldspar contains alu-        the type and quantity of cations.
minium oxide, a second metal oxide and
silicon dioxide. One of the most common           Silt, sand and gravel
types of feldspar has the chemical formula        The properties of silt, sand and gravel are
Al2O3 · K2O · 6SiO2. If easily soluble            totally different from clay. They are simply
potassium compounds are dissolved during          aggregates lacking binding forces, and are
erosion, then clay called Kaolinite is formed,    formed either from eroding stones, in which
which has the formula Al2O3 · 2SiO2 · 2H2O.       case they have sharp corners, or by the
Another common clay mineral is Montmoril-         movement of water, in which case they are
lonite, whose formula is Al2O2 · 4SiO2. There     rounded.
also exists a variety of less common clay
minerals such as Illite. The structure of these   Grain size distribution
minerals is shown in 2.2.                         Loam is characterised by its components:
Clay minerals are also found mixed with           clay, silt, sand and gravel. The proportion of
other chemical compounds, particularly with       the components is commonly represented
hydrated iron oxide (Fe2O3 · H2O) and other       on a graph of the type shown in 2.1. Here,
iron compounds, giving the clay a character-      the vertical axis represents weight by per-
istic yellow or red colour. Manganese com-        centage of the total of each grain size,
pounds impart a brown colour; lime and            which in turn is plotted on the horizontal
magnesium compounds give white, while             axis using a logarithmic scale. The curve is
organic substances give a deep brown or           plotted cumulatively, with each grain size
black colour.                                     including all the fine components.
Clay minerals usually have a hexagonal            The upper graph characterises a rich clayey
lamellar crystalline structure. These lamellas    loam with 28% clay, 35% silt, 33% sand
consist of different layers that are usually      and 4% gravel. The middle graph shows
formed around silicon or aluminium cores.         rich silty loam with 76% silt, and the bottom
In the case of silicon, they are surrounded       graph a rich sandy loam containing 56%
by oxygenations; in the case of aluminium,        sand. Another method for graphically
by hydroxyl (ions) groups (-HO). The layers       describing loam composed of particles no
of silicon oxide have the strongest negative      larger than 2 mm is shown in 2.4. Here the


                                            20    Properties of earth
Tetrahedron with                      Octahedron with                                                                      Porosity
   silicon core                       aluminium core
                                                                                                                           The degree of porosity is defined by the
                                                                                                                           total volume of pores within the loam. More
                                                                                                                           important than the volume of the pores are
                                                                                                                           the dimensions of the pores. The larger the
                                                                                                                           porosity, the higher the vapour diffusion and
                                                                                                                    2.3
                                                                                                                           the higher the frost resistance.
                                                                       percentage of clay, silt and sand can be
                                                                       plotted on the three axes of a triangle and         Specific surface
                                                                       read accordingly. For example, loam marked          The specific surface of a soil is the sum of
                                                                       S III in this graph is composed of 22% clay,        all particle surfaces. Coarse sand has a spe-
                                                                       48% silt and 30% sand.                              cific surface of about 23 cm2/g, silt about
                                                                                                                           450 cm2/g and clay, from 10 m2/g (Kaolinite)
                                                                       Organic constituents                                to 1000 m2/g (Montmorillonite). The larger
                                                                       Soil dug from depths of less than 40 cm             the specific surface of clay, the higher the
             m
         2m




                                                                       usually contains plant matter and humus             internal cohesive forces which are relevant
        6–
       0.0




                                                 %C




                            Clay
                                                                       (the product of rotting plants), which con-         for binding force as well as compressive
  d




                                                     lay
 San




                                                      <0




                                                                       sists mainly of colloidal particles and is acidic   and tensile strength.
                                                           .02
                                                            mm




                                                                       (pH-value less than 6). Earth as building
           Sandy        Clayey loam        Silty
        clayey loam                    clayey loam                     material should be free of humus and plant          Density
                           Loam
        Sandy loam                      Silty loam                     matter. Under certain conditions, plant mat-        The density of soil is defined by the ratio
Sand
                                                                       ter like straw can be added, provided it is         of dry mass to volume (including pores).
                      Silt 0.002– 0.06 mm
                                                                       dry and there is no danger of later deterio-        Freshly dug soil has a density of 1000 to
                                                                 2.4   ration (see p. 83).                                 1500 kg/m3. If this earth is compressed, as
                                                                                                                           in rammed earthworks or in soil blocks, its
                                                                       Water                                               density varies from 1700 to 2200 kg/m3
                                                                       Water activates the binding forces of loam.         (or more, if it contains considerable amounts
                                                                       Besides free water, there are three different       of gravel or larger aggregates).
                                                                       types of water in loam: water of crystallisa-
                                                                       tion (structural water), absorbed water, and        Compactability
                                                                       water of capillarity (pore water). Water of         Compactability is the ability of earth to be
                                                                       crystallisation is chemically bound and is          compacted by static pressure or dynamic
                                                                       only distinguishable if the loam is heated to       compaction so that its volume is reduced.
                                                                       temperatures between 400°C and 900°C.               To attain maximum compaction, the earth
                                                                       Absorbed water is electrically bound to             must have a specific water content, the
                                                                       the clay minerals. Water of capillarity has         so-called “optimum water content,” which
                                                                       entered the pores of the material by capil-         allows particles to be moved into a denser
                                                                       lary action. Absorbed and capillary water           configuration without too much friction. This
                                                                       are released when the mixture is heated to          is measured by the Proctor test (see p. 44).
                                                                       105°C. If dry clay gets wet, it swells because
                                                                       water creeps in between the lamellary struc-
                                                                       ture, surrounding the lamellas with a thin          Tests used to analyse the composi-
                                                                       film of water. If this water evaporates, the        tion of loam
                                                                       interlamellary distance is reduced, and the
                                                                       lamellas arrange themselves in a parallel           To determine the suitability of a loam for a
                                                                       pattern due to the forces of electrical attrac-     specific application, it is necessary to know
                                                                       tion. The clay thus acquires a “binding force”      its composition. The following section
                                                                       (see p. 32), if in a plastic state, and com-        describes standardised laboratory tests and
                                                                       pressive and tensile strength after drying.         simple field tests that are used to analyse
                                                                                                                           loam composition.


                                                                 21    Properties of earth
Combined sieving and sedimentation                  Cutting test                                          Sample Content             by vision        Real
analysis                                            A humid sample of the earth is formed into                                   % (vol.) % (mass)   % (mass)
The proportion of coarse aggregates (sand,          a ball and cut with a knife. If the cut surface
                                                                                                             K1        Clay         45     14           6
gravel and stones) is relatively easy to distin-    is shiny, it means that the mixture has high
                                                                                                                       Silt           18   26         38
guish by sieving. However, the proportion of        clay content; if it is dull, it indicates high silt
                                                                                                                       Sand           37   60         56
fine aggregates can only be ascertained by          content.
sedimentation. This test is specified in detail                                                              K2        Clay         36     17           2
in the German standard DIN 18123.                   Sedimentation test                                                 Silt         24     19          16
                                                    The mixture is stirred with a lot of water in a                    Sand           40   64          82
Water content                                       glass jar. The largest particles settle at the
The amount of water in a loam mixture can           bottom, the finest on top. This stratification                                                          2.5

be easily determined by weighing the sam-           allows the proportion of the constituents to
ple and than heating it in an oven to 105°C.        be estimated. It is a wrong to assert that
If the weight stays constant, the mixture is        the height of each layer corresponds to the
dry, and the difference of the two weights          proportion of clay, silt, sand and gravel, as
gives the weight of all water not chemically        is claimed by many authors (e.g. CRATerre,            2.5 Soil grain size distri-
bound. This water content is stated as a            1979, p. 180; International Labour Office,            bution of two loams
percentage of the weight of the dry mixture.        1987, p. 30; Houben, Guillaud, 1984, p. 49;           tested in the sedimen-
                                                                                                          tation test
                                                    Stulz, Mukerji, 1988, p. 20; United Nations
                                                                                                          2.6 Sedimentation test
Simple field tests                                  Centre for Human Settlement, 1992, p. 7)              (CRATerre, 1979)
The following tests are not very exact, but         (see 2.6).                                            2.8 Sedimentation test
they can be performed on site relatively
quickly, and are usually exact enough to
estimate the composition of loam and
                                                                                                                  Organic Material
ascertain if the mixture is acceptable for a
specific application.                                                                                             Clay
                                                                                                                  Silt
                                                                                                                  Sand
Smell test                                                                                                        Gravel
Pure loam is odourless, however it acquires                                                                                     2.6
a musty smell if it contains deteriorating          Several experiments at the Building
humus or organic matter.                            Research Laboratory (BRL), University of
                                                    Kassel, showed that the margin of error
Nibble test                                         could be as large as 1750%, as seen in 2.5
A pinch of soil is lightly nibbled. Sandy           and 2.8. In fact, one can only distinguish
soil produces a disagreeable sensation as           successive strata at sudden changes of
opposed to silty soil, which gives a less           grain-size distribution, and these may not                                                              2.7
objectionable sensation. Clayey soil, on the        coincide with the actual defined limits
other hand, gives a sticky, smooth or floury        between clay and silt, and between silt
sensation.                                          and sand (see 2.7).


Wash test                                           Ball dropping test
A humid soil sample is rubbed between the           The mixture to be tested has to be as dry
hands. If the grains can be distinctly felt, it     as possible, yet wet enough to be formed
indicates sandy or gravelly soil. If the sample     into a ball 4 cm in diameter.
is sticky, but the hands can be rubbed clean        When this ball is dropped from a height of
when dry, this indicates silty soil. If the sam-    1.5 m onto a flat surface, various results can
ple is sticky, so that water is needed to clean     occur, as shown in 2.9. If the ball flattens
the hands, this indicates clayey soil.              only slightly and shows few or no cracks,
                                                    like the sample on the left, it has a high
                                                    binding force due to high clay content. Usu-


                                               22   Properties of earth
                                                                                                                                                                  If the thread breaks or develops large cracks
                                                                                                                                                                  before it reaches 3 mm diameter, the
                                                                                                                                                                  mixture is slowly moistened until the thread
                                                                                                                                                                  breaks only when its diameter reaches
                                                                                                                                                                  3 mm.
                                                                                                                                                                  This mixture is then formed into a ball. If
                                                                                                                                                                  this is not possible, then the sand content is
                                                                                                                                                                  too high and the clay content too low. If
                                                                                                                                                                  the ball can be crushed between the thumb
                                                                                                                                                            2.9
                                                                                                                                                                  and forefinger only with a lot of force, the
                                                                                     ally this mixture must be thinned by adding                                  clay content is high and has to be thinned
                                                                                     sand. If the test looks like the sample on the                               by adding sand. If the ball crumbles very
                                                                                     right, it has very low clay content. Its binding                             easily, then the loam contains little clay.
                                                                                     force is then usually insufficient, and it can-
                                                                                     not be used as a building material. In the                                   Cohesion test (ribbon test)
                                                                                     case of the third sample from the left, the                                  The loam sample should be just moist
                                                                                     mixture has a relatively poor binding force,                                 enough to be rolled into a thread 3 mm in
                                                                                     but its composition usually enables it to be                                 diameter without breaking. From this thread,
                                                                                     used for mud bricks (adobes) and rammed                                      a ribbon approximately 6 mm in thickness
                                                                                     earth.                                                                       and 20 mm wide is formed and held in the
                                                                                                                                                                  palm. The ribbon is then slid along the palm
                                                                                     Consistency test                                                             to overhang as much as possible until it
2.8 Grain size distribution
                                                                                     Moist earth is formed into a ball 2 to 3 cm                                  breaks (see 2.10).
of test loams
2.9 Loam balls after the                                                             in diameter. This ball is rolled into a thin                                 If the free length before breakage is more
dropping test                                                                        thread 3 mm in diameter.                                                     than 20 cm, then it has a high binding force,
                                           2.8
                                                                                                                                                                  implying a clay content that is too high for
                                                         Sedimentation                                               Sieving
                                                                                                                                                                  building purposes. If the ribbon breaks after
                                                 Clay             Silt                                Sand                               Gravel

                                           100
                                                        Fine    Medium      Coarse      Fine         Medium     Coarse       Fine       Medium         Coarse     only a few centimetres, the mixture has too
                                           90                                                                                                                     little clay. This test is inaccurate, and at the
                      Percentage passing




                                           80                                                                                                                     BRL it was known to have margins of errors
                                            70
                                                                                                                                                                  of greater than 200% if the loam was not
                                           60
                                           50                                                                                                                     well kneaded and the thickness and width
                                           40                                                                                                                     of the ribbon varied.
                                           30
                                                                                                                                                                  For this reason, a new, more precise test
                                           20
                                            10                                                                                                                    was developed in which a 20-mm-wide
                                            0                                                                                                                     and 6-mm-high profile was produced by
                                             0.001 0.002 0.006 0.01      0.02   0.06 0.1       0.2        0.6    1       2          6    10       20        60

                                                                                                                                          Grain size (mm)
                                                                                                                                                                  pressing the loam with the fingers into the
                                                                                                                                                                  groove between two ledges. The surface is
                                                                                                                                                                  smoothened by rolling with a bottle (see
                                                         Sedimentation                                               Sieving
                                                 Clay             Silt                                Sand                               Gravel                   2.11). To prevent the loam profile from stick-
                                                        Fine    Medium      Coarse      Fine         Medium     Coarse       Fine       Medium         Coarse
                                           100                                                                                                                    ing, the base is lined with a thin strip of
                                           90
                                                                                                                                                                  plastic or oilpaper. The length of the ribbon,
                      Percentage passing




                                           80
                                            70
                                                                                                                                                                  when it breaks under its own weight,
                                           60                                                                                                                     is measured by pushing it slowly over a
                                           50                                                                                                                     rounded edge with a radius curvature of
                                           40
                                           30
                                                                                                                                                                  1 cm (2.11, right). For each type of soil, five
                                           20                                                                                                                     samples were taken and ribbon lengths
                                            10                                                                                                                    measured at the point of rupture.
                                            0
                                             0.001 0.002 0.006 0.01      0.02   0.06 0.1       0.2        0.6    1       2          6    10       20        60    The longest rupture lengths from each set
                                                                                                                                          Grain size (mm)         have been plotted in 2.12, against the bind-


                                                                           23        Properties of earth
ing force according to the standard DIN            disadvantageous for its use as a building
18952 test (see p. 32), with a slight change:      material. Swelling only occurs if loam comes
here the maximum strength of five samples          into direct contact with so much water that
was also considered.                               it loses its solid state. The absorption of
This is because it was found that the lower        humidity from the air, however, does not
values were usually due to insufficient mix-       lead to swelling.
ing, inaccurate plasticity or other preparation    The amount of swelling and shrinkage
mistakes. In order to guarantee that differ-       depends on the type and quantity of clay
                                                                                                                                                          2.10
ent loam mixtures are comparable, the cho-         (with Montmorillonite clay this effect is
sen consistency of the samples was defined         much larger than with Kaolinite and Illite),
                                                                                                        2.0
by a diameter of 70 mm (instead of 50 mm)          and also on the grain distribution of silt and
                                                                                                        1.8
of the flat circular area, which forms if a test   sand. Experiments were conducted at the              1.6
ball of 200 g weight is dropped from a             BRL using 10 x 10 x 7 cm samples of differ-          1.4
height of 2 m. (With sandy loam mixtures           ent loam mixtures that were soaked with              1.2
                                                                                                        1.0
with little clay content, a diameter of 50 mm      80 cm3 of water and then dried in an oven
                                                                                                        0.8
is not attainable.)                                at 50°C in order to study shrinkage cracks           0.6
                                                   (2.13). Industrially fabricated unbaked blocks       0.4

Acid test                                          (2.13, top left), whose granularity curve is         0.2
                                                                                                        0.0
Loams that contain lime are normally white         shown in 2.1 (upper left), display shrinkage               0     20      40        60      80      100
in appearance, exhibit a low binding force         cracks. A similar mixture with the same kind                                  Ribbon rupture lenght (cm)
and are therefore inappropriate for earth          and amount of clay, but with ”optimised“
                                                                                                                                                          2.12
construction. In order to define the lime          distribution of silt and sand, exhibited hardly
content, one drop of a 20% solution of HCl         any cracks after drying out (2.13, top right).
is added using a glass or a timber rod. In         The mud brick made of silty soil (2.13, bot-
the case of loam with lime content, CO2 is         tom right) (granularity curve shown in 2.1,
produced according to the equation CaCO3           middle) shows several very fine cracks,
+ 2HCl = CaCl2 + CO2 + H2O. This CO2 pro-          whereas the mud brick of sandy soil (2.13,
duction is observable because of the efflo-        bottom left) (granularity curve shown in 2.1,
rescence that results; if there is no efflores-    bottom) shows no cracks at all. On p. 39
cence, the lime content is less than 1%. If        it is explained how shrinkage might be min-
there is a weak, brief efflorescence, the lime     imised by changing grain distribution.
content is between 1% and 2%; if the efflo-
rescence is significant though brief, the lime     Determining linear shrinkage                      2.10 Ribbon test
                                                                                                     2.11 Cohesion test devel-
content is between 3% and 4%; and if the           Before the shrinkage ratio of different loam
                                                                                                     oped at the BRL
efflorescence is strong and long lasting, the      samples can be compared, they must have           2.12 Binding force of
lime content is more than 5% (Voth, 1978,          comparable plasticity.                            different loams of equal
                                                                                                     consistency in relation
p. 59).                                            The German standard DIN 18952 describes
                                                                                                     to their rupture lengths,
It should be noted that a dark lime-free           the following steps required to obtain this       tested according to the
loam with a high content of humus could            standard stiffness:                               BRL cohesion test
also exhibit this phenomenon.



Effects of water

If loam becomes wet, it swells and changes
from a solid to a plastic state.


Swelling and shrinking
The swelling of loam when in contact with
water and its shrinkage through drying is
                                                                                                                                                          2.11

                                             24    Properties of earth
2.13 Swelling and shrink-                                                                    1. The material is pressed and repeatedly
age test
                                                                                             rammed by a piece of timber about
2.14 Tools to distinguish
the linear shrinkage                                                                         2 x 2 cm in section into the form shown
according to the German                                                                      in 2.14, which rests on a flat surface.
standard DIN 18952
                                                                                             2. Three samples have to be made and
2.15 Apparatus to obtain
the liquid limit, according
                                                                                             the form has to be taken off at once.
to Casagrande                                                                                3. Template marks at a distance of 200 mm
                                                                                             are made with a knife.
                                                                                             4. The three samples are dried for three
                                                                                             days in a room. They are then heated to
                                                                                             60°C in an oven until no more shrinkage
                                                                                      2.13
                                                                                             can be measured. The DIN mentions that
                                            1. The dry loam mixture is crushed and           they are to be dried on an oiled glass plate.
                                            sieved to eliminate all particles with diame-    The BRL suggests lining the plate with a thin
                                            ters larger than 2 mm.                           layer of sand to make the drying process
                                            2. About 1200 cm3 of this material is slight-    more even and avoiding friction.
                                            ly moistened and hammered on a flat sur-         5. The average shrinkage of the three sam-
                                            face to produce a continuous piece (like a       ples in relation to the length of 200 mm
                                            thick pancake).                                  gives the linear shrinkage ratio in percent-
                                            3. This is then cut into 2-cm-wide strips,       ages. If the shrinkage of one sample differs
                                            placed edge-to-edge touching each other,         more than 2 mm from the other two, the
                                            then hammered again. This procedure is           sample has to be remade.
                              2.14          repeated until the lower part shows an even
                                            structure.                                       Plasticity
                                            4. Loam with high clay content must then         Loam has four states of consistency: liquid,
                                            rest for twelve hours, and one with low          plastic, semisolid and solid. The limits of
                                            clay content for about six hours, so that the    these states were defined by the Swedish
                                            water content is equally distributed through-    scientist Atterberg.
                                            out the sample.
                                            5. From this mixture, 200 g are beaten, to       Liquid limit
                                            compact into a sphere.                           The liquid limit (LL) defines water content
                                            6. This ball is dropped from a height of         at the boundary between liquid and plastic
                                            2 m onto a flat surface.                         states. It is expressed as a percentage and
                                            7. If the diameter of the flattened surface      is determined by following the steps
                                            thus formed is 50 mm, standard stiffness is      explained below using the Casagrande
                                            said to be reached. The difference between       instrument shown in 2.15:
                                            the largest and smallest diameters of this
                                            disc should not be more than 2 mm. Other-        1. The mixture must remain in water for an
                                            wise the whole process must be repeated          extended period (up to four days if the clay
                                            until the exact diameter in the drop test is     content is high) and then pressed through
                                            reached. If the disc diameter is larger than     a sieve with 0.4 mm meshes.
                                            50 mm, then the mixture has to be dried          2. 50 to 70 g of this mixture in a pasty con-
                                            slightly and the whole process repeated          sistency is placed in the bowl of the appa-
                                            until the exact diameter is attained.            ratus and its surface smoothened. The maxi-
                                            8. If the diameter of the disc is less than      mum thickness in the centre should be 1 cm.
                                            50 mm, then a few drops of water should          3. A groove is then made using a special
                                            be added.                                        device, which is always held perpendicular
                                                                                             to the surface of the bowl.
                                            With this standard stiffness, the shrinkage      4. By turning the handle at a speed of two
                                            test is to be executed as follows:               cycles per second, the bowl is lifted and
                                     2.15

                                      25    Properties of earth
                                                                                                                      0.35




                                                                                                    Water content W
dropped until the groove is closed over a        have been sieved out earlier. If that portion
length of 10 mm.                                 is less than 25% of the dry weight of the
5. The numbers of strokes are counted and        entire mixture, then the water content can                           0.30
a sample of 5 cm3 is taken from the centre       be calculated using the following formula:
in order to determine the water content.
When the groove closes at 25 strokes, the                   W0 =     L                                                0.25
                                                                    1–A
water content of the mixture is equal to the
liquid limit.                                    where W0 is the calculated water content,                            0.20
                                                 L the determined water content LL or PL,                                     15            20         25         30        35     40

It is very time-consuming to change the          and A the weight of grains larger than                                                                                       Strokes
                                                                                                                                                                                  2.16
water content repeatedly until the groove        0.4 mm expressed as a percentage of the            2.16 Deriving the liquid
closes at exactly 25 strokes. A special          dry weight of the total mixture.                   limit by the multi-point
method described in the German standard                                                             method according
                                                                                                    to the German standard
DIN 18122 allows the test to run with four       Plasticity index
                                                                                                    DIN 18122
different water contents if the number of        The difference between the liquid limit and        2.17 Plasticity index of
strokes is between 15 and 40. Illustration       the plastic limit is called the plasticity index   loams (after Voth, 1978)
                                                                                                    2.18 Test assembly to
2.16 shows how the liquid limit is obtained      (PI). The table in 2.17 gives some typical val-
                                                                                                    obtain the ‘w’-values of
using these four tests. The four values          ues for LL, PL and PI.                             loam samples (Boemans,
are noted in a diagram whose horizontal                                                             1990)
co-ordinate shows the stroke numbers in          Consistency number
a logarithmic scale, and the vertical co-ordi-   The consistency number (C) can be calculat-
                                                                                                    Type of loam                        LL [%]         PL [%]          PI = LL–PL
nate shows the water content as a percent-       ed for any existing water content (W) of the
age. The liquid limit is obtained by drawing     plastic stage by using the following formula:                        sandy             10 – 23         5 – 23           <5

a line through the four values and reading
the interpolated value at the co-ordinate of                C=      LL – W = LL – W                                   silty             15 – 35        10 – 25          5 – 15
                                                                    LL – PL     PI
25 strokes.                                                                                                           clayey            28 – 150       20 – 50         15 – 95
                                                 The consistency number is 0 at the liquid
                                                                                                                      Bentonite           40                8             32
Plastic limit                                    limit and 1 at the plastic limit.
The plastic limit (PL) is the water content,                                                                                                                                      2.17

expressed as a percentage, at the boundary       Standard stiffness
between plastic and semisolid states. It is      As the definition of the plastic limit in Atter-
determined by means of the following pro-        berg is not very exact, Niemeyer proposes
cedure: the same mixture that was be used        ”standard stiffness“ as a basis for the com-
to define the liquid limit is rolled by hand     parison of mixtures of equal consistency.
onto a water-absorbent surface (cardboard,       The method for obtaining this stiffness is
soft wood or similar material) into small        described on p. 24.
threads of 3 mm diameter. Then the threads
are moulded into a ball and rolled again.        Slump
This procedure is repeated until the threads     The workability of mortar mixtures is
begin to crumble at a diameter of 3 mm.          defined by the slump. This can be specified
Ca. 5 g are removed from this mixture and        by a method described in the German
immediately weighed, then dried to obtain        standards DIN 1060 (Part 3) or DIN 1048
the water content. This test is repeated         (Part 1). Here, the mortar is poured through
three times. The average value of three          a standard funnel onto a plate that is lifted
samples that do not deviate by more than         and dropped by a defined type and number
                                                                                                                                                            Acrylic glass plate
2% is identical with the plastic limit.          of strokes. The diameter of the cake thus
                                                                                                                                                     Polyurethene foam
As the liquid and the plastic limits have        formed is measured in centimetres and is                                                        Filter paper
been defined using a mixture containing          called the slump.                                                                           Loam sample
only particles smaller than 0.4 mm, the test                                                                                       Glass-fibre reinforced polyester layer
results must be corrected if larger grains                                                                                    Water                                               2.18


                                            26   Properties of earth
               Silty loam (1900 kg/m3) (3)               3.7                    0.32       Shrinkage limit                                    surface is operative.
                                      3
             Clayey loam (1940 kg/m ) (3)          1.6                        0.27         The shrinkage limit (SL) is defined as the         With loam samples, problems are caused by
Lightweight mineral loam (470 kg/m3) (3)           1.3                 0.13
                                                                                           boundary between the semi-solid and solid          areas that swell and erode underwater over
Lightweight mineral loam (700 kg/m3) (3)             2.8               0.15
                                                                                           states. It is the limit where shrinkage ceases     time. The BRL developed a special method
 Lightweight straw loam (450 kg/m3) (3)              2.4                 0.20

 Lightweight straw loam (850 kg/m3) (3)                  3.6                  0.26         to occur. With clayey soil, it can be identified   to avoid this: to prevent the penetration of
Lightweight straw loam (1150 kg/m3) (3)              3.1                        0.29       optically when the dark colour of the humid        water from the sides as well as the swelling
                          Spruce axial (2)         1.2          0      0.2          0.4    mixture turns a lighter shade due to evapo-        and deformation of the cube, samples are
                     Spruce tangential (2)         0.2                (m3/m3)
                                                                                           ration of water in the pores. Still, this is not   covered on all four sides by a glass-fibre
       Cement concrete (2290 kg/m3) (1)             1.8

             Hollow brick (1165 kg/m3) (1)                     8.9
                                                                                           an exact method of measurement.                    reinforced polyester resin. To avoid the ero-
               Solid brick (1750 kg/m3) (1)                                     25.1                                                          sion of particles from the submerged sur-
                                               0               10      20           30     Capillary action                                   face, a filter paper is attached beneath and
      2.19                                                                      2   0.5
                                                                                                                                              glued to the polyester resin sides. To pre-
                                                                     w (kg/m h )
                                                                                           Water movement                                     empt deformation of the weakened loam at
                                              2.19 Water absorption                        All materials with open porous structures          the bottom during weighing, a 4-mm-thick
                                              coefficient ‘w’ of loams in                  like loam are able to store and transport          sponge over an acrylic glass plate is placed
                                              comparison with com-
                                                                                           water within their capillaries. The water,         underneath (see 2.18). A test with a baked
                                              mon building materials
                                              2.20 Water absorption                        therefore, always travels from regions of          brick sample comparing both methods
                                              curves of loams                              higher humidity to regions of lower humidi-        showed that the BRL method reduced
                                                                                           ty. The capacity of water to respond to suc-       results by only 2%.
       Water absorption w (kg/m2)                                                   2.20
                                                                                           tion in this way is termed “capillarity” and       The coefficient w of different loams tested
                                                                                           the process of water transportation “capil-        along with the w-values of common build-
                                                                                           lary action.”                                      ing materials is listed in 2.19. Interestingly,
                                                                                           The quantity of water (W) that can be              the silty soil samples gave higher w-values
                                                                                           absorbed over a given period of time is            than those of clayey soil. Surprisingly, com-
                                                                                           defined by the formula:                            parison with baked bricks shows that loam
                                                                                                                                              has w-values that are smaller by a factor
                                                                                                      W = w √t [kg/m2]                        of 10.
                                                                                                                                              Water absorption in relation to time is also
                                                                                           where w is the water absorption coefficient        very interesting as shown in 2.20. Visible
                                                                                           measured in kg/m2h0.5 and t, the time in           here is the amazing effect of a tremendous
                                                                                           hours.                                             increase in absorption caused by adding
                                                                                                                                              small quantities of cement.
                                                                                           Determination of the water absorption
                                                                                           coefficient                                        Capillary water capacity
                                                                                           According to the German standard DIN               The maximum amount of water that can be
                                                                                           52617, the water absorption coefficient (w)        absorbed in comparison to the volume or
                                                                                           is obtained in the following way: a sample         mass of the sample is called “capillary water
                                                                                           cube of loam is placed on a plane surface          capacity” ([kg/m3] or [m3/m3]). This is an
                                                                                           and immersed in water to a depth of about          important value when considering the con-
                                                                                           3 mm, and its weight increase measured             densation phenomena in building compo-
                                                                                           periodically. The coefficient (w) is then calcu-   nents. Illustration 2.19 shows these values
                                                                      Time t (min)
              1   Clayey loam + sand                                                       lated by the formula:                              with the w-values.
              2   Clayey loam + 2% cement

                                                                                                      w = W [kg/m2h0.5]
              3   Clayey loam + 4% cement
                                                                                                                                              Water penetration test after Karsten
              4   Clayey loam + 8% cement                                                                 √t
              5   Lightweight mineral loam 650                                                                                                In Karsten’s water penetration test, a
              6   Lightweight mineral loam 800                                             where W is the increase in weight per unit         spherical glass container with a diameter of
              7   Lightweight straw loam 450
              8   Lightweight straw loam 850                                               surface area and t the time in hours elapsed.      30 mm and an attached measuring cylinder
              9   Lightweight straw loam 1150                                              With this test, all four sides of the cube         is fixed with silicon glue to the test sample
             10   Clayey loam
             11   Silty loam
                                                                                           should be sealed so that no water enters           so that the test surface in contact with the
             12   Sandy loam                                                               from these surfaces, and only the bottom           water is 3 cm2 (Karsten, 1983, see 2.21). The


                                                                                     27    Properties of earth
usual method using water is problematic,             shrinkage, the sandy mixture only 3%. After
since the sample dissolves at the joint.             three years of exposure to the weather, the
Therefore, the BRL modified the method by            clayey soil showed a special kind of scaling
closing the opening of the glass container           caused by frost. This was due to thin hairline
with filter paper (see 2.22, right). Results         cracks that appeared during drying, and
using this method were comparable to                 through which rainwater was absorbed by
those using the method given in the Ger-             capillary action. When this water freezes, its
man standard DIN 52617 (see 2.23).                   volume increases, causing the upper layers
                                                     to burst. In areas where no hairline cracks
                                                                                                                                                      2.21
Stability in static water                            were found, this effect did not occur. Fur-
Stability in static water can be defined after       thermore, no rain erosion was observed in
the German standard DIN 18952 (Part 2),              these areas. The sample on the left does
as follows: a prismatic sample is immersed           not show this type of erosion after three
5 cm deep in water and the time it takes for         years. Here we see that some loam is
                                                                                                                                            Filter paper
the submerged part to disintegrate is meas-          washed away by rain, so that the horizontal
ured. According to this standard, samples            shrinkage crack is partially filled by these                                           Silicon

that disintegrate in less than 45 minutes are        particles, but no frost erosion is observable.                                         Seal

unsuitable for earth construction. But this          This is because there were no hairline
                                                                                                                                                   2.22
test is unnecessary for earth construction           cracks, and because the loam contained
practices, since earth components would              pores large enough to allow the freezing         Water absorption w (kg/m2)                   2.23
never be permanently immersed in water               water to expand.                                        1   Clayey loam, w – value
in any case. Significant instead is resistance       The test resulted in the following conclu-              2   Clayey loam, Karsten
                                                                                                             3   Silty loam, w – value
to running water.                                    sions:                                                  4   Silty loam, Karsten

                                                     • sandy loam has little resistance against
Resistance to running water                          rain, but is frost-resistant when free of
During construction, earth building elements         cracks;
are often exposed to rain and sensitive to           • loam with high clay content tends to
erosion, especially if still wet. It is important,   develop hairline cracks, and is therefore sus-
hence, to determine their resistance to run-         ceptible to frost. If there are no hairline
ning water. To compare the degrees of                cracks, it is almost rain-resistant.                                                 Time t (min)
resistance of different loam mixtures, the           The higher the porosity and the larger the
BRL developed a test apparatus capable of            pores, the higher loam’s resistance to frost.    2.21 Modified water
testing up to six samples simultaneously             Therefore, extruded common clay bricks           penetration test accor-
                                                                                                      ding to BRL
(see 2.24). In this apparatus, water jets with       produced in a factory are not frost-resistant    2.22 Modified water
diameters of 4 mm are sprayed onto the               and should not be used on outer exterior         penetration test accord-
samples from a 45° angle and with a velo-            walls in climates with frost. By contrast,       ing to BRL
                                                                                                      2.23 Water absorption
city of 3.24 m/sec, simulating the worst             handmade adobes made from sandy loam
                                                                                                      according to Karsten and
driving rain conditions in Europe.                   are usually frost-resistant.                     the German standard
                                                                                                      DIN 52617
Rain and frost erosion                               Drying period
Illustration 2.25 shows two samples: each is         The period during which wet loam reaches
shown prior to testing (left), and after three       its equilibrium moisture content is called
years of weathering (right). The earth mix-          the “drying period.” The decreasing water
ture of the sample on the right contained            content and increasing shrinkage of a sandy
40% clay; the one on the left was mixed              mud mortar dried in a closed room at a
with sand, reducing the clay content to              temperature of 20°C and with a relative
16%. Both mixtures were tested with a mor-           humidity of ambient air of 81% and 44%
tar consistency in single layers 5 cm in thick-      respectively is shown in 2.26. With 44%
ness. After drying, large shrinkage cracks           humidity, the drying took about 14 days,
appeared. The clayey mixture showed 11%              while with 81% humidity, about 30. Illustra-


                                               28    Properties of earth
                                                                                           tion 2.27 shows the drying process of differ-        loam mixed with straw and having the
                                                                                           ent loam samples compared to other build-            same overall density.
                                                                                           ing materials. In this test, conducted at the        Chapter 12 (p. 98) describes how painting
                                                                                           BRL, brick-size samples were immersed in             reduces the permeation of vapour through
                                                                                           3 mm of water for 24 hours and then kept             walls.
                                                                                           in a room with a temperature of 23°C and
                                                                                           relative humidity of 50% in still air condi-         Equilibrium moisture content
                                                                                           tions. Interestingly, all loam samples dried         Every porous material, even when dry, has a
                                                                                           out after 20 to 30 days, whereas baked clay          characteristic humidity, called its “equilibrium
                                                                  2.24
                                                                                           bricks, sand-lime bricks and concrete had            moisture content,” which depends on the
                                                                                           not dried out even after 100 days.                   temperature and humidity of the ambient
                                                                                                                                                air. The higher temperature and humidity
                                                                                                                                                levels are, the more water is absorbed by
                                                                                           Effects of vapour                                    the material. If temperature and air humidity
                                                                                                                                                are reduced, the material will desorb water.
                                                                  2.26
                                                              0                            While loam in contact with water swells and          The absorption curves of different loam mix-
                                                                                           weakens, under the influence of vapour it            tures are shown in 2.29. The values vary
                                     Water content
                                                              0.5
                                                                                           absorbs the humidity but remains solid and           from 0.4% for sandy loam at 20% air
                                                 at 20/81

                                                 at 20/44
                                                                                           retains its rigidity without swelling. Loam,         humidity to 6% for clayey loam under 97%
Water content W (%)




                                                                    Linear shrinkage (%)




                                     Shrinkage                1                            hence, can balance indoor air humidity, as           air humidity. It is interesting to note that rye
                                                 at 20/81                                  described in detail on pp. 15 –18.                   straw under 80% humidity displays an equi-
                                                 at 20/44     1.5                                                                               librium moisture content of 18%. In contrast,
                                                                                           Vapour diffusion                                     expanded clay, which is also used to achieve
                                                              2                            In moderate and cold climates where indoor           lightweight loam, reaches its equilibrium
                                                                                           temperatures are often higher than outside           moisture content at only 0.3%. In 2.30, four
                                                              2.5                          temperatures, there are vapour pressure              values of loam mixtures are shown in com-
                                                                                           differences between interior and exterior,           parison to the values of other common
                                                     Drying time t (d)
                                                                                           causing vapour to move from inside to out-           building materials.
        2.24 Water spraying test                                                           side through the walls. Vapour passes                Here, one can see that the higher the clay
        apparatus developed at
                                                                                           through walls, and the resistance of the wall        content of loam, the greater its equilibrium
        the BRL
        2.25 Loam samples                                                                  material against this action is defined by the       moisture content. Additionally, it should be
        before (left) and after                                                            “vapour diffusion resistance coefficient.”           mentioned that Bentonite, which contains
        (right) being exposed to                                                           It is important to know the value of vapour          70% Montmorillonite, has an equilibrium
        weather for three years
        2.26 Linear shrinkage
                                                                                           resistance when the temperature difference           moisture content of 13% under 50%
        and drying period of lean                                                          between inside and outside is so high that           humidity, whereas the equilibrium moisture
        loam mortar (clay 4%, silt                                                         the indoor air condenses after being cooled          content of Kaolinite under the same condi-
        25%, sand 71%) with a
                                                                                           down in the wall.                                    tions is only 0.7%.
        slump of 42 cm accord-
        ing to the German stan-                                                            The German standard DIN 52615 describes              The graph shows that silty earth blocks or
        dard DIN 18555 (Part 2)                                                            the precise test procedure used to deter-            adobes (no. 4 on the graph) reach a mois-
                                                                                           mine these values. The product of m with             ture content five times higher than a sandy
                                                                                           the thickness of the building element s gives        loam plaster (no. 9 on the graph) at a rela-
                                                                  2.25
                                                                                           the specific vapour diffusion resistance sd .        tive humidity of 58%.
                                                                                           Still air has an sd -value of 1. Illustration 2.28   It should be noted that for the humidity
                                                                                           shows some of the µ-values determined by             balancing effect of building materials, the
                                                                                           the BRL for different kinds of loam. It is           speed of absorption and desorption
                                                                                           interesting to note that silty loam has an µ-        processes is more important than the equi-
                                                                                           value about 20% lower than that of clayey            librium moisture content, as explained on
                                                                                           and sandy loams, and that lightweight loam           p. 14.
                                                                                           with expanded clay weighing 750 kg/m3
                                                                                           has a value 2.5 times higher than that of


                                                                    29                     Properties of earth
                        0.5                                                             0.5                                                           2.27 Drying period of
                                                                                                                                                      loams and other building
                                                                                                                               3
                                                                                                       1   Solid brick 1850 kg/m
                              1   Sandy loam 1900 kg/m3                                                                                               materials
                                                                                                       2   Hollow brick 1200 kg/m3
                              2   Silty loam 1950 kg/m3                                                3   Lime-sand brick 1800 kg/m3                 2.28 The vapour diffu-
                              3   Straw loam 1200 kg/m3                                                    Porous concrete (Hebel) 600 kg/m3
                                                                                                       4                                              sion coefficient µ of differ-
                        0.4   4   Straw loam 550 kg/m3                                  0.4            5   Porous concrete (Ytong) 450 kg/m3
                              5   Straw loam 450 kg/m3                                                                                                ent loams and plasters
                                                                                                       6   Cement concrete M25 2200 kg/m3
                              6   Mineral loam 750 kg/m3                                                                                              according to the German
                              7   Mineral loam 600 kg/m3                                                                                              standard DIN 52615, wet
                                                                                                                                                      method
                        0.3                                                             0.3                                                           2.29 Absorption curves
 Water content (g/m3)




                                                                 Water content (g/m3)
                                                                                                                                                      of solid (left) and light-
                                                                                                                                                      weight (right) loams
                                                                                                                                                      2.30 Equilibrium mois-
                                                                                                                                                      ture content of different
                        0.2                                                                                                                           loams and other building
                                                                                        0.2
                                                                                                                                                      materials
                                                                                                                                                      2.31 U-values of loam



                        0.1
                                                                                        0.1




                        0.0
                                                                                        0.0

                                       Drying time (d)                                                           Drying time (d)
                                                                                                                                               2.27

Condensation                                                    doors, windows and in ceilings. Harmful
In moderate and cold climatic zones, the                        condensation can occur in these joints.
water vapour contained in indoor air diffus-                    • With monolithic wall sections, water pene-
es through the walls to the exterior. If the air                trates in the rainy season from the outside
is cooled down in the walls and reaches its                     into the wall, and then cannot evaporate
dew point, condensation occurs. This damp-
ness reduces thermal insulation capacity and                                                                                                                                                                         2.29
                                                                                        Water Content W (%)                                                Water Content W (%)
may lead to fungus growth. In such cases, it
is important that this humidity be transport-
ed quickly by capillary action to the surface
of the walls, where it can evaporate. There-
fore, materials like loam with a high capillari-
ty are advantageous.
In order to reduce the danger of condensa-
tion in walls, vapour transmission resistance
should be higher inside than outside. On
the other hand, resistance to heat transfer
should be higher outside than inside.
Though the above principles normally suf-
fice to inhibit the formation of condensation
in walls, it is also possible to create a vapour
barrier on the inside by utilising paints or
sheets.
It should be mentioned, however, that                                                                                     Relative humidity (%)                                              Relative humidity (%)

vapour barriers have two important disad-                                      1        Clayey loam               5 Loam brick                         1   Straw loam 450                6    Loam with expanded clay 700
vantages.                                                                      2        Silty loam                6 Kaolinite, pulverized              2   Straw loam 850                7    Expanded clay particles
                                                                               3        Sandy loam                7 Bentonite, pulverized              3   Straw loam 1200               8    Expanded glass particles
• Vapour barriers are never fully sealed in                                    4        Granular clayey loam                                           4   Loam with expanded clay 450   9    Rye straw
practice, especially at joints, as in walls with                                                                                                       5   Loam with expanded clay 550



                                                           30   Properties of earth
                                                                                                    Vapour diffusion resistance coefficient µ (–)
                                                                                                                                                                         Thermal conductivity
                                                                                                    0.0     2.0    4.0     6.0     8.0    10.0      12.0   14.0   16.0
                                                                                                                                                                         The heat transfer of a material is charac-
                                               Clayey loam (clay = 28%, silt = 34%, sand = 38%)
                                                  Silty loam (clay = 12%, silt = 78%, sand = 56%)                                                                        terised by its thermal conductivity k [W/mK].
                                               Sandy loam (clay = 15%, silt = 29%, sand = 56%)
                                                                                                                                                                         This indicates the quantity of heat, mea-
                                                                         Straw loam 450 kg/m3
                                                                         Straw loam 750 kg/m3                                                                            sured in watts/m2, that penetrates a 1-m-
                                                                         Straw loam 950 kg/m3
                                                                        Straw loam 1250 kg/m3                                                                            thick wall at a temperature difference of
                                                            Loam with expanded clay 800 kg/m3
                                                           Loam with expanded glass 500 kg/m3                                                                            1°C.
                                                           Loam with expanded glass 750 kg/m3
                                                                                                                                                                         In 2.31, the different k-values according to
                                                                          Clayey loam plaster
                                                                            Silty loam plaster                                                                           DIN 4108-4 (1998), indicated by a 1, are
                                                   Cowdung-loam-lime-sand plaster (12/4/3/20)
                                                                   High hydraulic lime plaster                                                                           shown. 2 are measurements of Vanros,
                                                                                  Lime plaster
                                                                    Lime-casein plaster (10/1)                                                                           3 and 4 of the BRL.
                                                                Lime-linseed oil plaster (20/1)
                                                                                                      ( ) Volumetric proportion
                                                                                                                                                                         At the BRL, a lightweight straw loam with
                                               2.28
                                                                                                                                                                         a density of 750 kg/m3 gave a k-value of
                                                                                          on the inside due to the vapour barrier.                                       0.20 W/mK, whereas a lightweight expand-
                                                                                          In this case, the wall remains damp for a                                      ed clay loam with a density of 740 kg/m3
                                                                                          longer period than it would without a                                          gave a value of 0.18 W/mK.
                                                                                          vapour barrier.
                                                                                                                                                                         Specific heat
                                                                                          Influence of heat                                                              The amount of heat needed to warm 1 kg
                                                                            specific
                    U-value (W/mK)                                          weight                                                                                       of a material by 1°C is called its “specific
                                                                            (kg/m3)
                    0     0.2     0.4    0.6        0.8     1.0      1.2
                                                                                          The common perception that earth is a                                          heat,” represented by c. Loam has a specific
                                                                                          very good material for thermal insulation is                                   heat of 1.0 kJ/kgK which is equal to 0.24
 Lightweight loam




                                                                                          unproven. A solid wall of rammed earth                                         kcal/kg°C.
                                                                                          without straw or other light aggregates has
                                                                                          nearly the same insulating effect as a solid                                   Thermal capacity
                                                                                          wall of baked bricks. The volume of air                                        The thermal capacity (heat storage capacity)
                                                                                          entrained in the pores of a material and its                                   S of a material is defined as the product of
                                                                                          humidity are relevant for the thermal insula-                                  specific heat c and the density r:
 Solid loam




                                                                                          tion effect. The lighter the material, the
                                                                                          higher its thermal insulation, and the greater                                           S = c . ρ[kJ/m3K]
                                                                                          its humidity level, the lower its insulating
                                                                                          effect.                                                                        The thermal heat capacity defines the
2.31                                                                                      The heat flowing through a building ele-                                       amount of heat needed to warm 1 m3 of
                                                                                          ment is defined by the overall heat transfer                                   material by 1°C. The heat storage capacity
                                                                                          coefficient U.                                                                 Qs for a unit area of wall is S multiplied by
                                                                                                                                                                         the thickness s of the element:
                           2.30                            Water content (g/dm3)


                                                                                                                                                                                   Qs = c . ρ . c [kJ/m2K]

                            1   Spruce, planed
                            2   Limba, planed                                                                                                                            Heat intake and release
                            3   Earth block, clayey                                                                                                                      The speed at which a material absorbs or
                            4   Earth block, silty
                            5   Cement plaster
                                                                                                                                                                         releases heat is defined by the thermal dif-
                            6   Lime-cement plaster                                                                                                                      fusivity b which is dependent on the specific
                            7   Lime-casein plaster
                                                                                                                                                                         heat c, density r and the conductivity k:
                            8   Silty loam plaster
                            9   Clayey loam plaster
                           10   Solid brick                                                                                                                                        b = √c . ρ . k [kJ/Km2h0.5 ]
                           11   Clinker brick
                           12   Porous brick
                           13   Lime-sand brick                                                                                                                          The larger the b-value, the quicker the pen-
                           14   Porous concrete
                                                                                                                                                                         etration of heat.
                                                                                                                                             Relative humidity (%)


                                                                                31        Properties of earth
Decrement factor and time lag                                                                                        2.32                                                                              2.33

“Decrement factor” and “time lag” refer to
the way the exterior wall of a building




                                                Temperature °C
reacts to damp and to the period of delay
                                                                                                                                                        Measurements in mm
before outside temperatures reach the inte-                                                   The comfort zone for Cairo

rior. A wall with a high thermal storage
capacity creates a large time lag and heat
                                                                 Indoor air temperature                      Outdoor air
decrement, while a wall with high thermal                                                                   temperature
insulation reduces only temperature ampli-
tude.
In climates with hot days and cold nights,
                                                                                Time of day
where average temperatures lie within the
comfort zone (usually 18° to 27°C), thermal
capacity is very important in creating com-                                                                                                                                                            2.35

fortable indoor climates. In 2.32, the effect                                             Indoor air
                                                                                          temperature
of material and building shape on interior
                                                Temperature °C




climate is shown by readings taken from                                                                                                                                                         Solid loam
                                                                                              The comfort zone for Cairo                                                                        up to 0.5
two test buildings of equal volume con-                                                                                                                                                         N/mm2

structed in Cairo, Egypt, in 1964. One was
                                                                                                                                                                                                Loam with
built of 50-cm-thick earth walls and mud                                                                                                                                                        fibres upt to
                                                                                                                                                                                                0.3 N/mm2
brick vaults, and the other of 10-cm-thick                                                Outdoor air
                                                                                          temperature
pre-cast concrete elements with a flat roof.
                                                                                                                             Loamy          Lean loam       Nearly rich   Rich     V. rich      Clay
While the diurnal variation of the outside                                                                                   sand                             loam        loam     loam
                                                                                                                            Binding force                                        after Niemeyer, DIN 18952
temperature was 13°C, the temperature                                           Time of day
inside the earth house varied only by 4°C; in
the concrete house, the variation was 16°C.     Fire resistance
Thus, the amplitude was four times greater      In the German standard DIN 4102 (Part 1,
in the concrete house than in the earth         1977) loam, even with some straw content,
house. In the concrete house, temperatures      is “not combustible” if the density is not less
at 4 pm were 5°C higher than outside,           than 1700 kg/m3.
whereas inside the earth house, they were
5°C lower than outside temperatures at
the same time (Fathy, 1986).                    Strength

Thermal expansion                               Binding force
The expansion of a material caused by rais-     The tensile resistance of loam in a plastic
ing its temperature is relevant for mud plas-   state is termed its “binding force.”
ters on stone, cement or brick walls, and for   The binding force of loam depends not only
lime or other plasters on earth walls. The      on clay content, but also on the type of clay
coefficients of linear expansion measured       minerals present. As it is also dependent on
by the BRL for heavy loam range from            the water content, the binding force of dif-
0.0043 to 0.0052 mm/m·K; for mud brick          ferent loams can only be compared if either
masonry up to 0.0062 mm/m·K; and for            water content or plasticity are equal. Accord-
sandy mud mortar up to 0.007 mm/m·K.            ing to the German standard DIN 18952
Soft lime mortar has a value of 0.005           (Part 2), the loam must have the defined
mm/m·K, and strong cement mortar 0.010          “standard stiffness.” How this is obtained
mm/m·K, the same as concrete (Knöfel,           is described in this chapter on p. 24.
1979 and Künzel, 1990).                         The samples to be tested have a special
                                                figure-8-shape made from a mixture of
                                                standard stiffness. The samples are filled
                                                                                                                                                                                                       2.34

                                           32   Properties of earth
                compressive strength (N/mm2)                        and rammed with a tool in a formwork in              is disproved by Gotthardt (1949) and by the
                                                                    three layers (see 2.33). At least three sam-         BRL. By Niemeyer’s extrapolations,
                                                                    ples have to be made from each mixture in            a loam with a binding force of 60 g/cm2
                                                                    this way for immediate loading in the spe-           would have a permissible compression of
                                                                    cial testing apparatus seen in 2.34. Here,           2 kg/cm2, and a loam with a binding force
                                                                    sand is poured into a container hanging on           of 360 g/cm2 would have a permissible
                                                                    the lower part of the sample at a rate of not        compression of 5 kg/cm2. Experiments at
                                                                    more than 750 g per minute. The pouring is           the BRL resulted in samples of a silty loam
                                                                    stopped when the sample breaks. The                  with a binding force of 80 g/cm2 but a com-
                                                                    weight under which the sample breaks,                pressive strength of 66 kg/cm2, while they
                                                                    divided by the section of the sample, which          also found samples of silty clay with a bind-
                                                                    is 5 cm2, gives the binding force. Then an           ing force of 390 g/cm2 which only displayed
                                                                    average is derived from the results of three         a compressive strength of 25 kg/cm2. Some
                                                       2.36
                                                                    samples that do not differ by more than              of these results are shown in 2.36.
2.32 Comparison of
indoor and outdoor air                                              10%. Typically, values vary from 25 to 500           The permissible compressive strength of
temperature of a building                                           g/cm2. Though in DIN 18952, soils with               earth building elements according to
with adobe vaults (above)                                           binding forces below 50 g/cm2 were not               DIN 18954 is between 3 and 5 kg/cm2
with one using prefabri-
cated concrete slabs
                                                                    recognised for building purposes, tests on           (see 2.37). By this reasoning, the overall fac-
(below) (Fathy, 1986)                                               a variety of historic rammed earth walls in          tor of safety in earth components is about 7.
2.33 Mould for preparing                                            Germany showed that some of these, in                This implies that actual compressive strength
test samples for the
                                                                    fact, had much lower binding forces, and             is seven times higher than the stress allowed
binding strength test
according to the German                                             one sample was even as low as 25 g/cm2.              in the element. Going by the actual stresses
standard DIN 18952                2.37                                                                                   in the building illustrated in 1.11, built in
2.34 Test apparatus                                                                                                      1828 and still in use, we have five-storey-
to measure the binding            Specific weight     Compressive strength        Allowable compressive force [kg/cm2]
force, developed at
                                              3
                                         [kg/m ]                     2
                                                              [kg/cm ]            wall      column height/thickness      high solid rammed earth walls, and the
the BRL                                                                                    11    12    13    14   15     maximum compression at the bottom is
2.35 Relation of the                                                                                                     7.5 kg/cm2 (Niemeyer, 1946), which would
binding force to the per-            1600                      20                   3       3     2    1
                                                                                                                         not have been permissible as per DIN
missible compressive
                                     1900                      30                   4       4     3    2      1          18954.
stress in loam elements,
according to Niemeyer                2200                      40                   5       5     4    3      2    1     In Yemen, there are examples of solid earth
                                                                                                                         houses as much as twice the height of the
2.38                                                                                                                     one mentioned above. Obviously, it is possi-
                                                                    Compressive strength                                 ble to build a ten-storey-high earth house,
                              Strength [N/mm2]
                                                                    The compressive strength of dry building             but DIN 18954 permits only two storeys.
                    Compression     Bending tension Tension
                                                                    elements made of earth, such as earth                According to Indian standards for stabilised
Green Brick A          3.5                 1.1       0.4            blocks and rammed earth walls, differ in             soil blocks, the wet compressive strength
Green Brick B          4.4                 1.3       0.5
Green Brick C          6.1                 1.6       0.6            general from 5 to 50 kg/cm2. This depends            of the block has to be tested as well. Here,
Mortar D               2.02                0.69      0.21           not only on the quantity and type of clay            the block has to be immersed to a depth
Mortar E               2.63                0.85      0.35
                                                                    involved, but also on the grain size distribu-       of 3 mm in water for 24 hours.
                                                                    tion of silt, sand and larger aggregates, as
2.36 Relation of binding                                            well as on the method of preparation and             Tensile strength
force to compressive                                                compaction.                                          The tensile strength or binding force of a
strength of various test
loams according to Gott-
                                                                    The methods for treatment and additives for          plastic loam was described on p. 32. For
hardt, 1949, and tests of                                           increasing the compressive strength of loam          earth construction, the direct tensile strength
the BRL                                                             are discussed on p. 41. Niemeyer’s assertion         of the dry material is of no relevance,
2.37 Permissible com-
                                                                    (1946) that the compressive strength is pro-         because earth structures must not be under
pressive stresses in loams
according to the German                                             portionate to the binding force, and there-          tension.
standard DIN 18954                                                  fore that loams with equal binding forces            Table 2.38 shows that dry tensile strength is
2.38 Strength of green                                              should fall within the same range of permis-         about 10% of compressive strength with
bricks and earth mortar
                                                                    sible stresses for use in buildings (see 2.35),      blocks, and 11 to 13% with earth mortars.


                                                         33         Properties of earth
Bending tensile strength
The bending tensile strength of dry loam is
of little importance for earth construction.
Still, it has a certain significance when judg-
ing the quality of mud mortar and the edge
rigidity of mud bricks.
Bending tensile strength depends mainly
on the clay content and the type of the clay
minerals involved. Montmorillonite clay has
a much higher bending tensile strength
than Kaolinite. The lowest value investigated
by Hofmann, Schembra, et. al. (1967) with
Kaolinite reached 1.7 kg/cm2, the highest
with Montmorillonite clay 223 kg/cm2.
Clays without Montmorillonite tested by
Hofmann, Schembra et. al. (1967) showed
tensile bending strengths between17 and
918 N/cm2.

                                                                                               2.39   2.40
Bond strength
Adhesive or bond strength is important only
with mud mortars. It depends on the rough-         compared with that of other samples. A
ness of the base and the bending tensile           plate covered with sand paper can also be
strength of the mortar. While the German           used in place of a metal brush.
standard DIN 18555 (Part 6) gives a com-           At the BRL, a special test for loam surfaces
plex standard testing method to obtain this,       was developed: a strong plastic brush of
a very simple test to check the bond               7 cm diameter is rotated on the surface
strength is shown in 2.39: two baked bricks        under a pressure of 2 kg. After 20 cycles,
are joined by a 2-cm-thick mortar, the upper       the amount of abrasion is weighed. Illustra-
skewed at 90° to the lower. After the mor-         tion 2.40 shows the apparatus and 2.41
tar is dry, the upper brick is laid on brick       the results with different earth plasters avail-
supports at both ends, while the lower is          able on the German market.
loaded with a sand-filled container. When
the mortar breaks, the weight of the lower         Modulus of elasticity
brick and the sand-filled container divided        The dynamic modulus of elasticity of loam
by the mortar area gives the adhesive              usually lies between 600 and 850 kg/mm2.
strength. However, this is relevant only if
failure occurs at the joint. If it occurs within   Impact strength of corners
the mortar, then this represents the direct        Due to mechanical impacts, corners often
tensile strength of the mortar, which is less      break during the handling of mud bricks. In
than that of the bond.                             practise, therefore, this kind of strength is
                                                   more important than either compressive or
Resistance to abrasion                             bending strength. At the BRL, a special test
Loam surfaces like mud mortar and mud              was developed to measure this kind of
floors are sensitive to abrasion. One simple       strength against shocks (see 2.42): a weight
test for abrasion is to use a metal brush,         is dropped onto the surface at a 60° angle,
loaded by a weight of about 5 kg, and              10 mm distant from the corner. Its bottom
move it over the loam sample from side             is formed by a semi-spherical steel ball
to side. The material that comes off after a       30 mm in diameter.
certain number of cycles is weighed and
                                                                                                      2.42

                                             34    Properties of earth
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Radioactivity
                                                                                                              Reduction of high-frequency electromagnetic radiation




                                                                                                                                                            mobile network, 1950/2150 MHz
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Measurements of the radiation of beta and




                                                                                                                                                            mobile network, 1760 MHz
                                                                                                                                  mobile network, 900 MHz
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        gamma rays show that loam has values no




                                                                                                                                                            GPS satellite navigation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        higher on average than concrete or baked




                                                                                                                                                            radio link system




                                                                                                                                                                                                        radio link system


                                                                                                                                                                                                                              radio link system
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        bricks. On the contrary, some bricks tested
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        by this author exhibited much more radia-




                                                                                                                                                            radar
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        tion, probably caused by additives like fly
                                                                                                                     60
                 2.39 Field test to derive                                                                    99.9999%                                                                                                                                  ash or blast furnace slag. Much more impor-
                 the bond strength of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        tant than the beta and gamma rays are the
                 mud mortar
                                                                                                                     50
                 2.40 Apparatus to test                                                                        99.999%                                                                                                                                  alpha rays emitted by the radioactive gas
                 the resistance against                                                                                                                                                                                                                 radon and its short-lived decay products.
                 abrasion, BRL
                                                                               Cushioning effect in dB / %

                                                                                                                       40                                                                                                                               The “soft” rays cannot penetrate the human
                 2.41 Amount of abrasion                                                                          99.99%
                 of different earth plasters
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        body as they are absorbed by the skin, but
                 2.42 Apparatus to mea-                                                                                                                                                                                                                 can be inhaled by breathing and, therefore,
                                                                                                                       30
                 sure the strength of                                                                              99.9%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        may cause lung cancer. The following table
                 corners against dynamic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        shows the exhalation rate of radon given
                 impacts                                                                                              20
                 2.43 Shelter effect of dif-                                                                        99%                                                                                                                                 by the OECD (1979) for Germany, measured
                 ferent building materials                                                                                                                                                                                                              in m becquerel/kg h.
                 against high-frequency                                                                               10
                 electromagnetic radiation                                                                          90%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Natural gypsum         25.2
                                                                                                                       0                                                                                                                                          Cement                 57.6
                                                                                                                            0.5              1.0             1.5        2.0       2.5       3.0   3.5        4.0            4.5                   5.0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Sand                   54.0
                                                                                                                                                                     Frequency in GHz
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Baked clay bricks       5.0
                                                                                                                             1 Vegetation roof with 16 cm of substrate, 20 cm                                                                                     Lime-sand bricks       13.3
                                                                                                                               thermal insulation, 24 cm green bricks (earth blocks)
                                                                                                                             2 Vegetation roof as in 1, without green bricks
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Porous concrete        18.0

                                                                                                                             3 24 cm green bricks (1,600 kg/m3, 15 cm loam plaster)
                                                                                                                             4 2 cm lime plaster, 25 cm lightweight loam (800 kg/m3),
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        This shows that a clay brick from a clayey
                                                                                                                               1.5 cm lime plaster                                                                                                      soil discharges very little radon.
                                                                                                                             5 10 cm lightweight loam block (1,400 kg/m3)
                                                                                                                             6 17.5 cm porous concrete (500 kg/m3)
                                                                                                                             7 24 cm hollow bricks (1,200 kg/m3)
                                                                                                                             8 24 cm lime-sand-stone (1,800 kg/m3)
                                                                                                                             9 1.3 cm tile
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Shelter against high-frequency elec-
                                                                                                                            10 aluminium sunshade element                                                                                               tromagnetic radiation
                                                                                                                            11 metal insect grid (1x1 mm mash)
                                                                                                                            12 double glazing, gold film covered
                                                                2.43                                                                                                                                                                                    Illustration 2.43 shows the differing degrees
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        of effectiveness of solid building materials in
                 2.41                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   screening (reducing) high-frequency electro-
               Samples                         Abrasion in g                                                           pH-value                                                                                                                         magnetic radiation, as measured at the Uni-
                                 0.5     1.0     1.5     2.0   2.5     3.0         3.5                                                                                                                                                                  versity of the Federal Armed Forces at
                                                                                                                       Clayey soil is usually basic, with pH-values                                                                                     Munich.
Loam mortars




                                       0.7
                             0.2
                                                                                                                       between 7 and 8.5. Nowadays, due to acid                                                                                         In the area of 2 gigahertz frequencies at
                                                                             3.2
                                                                 2.5                                                   rain, earth dug from industrial areas may be                                                                                     which most cellular (mobile) phones are
                           0.1                                                                                         slightly acidic just below the topsoil. The                                                                                      working, a 24-cm-thick mud brick wall
                           0.1
                           0.0                                                                                         basic state usually prevents fungus growth                                                                                       creates a reduction of 24 dB (decibels),
                                                   1.3
                                                                                                                       (the favourable pH-value for fungus usually                                                                                      whereas an equal tick wall of a lime-sand
                                                   1.5
                                   0.3                                                                                 lies between 6.5 and 4.5).                                                                                                       stone only absorbs 7 dB.
                                   0.3
                                   0.5
                                                                 2.3
                                                                 2.4
                                   0.3




                                                                                                             35        Properties of earth
3 Preparing of loam




                                                      Soaking, crushing and mixing

                                                      There are several methods available for
                                                      making workable building material out of
                                                      clods of earth. One of the easiest methods
                                                      for reducing the size of clods and making
                                                      their consistency workable without mechan-
                                                      ical labour is to place the earth clods in
                                                      water so that they can become plastic on
                                                      their own. The loam-clods are placed in
                                                      large flat containers in a layer 15 to 25 cm
                                                      high and then covered with water. After
                                                      two to four days, a soft mass is obtained
                                                      which can be easily moulded and mixed by
                                                      hand, feet or machines, together with
                                                      aggregates such as sand and gravel.
                                                      In cold climates where there is sufficient
                                                3.1
                                                      frost, a traditional method is to stack the
     It is not always easy to produce building        moistened earth 20 to 40 cm high and
     material out of a clayey soil, and experience    allow it to freeze over winter so that disinte-
     is required. The right preparation depends       gration occurs due to the expansion of
     on the type of earth, its consistency and its    freezing water.
     expected application.                            The easiest way to prepare the right loam
     Moist crumbled earth with less clay and          mixture is by mixing the wet loam with a
     more sand content can be used immediate-         hoe or moulding it with the feet. Animal
     ly to build a rammed earth wall even as it is    power can also be used. Straw, chaff, coarse
     dug out. Clods of earth with high clay con-      sand and other additives can be mixed dur-
     tent cannot be used as a building material;      ing the same operation.
     they must either be crushed or dissolved in      At the Building Research Laboratory (BRL)
     water and thinned with sand. This chapter        at the University of Kassel in Germany, an
     describes the different possibilities of         effective mud wheel was built (3.1) in which
     preparing earth for specific applications.       two pairs of old truck tyres were filled with
                                                      concrete and used to prepare the mixture.
                                                      The tyres were mounted on a horizontal
                                                      beam fixed to a vertical central post and
                                                      powered by a tractor or by animal or manu-


36   Preparing of loam
                                                                        3.3




                                                                                                                           3.2



                                                                              For small quantities, a small garden cultiva-
                                                                              tor is very useful (3.2). In modern earth con-
                                                                              struction technology, forced mixers are used.
                                                                              Here, the mixing is done with the help of
                                                                              revolving arms that are fixed either to a ver-
                    3.5                                                 3.4
                                                                              tical (3.3) or horizontal axis (3.6). It is con-
                                                                              venient to have a mechanical device for fill-
3.1 Mixing unit used      al power. With an adequate addition of              ing this mixer, as seen in 3.5.
at the BRL, Kassel        water, one cubic metre of usable loam               Old mortar mixing machines can also be
3.2 Garden cultivator
                          could be produced in about 15 minutes               used, like ones that have rotating rollers
3.3 Forced mixer
                          (with the help of two or three people, main-        (3.4). The machine in 3.6 was specially
3.4 Mortar mixer
with rollers              ly to scoop the overflowing mud back into           developed for preparing loam from any kind
3.5 Forced mixer          the track). If a tractor is available, it is easy   of soil (by the German firm Heuser).
with loading device       and more effective to simply spread earth           A quicker method of preparing a loam from
3.6 Forced loam           on a field and drive back and forth over it.        dry clods of clayey soil is to crush them in
mixer (Heuser)
3.7 Electrical hand
mixer
3.8 Electrical crusher




                                                                        3.6




                                                                        3.8                                                3.7

                    37    Preparing of loam
                                                                            is to throw the dry material over a sieve.
                                                                            More effective is an apparatus with a cylin-
                                                                            drical sieve that is inclined and turned by
                                                                            hand or engine (3.11).



                                                                            Mechanical slurrying

                                                                   3.9      In order to enrich a sandy soil with clay or
                                                                            prepare a lightweight loam, slurry is usually
                                                                            required. This can be prepared most easily
                           a machine (3.8). This has steel angles fixed     from dry loam powder mixed with water.
                           onto a horizontal plate, which rotates at a      If clods of clayey soil are to be used, they
                           rate of 1440 rotations per minute. It requires   have to remain covered with water for
                           an electric engine of 4 kW. The machine          some days in large flat containers. After
                           does not work if the lumps are wet. Another      that, slurry can be obtained by using special
                           example can be seen in 3.9, manufactured         rakes, as shown in 3.12, or by using electrical
                           by Ceratec, Belgium, which is able to crush      hand mixers, as shown in 3.10. A forced
                           up to 20 m3 of clods in eight hours with         mixer usually used for mixing and spraying
               3.10        a 3-horse-power engine. In this machine,         plaster is more efficient.
                           the clods are crushed by two counter-rotat-
                           ing cylinders. The machine shown in 3.10,
                           manufactured by the firm Royer in France,        Water curing
                           can crush up to 30 m3 of earth clods in
                           eight hours.                                     Water curing is a process by which the wet
                           It is always important to get the ready-         loam mixture is allowed to stand for a peri-
                           mixed material out of the container fairly       od of 12 to 48 hours. Experience shows that
                           soon. There are different possibilities for      this process enhances the binding force of
                           doing so: the machine shown in 3.5 has an        the loam. This phenomenon is probably due
             3.11          opening at the bottom through which the          to electrochemical attraction between differ-
                           mixture can be pushed automatically into         ent clay minerals that forces them into a
3.9 Crusher (Ceratec)      a wheelbarrow, and the container of the          more compact and ordered pattern.
3.10 Crusher (Royer)       apparatus can be tilted so that it falls into
3.11 Sieving device
                           the flat wheelbarrow below.
3.12 Rakes for pre-
paring loam slurries
                           Common concrete mixers where only the            Thinning
                           drum rotates are unsuitable for preparing
                           loam mixtures, because in them, the clods        If it is too rich in clay, loam must be made
                           of earth agglomerate instead of breaking         lean. Coarse aggregates like sand or gravel
                           down.                                            are added, increasing the compressive
                           An electric hand mixer of the kind shown in      strength of the loam. The coarse aggregates
                           3.7 is very time-consuming and is recom-         should always be moistened before being
                           mended only if small quantities of mud           mixed into the rich loam. Besides sand and
                           mortar or plaster are to be prepared.            pebbles, hair, cow dung, heather, straw,
                                                                            husk, sawdust and other similar materials
                312                                                         can also be used. These also serve to
                           Sieving                                          reduce the shrinkage; some even serve to
                                                                            increase the degree of thermal insulation.
                           For specific earth construction techniques, it
                           might be necessary to sieve out larger parti-
                           cles. The simplest method that can be used


                      38   Moisture protection
                                                                                                                                                                                         4 Improving the earth’s characteristics by special treatment
                                                                                                                                                                                               or additives




                                                                                                                                                                                                  As a rule, it is only necessary to modify the                           hence the shrinkage ratio. The results of this
                                                                                                                                                                                                  characteristics of loam for special applica-                            method are shown in 4.2 and 4.3. In 4.2, a
                                                                                                                                                                                                  tions. As we can see in 4.1, additives that                             loam with 50% clay and 50% silt content
                                                                                                                                                                                                  improve certain properties might worsen                                 was mixed with increasing amounts of sand
                                                                                                                                                                                                  others. For instance, compressive and bend-                             until the shrinkage ratio approached zero.
                                                                                                                                                                                                  ing strength can be raised by adding starch                             To insure comparability, all samples tested
                                                                                                                                                                                                  and cellulose, but these additives also                                 were of standard stiffness (see chapter 2,
Without
           Linseed oil 3%
                            ISOFLOC 2%




                                                                                                                                                                             Shrinkage
                                         Cellulose 0.5 %
                                                           Cellulose 0.75 %




                                                                                                                                                                         Compressive strength     reduce the binding force and increase the                               p. 24). Interestingly, a shrinkage ratio of
                                                                              Gelatine 0.5 %
                                                                                               Gelatine/Alum 0.5 %
                                                                                                                     Starch 1 %




                                                                                                                                                                       Tensile bending strength
                                                                                                                                  Starch 2 %
                                                                                                                                               Whey 2 %




                                                                                                                                                                     Binding force
                                                                                                                                                                                                  shrinkage ratio, which is disadvantageous.                              0.1% is reached at a content of about 90%
                                                                                                                                                          Whey 4 %




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          sand measuring 0 to 2 mm diameter, while
                                                                                                                                                                                            4.1                                                                           the same ratio is reached earlier when using
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Reduction of shrinkage cracks                                           sand having diameters of 0.25 to 1 mm, i.e.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          at about 80%. A similar effect can be seen
                                                                                                                                                  4.1 Influence of various                        Because of increased erosion, shrinkage                                 in 4.3 with silty loam, where the addition
                                                                                                                                                  additives on the shrink-                        cracks in loam surfaces exposed to rain                                 of coarse sand (1 to 2 mm in diameter)
                                                                                                                                                  age, binding force, tensile
                                                                                                                                                  bending force and com-
                                                                                                                                                                                                  should be prevented. As described in chap-                              gives a better outcome than normal sand
                                                                                                                                                  pressive force of a sandy                       ter 2 (p. 22), shrinkage during drying                                  with grains from 0 to 2 mm in diameter.
                                                                                                                                                  loam                                            depends on water content, on the kind and                               Illustration 4.4 shows the influence of differ-
                                                                                                                                                  4.2 Reduction of shrink-
                                                                                                                                                                                                  amount of clay minerals present, and on the                             ent types of clay: one series thinned with
                                                                                                                                                  age by adding sand to a
                                                                                                                                                  clayey loam                                     grain size distribution of the aggregates.                              sand grains of 0 to 2 mm diameter with
                                                                                                                                                  4.3 Reduction of shrink-                                                                                                90% to 95% pure Kaolinite, the other with
                                                                                                                                                  age by adding sand to a                         Thinning                                                                Bentonite, consisting of 71% Montmoril-
                                                                                                                                                  silty loam
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Addition of sand or larger aggregates to a                              lonite and 16% Illite.
                                                                                                                                                                                                  loam reduces the relative clay content and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Thinning mediums
                            Linear shrinkage (%)                                                                                                                                                              Linear shrinkage (%)
           5                                                                                                                                                                                             2                                                                In the ceramic industry, fluid thinning
          4.5
                                                                                                                                                                                                        1.8                                                               mediums are used to attain higher liquidity,
           4

          3.5
                                                                                                                                                                                                        1.6
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Sand 1-2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          thereby allowing less water to be used
           3                                                                                                                                                                                            1.4
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Sand 0-2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          (in order to reduce shrinkage). Typical thin-
          2.5                                                                                                                                                                                           1.2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          ning mediums are sodium waterglass
           2
                                                                                                                                                                                                         1
          1.5                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             (Na2O · 3-4 SiO2), Soda (Na2CO3), and
                                                                                                                                                                                                        0.8
           1                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              humus acid and tannic acid. Tests conduct-
          0.5                                                                                                                                                                                           0.6

           0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          ed at the BRL at the University of Kassel
                                                                                                                                                                                                        0.4
                            0                                          20                                                 40                              60               80         100
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          showed that these methods were of very
                                                                                                                                               Sand content (%)                                         0.2

                                                                                               Sand 0.25-1                                                            Sand 0-2                           0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          little relevance to earth as a building materi-
                                                                                                                                                                                                              1/2                         1/3                      1/4
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          al. But tests with whey were successful.
4.2                                                                                                                                                                                               4.3                                Proportion Loam : Sand (by weight)


                                                                                                                                                                                            39    Improving the earth
Addition of fibres                                The rule of thumb says that cement and                   Linear shrinkage (%)

The shrinkage ratio of loam can be reduced        bitumen as stabilisers are good for loam
                                                                                                                                                  Bentonite
by the addition of fibres such as animal or       with less clay, and lime for clayey loams. This
                                                                                                                                                  Kaolinite
human hair, fibres from coconuts, sisal,          rule, however, does not take into considera-
agave or bamboo, needles from needle              tion the type of clay. For instance, Montmo-
trees and cut straw. This is attributable to      rillonite and Kaolinite clay react quite differ-
the fact that relative clay content is reduced    ently, as described in chapter 4, p. 45. The
and a certain amount of water is absorbed         stabilisers cover the clay minerals and pre-
into the pores of the fibres. Because the         vent water from reaching them and causing
fibre increases the binding force of the mix-     swelling. In this chapter, common stabilisers,
ture, moreover, the appearance of cracks is       used traditionally and up to the present,
                                                                                                                                                                  4.4
reduced. Some results of tests conducted at       are described. Other stabilisers that mainly
the BRL are shown in 4.5.                         increase the compressive strength are men-
                                                  tioned in this chapter, p. 45 and 47.
Structural measures                               Water resistance can also be raised by
The simplest method for reducing shrink-          changing the grain distribution of silt and
age cracks in earth building elements is to       sand, as this author has demonstrated using
reduce their length and enhance drying            three mud bricks (shown in 4.6) onto which
time. While producing mud bricks, for             ten litres of water were poured for a period
instance, it is important to turn them upright    of two minutes. The brick in the middle,
and to shelter them from direct sunlight          with high silt content, showed extreme ero-
and wind to guarantee a slow, even drying         sion up to 5 mm depth. The brick on the
process.                                          right, with a higher clay content (ca. 30%)
Another sensible method is to design              showed erosion up to 3 mm depth; the
shrinkage joints that can be closed sepa-         brick on the left, with the same clay content,
                                                                                                                          Fibre added (%)
rately, and which avoid uncontrolled shrink-      but less fine and more coarse sand, exhibit-
age cracks (see chapters 5, p. 56; 8, p. 76;      ed very little erosion.                                          Coir              Flax straw       Rye straw

and 14, p. 113).                                                                                                   Silty loam mortar
                                                                                                                   Sandy loam mortar
                                                  Mineral stabilisers (binders)
                                                                                                                                                                  4.5
Stabilisation against water erosion               Cement                                             4.4 Reduction of shrink-
                                                  Cement acts as a stabiliser against water,         age by adding sand to
                                                                                                     Kaolinite and Bentonite
In general, it is unnecessary to raise the        especially in soils with low clay content. The
                                                                                                     4.5 Shrinkage ratio of
water resistance of building elements made        higher the clay content, the more cement is        loam mortars with additi-
from earth. If, for instance, an earth wall is    needed to produce the same stabilising             on of fibres
                                                                                                     4.6 Erosion test on green
sheltered against rain by overhangs or shin-      effect.
                                                                                                     bricks
gles, and against rising humidity from the        Cement interferes with the binding force of
soil through the foundation by a horizontal       the clay and therefore it is possible that the
damp-proof course (which is necessary             compressive strength of cement-stabilised
even for brick walls), it is unnecessary to add   soil is less than that of the same soil without
stabilisers. But for mud plaster that is          cement, as shown in this chapter, p. 45.
exposed to rain, and for building elements
left unsheltered during construction, the
addition of stabilisers may be necessary.
Theoretically, a weather-resistant coat of
paint is sufficient as protection, but in prac-
tice, cracks often appear on the surface or
are created by mechanical action. Further,
there is the danger of rainwater penetrating
the loam, causing swelling and erosion.
                                                                                               4.6

                                            40    Improving the earth
     As with concrete, the maximum water              Soda waterglass
     resistance of cement-stabilised soil blocks is   Soda waterglass (Na2O · 3-4 SiO2) is a good
     reached after 28 days. These blocks must         stabiliser for sandy loam, but it must be
     cure for at least seven days, and should not     thinned with water in a 1:1 proportion
     dry out too soon. If not protected against       before being added. Otherwise, micro-
     direct sun and wind, the blocks must be          cracks will occur which generate strong
     sprayed by water while curing.                   water absorption.
     To hasten and enhance the curing process,
     20 to 40 g sodium hydroxide (NaOH) can           Animal products
     be added to each litre of water. Similar         Animal products like blood, urine, manure,
     effects can be obtained with about 10 g per      casein and animal glue have been used
     litre of water of either NaSO4, Na2CO3 and       through the centuries to stabilise loam. In
     Na2SiO2.                                         former times, oxblood was commonly used
                                                      as a binding and stabilising agent. In Ger-
     Lime                                             many, the surfaces of rammed earth floors
     If there is sufficient humidity, then an         were treated with oxblood, rendering them
     exchange of ions takes place in the loam         abrasion- and wipe-resistant. In many coun-
     with lime as stabiliser. The calcium ions of     tries, whey and urine are the most com-
     the lime are exchanged with the metallic         monly used stabilisers for loam surfaces. If
     ions of the clay. As a result, stronger          manure is used, it should be allowed to
     agglomerations of fine particles occur, hin-     stand for one to four days in order to allow
     dering the penetration of water. Further-        fermentation; the stabilisation effect is then
     more, the lime reacts with the CO2 in the air    considerably enhanced due to the ion
     to form limestone.                               exchange between the clay minerals and
     The optimum lime content for loam differs        the manure.
     and should be tested in advance in each          In India, traditional loam plaster (gobar plas-
     case. The explanations on p. 43 show that        ter) has a high content of cow dung, which
     if only a small amount of lime is added, the     has been allowed to stand in a moist state
     compressive strength may be lower than           for at least half a day. This technique is still
     that of unstabilised loam.                       in use. Investigations carried out at the BRL
                                                      showed that a loam plaster sample subject-
     Bitumen                                          ed to the jet test (referred to in chapter 2,
     In Babylon, bitumen was used to stabilise        p. 28) eroded after four minutes, whereas a
     mud bricks as early as the 5th century AD.       sample with 3.5% by weight of cow dung
     Normally, bitumen is effective for loam with     began showing signs of erosion only after
     low clay content. The stabilising effect is      four hours.
     more pronounced if the mixture is com-
     pressed. For that reason the bitumen is          Mineral and animal products
     either dissolved in water with an emulsifier     In former times, it was quite common to
     such as naphtha, paraffin oil or petroleum. It   enhance stabilisation against water by
     is preferable to use a mixture of 4 to 5 parts   adding lime and manure, or lime and whey.
     bitumen, 1 part paraffin oil and 1% paraffin,    One traditional recipe, for instance, specifies
     which is prepared by heating to 100°C. Nor-      1 part lime powder mixed with 1 part sandy
     mally, 3% to 6% of this solution is sufficient   loam, which is soaked for 24 hours in horse
     to stabilise the soil. After the solvent and     urine, after which it can be used for plaster-
     water evaporate, a film is formed that glues     ing. Obviously, lime reacts chemically with
     the particles of loam together, thereby pre-     certain ingredients of the urine, since one
     venting water ingress.                           the appearance of some fine crystals is
                                                      observable. The casein in urine and the
                                                      manure react with lime to form calcium


41   Improving the earth
albuminate (which is not water-soluble). The
cellulose in the urine and manure enhances
the binding force, as the cellulose fibres act
as reinforcement. The ammoniac com-
pounds act as a disinfectant against micro-
organisms. Two other recipes successfully
                                                                                              4.7
tested at the BRL are: (a) one part hydraulic
lime, four parts wet cow dung, three days        But if the binding force is insufficient, it can   4.7 Ball dropping test
                                                                                                    to demonstrate different
old, and eight parts sandy loam, and (b)         be increased by adding clay or by better
                                                                                                    binding forces
four parts hydrated lime, one part fat-free      preparation, that is, by kneading and water        4.8 Modified ‘Fuller-
white cheese, and ten parts sandy loam.          curing (see chapter 3, p. 38). Mineral, animal     Parabola’ (Boemans,
                                                 and plant products that are usually added          1989)

Plant products                                   to enhance the weather resistance of loam
Plant juices containing oily and latex and       also normally enhance its binding force,
derived from plants such as sisal, agave,        although they may sometimes reduce it.
bananas and Euphorbia herea, usually in          This section explains the various methods
combination with lime, are used as a stabil-     by which binding force can be increased.
ising coating with success in many coun-
tries. Investigations at the BRL showed that     Mixing and water curing
a high degree of weather protection could        It is interesting to note that depending upon
be obtained for loam surfaces using double-      their method of preparation, different loam
boiled linseed oil. It must be mentioned,        samples from the same mix can have differ-
however, that vapour diffusion is heavily        ent binding forces. If there is enough water
reduced in these cases (see chapter 2,           for preparation, then kneading, stirring and
p. 29). Several reports show that cooked         curing enhance binding force.
starch and molasses can also be used to          At the BRL, it was discovered that after
enhance stability. This effect is more pro-      being mixed for ten minutes in a laboratory
nounced if a little lime is also added.          mixer, a silty mud mortar acquired a binding
                                                 force that was 57% higher than the same
Artificial stabilisers                           mixture when mixed for only one minute.
Synthetic resins, paraffins, synthetic waxes     Nevertheless, there was an 11% reduction
and synthetic latex are all known to have a      in the binding force after 20 minutes, which
stabilising effect on loam. However, because     suggests the existence of an optimum mix-
they are relatively expensive, prone to ultra-   ing time. The increase in binding force due
violet degradation, and because they act as      to a longer preparation time is demonstrat-
vapour barriers, they are not discussed in       ed by a simple test. Illustration 4.7 shows
greater detail in this book. These stabilisers   two earth balls 5 cm in diameter dropped
should be tested before use.                     from a height of 2 m onto a hard surface.
Silane, siloxane, silicones, silica ester and    Both were prepared to the same consisten-
acrylates all have water-repellent effects.      cy, as determined by the plastic limit. The
They are discussed in greater detail in chap-    ball on the left was mixed for two minutes,
ter 12, p. 101.                                  the one on the right for ten minutes. A
                                                 comparison shows that the sample that
                                                 was mixed longer demonstrates much less
Enhancement of binding force                     deformation and tended to crack less.


The way in which binding force is derived        Increasing clay content
has already been described in chapter 2,         A simple method for enhancing the binding
p. 32. Normally, no specific binding force is    force of very lean earth mixes is to add soil
needed with loam as a building material.         with a high clay content or even pure clay.


                                            42   Improving the earth
                                                        This is easiest if the clay is available in pow-                    this being necessary only in highly stressed
                                                        der form and just mixed into the wet loam.                          elements used in structures taller than two
                                                        In some countries, Bentonite is available in                        storeys (which are not permissible by most
                                                        bags like cement. This consists of 80% to                           standards anyway). With earth components,
                                                        90% pure clay and contains about 70%                                the edge strength against impact is very
                                                        Montmorillonite. The dry density of the                             important and often needs to be increased.
                                                        powder is about 800 kg/m3. It should be                             Rigidity of corners against breakage
                                                        kept in mind that while Montmorillonite has                         depends upon compressive as well as
                                                        a very high bending strength, it also has a                         bending tensile strength. This “edge impact
                                                        characteristically high swelling and shrinking                      strength” is very important during construc-
                                                        behaviour. It is often easier to get clay                           tion, when bricks or blocks are being trans-
                                                        powder from ceramic industry suppliers or                           ported, moved or stacked.
                                                        extremely clayey soils from brick-making                            The compressive strength of a loam type
                                                        plants. Rich clods of clay need to be kept in                       depends mainly upon its soil grain size
                                                        water to form slurry, and then mixed into                           distribution, water content, the static or
                                                        the loam with a mixer (see chapter 3).                              dynamic compaction imparted to it, and the
                                                                                                                            type of clay mineral present. If the sand and
                                                        Additives                                                           gravel particles are distributed so as to give
                                                        The binding force of lean loams can be                              a minimum packing volume, and the silt and
                                                        increased by whey, fat-free white cheese,                           clays are such that the inter-granular spaces
                                                        fresh cheese, urine, manure, double-boiled                          of the sand and gravel are fully filled by
                                                        linseed oil, or lime-casein glue. The results                       them, then maximum density (and hence,
                                                        have to be tested in each case before using                         compressive strength) has been achieved.
                                                        these additives in a building element. Some
                                                        of the data compiled by the BRL may be                              Optimum grain size distribution
                                                        seen in 4.1.                                                        It is not commonly known that the com-
                                                                                                                            pressive strength of a mix can be enhanced
                                                                                                                            by merely optimising and varying the pro-
                                                        Increasing compressive strength                                     portion of silt, sand and gravel particles, but
                                                                                                                            without increasing the clay content.
                                                        Loam for building normally has a compres-                           In concrete technology, we speak of an
                                                        sive strength of 20 to 50 kg/cm2. The per-                          ideal grain size distribution, “Fuller parabola,”
                                                        missible compressive stress for walls accord-                       or well-graded mix, given by the expression:
                                                        ing to the German standard DIN 18954 is
                                                        3 to 5 kg/cm2. In practice, it is very seldom                                 a = 100 √ d
                                                                                                                                                D
                                                        required to enhance compressive strength,
      4.8                                                                                                                   where a is the weight of all grains with
                     Sedimentation                                          Sieving                                         diameters less than d, expressed as a pro-
       Clay                 Silt                        Sand                                Gravel
              Fine         Medium    Coarse    Fine     Medium     Coarse        Fine       Medium        Coarse            portion of the total mass which has the
100
90
                                                                                                                            largest grain of diameter D.
80                                                                                                                          Boemans points out that this grading for-
 70                                                                                                                         mula is not directly useable for earth con-
60                                                                                                                          struction, since according to it, the clay con-
50                                                                                                                          tent given is only 2% to 3%, which is obvi-
40
                                                                                                                            ously low for earth construction (Boemans,
30
                                                                                                                            1989). He claims this formula to be valid
20
 10                                                                                                                         only for particles larger than 0.002 mm,
  0                                                                                                                         while also suggesting a base minimum clay
  0.001 0.002 0.06 0.01 0.02              0.06 0.1    0.2    0.6     1      2           6    10      20            60 100   content of 10%. This modification leads to
                                                                                                                            the expression:


                                               43       Improving the earth
          a10 = 100 √ d + 10                       mixed with some water in a mechanical
                      D
                                                   force mixer for two minutes and 15 minutes
The curve derived from this modified formu-        respectively, and then filled in a cylindrical
la for a maximum grain size of 4 mm is             form of the same size in a pasty state. After
shown in 4.8.                                      drying, the sample that was not compacted
                                                   had an average compressive strength of
Preparation                                        28% and 38% respectively, higher than
The compressive strength of a mix is affect-       those that were rammed. This test demon-
ed by the type and amount of preparation,          strates that preparation can be much more
as well as by the proportion of water used         relevant to the strength than the com-
in the preparation, a fact that is neither well-   paction. However, it should be noted that
known nor well-researched.                         the sample mentioned above was silty,
At the Institute for Building Technology of        whereas this difference is not as large with
the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in       loams of high clay or sand content.
Zurich and at the BRL, it was proven that a
slightly moist loam, when free from lumps          Compaction
and compacted in a soil block press, usually       Compacting loam under static force in order
has a smaller compressive strength than the        to increase its compressive strength is gen-
same loam combined with sufficient water,          erally less effective than beating or ramming
mixed by hand, and then simply thrown into         while vibrating (by dynamically applied
a mould (as is done when making adobes).           forces). When a heavy object falls onto it,
In one experiment at the BRL, handmade             waves are generated, causing soil particles
adobes had, on an average, a compressive           to vibrate.
strength 19% higher than if produced in a          This in turn creates movements that allow
                                                                                                                                   4.9
soil block press which imparted a pressure         the particles to settle into a denser pattern.
of 20 kg/cm2 to the material. The belief of        Furthermore, if there is sufficient water, clay
many researchers and practitioners that            minerals have the ability to form parallel,
pressing in a soil block press leads to an         denser, and more ordered structures due to
increase of compressive strength may only          electrical forces, resulting in higher binding
be true for limited cases. As a rule, it is not.   and compressive strength.
The “secret” of loam lies in the lamellar
structure of the various clay minerals and                                                            4.9 Compaction appara-
                                                    Loam      Specific    Vibration   Compressive     tus for soil samples
their internal electrical attraction, which is                weight                   strenght
                                                                                                      developed at the BRL
                                                               [kg/m3]     [rpm]        [N/mm2]
activated only by water and movement. This                                                            4.10 Compressive
means that by kneading loam in a plastic                        2003         0          3.77          strengths after static and
                                                    silty       1977       1500         4.11          dynamic compaction of
state, the clay minerals are able to come                       2005       3000         4.17          sandy loam (clay 15%, silt
together in a denser, parallel layered pack-                                 0          2.63          29%, sand 56%) and silty
                                                                2003
ing, achieving greater binding force, and           sandy       2009       1500         2.91          loam (clay 12%, silt 74%,
when dry, higher tensile and compressive                        2024       3000         3.00          sand 14%)
                                                                                                      4.11 Deriving the Proctor
strength.                                                                                      4.10
                                                                                                      Curve with a multi-point
Using the compacting apparatus shown in            Table 4.10, based on the various tests done        method (Voth, 1978)
4.9, developed at the BRL to test samples          by the BRL, shows the comparative effective-       4.12 Proctor Curves of a
                                                                                                      silty loam with and with-
of equal defined density, cylindrical samples      ness of dynamic versus static compaction.
                                                                                                      out the addition of lime
were produced that were 76 mm in dia-              Here it can be seen that the compressive           (Voth, 1978)
meter and 100 mm in height. The samples            strength of a sandy loam under constant
were then compacted by ten strokes of a            pressure for ten seconds and vibrating at
4.5 kg weight falling onto them from a             3,000 cycles per minute is enhanced by
height of 0.45 m. The volume of a freshly          14%. For each technique of preparation,
dug earth sample was thus compacted by             there is an optimum water content that can
about 30% to 40%. The same silty soil was          be determined only by testing. According to


                                             44    Improving the earth
                                                                                 the German standard DIN 18127, the opti-         Mineral additives
                                                                                 mum water content is said to be the one at       Lean clayey loam can reach a higher com-
                                                                                 which a maximum dry density is achieved.         pressive strength with the addition of Mont-
                                                                                 The compaction is to be done with a Proc-        morillonite clay. At the BRL, tests were con-
                                                                                 tor hammer. In order to obtain this optimum      ducted with sand enriched with 17% by
                                                                                 water content, samples with varying water        weight of Kaolinite and Bentonite respec-
                                                                                 contents are compacted in this way and           tively. (Bentonite contains about 70% Mont-
                                                                                 their densities determined. The water con-       morillonite). With Kaolinite, the compressive
                                                                                 tent which gives the highest density is called   strength reached was 5 kg/cm2, and with
                                                                                 the optimum water content. The curve             Bentonite, 12 kg/cm2.
                                                                                 obtained by connecting these points is           The addition of lime and cement, usually
                                                                                 called the “Proctor Curve” (4.11).               intended to increase the weather resistance
                                                                                 In earth construction, however, the maxi-        of loam, also generally increases compres-
                                                                                 mum density or compaction, and therefore,        sive strength. As described here, however,
                                                                                 the so-called optimum water content, do          compressive strength may also be
                                                                          4.11   not necessarily lead to maximum density or       decreased by these additives, especially in
                                                                                 compaction. Therefore the so-called opti-        amounts lower than 5%. This is because
                                                                                 mum water content does not necessarily           lime and cement interfere with the binding
                                                                                 lead to the maximum compressive strength,        force of clay minerals. The greater the clay
                                                                                 nor is it the most decisive parameter. On the    content, the higher must be the amount of
                                                                                 contrary, the decisive parameters are worka-     lime or cement added.
                                                                                 bility and binding force; hence it is recom-     Tests have shown that as a rule, lime offers
                                                                                 mended that loam should not be used with         better stabilisation with rich clayey loams,
                                                                                 optimum water content as per DIN 18127,          while cement gives better results with
                                                                                 but instead with a water content somewhat        leaner loams. Furthermore, cement is more
                                                                                 higher than the optimum so derived. In fact,     effective with Kaolinite and lime with Mont-
           Pd t /m3
                                                                                 this so-called optimum water content may         morillonite. In practice, it is always recom-
           1.83
                                                                                 be treated, in practice, as a minimum water      mended that relevant tests be conducted.
1.80
                      t’Su                                                       content. With compressed soil blocks, it has     When doing so, the following points are to
                                                        0.13 t /m3
                                                                                 been shown that a water content 10%              be kept in mind:
                                                                                 higher than the optimum gives better results     1. When loam is stabilised with cement or
1.70       1.70

                                                                                 than the so-called optimum. Boemans also         lime, some pores should remain. Only the
                                                                                 stated that the optimum water content            points of contact of the larger particles
                                    + 6%
                                     Kalk                                        does not usually result in maximum com-          should be cemented together, but fewer
1.60
                                                                                 pressive strength. He also discovered that if    pores should be filled than with concrete.
                                      + 3.5%
                                                                                 there is lesser compaction and higher water,     2. When the cement hydrates, free lime is
                             13.0                16.5                            then the same compressive strength may           formed. This reacts with the silicate acids of
1.50
       7          10                        15          20           25          be achieved by using higher compaction           the clay minerals so that in addition to the
                                                                          4.12   and less water (Boemans, 1989, p. 60 ff.).       early stabilisation caused by cement, a
                                                                                 At the Labor Géomatériaux of the Ecole           longer lasting hardening also occurs. Unlike
                                                                                 Nationale des Travaux Publics de l’Etat          cement concrete, therefore, the strength of
                                                                                 (ENTPE) in Vaulx-en-Velin, France, it was        cement-stabilised loam increases a little
                                                                                 found that the type of clay minerals involved    even after 28 days.
                                                                                 also influence the compressive strength          3. When adding hydraulic lime, an ion
                                                                                 after compaction. For instance, by raising the   exchange between the clay minerals and
                                                                                 static pressure from 2 to 8 MPa when pro-        the added calcium ions takes place, lasting
                                                                                 ducing soil blocks using a press, the com-       between four and eight hours. The addi-
                                                                                 pressive strength rose by about 50% with         tional hardening process caused by the
                                                                                 Kaolinite, and by about 100% with Mont-          reaction of the hydrated lime with the car-
                                                                                 morillonite (Oliver, Mesbah, 1985).              bon dioxide from the air occurs very slowly.


                                                                           45    Improving the earth
Even after several months, small increases in    and clay were tested with the addition of
strength may be observed. A certain              6% cement and lime, respectively. It is inter-
amount of humidity is essential to this cur-     esting to note that the results were nearly
ing process, so the loam or earth elements       the same in the case of sand for plastering
have to be sheltered against direct sun and      and sand with Bentonite. By adding lime to
wind.                                            these mixes, the compressive strength of
4. The optimum water content is raised           Kaolinite loam is even lower than that con-
with the addition of lime, while the density     taining sand (4.18).
at this new optimum level is less than that      From these investigations, we derive the
without lime (4.12).                             following guidelines:
Results of experiments performed at the          1. Loam with high Kaolinite content should
BRL (4.13) show that the compressive             be stabilised with cement (and not with
strength of a highly silty loam containing       lime).                                                                             Cement added (%)
12% clay, 74% silt and 14% sand, and hav-        2. Loam with high Montmorillonite content
                                                                                                                         Clayey              Silty            Sandy
ing a compressive strength of 50 kg/cm2          should be stabilised with lime or with a                                loam                loam             loam

without cement, decreases with the addi-         mixture of lime and cement in the ratio 2:1                                                                          4.13
tion of small quantities of cement. The origi-   (and not with cement).
nal compressive strength is reached again        3. Strong compaction increases the com-
with the addition of 2% cement.                  pressive strength of Montmorillonite signifi-
As can be seen in 4.14, this original strength   cantly. This effect is significant in Kaolinite.
is reached only at 4% when adding lime.          CRATerre suggests appropriate stabilisers
In this case, it decreases again after 6% of
                                                                                                                                                                      4.15
lime stabilisation.                                  Tensile bending strength (N/mm2 )                            Compressive strength (N/mm2 )
Even more significant is the reduction of
compressive strength while stabilising lean                                                                                         Clayey loam plaster
                                                                        Clayey loam plaster
mud mortars, as shown in 4.15 on the right.                                                                                         Silty loam plaster
                                                                        Silty loam plaster
The left side of the same figure shows the
                                                                                                                                    Sand
                                                                        Sand
corresponding changes in tensile bending
strength. The values of the dry and the wet
compressive strengths of handmade adobes
with varying percentages of cement content
are shown in 4.16.
Investigations at the ENTPE show that test-
ing pure Kaolinite with 4% cement increases                                              Cement added (%)                                             Cement added (%)
compressive strength, while with Mont-
morillonite, the same amount of cement           on the basis of liquid limit, plastic limit
shows a decrease in strength. With the           and plasticity index (4.19), not taking into
addition of 4% lime and 2% cement, the           account the type of clay minerals (CRATerre,
                                                                                                                                                                      4.16
compressive strength of both types of clay is    1979).                                                           Compressive strength (N/mm2 )
increased by nearly 100% (Oliver, Mesbah,        When adding cement to loam, the mixture                    5.0

1985). It should be noted that these tests       should be used immediately, since the                                                     Dry strength
were done with optimum water content             setting of cement starts at once. If the mix is            4.0
                                                                                                                                           Wet strength
and with pure clay. However, in actual prac-     allowed to stand for several hours before
                                                                                                            3.0
tice this increase may not be so high, as        being pressed into soil blocks, the compres-
loam used in construction usually has a clay     sive strength of these blocks may be
                                                                                                            2.0
content of 5% to 15% and may not be used         reduced by as much as 50%. However, if
with optimum water content.                      lime is added, this time lag has no negative               1.0
Results of tests conducted at the BRL with       influence on the final strength. If less than
handmade adobes are shown in 4.17 and            5% cement is added, the drying process                     0.0

4.18. Here, four different mixtures of sand      affects the compressive strength. If the


                                           46    Improving the earth
                                                                                                                                                  blocks lie exposed to direct sun and wind,        Strength against abrasion
                                                                                                                                                  so that they dry out sooner, then their final
                                                                                                                                                  strength may be reduced by 20% com-               Experiments conducted at the BRL intended
                                                                                                                                                  pared with blocks kept covered with moist         to increase the strength of a rammed earth
Compressive strength (N/mm2 )




                                                                                                                                                  stacking. If this moist cover is not possible,    sample containing 14% clay, 41% silt and
                                                                                                                                                  the blocks should at least be protected from      45% sand, and involving the addition of
                                                                                                                                                  direct sun and sprinkled with water several       soda waterglass, animal glue, low-fat white
                                                                                                                                                  times a day. When 10% cement is added,            cheese and lime, paraffin, paraffin-petrole-
                                                                                                                                                  this protection is of less relevance to the       um, floor wax, and double-boiled linseed
                                                                                                                                                  final strength (Houben, Guillaud, 1984). If       oil, showed that an addition of 10% water-
                                                                                                                                                  pozzolana is added together with lime, an         glass produced the most resistant surface.
                                                                                                                                                  additional stabilisation effect is achieved and   However, several hairline cracks occurred,
                                              Lime added (%)
                                                                                                                                                  the quantity of lime can be reduced. Certain      allowing water to penetrate. (It may have
                                                                                                                                                  volcanic ashes exhibit pozzolanic properties,     been possible to avoid this had the water-
                                     Clayey                               Silty                              Sandy
                                     loam                                 loam                               loam                                 as do fly ash and ash of rice husk. Brick dust    glass been mixed beforehand with water
                                                                                                                                           4.14
                                                                                                                                                  from low-temperature baked bricks also            in a proportion of 1:1.)
                                                                                                                                                  exhibits slight pozzolanic properties, but        The second highest strength was achieved
                                                                                                                                                  dust of high-temperature baked bricks from        by adding 5% linseed oil, whereby the sur-
                                                                           4.13 Change in compres-                                                industrial brick plants do not. An interesting    face was smoothened with a trowel during
                                                                           sive strength of loams                                                 stabilisation effect is observed when clay,       curing, closing hairline cracks in such a man-
                                                                           with the addition of
                                                                           cement
                                                                                                                                                  chalk and quartz powder are mixed with            ner that the surface remained glossy. The
                                                                           4.14 Change in compres-                                                waterglass. This product, called geopolymer,      third-best solution was achieved by adding
                                                                           sive strength of loams                                                 is derived from poly-condensation: a three-       5% low-fat white cheese and 5% lime.
                                                                           with the addition of lime
                                                                                                                                                  dimensional network, which occurs in an           Strength against abrasion can also be
                                                                           4.15 Change in tensile
                                                                           bending strength and                                                   alkaline state with the release of water. This    increased with coatings. Here, it must be
                                                                           compressive strength of                                                product may be extruded, pressed or               kept in mind that the coatings must pene-
                                                                           loam mortars and sand                                                  foamed with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2).             trate deep into the material and must be
                                                                           with the addition of
                                                                           cement
                                                                                                                                                                                                    renewed periodically. Experiments show
                                                                           4.16 Change in compres-                                                Organic additives                                 that coatings and additional application of
                                                                           sive strength of adobes                                                The compressive and binding strengths of          floor wax increase abrasion resistance con-
                                                                           (clay 11%, silt 14%, sand
                                                                                                                                                  Kaolinite can be significantly increased by       siderably.
                                                                           75%) with the addition
                                                                           of cement                                                              adding urea and ammonium acetate (Weiss,          A traditional German recipe that produces a
                                                                           4.17 Compressive                                                       1963). Weiss also suggests that the high          hard-wearing, strong surface is a coating of
                                                                           strengths of loams and                                                 strength of porcelain comes from Kaolinite        oxblood sprinkled with Fe3O4 , which is then
                                                                           sand with the addition
                                                                           of 6% cement
                                                                                                                                                  soaked in putrid urine (which contains urea       hammered into the loam surface. Coatings
                                                                                                                                                  and ammonium acetate). The tensile bend-          of cow’s blood, cow’s bile and tar were also
                                                                                                                                                  ing force can be increased approximately          frequently used in former times.
                                                                                                                                           4.17   10 to 20 times in this way.
Compressive strength (N/mm2 )




                                                                                                                                                  Addition of fibres                                Increasing thermal insulation
                                                                                                                                                  Fibres are usually added to reduce shrink-
                                                                                                                                                  age. The oft-mentioned assumption that            The thermal insulation of loam can be
                                                                                                                                                  fibres always increase compressive strength       increased by adding porous substances
                                                                                                                                                  is false. When fine fibres or hair are added in   such as straw, reeds, seaweed, cork and
                                                                                                                                                  small amounts, tensile strength – and there-      other light plant matter. Naturally or artificial-
                                                                                                                                                  fore compressive strength – is increased          ly foamed mineral particles like pumice, lava,
                                               Bentonite : Sand = 1 : 9




                                                                                                               Silty loam : Sand = 6 : 4
                                                                                  Kaolinite : Sand = 1 : 9




                                                                                                                                                  slightly. The addition of cut straw, however,     expanded clay, foamed glass, expanded
                                                                                                                                                  has the opposite effect, as shown by investi-     perlite and foamed plant matter like
                                Sand 0- 4




                                                                                                                                                  gations carried out at the BRL (see table         expanded cork can also be added. Waste
                                                                                                                                                  4.20).                                            products like sawdust, wood shavings, husk


                                                                                                                                            47    Improving the earth
of grains can also be used, but given their        element. Cutting can be managed by a vari-




                                                                                                     Compressive strength (N/mm2 )
higher density, they exhibit inferior insulating   ety of manual or mechanical methods.
properties. The more porous the mixture,
the lighter it is and the greater its thermal      Preparing the mixture
insulation.                                        Loam and straw is mixed together either by
According to the German standard DIN               pouring the slurry over the straw or by dip-
18951, loam with lightweight aggregates is         ping the straw into the slurry. The straw
called lightweight loam if its density is less     shoots must be totally surrounded by loam




                                                                                                                                                                                       Silty loam : Sand = 6 : 4
than 1,200 kg/m3. If straw is used as the          slurry. Chapter 10, p. 83 describes how this




                                                                                                                                                 Bentonite : Sand
filler, it is called lightweight straw loam,       mixture is handled subsequently for various




                                                                                                                                                                    Kaolinite : Sand
                                                                                                                                                      =1:9




                                                                                                                                                                         =1:9
                                                                                                                                     Sand 0- 4
while sawdust or wood shavings are                 applications.
referred to as lightweight wood loam.
Porous mineral aggregates are called light-        Thermal insulation                                                                                                                                              4.18

weight mineral loam. Since these three             One widely held misconception is that straw
types of lightweight loams differ in their         loam used as infill in medieval timber-
properties and methods of manufacture,             framed houses in Europe provided sufficient
they are described separately.                     thermal insulation. If 10 parts of cut straw
Rich clayey slurry is used to produce these        are mixed with thick loam slurry made of 2
lightweight loams. The process of making           parts of dry clayey loam and 1 part of water,
slurry depends upon the specific loam mix-         this will give a mixture with a dry density of
ture that has been found, and can be per-          about 1,300 kg/m3 and a k-value of about
formed either manually or mechanically,            0.53 W/mK. Thus, a typical element of this
as described in chapter 3, p. 38.                  material with a thickness of 14 cm covered
In theory, it is also possible to use loam that    with 2 cm lime plaster on both sides gives a
has been blown up or expanded with                 U-value of 2.1 W/m2K. On the other hand, if
foam-creating substances to form air-filled        a U-value of 0.5 W/m2K is to be achieved
pores. To date, tests with loam have failed        (as generally desired or required by building
to do produce corresponding results.               codes in most central and northern Euro-
                                                   pean countries today), then this wall would
Lightweight straw loam                             have to be 0.95 m thick. Even if the straw
                                                   content were to be increased threefold, this
General                                            material is unacceptable for a thickness of
Lightweight straw loam is a mixture of             14 cm.
straw and loam with a density of less than         In practice, it is almost impossible to achieve
1,200 kg/m3. If this density is higher than        a density less than 500 kg/m3, since the
1,200 kg/m3, it is called straw loam. There is     straw is softened by moistening caused by                                                                                                                       4.19
worldwide debate over which type of straw          the mixing process, and is compacted when
is most suitable, and it should be tested in       placed in the formwork.
each case. For loam plaster, however, barley       There have been claims of lower density (as
straw has proven to be suitable, since it is       low as 300 kg/m3), but these are not usually
usually softer than the other straws. More         correct, since they are often based on or
important than the kind of straw is the            produced by inaccurate testing methods.
structure of its shoots. In order to increase      Typically, a small brick-size formwork is
thermal insulation, straws with rigid shoots       loosely filled with a straw loam mixture. This
are preferred, since they do not deform eas-       is then weighed after drying and divided by
ily, and hence keep air trapped inside.            the volume of the mould, which can lead to
                                                   errors of about 40%. The only accurate
Cutting straw                                      method of determining density is to saw-
The length of the straw shoots should be           cut a cuboid out of a larger block (especially
no greater than the thickness of the building      in height) so that the straws bent at the cor-


                                             48    Improving the earth
                                                         ners as well as the air spaces left around the     sometimes with some reinforcement in
                                                         edges of the mould are eliminated. The             between.
                                                         larger the sample, the greater the accuracy,       3. When drying, vertical settling occurs,
                                                         since there is always some edge erosion            leading to gaps on top of wall elements
                                                         during cutting and handling.                       (4.21). These must carefully be filled later on
                                                         Due to the above-mentioned errors, unfor-          in order to prevent heat and sound bridges
                                                         tunately, densities of as low as 300 kg/m3         and air infiltration.
                                                         tend to be assumed and the k-value com-            4. Working with this material is fairly labori-
                                                         puted accordingly. Since, in reality, densities    ous. Without special machines for mixing
                                                         are typically about 700 kg/m3 in built sec-        and transportation, the labour input for a
                                                         tions, the k-value of this is 0.21 W/mK, from      typical 30-cm-thick wall is about 6 h/m2
                                                         which, for a 30-cm-thick wall plastered on         (20 h/m3). This is four times the labour
4.20                                                     both sides, the U-value can be derived as          required for typical brick masonry work.
    Straw     Weight    Compressive strength             0.6 W/m2K. This value of heat transmission         The disadvantages mentioned above can
   [%/mass]   [kg/m3]         [N/mm2]
                                                         is double the value that can be claimed by         be avoided if porous mineral aggregates are
       0       1882                  2.2                 assuming a density of 300 kg/m3.                   used instead of straw, as discussed in the
       1       1701                  1.4                 The following points are to be kept in mind        following section.
       2       1571                  1.3                 when working with lightweight straw loam,          The potential advantages of lightweight
                                                         for lightweight straw loam has certain un-         straw loam are the low material costs
       4       1247                  1.1
                                                         deniable disadvantages in comparison with          involved, and the fact that it can be worked
       8        872                  0.3
                                                         pure loam:                                         without investments in special tools and
                                                         1. In a moderate or humid climate, fungus          machinery. It is especially appropriate, hence,
                                                         growth occurs after only a few days, emit-         for do-it-yourself construction.
                        4.18 Compressive                 ting a characteristic strong smell. This can, in
                        strengths of loams and           extreme cases, give rise to allergies. There-      Lightweight mineral loam
                        sand with the addition
                        of 6% lime
                                                         fore, good ventilation during construction         In order to increase thermal insulation,
                        4.19 Suggested appro-            must be provided so that building compo-           porous mineral aggregates can be added to
                        priate stabilisers for loam      nents dry out quickly. After the walls have        loam as an alternative to straw; these
                        in relation to their plastici-
                                                         dried completely, which might take several         include expanded clay, foamed glass,
                        ty (CRATerre, 1979)
                        4.20 Reduction of the            months, or even a year or more, depending          expanded lava, expanded perlite and
                        compressive strength of          upon thickness and climate, the fungus             pumice. It is possible to achieve a shrinkage
                        loam by adding cut straw         stops producing spores. However, spore for-        ratio of 0 (i.e., to eliminate shrinkage alto-
                        (5 cm)
                                                         mation may be reactivated if water perme-          gether) by choosing the right proportion of
                                                         ates the walls either from the outside             aggregates. All other techniques of earth
                                                         through leakage, or from inside through            construction require consideration of shrink-
                                                         condensation. Fungus growth can be inhib-          age.
                                                         ited by adding lime or borax, but this has         In comparison with straw loam, the vapour
                                                         the following disadvantages:                       diffusion resistance is two to three times
                                                         – binding force and compressive strength           higher and, therefore, the probability of con-
                                                         are significantly decreased,                       densation of water within the wall is low
                                                         – hands become irritated while working             (see chapter 2, p. 29).
                                                         with this mixture.                                 Another advantage of the material is that
                                                         – Walls thicker than 25 cm may appear dry          the mixture can be pumped into a form-
                                                         on the surface, even though they are rotting       work, thereby greatly reducing labour input.
                                                         within (see chapter 10, p. 83).                    As investments on machines are higher,
                                                         2. The surface strength of the mix for a wall      this method is recommended only for
                                                         with a density of less than 600 kg/m3 is usu-      larger construction projects. The densities
                                                         ally too low to effectively grip nails or dow-     generally achieved vary from 500 to 1,200
                                                         els, as is often required. Since two layers are    kg/m3.
                                                         necessary, plastering is more laborious,


                                                   49    Improving the earth
Additives                                         the loam slurry poured over it. The mix is
In some industrialised countries, expanded        ready in three to five minutes. The slurry
clay is a low-cost and easily available addi-     needs to have a rich clay content and bind-
tive. It has a bulk density of about 300          ing force. The production of loam slurry is
kg/m3, and is produced by burning loam in         described in chapter 3, p. 38.
rotary ovens at temperatures up to 1200°C
without any other additive for foaming.           Grain size distribution
Foaming occurs due to the sudden heating,         The grain size distribution of mineral aggre-
which causes the water of crystallisation         gates affects the properties of lightweight
and the pore water to evaporate, creating         mineral loam. For example, a density as low
an expansion in the mass (similar to making       as 500 kg/m3 can be reached with expand-
pop-corn). The surface of these expanded          ed clay fractions of 8 to 16 mm diameter.
clay balls melts and is sintered. Nearly all of   The quantity of loam slurry has to be
the pores in these expanded clay balls are        designed so that the volumes between
closed, and are therefore unsusceptible to        aggregate particles are not completely filled,
water and frost. The equilibrium moisture         that is, the aggregates are only glued
content by volume is only 0.03%.                  together at points of contact. This density
Foamed glass has characteristics similar to       of 500 kg/m3 can be reached if 2.5 parts of
expanded clay, but has a lower bulk density.      loam are added to 12 parts of expanded
It can be produced by recycling glass with        clay (8 to 16 mm). However, blocks of this
additional foaming agents.                        mixture have a low edge and surface rigidi-
Expanded perlite is produced from volcanic        ty. A stronger mixture is obtained with 24
rock (found in Europe, on the Greek island        parts expanded clay (8 to 16 mm), 5 parts
of Milos and in Hungary). It contains 3% to       expanded clay (1 to 2 mm), and 5 to 7 parts
6% chemically bound water, and when it is         loam. The density reached by this mixture
heated up suddenly to 1000°C, this water          will be 640 to 700 kg/m3. To achieve higher
evaporates and enlarges the former value          density, expanded clay fractions 4 to 8 mm
15 to 20-fold. The bulk density may be as         can be chosen, adding enough loam to fill
low as 60 kg/m3, the k-value is 0.045             all spaces between the aggregates. In this
W/mK. The vapour diffusion resistance is          case, it is advantageous to thin the loam
about 2.7. The specific heat is 1000 J/kgK.       with coarse sand.
With a material of bulk density 90 kg/m3,
a k-value of 0.05 W/mK is achieved. The           Handling
chemical composition of expanded perlite          Lightweight mineral loam, unlike lightweight
is: SiO2 (60-75%), Al2O3 (12-16%), Na2O           straw loam, can be poured or even pumped
(5-10%).                                          if the mix is chosen accordingly. The meth-
Expanded lava is similar to expanded perlite      ods of preparing and handling this mixture
of volcanic origin, except that its bulk densi-   are explained in greater detail in chapter 10.
ty is higher.
Pumice is a naturally porous stone that has       Thermal insulation
already been “expanded” during its forma-         The thermal insulation properties of light-
tion in a volcano. Its bulk density usually       weight mineral loam depend mainly on its
varies from 500 to 750 kg/m3.                     density and are equal to that of lightweight
                                                  straw loam if the density is higher than 600
Mixing                                            kg/m3. For mixtures below 600 kg/m3, the
While forced mixers are usually required          thermal insulation properties of lightweight
to produce loam mixtures (see chapter 3,          mineral loams are somewhat better than
p. 37), lightweight mineral loam can be pro-      those of lightweight straw loams, since
duced in an ordinary concrete mixer. There,       straw has a higher equilibrium moisture
aggregates can be placed in advance and           content, and therefore more moisture,


                                             50   Improving the earth
                                which reduces insulation. The equilibrium          Lightweight wood loam
                                moisture content of rye straw at a relative        Sawdust, wood shavings and chips can
                                humidity of 50% and a temperature of               also be used as lightweight aggregates to
                                21°C, for instance, is 13%, whereas under          increase the thermal insulation capacities
                                the same conditions, it is only 0.1% in the        of loam. As timber has a higher density
                                case of expanded clay.                             than straw or cork, the thermal insulation
                                                                                   of that mixture is obviously lower. The mini-
                                Embodied energy                                    mum density that can be achieved is about
                                It is often argued that artificially foamed        500 kg/m3, but a dry mix of this density no
                      4.21
                                mineral aggregates like expanded clay              longer possesses sufficient rigidity. The dan-
                                require considerable energy for production.        ger of fungus growth and rotting is much
                                In this context, one should be aware that          less than with straw, but it still exists.
4.21 Setting of a light-        the embodied energy of timber or bricks            It is ecologically desirable to use chips made
weight straw-filled test        used in construction is much higher. The           of branches and portions of trees not other-
element
                                embodied energy of timber is computed to           wise used in structural work. However,
                                be 6 times as high as that of mineral wool,        these contain fairly large quantities of bark,
                                and twice as high as expanded clay for the         and are therefore susceptible to fungus
                                same volume (Turowski, 1977; Weller and            growth and rotting.
                                Rehberg, 1979; Elias, 1980; Marmé and See-
                                berger, 1982).                                     Foamed loam
                                In making an overall assessment of the con-        In order to foam loam, it has to be free of
                                struction energy entailed by a given project,      sand and gravel, and in a plastic state. As
                                then, we must remember that while it may           loam in this consistency needs a long period
                                be technically true that loams with artificially   to dry, it is hardly possible to foam it using
                                expanded minerals use more energy than             the regular agents such as those used for
                                those containing other aggregates, this dif-       foaming concrete. Therefore, the loam
                                ference is negligible when compared, for           needs to be given additives which quicken
                                instance, to the total energy input involved       the drying process, such as the geopoly-
                                in the processing, production and trans-           mers described in this chapter, p. 43, in
                                portation of timber.                               which clay, quartz and chalk powder are
                                                                                   mixed with waterglass and foamed with
                                Lightweight cork loam                              hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). This process
                                Expanded cork can be used to form light-           produces a foamed loam with a density
                                weight loam in place of porous mineral             of 90 kg/m3. This material hardens within
                                aggregates. The advantage of expanded              two hours at a temperature of 20°C and
                                cork is its low density. The disadvantage is       in one hour at 50°C. This product, manu-
                                that this material is relatively expensive and     factured by the German firm Hüls AG, has a
                                has little compressive strength. Therefore,        compressive strength of 10 to 20 kg/cm2,
                                bricks made of this mixture break very easily      specific heat of 0.2 kJ/kgK, thermal conduc-
                                at their edges.                                    tivity of 0.10 to 0.12 W/mK and pH-value
                                The German firm Haacke developed a mix-            between 9 to 10. It is an ideal material to
                                ture of cork, diatomite, and straw, along          form pre-cast earth elements of a large size.
                                with some cellulose, which can be sprayed          The German company Lorowerk uses a sim-
                                on a wall like an insulating spray plaster.        ilar technique to produce large elements for
                                Density is between 300 and 450 kg/m3. The          thermal insulation. Products with densities
                                measured k-values are 0.07 to 0.08 W/mK,           of 300 kg/m3 reach a thermal conductivity
                                measured vapour diffusion resistance               of 0.08 W/mK. The primary energy input is
                                between 4 and 19, and shrinkage ratio              only 5 kWh/m3.
                                between 1% and 2%.



                           51   Improving the earth
                           5 R ammed earthworks




                                On all five continents, rammed earth has       lel walls separated and interconnected by
                                been well-known for centuries as a tradi-      spacers (5. 1). This technique is called pisé
                                tional wall construction technique. In fact,   de terre or terre pisé in French; the Spanish
                                rammed earth foundations found in Assyria      names is barro apisonado or tapial; and the
                                date back as far as 5000 BC.                   German words is Stampflehmbau.
      5.1 Formwork for
                                With rammed earth techniques, moist earth      Traditional rammed earth techniques are still
      rammed earth
      5.2 Climbing form-        is poured into a formwork in layers of to 15   used in many developing countries. Refined
      work, BRL (Minke,         cm thick, and then compacted by ramming.       formwork systems and electrical or pneu-
      1984)                     The formwork usually consists of two paral-    matic ramming reduces labour input signifi-
                                                                               cantly and makes rammed earth techniques
                                                                               relevant in some industrialised countries as
5.1                                                                            well. For ecological, and sometimes for eco-
                                                                               nomic reasons as well, mechanised rammed
                                                                               earth technology may be a viable alternative
                                                                               to conventional masonry especially in those
                                                                               industrialised countries where high stan-
                                                                               dards of thermal insulation are not required.
                                                                               Many firms employ this technology in the
                                                                               southwestern USA and in Australia.
                                                                               In comparison with wet loam techniques
                                                                               (see chapter 9), the shrinkage ratio of
                                                                               rammed earth is much lower, and strength
                                                                               much higher. In comparison with adobe
                                                                               masonry (see chapter 6), rammed earth –
                                                                               since it is monolithic – provides the advan-
                                                                               tage of longer life.
                                                                               Techniques for rammed earth wall and
                                                                               dome construction are described in the fol-
                                                                               lowing sections. A special earthquake-resist-
                                                                               ant bamboo-reinforced rammed earth tech-
                                                                               nique as well as rammed earth floors are
                                                                               described in chapter 15.




                           52   Rammed earthworks
                                                                                 developed (see p. 56 in this chapter).
                                                                                 As shown in 5.4, formworks without inter-
                                                                                 mediary spacers which are braced on both
                                                                                 sides require a lot of space and hinder site
                                                                                 movement considerably.
                                                                                 With a special formwork, rounded corners
                                                                                 and curved walls can also be formed (5.5).
                                                                                 A circular barn built in 1831 in Bollbrügge,
                                                                                 Germany, with 90-cm-thick rammed earth
                                                                                 walls is shown in 5.6.
                                                                                 Common formwork systems used in con-
                                                                                 crete technology can also be used for
                                                                                 rammed earth, but usually turn out to be
                                                                                 too heavy and expensive. In Europe, timber
                                                                                 panels of 19 mm thickness are commonly
                                                                                 used. They need to be stiffened by vertical
                                                                                 members at approximately 75 cm intervals.
                                                                                 If this is not done, they will bend outwards
                                                                                 during ramming. Therefore, it might be
      5.2                                                                        more economical to choose thicker boards
                                                                                 of 30 to 45 mm thickness, which need stiff-
            5.3 Formwork with-     Formwork                                      ening only at intervals of 100 to 150 cm.
            out intermediary                                                     If the soil is very clayey, the form should not
            spacers
                                   With traditional formworks, the boards on     be wrenched off, but instead slipped off the
            5.4 Typical formwork
                                   both sides are held apart and kept together   rammed earth smoothly along the surface,
            with bracing used in
            China                  by spacers (5.1). These spacers pierce the    thus preventing it from being spoiled by
            5.5 Formwork for       wall, causing openings that must be filled    clayey particles sticking to the form. Further-
            rounded and curved     in after removal of formwork. A system with   more, it is neither desirable to have a surface
            walls                  very thin tensile spacers (4 x 6 mm) pene-    that is too rough (such as saw-cut timber),
                                   trating the wall has been developed at the    nor one that is too smooth (such as var-
5.3
                                   Building Research Laboratory (BRL) (5.2).     nished and planed timber).
                                   In order to completely eliminate this dis-    If the formwork is not optimised for this
                                   advantage, spacer-free systems have been      technique, then up to 30% of total labour
                                                                                 input could be invested simply in erecting,
                                                                                 adjusting, and dismantling the formwork.
                                                                                 Therefore, the following points should be
                                                                                 borne in mind:
                                                                                 • Boards must be stiff so that they do not
                                                                                 bend outwards while ramming is underway.
5.4
                                                                                 • All parts must be light enough to be car-
                                                                                 ried by two workers.
                                                                                 • The formwork should be easy to adjust
                                                                                  in both vertical and horizontal directions.
                                                                                 • Variations in the thickness of the wall
                                                                                 must be controllable within a specified toler-
                                                                                 ance.
                                                                                 • It is preferable that the edges require no
                                                                                 special formwork. Therefore, the formwork
                                                                                 should allow varying lengths of wall to be
                                                                           5.5   cast.


                              53   Rammed earthworks
                                                                                                                              5.7
                                                                                              5.6

Tools                                                                                                                   5.9   5.10


In former times, earth was rammed manual-
ly, using rams with conical, wedge-shaped
or flat bases (5.7).
If conical or wedge-shaped rams are used,
the different layers are better mixed and,
provided there is sufficient moisture, a bet-
ter bond is obtained. However, this takes
more time than ramming with flat-based
rams. Walls rammed with flat-based rams                                                             5.6 The circular barn,
show less lateral shear resistance and there-                                                       Bollbrügge, Germany
fore should only be loaded vertically.                                                              (1831)
The base of the ram should not be too                                                               5.7 Rams used for
                                                                                                    manual compacting
sharp, so that the formwork, if made of tim-
                                                                                                    5.8 Two-head ram
ber, is not damaged. The base should be                                                             used in Ecuador
no smaller than 60 cm2, and no larger than
                                                                                              5.8
200 cm2. The weight of the ram should
be between 5 and 9 kg. It is preferable to       man firm Wacker, was often used in former
use a two-headed ram with a round head           times for rammed earth work, and has been
on one side and a square one on the other.       written about extensively. It has a hammer-
This allows the ram to be used with the          like action with a lift of 33 mm, and a fre-
round side for general work, and with the        quency of 540 strokes per minute. The ram
square edge to compact corners effectively.      is very effective; its only disadvantage being
Such a ram is used even today in Ecuador         difficult in handling, since it weighs 24 kg. It
(5.8).                                           is no longer manufactured.
Electric and pneumatic rams were used as         In Australia in the 1950s, a pneumatic ram
early as the second quarter of the 20th cen-     was used (5.10). This acts like a jackhammer,
tury in Germany, France and Australia. The       has a frequency of 160 strokes per minute,
electrical ram shown in 5.9, built by the Ger-   and weighs 11 kg.
                                                                                                                              5.13

                                           54    Rammed earthworks
5.9 Electrical ram          Normally, soil compaction tools of the type
(Wacker)                    used in road construction are unsuitable for
5.10 Pneumatic ram,
                            rammed earthwork, because their frequency
Australia
5.11 Pneumatic rams
                            is too high and their lift too low. Tools which
(Atlas-Copco)               only vibrate might be suitable for sandy
5.12 Vibrating ram          soils, but not for clayey ones.
(Heuser)                    The pneumatic rams shown in 5.11 are
5.13 Vibrating ram          extremely effective for rammed earthwork.
(Heuser)
                            The Ram II G, produced by the firm Atlas-
5.14 Shrinkage cracks
in a rammed earth           Copco, is fairly suitable because a special
                                                                                                                         5.16
wall, Ecuador               feature prevents its head rotating, thus
5.15 Slicing rammed         ensuring that square heads can also be
earth directly after the    conveniently used. All the rams illustrated        the upper course than in the lower, leading
formwork is disman-
                            require a pressure of 6 bar and an air flow        to horizontal shrinkage cracks at the joint
tled
                            rate of 0.4 to 0.9 m3/min. Due to their high       (5.14). This can be dangerous, since capillary
5.16 The French pisé
technique                   costs and the infrastructure and energy            water can enter this joint and remain, caus-
                            required to run them, these rams are used          ing swelling and disintegration. As can be
                            only for larger building projects. An electrical   seen in the same figure, vertical cracks can
                            vibration ram has been developed at the            also occur in such walls.
                            BRL and manufactured by the firm Heuser            With the French pisé technique, this problem
                            (5.12 and 5.13). Its engine has a frequency        was solved by using a layer of lime mortar
                            of 1000 to 1200 cycles per minute. The             above each course before laying a new one.
                            most important part of this vibrating ram is       A lime mortar cures over several weeks and
                            its specially shaped base, which allows the        remains plastic until the loam has stopped
                            apparatus to move within the formwork by           shrinking; sometimes even the side joint
                            itself while compacting the earth. It can          between sections of the course is made
                     5.11   compact loose soil in layers 7 cm thick.           with mortar at an incline (5.16).
                                                                               Another method to avoiding horizontal
                                                                               shrinkage cracks is to ram in a way that the
                                                                               wall is produced vertically. This is described
                                                                               in greater detail below.



                                                                               Shaping of openings

                                                                               The formwork can be dismantled immedi-
                     5.12                                               5.14
                                                                               ately after ramming is completed. At the
                                                                               same time, this rammed earth can be
                            Method of construction                             shaped easily by scraping, cutting, scooping
                                                                               or scratching. Normally, inserts are left in
                            In nearly all traditional rammed earth tech-       the formwork to create openings. However,
                            niques, the formwork is removed and                with rammed earth, the opening can be
                            re-erected horizontally step by step. This         cut with much less effort with a knife or a
                            means that earth is rammed in layers from          barbed wire used as a saw. This technique
                            50 to 80 cm high, forming courses of that          also allows shaping of jambs and sills, as
                            height before the formwork is moved.               shown in 5.15. It should be mentioned that
                            When one course is complete, the next              at this stage rammed earth has already
                            course that is rammed is moister than the          achieved sufficient strength to grip nails
                            one already in place, which is partially dried     (they can be driven into the wall without
                            out. Therefore, there is a higher shrinkage in     making a guiding hole with a drill).
                     5.15

                      55    Rammed earthworks
New wall construction techniques

Rammed earth panels
In order to prevent horizontal shrinkage
cracks at the vertical joints in traditional
rammed earth construction, a new tech-
nique was developed at the BRL for produc-
ing one-storey-height panels, with widths
of up to 2.4 m, in a continuous ramming
process. This technique avoids horizontal
joints, and the vertical joints that occur are
closed only after the shrinkage is complete.
For lateral stability, the vertical joints are
made in a tongue-in-groove pattern. No
shrinkage cracks occur within the panels for
these sizes. The reduction of length due to
shrinkage is only visible at the joint. (The
joint acts like a pre-designed contraction
joint). In order to avoid a formwork that
would have to be an entire storey in height,
                                                                                                                           5.17
a slip form was developed at the BRL. Illus-
tration 5.19 shows the design in steel, while
5.17 and 5.18 show a later design in wood        Highly mechanised techniques                      5.17 to 5.19 Sliding
(which proved easier to work with).              The firm Rammed Earth Works has built             formwork for rammed
The formwork is spaced at the bottom with        several rammed earth houses in California         earth panels (BRL)
                                                                                                   5.20 Formwork
only a steel bar, which leaves a very small      utilising a special formwork made of thick
                                                                                                   (Rammed Earth Works,
hole after dismantling. The top space is         plywood, as shown in 5.20. Earth was filled       USA)
positioned above the top level of the wall       into the forms by a dumper and compacted          5.21 Test building,
and does not interfere with the process. As      by a pneumatic ram. By this means, the            University of Kassel,
the figures show, it is possible to use either   labour input could be as low as 2 h/m3.           Germany, 1982
                                                                                                   5.22 to 5.23 Mecha-
a simpler solution with a timber spacer on       In Australia, several firms are also using this
                                                                                                   nised rammed earth-
top fixed to the vertical members, thus          type of highly mechanised construction
                                                                                                   work in progress
forming a yoke, or a more sophisticated          process (5.22 and 5.23). In recent decades,       (Terrastone)
version made from steel, which also allows       more than a hundred rammed earth build-
fine adjustments of distance at the top.         ings have been constructed on the Aus-
The first building using this technique was      tralian continent (Oliver, 1985). Illustration
built at the University of Kassel in 1982        5.24 shows a church in Margaret River
(5.21). The soil contained about 10% clay        designed by Hodge and Wilson and built
and about 50% sand. The earth was                by the firm Ramtec. As seen in 5.25, even
rammed by the vibrator described on p. 55        the columns supporting the roof structure
and shown in 5.12 and 5.13. The linear           are made from rammed earth.
shrinkage of these elements was only 0.4%.       In 1992, the Kooralbyn Valley Resort Hotel
After drying, the joints were filled with a      was built in Australia (architects: I. Hanna-
loam stabilised with 8%double-boiled             ford, F. Raadschelders, D. Oliver), where all
linseed oil. A roof overhang of 60 cm and        walls are made of unplastered rammed
a plinth of 50 cm were sufficient to ensure      earth (5.27 and 5.28).
that the wall did not erode and that it
required no surface treatment.


                                                                                                                           5.18

                                           56    Rammed earthworks
       Frame structure with rammed earth infill         one-sided formwork is required. It is also
       At the Centro de Pesquisas e Desenvolvi-         advantageous if this formwork can con-
       mento, (CEPED) in Salvador, Brazil, a simple     tribute to a substantial increase in thermal
       technique was developed to construct thin        insulation. The stiffness of this lost formwork
       rammed earth infill panels. It was used in       has to be sufficient to take care of the later-
       several low-cost housing projects in Brazil.     al impacts created by ramming. Illustration
       The posts and ring beams were normally           5.29 shows horizontal sections through an
       made from pre-cast reinforced concrete.          external wall. The first two cases show an
       The sides of the formwork were directly          inner leaf built of adobes or soil blocks and
       mounted on the posts. Thus, the thickness        an outer rammed earth layer made with
       of the wall was the same as that of the post     lightweight mineral loam which is directly
       (5.26). In this case, the loam was stabilised    plastered. In this case the formwork is only
       with 6% to 8% of cement.                         required for the outer face. In the second
                                                        case, a somewhat better stiffness of the
       Wall construction with lost formwork             inner adobe or soil block leaf is attained
       As with rammed earth techniques, the cost        due to the bonding pattern in the compo-
       of the formwork is quite high. In some           nents. In the section shown on the right,
5.20   cases, it is preferable to use a thin masonry    the lost formwork is on the outside and
       wall or stiff thermal insulation elements        is made from stabilised lightweight soil
       made of wooden materials as lost form-           blocks.
       work, so that either no formwork or only         Illustration 5.30 shows vertical sections
                                                        of external walls that have lost formwork
                                                        on both sides. The inner leaf can be made
                                                        from adobes or soil blocks, larger pre-fabri-
                                                        cated loam elements, or stiff plywood
                                                        boards, fibre-reinforced gypsum boards,
                                                        or Magnesite or cement-bonded wood
                                                        particleboard.
                                                        Protection of the wall surface against the
                                                        elements can be achieved by plaster,
                                                        masonry or timber panelling with air cavity.




                                                 5.21




5.19                                             5.22                                              5.23

 57    Rammed earthworks
                                                            5.24

5.24 to 5.25 Church,
Margaret River, Aus-
tralia
5.26 Framed structure
with rammed earth
infill (CEPED, Brazil)
5.27 to 5.28 Hotel,
Kooralbyn, Australia
5.29 Horizontal
sections of rammed
lightweight loam walls
with inner or outer
leaf of earth blocks
acting as lost form-
work
5.30 Vertical sections
of rammed earth walls
with lost formwork
on both sides

                                                                                                   5.25




                                             Plaster               Plaster        Plaster
                                             Leightweight          Leightweight   Leightweight
                                             loam                  loam           loam blocks
                                             Soil blocks           Soil blocks    Rammed earth


                                                                                  Plaster




                                                                                            5.29




                   58    Rammed earthworks
                                  5.28                                                                                                 5.27

                                         Rammed earth domes                                work was dismantled. The formwork of the
                                                                                           wall was custom-designed according to the
                                         Probably the first rammed earth dome was          plan of the dome, as seen in 5.31. The earth
                                         built by the BRL in Kassel, Germany, in           was rammed into the formwork using a
                                         1983 using a special technique developed          vibrator, described on p. 55 in this chapter
                                         by that laboratory. This consists of a rotating   (see 5.12), and by hand.
                                         slip form in which the earth is rammed            The dome formwork itself was so designed
                                         (5.31, 5.32, 5.33).                               that it could be lifted not just at the centre,
                                         The thickness of the dome was 18 cm at            course after course; it also had a guide that
                                         the bottom and 12 cm at the top. The walls,       automatically adjusted the radius and incli-
                                         which form a hexagon on the inside, were          nation of the formwork (5.33).
                                         also made of rammed earth. In order to
                                         transfer the thrust from the dome to the
                                         foundation, buttresses were integrated with       Drying
                                         the walls. The shaping of the top of the but-
                                         tresses as well as the windows was done           It is seldom possible to say when a loam
                                         with a kitchen knife soon after the form-         wall is dry, but the drying process is in any
                                  5.26
                                                                                           case faster than those of masonry or con-
                                                                                           crete walls (see chapter 2, p. 28). Given dry
             Plaster                                               Bricks                  warm weather and sufficient air movement,
             Soil blocks                               Lightweight loam                    shrinkage stops after just a few days. After
             Thermal insulation                        Thermal insulation                  three weeks, the wall feels completely dry,
             Lightweight loam                                Mud plaster                   although water content is still slightly higher
             Soil blocks                                                                   than the equilibrium moisture content.


                Plaster                                      Timber panels
     Thermal insulation                                      Protection layer

     Lightweight loam                                        Thermal insulation
Lightweight loam board                                       Lightweight loam
           Mud plaster                                       Gypsum board


                                                                                  5.30




                                   59    Rammed earthworks
Labour input

The labour input in traditional rammed earth
walls constructed manually, including pre-
paration, transportation and construction, is
from 20 to 30 h/m3. By refining the form-
work system and using the electrical vibra-
tor described on p. 55 of this chapter (see
5.12), labour input is reduced to 10 h/m3.
With the highly mechanised techniques
explained above (see p. 56), in which trans-
portation and filling is done by a dumper
and compacted by heavy pneumatic rams,
labour input can be reduced to as little as 2
h/m3, which is only 10% of the labour used
with traditional techniques, and significantly
less than that needed for masonry work.



Thermal insulation

The thermal insulation capacities of solid
rammed earth walls using normal soil is not
                                                                                                                               5.32
sufficient to provide the levels of thermal
insulation required in cold climates. The
U-value of a 30-cm-thick rammed earth
wall is as much as 1.9 to 2.0 W/m2K. To
achieve a U-value of 0.5 W/m2K, necessary
in many European countries, a thickness
of 1.6 to 1.8 m would be required. In cold
climates, therefore, either a thick wall of
                                                                                                                               5.31
lightweight loam or additional conventional
                                                                                                     5.31 Rammed earth
thermal insulation should be used.
                                                                                                     test structure, Univer-
Some potential methods for making loam                                                               sity of Kassel
walls with improved thermal insulations are                                                          5.32 to 5.33 Con-
described in chapter 14, p. 108.                                                                     structing the rammed
                                                                                                     earth dome with a
                                                                                                     rotating formwork

Surface treatment

                                                                                              5.33
A rammed earth wall requires less labour
and material inputs for surface treatment        (in cases involving interior wall surfaces). If
compared to walls made using other earth         exterior surfaces thus treated are sheltered
construction techniques. As a rule, it is        from rain by roof overhangs and against
neither necessary nor advisable to plaster       splashing by a plinth, a coating of paint is
a rammed earth wall. If the surface is           sufficient to protect them against the ele-
sponged with a moist felt trowel immedi-         ments. Care should be taken that coatings
ately after dismantling the formwork,            neither peel nor crack.
then a smooth surface is easily produced,
one that may be painted or wallpapered


                                            60   Rammed earthworks
                    6 Working with earthen blocks




                                                                           Illustration 6.1 shows different shapes and
                                                                           sizes of green bricks produced industrially
                                                                           by an extrusion process common in the
                                                                           German market. Specific applications of
                                                                           these different types of blocks in walls,
                                                                           floors, vaults and domes are described in
                                                                           chapter 14.



                                                                           History

                                                                           Building with earthen blocks is widespread
                                                                           in all hot-dry, subtropical and moderate
                                                                           climates. Earth block buildings dating from
                                                                     6.2
                                                                           8000 to 6000 BC have been found in
                           Blocks of earth produced manually by            Turkestan (Pumpelly, 1908), and ones from
                           throwing wet earth into a formwork are          ca. 4000 BC in Assyria. Visible even today
                           called “adobes” or “mud bricks” or “sun-        in Upper Egypt are monumental structures
                           dried earth blocks.” When moist earth is        about 3200 years old, such as the huge
                           compacted in a manual or powered press,         earth block fortification wall of Medinet
                           the compressed elements so formed are           Habu and the vaults of the storage rooms
                           called “soil blocks.” In their unbaked state,   in the temple area of Ramses II near
                           bricks produced by an extruder in a brick       Gourna (1.1).
                     6.1
                           plant are called “green bricks.” These three    The technique of making vaults and domes
6.1 Industrially pro-      types of blocks are usually the same size as    from earth blocks without supports during
duced green bricks,        baked bricks. Larger blocks, compacted in a     construction (centring or shuttering) was
Germany                    formwork by ramming, are called “rammed         known to many cultures (see chapter 14,
6.2 Ancient core
                           earth blocks.”                                  p. 117). For centuries, Pueblo Indians in Taos,
of the city of Shibam,
                           Some countries have standardised measure-       New Mexico, built their houses using the
Yemen
                           ments for these blocks. The two sizes used      earth from the sites themselves, the water
                           most commonly in Germany, for example,          from nearby streams, and straw from the
                           are:                                            fields (6.3).
                                                                           The historical core of the city of Shibam,
                           NF (normal format) = 71 x 115 x 240 mm          Yemen, covering about 20,000 m2 and
                           2DF (double thin format) = 113 x 115 x 240      accessible only through a single gateway,
                           mm.                                             was built entirely in adobe. Many houses


                     61    Working with earthen blocks
resemble skyscrapers, and date from the
15th century (6.2).
In Scandinavia and in England, building with
sod was common in the 17th and 18th cen-
turies. These houses were constructed of
blocks cut from the top layer of loamy soil
together with the grass growing on it. The
blocks were inverted and used as bricks to
form walls without mortar. European immi-
grants brought this technique to the USA,
where a large number of sod houses were
built in the 18th and 19th centuries (6.4).
Some settlers also adapted the same idea
from North American Indian nations such
as the Omaha and Pawnee, who for cen-
turies had used the method to cover their
                                                                                                                                6.3
round huts with sod (Houben, Guillaud,
1984).
In New Mexico, silty soil blocks cut from
riverbeds, and containing a network of roots
which act as reinforcement, were used
for building walls. These blocks are called
terronis or terrones, and were sometimes
used in Mexico and Central America as well.                                              6.6

It is interesting to note that building codes
in New Mexico still permit building with        1764 (Güntzel, 1986, p. 23). David Gilly pub-
terronis.                                       lished manuals on adobe construction in
In Germany, earth block work was used           1787 and 1790.
in the 6th century BC; adobe blocks
40 x 40 cm and 6 to 8 cm high were used
in the fort of Heuneburg near Lake Con-         Production of earth blocks
stance (Dehn, 1957). Around 140,000 blocks
and 400 m3 of mortar were used to con-          Adobes are made either by filling moulds
struct its 3-m-high walls (Güntzel, 1986,       with a pasty loam mixture or by throwing
p. 23). An official circular introducing the    moist lumps of earth into them. Different
use of adobes in walls was published in         types of moulds can be used; some of
                                                these are shown in 6.5. They are usually
                                                made from timber. The throwing technique
                                                is commonly used in all developing coun-
                                                tries (6.7, 6.8 and 6.9). Here, a sandy loam is
                                                                                                                          6.5
                                                mixed with water, and cut straw is usually
                                                added and the whole formed into a paste
                                                that is thrown into wooden moulds. The            6.3 Traditional earth
                                                greater the force with which the loam is          dwellings of the
                                                                                                  Pueblo Indians, Taos,
                                                thrown, the better its compaction and dry
                                                                                                  New Mexico, USA
                                                strength. The surface is smoothed either by
                                                                                                  6.4 Sod house, USA
                                                hand or by a timber piece, trowel or wire         6.5 Moulds for
                                                (6.6).                                            adobes
                                                One person can produce about 300 blocks           6.6 Removal of sur-
                                                per day (including preparation of mix, trans-     plus loam with a wire
                                          6.4

                                          62    Working with earthen blocks
                                                                             manually operated presses have been
                                                                             devised. The best-known press worldwide
                                                                             is the CINVA Ram, developed in Colombia
                                                                             by the Chilean engineer Ramirez (6.12).
                                                                             Illustration 6.13 shows the CETA Ram in
                                                                             operation. It is similar to the CINVA Ram,
                                                                             and was developed in Paraguay. It permits
                                                                             simultaneous production of three blocks.
                                                                             Manually operated presses of this type pro-
                                                                             duce pressures up to 5 to 25 kg/cm2, and
6.7 to 6.9 Making                                                            require three to five persons for optimum
adobes in Ecuador                                                            operation. Despite mechanised production
6.10 Making adobes
                                                                             of soil blocks using presses, the output per
on a work table
                                                                             person per day is only 150 to 200 blocks,
6.11 Metal mould
with handles                                                                 considerably less than that of the primitive
6.12 CINVA Ram,                                                              method involving throwing loam into
Columbia                                                                     moulds.
                                                                      6.10




                                                                                                                       6.7




                                                                      6.11                                             6.8

                         portation and stacking). In India, one person
                         can produce as many as 500 blocks per day
                         using a double mould designed for a small-
                         er brick. In order to facilitate work, bricks can
                         be moulded on a table, as was traditionally
                         the case in Germany (6.10). Another easy
                         method uses moulds with handles 80 cm
                         in length, which enables workers to manu-
             6.12                                                                                                      6.9
                         facture bricks while standing (6.11).
                         Techniques for producing compressed soil
                         blocks were known in Europe in the 18th             The advantage of these mechanised press-
                         century. In 1789, the French architect François     es, however, is that loams with lower water
                         Cointreaux developed a manually operated            contents can be used. This makes it possible
                         soil block press. Since then, numerous              to stack blocks immediately after production.


                    63   Working with earthen blocks
The disadvantage is that the blocks are
usually stabilised with a 4% to 8% cement
content in order to endow them with suffi-
cient strength. This is necessary because
of the absence of either sufficient water or
adequate dynamic impact capable of signifi-
cantly activating the binding forces of the
clay minerals. Without cement, pressed
blocks usually have dry a compressive
strength lower than that of handmade
adobes (see p. 44).
                                                                                                                          6.14
Another disadvantage of such presses is
that the soil mix must be kept at a constant        even consistency is available locally and         6.13 CETA Ram, Paraguay
level of moisture and composition. If com-          in sufficient quantities. Otherwise, capital,     6.14 Automatic block
                                                                                                      press CLU 3000, Switzer-
positions vary, then both the volume of the         maintenance and repair costs quickly dimin-       land
                                                    ish any potential economic advantages. In         6.15 Automatic block
                                                    low-wage countries, manual adobe produc-          press (Pacific Adobe,
                                                                                                      USA)
                                                    tion is usually more economical, as is the
                                                                                                      6.16 to 6.17 Adobe pro-
                                                    production of green bricks in brick plants        duction technique devel-
                                                    in industrialised countries. In industrialised    oped by Hans Stumpf,
                                                    countries, brick production using such            USA
                                                                                                      6.18 Green bricks drying
                                                    machines would be economical only if              in the air at brick plant,
                                                    transportation costs were high. (For more         Gilserberg, Germany
                                                    information about pressed soil blocks, see        6.19 Shrinkage cracks
                                                                                                      that occurred after rain-
                                                    Mukerji, 1986; Smith and Webb, 1987;
                                             6.13                                                     drenched green bricks
                                                    Mukerji, 1988; and CRATerre, 1991).               dried out
                                                                                                      6.20 Cutting earth blocks
                                                    The production method developed in the
                                                    USA by Hans Stumpf and patented in 1946,
                                                    and consisting of a block making apparatus,
                                                    seems comparatively more efficient (6.16
                                                    and 6.17). With this method, loam is pre-
                                                    pared to a pasty consistency in a forced
                                                    mixer and then poured into a large funnel
                                                    that moves over a grid of moulds. The
                                             6.15
                                                    moulds are filled, and the top and the blocks
material to be filled and the pressure              are then smoothed mechanically. A lever
changes. This leads to variations in the            lifts this grid, leaving the separated blocks
heights and strengths of the blocks.                to dry on the ground. After a preliminary
Fully automatic block-making presses such           drying period, the blocks can be turned on
as those shown in 6.14 and 6.15 can pro-            their edges for even drying.
duce 1500 to 4000 blocks daily. However,            In mechanised brick plants, crushed soil is
they require large investments and may be           mixed and pushed by rollers into an extrud-
difficult to maintain, especially in developing     er, where it is again mixed and pressed
countries. To assure even loam consisten-           through a vacuum-operated mouthpiece
cies, such machines often require separate          into long profiles, which are then sliced by a
crushers and mixers.                                wire. Drying is accomplished in ovens using
Fully automatic presses are only economical         commercial energy. Since this entire process
if they have long lives, are utilised extensive-    is computerised in industrialised brick plants,
ly on a daily basis, and if raw material of         it may be difficult to order green bricks, and


                                              64    Working with earthen blocks
                                                           pressive strength with minimum shrinkage.
                                                           But at the same time, there must be enough
                                                           clay to create sufficient binding force for the
                                                           block to be handled.



                                                           Laying earth blocks

                                                           It is important to shelter earth blocks from
                                                           rain on site. In industrialised countries, as a
                                                           rule, green bricks ordered from factories, are
                                                           palletised and covered entirely in plastic.
                                                           Earth blocks are laid with either loam mor-
                                                           tar, hydraulic lime mortar or high-hydraulic
                                                           lime mortar. While small quantities of
                                                    6.18
                                                           cement may be added to these mortars,
       the prices quoted are sometimes more than           pure cement mortar is not advisable, as it is
       those for ordinary fired bricks. With simpler       too rigid and brittle. To avoid shrinkage
       production processes and open-air drying,           cracks inside the mortar during drying, the
       on the other hand, it was possible in at least      mortar should contain sufficient quantities
       one German case, to obtain green bricks             of coarse sand. The clay content may vary
       that are 40 % cheaper than the price of reg-        from 4% to 10%. The formation of shrink-
       ular fired bricks.                                  age cracks can also be avoided when the
                                                           mortar layer is thinner than usual. It is a
6.16
                                                           pleasure to work with loam mortar, since it
       Material composition                                is not abrasive to the skin. Lime mortar,
                                                           however, attacks the skin and may also
       The loam used in common brick plants                cause allergies.
       requires high clay content in order to
       achieve sufficient strength after firing. Illus-
       tration 6.21 shows a typical soil grain size
       distribution of this type of loam, containing
       24% clay, 50% silt, 23% sand and 3% grav-
6.17
       el. When loam of this composition is used
       for earth block work, it creates swelling and
       shrinking problems upon wetting and dry-
       ing respectively. Illustration 6.19 shows
       cracks occurring when these green bricks
                                                                                                       6.19
       were used in a project where a wall was
       drenched by sudden rain during construc-
       tion.
       The soil grain size distribution of a leaner
       sandy loam appropriate for earth blocks is
       shown in 6.22. It shows 14% clay, 22% silt,
       62% sand and 2% gravel, and shows no
       shrinkage cracks after drying.
       Generally, it can be stated that earth blocks
       should have enough coarse sand to allow
       them to achieve high porosity (and there-
                                                                                                      6.20
       fore high frost resistance), and high com-


 65    Working with earthen blocks
6.21

                           Clay           Silt                          Sand                                 Gravel
                                  Fine   Medium   Coarse      Fine      Medium       Coarse       Fine       Medium        Coarse
                     100
                     90
                     80
Percentage passing




                      70
                     60
                     50
                     40
                     30
                     20
                      10
                      0
                       0.001 0.002 0.06 0.01 0.02        0.06 0.1     0.2      0.6     1      2          6    10      20            60 100
                                                                                                                       Grain size (mm)

6.22
                           Clay           Silt                          Sand                                 Gravel                          6.21 Grain size distribu-
                                  Fine   Medium     Coarse    Fine      Medium       Coarse       Fine       Medium        Coarse
                     100                                                                                                                     tion curve of loam used
                     90                                                                                                                      in a brick plant
                                                                                                                                             6.22 Optimised grain
                     80
Percentage passing




                                                                                                                                             size distribution curve
                      70
                                                                                                                                             for adobes
                     60                                                                                                                      6.23 Exposed earth
                     50                                                                                                                      block wall finished
                     40                                                                                                                      with a loam-lime slurry,
                     30                                                                                                                      Bendigo, Australia
                     20                                                                                                                      6.24 Bookshelves fixed
                                                                                                                                             to an earth block wall
                      10
                                                                                                                                             6.25 Industrially
                      0                                                                                                                      produced unburned
                       0.001 0.002 0.06 0.01 0.02        0.06 0.1     0.2      0.6     1      2          6    10      20            60 100
                                                                                                                                             lightweight bricks
                                                                                                                       Grain size (mm)



If the blocks are dipped in water for a short                               Surface treatment
time to make the surface soft and pliable, it
becomes possible to build walls from earth                                  If sufficiently moistened with a tool like a
blocks without using mortar. These soaked                                   felt trowel, exposed earth block masonry
blocks can be simply stacked, as with any                                   with uneven surfaces or joints can be easily
dry masonry work, and they will bind. Such                                  smoothened. Plastering is not advisable,
work, however, requires a very fine eye and                                 since it interferes with the capacity of loam
skilled workmanship, for it is difficult to con-                            walls to balance internal air humidity (see
trol the horizontal joints and the pattern,                                 chapter 1, p. 16). However, exposed earth
since no tolerance of mortar thickness is                                   block masonry can, if not aesthetically
available.                                                                  acceptable, be given a wash of loam slurry
Earth blocks can be cut much more easily                                    stabilised with, for example, lime, lime-
than baked bricks, using ordinary saws, for                                 casein etc. (6.23). This wash also impacts
example, as seen in 6.20. If parts of blocks                                the wall’s surface stability (for more details
are required, they can either be sawed right                                about surface treatment, see chapter 12,
through, or else cut to depths of about                                     p. 98).
2 cm, after which sections can be broken
off with the tap of a hammer. In place of a
saw, a groove can also be scored with a
trowel or a knife before using the hammer.




                                                                 66         Working with earthen blocks
                                                        Lightweight loam blocks

                                                        So-called lightweight loam blocks or green
                                                        bricks have a specific weight of less than
                                                        1200 kg/m3 and consist of clayey soil with
                                                        light aggregates such as straw, saw dust,
                                                        cellulose fibres, cork, perlite, pumice or
                                                        expanded clay. Due to their good thermal
                                                        insulation effects, they are used for exterior
                                                        walls in cool or cold climates. Illustration
                                                        6.25 shows some of these unburned bricks
                                                        that are produced industrially in Germany.




                                                 6.23




                                                 6.25

     Fixing fasteners to walls

     Nails can be driven into an earth block walls
     more easily than into those constructed of
     baked bricks. The more porous and humid
     the material, the easier one can drive a nail
     through it. Green bricks tend to split more
     easily than soil blocks and adobes. If very
     thick nails are used, it is advisable to drill a
     hole into the block. Heavy shelves or wall-
     hung cabinets can be fixed to the wall easily
     using screws and dowels. Dowel holes,
                                                                                                   6.24
     however, should be drilled large enough to
     prevent blocks from cracking. In 6.24, heavy
     bookshelves are fixed to a green brick wall
     using dowels and screws.



67   Working with earthen blocks
            Special acoustic green bricks

            In order to optimise the acoustic behaviour
            of domed rooms, a special loam brick with
            rounded corners was developed by the
            author (6.27). The rounded corners and the
            corbelling effect of the bricks (6.26) yield
            good sound distribution, while good sound
            absorption is produced by the cut-off joints
            and the holes in the brick. Illustration 6.28
            depicts a 6-m-high wall of unburned (green)
            bricks, introduced in order to improve the
            acoustic behaviour of the hall.
6.28




                                                                                      6.26




                                                                                      6.27
                                                            6.26 Detail of loam
                                                            brick dome
                                                            6.27 Special loam brick
                                                            to improve acoustic
                                                            behaviour
                                                            6.28 Loam brick wall




       68   Working with earthen blocks
                  7 Large blocks and prefabricated panels




                                                                         flipped over into their final positions (see 7.1
                                                                         and 7.2). Using such blocks, a 50-cm-thick
                                                                         wall gives a U-value of 0.3 W/m2K. Dufter
                                                                         guided several do-it-yourself projects using
                                                                         these blocks. In one case, the owner-builder
                                                                         family produced 1500 blocks in five weeks,
                                                                         sufficient for their entire house.
                                                                         Lightweight mineral loam blocks measuring
                                                                         15 x 15 x 30 cm, which are made of loam
                                                                         and expanded clay, have been produced
                                                                         in Hungary utilising egg layers (of the type
                                                                         used in making concrete blocks) (7.3). Such
                                                                   7.1   blocks were used to provide additional
7.1 Making light-       With monolithic rammed earth walls, or           external thermal insulation to a rammed
weight straw loam       even with small-sized brick masonry, man-        earth wall house in Tata, Hungary (7.4).
blocks                  power is high and drying time can delay          Different sections for larger wall panels
7.2 Exterior wall
                        construction work due to the inherent            made of lightweight mineral loam, and
made of large blocks
of lightweight straw    water. Therefore, several ideas involving        developed by the author of this book, are
loam                    larger prefabricated elements have been          shown in 7.5. These can be used either in
                        developed.



                        Large blocks

                        Provided they are light enough to be carried
                        in one hand, or at most in both, larger blocks
                        can be laid faster. Lightweight aggregates
                        and cavities can be used to reduce weight.
                        For easy handling, grip holds should be
                        incorporated in block shapes.
                        Lightweight straw blocks, 50 x 60 x 30 cm,
                        used in several projects by the German
                        architect Sylvester Dufter, are more efficient
                        for making walls. Though each block weighs
                        26 kg, they are produced under cover and
                        close to the wall, and can then be almost
                                                                                                                      7. 2

                   69   Larger blocks
                                                  Floor slabs

                                                  Loam elements which act as infill between
                                                  floor joints also provide sound and thermal
                                                  insulation (7.10). In Hungary in 1987, the
                                                  author of this book developed load-bearing
                                                  infill elements with cement-stabilised light-
                                                  weight loam. Illustration 7.11 shows such an
                                                  element along with its mould. Illustration
                                                  7.12 depicts various designs for load-bearing
                                                  floor panels.




                                            7.6

internal walls, or to increase the thermal
insulation of exterior walls from the outside.
Cavities reduce weight and increase thermal
insulation, while simultaneously providing
grip holds for easy handling. Illustration 7.6
shows similar elements that can be used for
making vaults.



Prefabricated wall panels

                                                                                             7.5                                7.7
Prefabricated elements, each 6 to 12 cm
thick and measuring between 30 x 60 cm                                                              7.3 Making lightweight
                                                                                                    mineral loam blocks,
and 62.5 x 100 cm, have been used for
                                                                                                    Tata, Hungary
non-load bearing elements. These should                                                             7.4 Using lightweight
be made of lightweight loam with the den-                                                           mineral loam blocks
sity 800 to 1,000 kg/m3. Panels lighter than                                                        as external additional
                                                                                                    thermal insulation for
800 kg/m3 must be edged with timber,
                                                                                                     a rammed earth wall,
since their edge strengths are insufficient for                                                     Tata, Hungary
handling. An extremely light element with                                                           7.5 Lightweight loam
                                                                                                    blocks for wall construc-
a density of 550 kg/m3 was developed by
                                                                                                    tion
the German firm Breidenbach; it is made of                                                          7.6 Lightweight loam
reed mats plastered with loam and covered                                                           blocks for vaults
                                                                                             7. 3   7.7 Interior wall from
with a jute fabric.
                                                                                                    lightweight loam
Illustration 7.7 shows a wall built with
                                                                                                    panels
“Karphosit” elements, which are produced
from clay powder and straw cuttings, and
have a density of 850 kg/m3. They measure
62.5 x 25 x 10 cm. The German firm HDB
Weissinger produces 1-m-wide and up to 3-
m-high timberframe wall elements filled
with lightweight loam (7.8 and 7.9).


                                                                                             7. 4

                                             70   Larger blocks
       Floor tiles

       Prefabricated tiles made with stabilised
       earth can be used for flooring. One advan-
       tage is that since they are already dry, shrink-
       age only occurs in joints. Miller, Grigutsch
       and Schulze (1947, p. 5) recommend the
       use of Fe3O4 , oxblood and tar in order to
       stabilise these tiles and provide them with
       surface hardness. Tests at the Building
       Research Laboratory (BRL) showed that a
       high degree of surface hardness could be
       obtained by adding 6% double-boiled lin-
       seed oil in conjunction with compacting the
       surface and using floor wax as a polish.
       Methods of increasing surface hardness are
       described in chapter 14, p. 112.



       Extruded loam slabs

       Illustration 7.13 shows extruded green loam
       slabs consisting of a loam with high clay
       content. They are extruded 3 to 10 cm thick,
       50 cm wide and cut into lengths of up to
       100 cm or more. -
7. 9




                                                                                        7. 8
                                                          7.8 to 7.9 Structural
                                                          elements filled with light-
                                                          weight loam
                                                          7.10 Infill loam elements
7.11                                               7.13   for floors
                                                          7.11 Load-bearing
                                                          cement-stabilised light-
                                                          weight loam infills,
                                                          Hungary
                                                          7.12 Load-bearing loam
                                                          floor slabs
                                                          7.13 Extruded loam
                                                          slabs, Germany




7.10                                               7.12

71     Larger blocks
                        8 Direct forming with wet loam




                                                                               tions 8.1 and 8.2 show a bench formed
                                                                               with wet loam elements where shrinkage
                                                                               was not taken into account. The following
                                                                               sections explain how pre-designed shrink-
                                                                               age cracks of smaller dimensions, or the use
                                                                               of curved elements can help to reduce or
                                                                               even avoid such cracks. The theory involving
                                                                               reducing shrinkage by modifying loam com-
                                                                               position is explained in chapter 4, p. 39.



                                                                               Traditional wet loam techniques

                                                                               While in the case of earth block work, dry
                                                                               elements are built up with mortar joints, no
                                                                               mortar is used with wet loam work. Plastic
8.2
                                                                               loam is bound simply by ramming, beating,
                              Unlike other building materials, wet loam        pressing or throwing.
                              has the capacity to be formed into any           In southern India, a very simple wet loam
                              shape. It therefore presents a creative chal-    technique is still in use today: using a
                              lenge to designers and builders. The manual      hoe, earth is mixed with water to a pasty
                              shaping of walls from lumps of wet loam          consistency, carried to the site in metal
                              or thick loam paste is widespread in Africa      containers balanced on the worker’s head,
                              and Asia, and is also known in Europe and        and poured on the wall being built. It is
8.1
                              America. Since no tools are required to          then spread by hand in layers from 2 to
      8.1 Forming a bench     work with earth, it is the simplest and most     4 cm thick. As the paste dries fairly quickly
      from wet loam           primitive technique. The prepared mixture is     in the sun, the wall can be built continuous-
      8.2 Shrinkage cracks    used directly (without intermediate products     ly, layer by layer.
      in the same bench
                              being formed or intermediate processes). Its     In northeast Ghana, another technique is
      after drying
      8.3 to 8.4 Making       disadvantage is that even lean loam of only      used. Here, balls of wet earth are formed
      walls using balls of    10% to 15% clay shows linear shrinkage of        and then used to construct circular walls
      wet earth, northeast    3% to 6% when drying. The higher the clay        simply by stacking and pressing (8.3 and
      Ghana (after Schreck-   content and the more water employed,             8.4). After the wall dries, the surface is plas-
      enbach, no date)
                              the greater the shrinkage. Thick loam paste      tered on both sides and then smoothed
      8.5 Nankansi court-
                              with high clay content may even have a           and polished using flat stones in a rotary
      yard house, north
      Ghana                   linear shrinkage ratio of above 10%. Illustra-   rubbing movement. Illustration 8.5 shows


                         72   Direct forming
                                                                                 In north Yemen, multi-storeyed houses have
                                                                                 been built using a wet loam technique
                                                                                 called zabur (8.8, 8.9 and 8.10). Here, clods
                                                                                 of straw loam are shaped by hand and
                                                                                 thrown with strong impact to build the wall
                                                                                 in such a way that they are compacted and
                                                                                 adhere to the base, forming a homogenous
                                                                                 mass. The surface is often beaten and com-
                                                                                 pacted by hammering with a kind of wood-
                                                                                 en trowel.
                                                                                 A technique of building using loam clods
                                                                                 called “cob” was widespread in southwest
                                                                                 England beginning in the 15th century, and
                                                                                 was used at least until the 19th century,
                                                                                 especially in Devon. Hill describes this tech-
                                                                                 nique as follows: a man stands with a three-
                                                                                 pronged pitchfork on the plinth of the wall,
8.5
                                                                                 while a second man forms clods as large
      8.6 Traditional wet        a compound built using a similar primitive      as two fists. The second man then throws
      loam construction,         technique.                                      the clods to the first one, who catches them
      northwest Ghana            In northwest Ghana, 40-cm-thick walls           on his pitchfork and, walking backwards,
      (after Schreckenbach,
                                 have been constructed with wet loam clods       throws them onto the wall. Where neces-
      no date)
      8.7 Typical dwelling,      using another traditional technique. Here,      sary, he also compacts the wall with his feet.
      northwest Ghana            they are built up in layers so that each suc-   In this way, layers 50 to 60 cm in height are
      (after Schreckenbach,      cessive layer slightly overlaps the previous    built up. To give an even finish, the surface
      no date)                   one (8.6). The rooms of these houses are        is sliced. Wall thicknesses are generally
                                 more or less rectangular, and have rounded      45 to 60 cm (McCann, 1983). Illustration
                                 corners (8.7).                                  8.12 shows a house, one still inhabited, at

                                                                                                                            8.7




                      8.6




                      8.3




                      8.4


                            73   Direct forming
                                                                                               8.8          8.9

Cockington (Devon, England) that was built          laid per day. A lime plaster several layers
using this technique in 1410.                       thick is used after the wall is dry. The first
A similar technique called Wellerbau, has           such house was built in 1925 (8.14). Within
been known in German since medieval                 the next five years, more than 300 houses
times, and was especially widespread in             were built by co-operatives, formed by
Thuringia and Saxony. Here, the straw loam          unemployed workers on the initiative of von
is not formed into clods as in the cob tech-        Bodelschwingh. The entire families of the
nique, nor compacted by throwing as with            members participated in production and
the zabur technique, but is directly stacked        construction.
with a pitchfork and then compacted using
feet or rams (8.11). The wall is built up in lay-
ers of 80 to 90 cm. After a short drying peri-
od, the surface of these layers is smoothed
                                                                                                            8.10
with a wedge-shaped spade.



The “Dünne loam loaf” technique

Techniques similar to the ones used in
Slovakia and Yemen, described above, were
known in North Africa. They inspired Gustav
von Bodelschwingh, a German missionary,
to adapt them to German conditions. The
resulting technique derives its name from
the small town of Dünne, where it was first
used.
Here, wet loaves of loam are stacked in
masonry patterns, but without mortar. In
order to provide better bonding to the
plaster that is applied later, a conical hole is
made on the outer face of each loaf using
                                                                                                     8.11
the finger (see 8.13). Three to five layers are


                                              74    Direct forming
                                                                                                                    8.12

8.8 Multi-storeyed
houses made using
the zabur technique,
Yemen
8.9 to 8.10 Construc-
tion of a loam wall,
using the zabur tech-
nique
8.11 Traditional
Wellerbau technique,                                              8.13                                              8.14
Germany
                        The stranglehm technique                         8 x 16 cm in section can be produced at a
8.12 Cob building
from 1410, Cocking-                                                      rate of 2 m per minute (1.4 m3/h). This
ton, Devon, England     At the Building Research Laboratory (BRL)        prototype, which was arranged vertically,
8.13 Unplastered wall   a new wet loam technique, termed the             as seen in 8.15, was later refined, yielding an
of a sheep shed,        stranglehm (“loam strand”) technique, was        output of 3 m per minute (2 m3/hr) using a
Dünne, Germany
                        developed in 1982. Walls, vaults and domes       horizontal arrangement, as seen in 8.16.
8.14 Residence,
                        can be built with this technique. Even built-    The machine consists of a feeder section
Dünne, Germany
                        in furniture and sanitary items, as described    with two counter-rotating cylinders, which
                        in chapter 14, p. 133, can be formed.            mix the material before conveying it to a
                                                                         section with rotating knives for mixing. The
                        Production of stranglehm elements                material is then moved into a worm gear,
                        In order to produce wet loam profiles, an        which creates sufficient pressure to force the
                        extrusion apparatus was developed by the         material out of the extrusion mouthpiece.
                        BRL. Using this machine, wet loam profiles


                   75   Direct forming
                                           8.15                                           8.16
Preparing the mix
Tests with 30 different mixtures, including
some containing straw, sawdust and pine
needles, showed that shrinkage reduction
and increase of output was negligible, indi-
cating that the additional labour and effort
involved in introducing these additives was
not worthwhile. However, the addition of
whey increased output slightly, and gave
better water resistance and surface hard-
ness. Casein powder and water can be sub-
stituted for whey. The mix for this technique
must have higher clay content than that for
rammed earth blocks. A clay content of
15% was found advantageous. Loam ele-
ments with lower clay contents showed
cracks at the corners. The content has to be
optimised so that the finished profile is dry
enough to be handled, yet wet enough to
adhere when being stacked into the wall.


Laying the elements
                                                                                                                                               8.18
In the first test building made at the Uni-
versity of Kassel, Germany, in 1982 (8.17                                                        8.15 Vertical extruder    8.20 to 8.22 Stacking
and 8.18), 2-m-long extruded profiles were                                                       for extruded loam pro-    extruded loam profiles
                                                                                                 files (Heuser)            in a plastic state
transported on a board and flicked over
                                                                                                 8.16 Horizontal           8.23 Smoothening
onto the wall. The joints were finished by                                                       extruder for extruded     the surface with a wet
pressing them with bare hands or with                                                            loam profiles (Heuser)    sponge
a modelling stick. Since the weight of the                                                       8.17 to 8.18 Walls of     8.24 Sculptured interi-
upper layers cannot be allowed to squeeze                                                        extruded loam pro-        or wall made of
out the lower material, only three to five                                                       files, test house, Uni-   extruded loam profiles
                                                                                                 versity of Kassel, 1982   8.26 Filling a contrac-
layers are possible in a day.
                                                                                                 8.19 Extrusion of loam    tion joint with slightly
As these profiles showed shrinkage of                                                            profiles                  moist loam
about 3%, it was necessary to refill the
shrinkage cracks that appeared. Since this
                                                                                          8.17
was laborious, at the next application of this
technique in a residential house at Kassel,       joints spaced at 70 cm, no shrinkage occurs
Germany, in 1984, only 70-cm-long profiles        in the elements themselves. The extruder
were used. The results showed that at this        was positioned at the centre of the house
length, and with pre-designed contraction         to minimise transportation distances.


                                            76    Direct forming
                                                        three parts with vertical timber elements 4 x
                                                        4 cm in section at 0.7 m/centres. They act as
                                                        tongues fitting into the loam elements to
                                                        provide lateral stability. In order to ensure
                                                        separation of these elements during the
                                                        drying process a cut is made with a trowel,
                                                        so that the joints act as pre-designed con-
                                                        traction joints. Upon drying, this gap widens
                                                        due to shrinkage, and can be favourably
                                                        filled when dry with a mixture of lime,
8.19                                             8.23
                                                        gypsum, sand and loam. It is very easy to
                                                        smooth the surface of these elements with
                                                        a moist sponge (8.23), though to get a rich-
                                                        ly textured and a regular effect (as seen in
                                                        the photographs), more shaping by hand
                                                        may be done before sponging. Illustration
                                                        8.24 shows the filling of a contraction joint
                                                        with slightly moist loam using a hammer
                                                        and a wooden tool.
                                                        Illustration 8.26 and 8.27 show finished
                                                        walls. Walls composed of these elements
                                                        can be shaped easily in a wet state; a fin-
                                                        ished example is shown in 8.25, where
                                                 8.24
                                                        material has been added to the wall, as well
       Illustrations 8.19, 8.20, 8.21 and 8.22 show     as sculpted out of it.
       the production, transport and laying of
       these elements. The walls of this project are
       framed in timber with posts at 2.1 m cen-
       tres. The panel thus formed is divided into
8.20




8.21




8.22                                                                                             8.24

 77    Direct forming
8.26

                             8.26 Finished interior
                             wall made of extruded
                             loam profiles
                             8.27 Finished strang-
                             lehm walls, residence,
                             Uchte, Germany
                             (1986)
                             8.28 Variations of
                             external and internal
                             walls using strang-
                             lehm
                             8.29 to 8.30 Making
                             stranglehm walls in
                             different patterns




8.27

       78   Direct forming
                               Wall types
                               Due to shrinkage of 3% to 5%, long ele-
                               ments are not recommended. Illustration
                               8.28 shows several possibilities for internal
                               and external walls using shorter elements.
                               Solution C in this figure is only intended for
                               exterior walls. The space between the two
                               extruded loam walls can be filled with light-
                               weight bulk material such as cork particles,
                               expanded clay, pumice etc., to increase ther-
                               mal insulation. Structural elements can also
                               be positioned in this space. If the other walls
                               illustrated need to be provided with thermal
                               insulation, a common solution is given in
                               8.31, the U-value of the illustrated wall
                               being 0.295 W/m2K.
                               Illustrations 8.27, 8.29 and 8.30 show work
                               done on a residential house in Germany,
                               with smaller extruded loam profiles
                               obtained from a brick manufacturing plant.
                               Due to the production process, this loam
                               had to have higher clay content, causing
                               a large number of shrinkage problems;
                        8.28   repairing the cracks that occurred turned
                               out to be very time-consuming.




8.31




8.29                                                                      8.30

 79    Direct forming
      9 Wet loam infill in skeleton structures




                                                              bareque or quincha in Spanish and lehm-
                                                              bewurf in German.
                                                              Such structures consist of vertical and hori-
                                                              zontal members that form a network. Euro-
                                                              pean systems usually employ vertical timber
                                                              members interwoven with twigs (9.4).
                                                              Loam, usually mixed with cut straw, and
                                                              sometimes with fibres, is thrown or pressed
                                                              onto this network so that it covers at least
                                                        9.1   2 cm of all the members. If this cover is not
                                                              thick enough and cracks are not well-
           Plastic loam has been used for thousands of        repaired, walls quickly deteriorate (9.3).
           years to fill gaps in log houses where the         The consistency of the mortar being used
           logs are laid horizontally, as well as in pal-     is easily checked by dropping a 10 cm dia-
           isades (where the tree trunks are positioned       meter ball from a height of 1 m onto a hard
           vertically). In traditional European Fachwerk      surface. If the diameter of the flattened disc
           (timber-framed) houses, as well as in Ameri-       thus formed measures 13 to 14 cm, the
           can, African and Asian wattle-and-daub             consistency is just right.
           structures, wet loam (usually containing cut       Illustrations 9.2 and 9.5 show a variation of
           straw) is thrown on an interwoven mesh of          the wattle-and-daub technique in which
           twigs, branches, bamboo sticks and the like        the size of the mesh is larger (up to 20 cm
           (9.1). As shown in this chapter, there exist       apart), and there is an exterior and an
           many variations of this technique. Modern          interior network. The spaces in the grid thus
           techniques of infill that use mechanical           formed are filled in with clods of loam.
           devices to reduce labour input are described       Coarse gravel or even stones are sometimes
           in this chapter.                                   also used as infill. The type of wall shown in
                                                              9.5 is constructed of prefabricated compo-
                                                              nents, and was used in several low-cost
           Thrown loam                                        housing projects in Bahia, Brazil.


           Thrown loam techniques have been used
           in all tropical, sub-tropical and moderate         Sprayed loam
           climates of the world, and are probably
           older than rammed earth and earth block            Since wattle-and-daub techniques are very
           practices. These wattle-and-daub tech-             labour-intensive, various attempts have been
9.2        niques are called bahareque, bajareque,            made to use spraying machines to apply


      80   Wet loam infill
                    9.5                                                                                              9.3

                                                                          houses are sometimes filled in with ele-
                                                                          ments formed by rolling straw loam around
                                                                          a wooden batten, as seen in 9.7 and 9.8.
                                                                          This is less labour-intensive then the wattle-
                                                                          and-daub technique, and has the added
                                                                          advantage that hardly any shrinkage cracks
                                                                          occur.
                                                                          Two main systems are used: either a loam
                                                                          dipped straw rope is wound helically around
                    9.4                                             9.6
                                                                          a batten, or a straw mat pasted with loam
9.1 Traditional pit       mixtures. The main problem with all of these    is rolled onto a batten. The labour inputs of
house of the Pueblo       techniques has been the common occur-           these techniques is still higher than those
Indians, 3rd century
                          rence of shrinkage cracks.                      using “loam strand” techniques (see chapter
AD, (Bardou, Arzou-
                          The German architect Hans-Bernd Kraus           8). A variation of the rolling technique was
manian, 1978)
9.2 Variations of         developed a technique in which a thin loam      successfully tested at the Building Research
wattle-and-daub tech-     mixture is sprayed simultaneously together      Laboratory (BRL). It used a loam mortar
nique (after Vorhauer,    with dry sawdust (from a separate nozzle).      with a high coarse sand content, which was
1979)                     Both sprays intermix before hitting the wall.   pasted onto a metal or plastic wire mesh
9.3 Traditional wattle-
                          Layers 4 to 6 cm thick are sprayed on           (commonly used for reinforcing mortars).
and-daub building,
                          wood-wool slabs used as a lost formwork.        The loam was pasted onto the mesh in
Venezuela
9.4 Traditional wattle-   The wood-wool slabs also provide consider-      a thickness of 2 cm, and both were rolled
and-daub technique,       able thermal insulation (9.6). Another spray-   around a bamboo stick to form infill
Germany                   able lightweight loam used for enhancing        elements (9.9, 9.10 and 9.11). Surprisingly,
9.5 Prefabricated         the thermal insulation of walls is described    shrinkage cracks nevertheless occurred
wattle-and-daub
                          in chapter 11, p. 95.                           with this technique.
system, Brazil
9.6 Spraying light-
                                                                          Illustration 9.12 depicts the traditional Ger-
weight loam                                                               man technique of building with “loam bot-
                          Rolls and bottles of straw loam                 tles.” Here, secondary vertical members are
                                                                          fixed 15 to 20 cm apart within the frame.
                          In Germany and France, openings in the          The “bottles” are made by taking 1.5-litre
                          frameworks of traditional timber-framed         masses of the mixture and dropping them


                    81    Wet loam infill
                                         9.7                                              9.9




onto the centre of a cross made of two
bundles of straw. The ends of the bundles
are then lifted up around the loam, which
formed into bottle-like shapes and covered
with loam. The bottle is then held horizon-
tally, and the neck wound around the verti-
cal member, while the bottom is pressed
against the neck of the previous bottle.
                                                                                         9.10                             9.11

                                               Lightweight loam infill                          9.7 Timber frame wall
                                                                                                with infill of straw
                                               Since they fail to provide sufficient thermal    loam rolls (German:
                                                                                                Wickel) (after Houben,
                                               insulation, the traditional techniques
                                                                                                Guillaud, 1984)
                                               described in earlier sections cannot be used     9.8 Making loam
                                               in modern construction in cold climates.         rolls with straw (after
                                               To provide thermal insulation, the frames        Vorhauer, 1979)
                                               can be filled with lightweight loam mixtures     9.9 to 9.11 Modern
                                               (or the exterior covered with layers of com-     method of making
                                                                                                straw loam rolls (BRL)
                                               monly used thermal insulation materials).
                                                                                                9.12 Traditional
                                               This technique has the advantage of less         method of making
                                               labour input and no shrinkage whatsoever.        straw loam bottles
                                               Systems with greater thermal insulating
                                               effects are shown in chapter 14, p. 108. The
                                               lightweight additives are described in chap-
                                               ter 4, pp. 48 to 51.



                                               Infill with stranglehm and earth-
                                               filled hoses

                                               Modern solutions of filling the openings in
                                               timber skeleton structures or timber-framed
                                               houses with stranglehm or earth-filled
                                               hoses are described in chapter 8, p. 75 and
                                               chapter 10, p. 89.


                                         9.8                                                                              9.12


                                          82   Wet loam infill
                      10 Tamped, poured or pumped lightweight loam




                                                                             Formwork

                                                                             Lightweight loam walls can be constructed
                                                                             using any type of formwork, but since less
                                                                             impact is involved than with rammed earth-
                                                                             work, the shuttering boards can be thinner.
                                                                             Various possibilities are shown in horizontal
                                                                             section in 10.1.
                                                                             In order to reduce the number of boards,
                                                                             climbing formwork is often used. Four
                                                                             types of this system are illustrated in 10.2.
                                                                             When working with lightweight mineral
                                                                             loam, it is even possible to use only a one-
                                                                             sided formwork. This could be done with
                                                                             a board on the outside, in which case the
                                                                             mixture can be thrown onto it from the
                                                                             inside by hand or with a trowel.



                       10.2                                          10.1    Tamped lightweight straw loam walls

10.1 Horizontal sections      This chapter introduces several techniques     The preparation of the mix is described in
with different inbuilt tim-   that use lightweight loam by tamping, pour-    chapter 4, p. 46. The mixture is thrown into
ber elements
10.2 Systems of climbing
                              ing or pumping for floor, wall or roof sys-    the formwork in layers 10 to 20 cm in height
formworks                     tems. The different types of lightweight       either by hand or (more usually) with a
                              loams are examined in chapter 4, while         pitchfork, and compacted with lightweight
                              chapter 9 discusses how lightweight loam       hand tampers.
                              can be used as infill for timber-framed and    It should be mentioned that lightweight
                              skeleton structures. Sprayed plasterwork is    loam mixtures tend to settle, so that the
                              described in chapter 11. Special designs for   gaps that form must be be inspected and
                              walls which give high insulation are dis-      later refilled. The one-metre-high test ele-
                              cussed in chapter 14, and additional thermal   ment shown in 10.3 displayed settling of
                              insulation measures using lightweight loam     9%.
                              are addressed in chapter 13.                   It should also be mentioned that when
                                                                             working with very light mixtures (with densi-
                                                                             ties below 600 kg/m3) and with walls more


                        83    Tamped lightweight loam
                                          10.3




                                          10.4                             10.5

than 25 cm in thickness, the straw might rot
in the interior of the wall. Illustration 10.4
shows an example of a 30-cm-thick wall
built of lightweight straw loam with a densi-
ty of 350 kg/m3. After some months, when
the outside appeared to be completely dry,
the core was chased for an electrical instal-
lation, and was found to be rotting. Even
the structural timber member had been
attacked by micro-organisms to depths of
2 cm (Schmitt, 1993). With lightweight walls,
wood lice may also appear and eat the
straw. Therefore, it is always advisable that
the stacks of straw are totally sealed by the
loam, which means that the mixture should
have a density of more than 600 kg/m3.



Tamped lightweight wood loam walls

Wood chips and sawdust are often used as
lightweight aggregates instead of straw.
These are easier to mix with the loam, but
have a lesser degree of thermal insulation
effect, and drying takes a very long time.
Illustration 10.5 shows the 50-cm-thick wall
of a restored historic building whose wood-
                                                                           10.7

                                           84    Tamped lightweight loam
                                                             en members were totally destroyed by fun-
                                                             gus because the drying period of the wood
                                                             loam was more than one year.



                                                             Tamped, poured or pumped light-
                                                             weight mineral loam walls

                                                             Lightweight mineral loam can be tamped
                                                             into formwork like straw loam. But it can
                                                             also be poured or pumped if the consisten-
                                                             cy is correct. It also absorbs less water
                                                             (therefore drying faster), exhibits less fungus
                                                             growth, greater dry strength, higher vapour
                                                             diffusion resistance and higher surface hard-
                                                             ness than straw loam and wood loam. Vari-
                                                             ous mineral lightweight aggregates are
                                                             described in chapter 4, p. 49.
                                                      10.6




                     10.8

10.3 Settlement of light-
weight straw loam
10.4 Cut-out from light-
weight straw loam wall
with rotted interior
10.5 Lightweight wood
loam wall, destroyed by
fungus
10.6 Ramming an earth
wall of loam and pumice,
Pujili, Ecuador
10.7 Shaping a window
sill using a machete
10.8 Mixing lightweight
mineral loam
10.9 Pouring lightweight
mineral loam




                                                                                                        10.9

                      85    Tamped lightweight loam
Tamped walls
Illustration 10.6 shows the construction of
a building in Pujili, Ecuador, using pumice as
lightweight aggregate mixed in the loam
and lightly tamped into a formwork. The
formwork was immediately dismantled after
the wall was finished. The wall showed a
high degree of strength, although it was still
possible to cut out window openings and
to form sills with a machete, as shown in
10.7.


Poured walls
The easiest way to make a wall of light-
weight mineral loam is to simply pour it into
a formwork (10.9). In this case, the mix was
prepared in a force mixer, shown in 10.8.
With this technique, it is even possible to
use an ordinary cement concrete mixer in
which the loam slurry is poured over the
aggregate while it is being turned (10.11).
Here, the slurry was prepared with an elec-
trically driven hand mixer, shown in 10.10.
                                                                                                               10.12
The formwork was simply left open on one
side for the upper portion of the wall, and
the mix was thrown into it and tamped
with a flat piece of timber.
In a two-storey house at Tata, Hungary, a
load-bearing wall of 50 cm thickness was
made with a mixture of loam and expanded
clay. The mixture was poured into the form-
work through a funnel carried by a crane,
a method commonly used in concrete con-
struction (10.12).
A simple method of reducing expenditures
is to use a lost formwork made of reed on
one or two sides of the wall (10.13).
Illustrations 10.14 to 10.16 show how a lost
textile formwork, designed by the author,
may be used. A piece of fabric maintains its
                                                                            10.10                              10.13
shape and is stressed by cables fixed to
the timber frame. This gives an idea of the                                         10.10 Preparing a loam
unlimited variety of creative surface textures.                                     slurry using an electric
                                                                                    hand mixer
                                                                                    10.11 Mixing of light-
Pumped walls                                                                        weight mineral loam
For larger projects, especially if there are                                        using an ordinary con-
                                                                                    crete mixer
firms to make the lightweight mineral loam,
                                                                                    10.12 Transporting and
it is advisable to pump the mix into the                                            pouring lightweight
formwork with the use of mortar or con-                                             mineral loam
crete pumps. The consistency must be a
                                                                            10.11

                                            86    Tamped lightweight loam
                                                                                10.14




                                                                                10.16




                                                                        10.15

10.13 Pouring mineral         little bit thinner than for pouring. It can be
loam in lost formwork         pumped up to heights of two storeys using
10.14 to 10.15 Study
                              hoses. Illustration 10.17 shows the example
models for interior walls
using lightweight mineral     of a 300-year-old half-timbered house
loam and lost formwork        restored in Germany, where the mix was
of textile stressed by
                              prepared by a regular mobile concrete
cables
10.16 Vertical section and    mixer, funnelled into a pump, and then
horizontal section show-      piped to the formwork.
ing the ceiling pattern for
a bathroom with a central
                              Surface treatment
skylight
                              After removing the formwork, the surface
                              of tamped, poured or pumped mineral loam
                              walls with densities of 600 to 900 kg/m3
                              can be seen to be fairly hard, albeit rough
                              (10.18). This surface need only be plastered
                              with a single thin layer (unlike equivalent


                        87    Tamped lightweight loam
                                                                                   Carpet
                                                                                   Lightweight loam

                                                                                   Thermal insulation


                                                                                   Damp-proof barrier


                                                                                   Coarse gravel




                                                                           10.17            10.20

straw loam walls which require at least two
layers). In 10.19, we see a lightweight miner-
al loam wall with a density of 1000 kg/m3
being scraped by a rake directly after
deshuttering. This forms a nice, roughly
textured surface that need only be white-
washed later, thus saving plaster.



Pumped lightweight mineral loam
floors

Lightweight mineral loam pumped in pipes
                                                                           10.18            10.19
is especially suitable for ground floors and
intermediate floor slabs. Illustration 10.20
shows a vertical section of a ground floor
with high thermal insulation, which in cold
climates offers a warm, comfortable feeling
upon entering. Illustration 10.21 illustrates
the possibility of using lightweight mineral
                                                                                            10.21
loam as a cast in situ infill between floor
joists. If this mineral loam has a density
higher than 1,000 kg/m3, it serves as a good
barrier for airborne noise and gives good
thermal storage.




                                                                                            10.22

                                            88   Tamped lightweight loam
                                                                 Loam-filled hollow blocks

                                                                 In industrialised countries, there are many
                                                                 different types of hollow blocks available,
                                                                 which are usually filled with concrete. They
                                                                 are made of materials such as pumice
                                                                 bound in cement mortar, expanded clay,
                                                                 cement-bound woodwool, lime-bound
                                                                 sand, baked clay or foamed polystyrene. If
                                                                 the wall is not load-bearing, loam can also
                                                                 be used instead of concrete infill loam.
                                                                 Load-bearing members can be integrated
                                                                 with these walls or placed inside the walls,
                                                                 as shown in 10.22.




                      10.23                              10.24

10.17 Transporting and
pumping lightweight
mineral loam
10.18 Surface of a light
loam wall made of clayey
loam and expanded clay
(8–16 mm) after the
formwork was removed
10.19 Scraping light-
weight mineral loam wall
in order to get a textured
surface (without using
plaster)
10.20 Vertical section
through floor with light-
weight mineral loam
10.21 Lightweight min-
eral loam used as infill in
timber flooring
10.22 Loam-filled hollow
blocks forming a corner
with different positions of
structural post
10.23 Filling hoses with
lightweight mineral loam
using a pump
10.24 to 10.25 Manually
filling of hoses with light-
weight mineral loam                                                                                       10.25
using a funnel
                                                                 If high airborne noise insulation and thermal
                                                                 capacity is required, a high proportion
                                                                 of gravel should be mixed into the loam.
                                                                 If high thermal insulation is required, light-
                                                                 weight aggregates should be added.




                         89    Tamped lightweight loam
Loam-filled hoses                                 shaped easily without breaking, attractive
                                                  sculptural patterns can be created (see
A new technique, developed by the author          10.28 and 10.30).
of this book, was used in 1992 for three res-     After laying and some drying, the surface
idences in Kassel, Germany. Though the            can be easily smoothed with a wet brush.
outward appearance of walls made by this          In the wall shown in 10.31, hoses 70 cm
technique is similar to those made with the       in length are laid between vertical posts of
technique for making stranglehm described         4 x 4 cm turned at 45°, or triangular ele-
in chapter 8, the production, handling and        ments fixed to the main posts of the end
laying is quite different. With this technique,   of the wall, shown in section in 10.29.
an elastic cotton hose is filled with a light-    As a rule, three to five layers can be stacked
weight mineral loam mixture. The hose can         per day, but in order to increase this number
be filled either using a pump (see 10.23), or     some cement can be added to speed up
by hand through a funnel (see 10.24 and           the drying process. Chapter 13, p. 106
10.25). When the required length is reached,      explains how these hoses can be used in
the hose is cut and the end is stretched and      order to increase the thermal insulation of
knotted. Owing to the reinforcement provid-       walls.
ed by the fabric, these loam-filled hoses can
                                                                                                           10.26




                                                                                           10.27           10.28

then be easily handled. Before being laid
onto a wall, they are smoothed with the
hands so that some loam oozes and forms
a thin loam cover on the fabric. When
stacked, these loam coverings stick together
                                                                                                   10.29
(10.26 and 10.27). Since these hoses can be


                                            90    Tamped lightweight loam
                                                       10.30

10.26 to 10.28 Making
a bathroom wall from
lightweight loam-filled
cotton hoses
10.29 Horizontal section
of a wall with loam-filled
hoses
10.30 Wall of winter
garden made from loam-
filled hoses that act as
heat storage and for
humidity balance
10.31 Interior wall made
from loam-filled hoses




                                                       10.31




                       91    Tamped lightweight loam
   11 Loam plasters




                                                        11.2                                             11.3

            Loam plasters consist mainly of sand and           sufficiently rough in order to develop a
            silt with only as much clay as is necessary        good physical bond. If masonry is to be
            (usually between 5% and 12%) for develop-          plastered, especially when using larger and
            ing their adhesive and binding forces. It is       very smooth bricks, it is recommended that
            difficult to determine the proportions of an       a 45° groove be cut with a trowel into the
            ideal loam plaster, because not only the pro-      joints, as shown in 11.1. Another method of
            portions of clay, silk and sand influence a        obtaining a good bond when rammed loam
            mixture’s properties. Other factors affecting      walls are to be plastered is to wet them suf-
            the composition are the grain size distribu-       ficiently until surfaces are soft, and to then
11.1        tion of the sand fraction itself, the water con-   scratch diagonal patterned grooves into
            tent, the type of clay, the method of prepa-       them with a small rake or a nail-trowel (11.2
            ration and the additives. In order to test the     and 11.3).
            appropriateness of loam plasters, samples          In order to ensure that the plaster adheres
            with varied compositions should be tested.         well, plaster supports can be applied in the
            If the surface is rough enough, then loam          form of galvanised wire mesh, plastic mesh,
            plasters stick well not only to loam surfaces,     reed mats etc.
            but also to those made of brick, concrete
            and stone. For the ability of loam plasters to
            balance indoor air humidity see chapter 1.         Composition of loam plaster

                                                               In order to keep loam plaster free of shrink-
            Preparation of ground                              age cracks, the following points must be
                                                               kept in mind:
            As loam plaster does not react with the            • The loam should contain enough coarse
            ground chemically, the surface has to be           sand.


       92   Loam plasters
                                 • Animal or human hair, coconut or sisal             brick but displays shrinkage cracks like the
                                 fibres, cut straw or hay should be added             third sample in 11.4, it is too clayey and
                                 (however, too much of these additives                should be slightly thinned with coarse sand.
                                 reduce the ability of the plaster to adhere          However, it can be used without thinning as
                                 to the ground).                                      the first layer of a two-layer plaster. If the
                                 • For interior plastering, sawdust, cellulose        surface shows no cracks and the plaster
                                 fibres, chaff of cereal or similar particles can     does not come off when hammered, as in
                                 also be used as additives.                           the fourth sample seen in 11.4 (right), then
                                 • In order to develop enough binding force,          the sample might be adequate. In this case,
                                 the adhesive forces of the clay minerals             it is advisable to make a larger test, about
                                 should be sufficiently activated by an ade-          1 m wide and 2 m high, on the actual wall.
                                 quate amount of water and by movement.               If shrinkage cracks now occur, then the mix-
                                 • When the plaster sticks to a sliding metal         ture needs to be either thinned with coarse
                                 trowel held vertically, yet is easily flicked        sand or mixed with fibres.
                                 away, the correct consistency has been
                                 achieved.                                            Exposed exterior loam plasters
                                                                                      Exposed exterior plasters must either be
       11.1 Cutting joints       In order to test the characteristics of a loam       seasonably weather-resistant, or else must
       with the use of a         plaster, a simple adhesion test can be car-          be given perfect weatherproof coating.
       trowel
                                 ried out. The plaster to be tested is applied        In cold climates, it is important that the
       11.2 Scratching a
                                 2 cm thick to the flat surface of an upright         plasters, together with their coatings, have
       moistened loam sur-
       face with a small rake    baked brick. The plaster should stick to the         a low vapour diffusion resistance, so that
       11.3 Tools for scratch-   brick until it is totally dry, which might take      water condensed in the wall can be easily
       ing moistened loam        two to four days.                                    transported to the exterior. In order to meet
       surfaces                  If the plaster falls off in one piece by itself,     thermic and hygric influences without crack-
       11.4 Loam mortar test
                                 as seen in the left sample in 11.4, then it is       ing, the exterior plastering must be more
                                 too clayey, and should be thinned with               elastic than its ground. For cold climates, in
                                 coarse sand. If it falls off in portions after the   general, an external loam plaster is not rec-
                                 sample is hammered on the floor, like the            ommended, unless sufficient roof overhang,
                                 second sample in 11.4, then it possesses             plinth protection and good surface coating
                                 insufficient binding force, and should be            can be assured.
                                 enriched with clay. If the plaster sticks to the     Since plastered wall edges are very easily
11.4
                                                                                      damaged, they should either be rounded or
                                                                                      lipped with a rigid element. In extreme cli-
                                                                                      mates, when the elasticity of large expanses
                                                                                      of flat plaster is insufficient to cope with the
                                                                                      effects of weather, vertical and horizontal
                                                                                      grooves filled with elastic sealants are rec-
                                                                                      ommended. Chapter 4 discusses the overall
                                                                                      possibilities of reducing shrinkage and
                                                                                      enhancing weather resistance and surface
                                                                                      hardness.


                                                                                      Interior loam plasters
                                                                                      Interior plasters are less problematic. As a
                                                                                      rule, fine shrinkage cracks cause no prob-
                                                                                      lems because they can be covered with
                                                                                      coats of paint. Dry loam plaster surfaces can
                                                                                      be easily smoothed by wetting and worked
                                                                                      with a brush or felt trowel.


                           93    Loam plasters
If the surface of the walls demands a plaster
thicker than 15 mm, this should be applied
in two layers, with the ground layer contain-
ing more clay and coarse aggregates than
the second one. If the ground layer acquires
shrinkage cracks, this is not problematic,
and it might even be beneficial by providing
a better bond to the final layer of plaster.
Adding rye flour improves the workability of
the plaster and enhances the resistance of
the surface against dry and moist abrasion.
Through testing, the author of this book
has proven that such resistance can also
be built up by adding casein glue made of
1 part hydraulic lime and 4 to 6 parts fat-
                                                                                                                                     11.6
free white cheese, borax, urea, sodium
gluconate and shredded newspaper (which                                             With all mixes, it was found that when the
provides cellulose fibre and glue). The fol-                                        final smoothing was executed using a felt
lowing mixes worked well:                                                           trowel, it was best to wait several hours or
                                                                                    even a day.
      Components                             Mix (1)
                            A           B              C       D          E

      Loam slurry (2)      10          10          10         10         10
                                                                                    Guidelines for plastering earth walls
      Sand (0–2)           25          25          25         25         25
      Shredded
        newspaper (3)                    5             5                   5        Since pure loam plaster does not react
      Casein glue (4)        1                                             1
                                                                                    chemically with the ground, it might be nec-
      Fat-free cheese                                           1
                                                                                    essary to treat the ground so that sufficient
      Urea                                         0.2
                                                                                    curing can occur. In doing so, the following
      Sodium
        gluconate                      0.2                                          guidelines should be kept in mind:
(1)
    all proportions are stated in volumetric terms                                  1. The earth surface to be plastered must
(2)
    made of 1 part clayey soil and 2 parts sand
(3)
    treated with borax content                                                      be dry enough so that additional shrinkage
(4)
    made of 4 parts fat-free cheese and 1 part hydraulic lime mixed intensively
    for 2 minutes                                                                   does not occur.
                                                                                    2. All loose material should be scraped off
                                                                                                                                     11.5
Lime reacts with the casein within the fat-                                         the surface.
free cheese to form a chemical waterproof-                                          3. The ground should be sufficiently rough
ing agent. A similar reaction is obtained with                                      and, if necessary, moistened and grooved
lime and borax (which is contained in shred-                                        or the mortar joint chamfered, as described
ded newspaper). Sodium gluconate acts as                                            above in this chapter.
a plasticiser, so that less water needs to be                                       4. Before plastering, the ground should be
mixed for preparation (thereby reducing                                             sufficiently moistened so that the surface
shrinkage). Urea raises compressive and ten-                                        softens and swells and the plaster perme-
sile bending strength, especially with silty                                        ates the soft layer.
soils (see chapter 4, p. 43).                                                       5. The plaster should be thrown with strong
Shredded wastepaper leads to better work-                                           impact (slapped on) so that it permeates
ability and reduces shrinkage. The mixes B, C                                       the outer layers of the ground and achieves
and E exhibited the best workability. When                                          a higher binding force due to the impact.
using mixes A and E, it is best to begin by                                         6. If the plaster has to be more than 10 to
mixing the casein glue and the shredded                                             15 mm thick, it should be applied in two
newspaper together with the water and                                               or even three layers in order to avoid shrink-
adding loam and sand after an hour.                                                 age cracks.


                                                                               94   Loam plasters
                                                                          Sprayed plaster

                                                                          In 1984, the author of this book successfully
                                                                          developed a sprayable lightweight loam
                                                                          plaster with high thermal insulation, contain-
                                                                          ing shredded newspaper. This plaster can
                                                                          be applied even in a single layer up to
                                                                          30 mm thick using an ordinary mortar pump
                                                                          (11.5). In order to shorten the curing period,
                                                                          high-hydraulic lime and gypsum were
                                                                          added to the mixture. Other lightweight
                                                                          sprayable plasters used to fill the frames of
                                                                          timber-framed houses and skeleton struc-
                                                                          tures are described in chapter 9, p. 81.



                                                                          Lightweight mineral loam plaster

                                                                          Illustration 11.6 shows the surface of an
                                                                          8-mm-thick loam plaster with expanded
                                                                          clay aggregates 1 to 4 mm in diameter. To
                                                                          reduce curing time and increase vapour dif-
                                                                          fusion resistance, the plaster was stabilised
                                                                          with 5% high-hydraulic lime. It is not easy
                                                                          to smooth the surface with a trowel, since
                                                                          the aggregate tends to come out during
                                                                          the process. To avoid this, shredded paper,
                                                                          cellulose fibres or casein-glue can be added
                                                                          into the mix.
                                                                   11.8

                        7. To reduce shrinkage cracks while drying,
                        the mortar should contain sufficient quanti-      Thrown plaster
                        ties of coarse sand as well as fibres or hair.
                        8. To improve surface hardness, cow dung,         Illustrations 11.7 and 11.8 show how a tra-
                        lime, casein or other additives should be         ditional African technique, consisting of
                        added to the top layer (see chapter 4, p. 40      throwing loam balls onto a wall, has been
                        and p. 47).                                       adapted. Here, this technique is used on a
                        9. In order to provide surface hardness and       wood-wool board for the wall of a winter
                        resistance against wet abrasion, the surface      garden, described in chapter 14, p. 129. In
                 11.7
                        should be finished with a coat of paint.          order to increase adhesion, bamboo dowels
                        10. When using plasters, changes in the           were hammered halfway into the board.
11.5 Spraying light-    physical properties of materials caused
weight loam plaster     by additives and coatings should be kept
11.6 Lightweight loam   in mind, especially with respect to vapour        Plastered straw bale houses
plaster with expanded
                        diffusion resistance.
clay (1–4 mm)
11.7 to 11.8 Thrown                                                       Straw bale houses, known since the end of
plaster in a winter                                                       the 19th century when the first example
garden                                                                    was built in Nebraska, USA, found a renais-
                                                                          sance in the 1980s. Meanwhile, a lot of new
                                                                          houses with straw bale walls were built in


                  95    Loam plasters
                            Australia, France, Scandinavia and other
                            European countries. Most historic walls of
                            this kind were load-bearing. Nowadays
                            mainly timber skeleton structures are used
                            which are filled or surrounded by straw
                            bales. The simplest method for covering
                            such walls is to use loam plaster. To
                            create a good bond and rigidity a chicken
                            wire or plastic net has to be fixed to the
                            bales before plastering. This can be done
                            manually or by spraying with guns.
                            Illustration 11.10 shows the plastering of a
                            straw surface with a spraying gun, 11.11
                            the gathered texture and 11.12 the interior
                            surface of a straw bale dome, with lamps
                            integrated into the wall. For additional infor-
                            mation on such structures, see Minke and
                            Mahlke, 2004.



                            Wet formed plaster

                            As loam plaster retains its plastic state for a
                            long time and is not corrosive to the hands
                            like lime or cement plasters, it is an ideal
                            material for moulding with the hands.
                            Illustration 11.9 shows an example of an
                            exterior loam wall stabilised by a lime-
                            casein finish.



                            Protection of corners

                            As loam plaster is susceptible to mechan-
                            ical impact, corners should preferably be
                            covered by wooden profiles, baked bricks
                            or similar lippings (11.13).


                     11.9




96   Loam plasters
     11.9 Sculptural earth
     wall
     11.10 Spraying of
     earth plaster to straw
     bale wall
     11.11 Smoothened
     surface after spraying
     11.12 Plastered straw
     bale dome with inte-
     grated lamps, Forst-
     mehren, Germany
     11.13 Protection of
     earth wall corners




                        11.13   11.12




                        11.10   11.11

97   Loam plasters
12 Weather protection of loam surfaces




      Loam surfaces need not always have addi-           cold climates, porous, i.e., should contain
      tives in to be made weather-resistant. It is       a coherent net of micro-pores that allow
      often sufficient to protect or harden them         vapour diffusion to the outside. Latex and
      with plaster or paint. This chapter describes      dispersion paints, therefore, are not recom-
      the different ways loam surfaces can be            mended.
      made more resistant to environmental               For information supplementing that con-
      forces, and the structural measures required       tained in this chapter, see Wehle (1985).
      to shelter them from these forces.
                                                         Preparation of ground
                                                         If the ground is very silty and lime-based
      Consolidating the surface                          paints are used, the surface should be
                                                         primed with thin lime-casein milk and then
      The simplest method of hardening the sur-          rubbed. The primer can be made of two
      face, especially against rain and wind ero-        parts of hydraulic lime, one part fat-free
      sion, is to consolidate it. This can be done       white cheese and 15 parts water.
      by rubbing a metal trowel with high pres-
      sure onto the surface when it is moist and         Recommended paint mixtures
      slightly pliable. Traditional Indian and African
      methods employ flat but light convex stones        Pure lime wash
      that are rubbed in a circular motion across        The lime wash mixture has to be very thin,
      the surface with great force. The treatment        allowing the paint to penetrate deeply
      is adequate if the surface appears shiny and       enough into the ground so that flaking does
      no pores or cracks are visible. While this         not occur during drying. Therefore, three or
      leaves the composition of the material unal-       even four thin coats are recommended, with
      tered, it nonetheless creates a surprisingly       the first coat being the thinnest. The mix can
      high degree of weather resistance.                 be made from 50 kg hydraulic lime dis-
                                                         solved in 60 litres of water. It is often prefer-
                                                         able to add 1 to 2 kg of kitchen salt; being
      Paints                                             hygroscopic, the salt allows the mixture to
                                                         remain moist longer, thereby ensuring bet-
      Paints on exposed loam surfaces have to            ter curing of the lime. Pure lime wash is per-
      be renewed periodically. The paint can be          fectly white when dry, but can be toned
      physically eroded by wind, frost or rain, or       down by adding clay or loam powders or
      chemically eroded by ultraviolet radiation or      other lime-proof earthen pigments. Pure
      acid rain. External paints should be simulta-      lime wash is not wipe-resistant.
      neously water-repellent and, especially for


 98   Weather protection
                                                                                  Lime-casein wash                                                        An even stronger and more wipe-resistant
                                                                                  Lime washes are much more wipe-resistant                                paint is obtained by mixing 1 part hydraulic
                                                                                  and durable if whey, fat-free white cheese                              lime with 5 parts fat-free cheese and 5 parts
                                                                                  (quark) or casein powder is added. Quark                                loam.
                                                                                  is obtained when rennet from young cows                                 In bathrooms and kitchens, where greater
                                                                                  is added to skimmed milk. This cheese con-                              dry and wet wipe resistance is required,
                                                                                  tains 11% casein. Lime, together with casein,                           the following procedure is recommended:
                                                                                  forms a chemical waterproofing agent                                    1 part hydraulic lime and 5 parts fat-free
                                                                                  called lime albuminate. Today, the use of                               cheese are mixed without water for about
                                                                                  cheese is the best solution for lime-casein                             two minutes using an electric mixer. This is
                                                                                  washes. In traditional lime-casein washes,                              allowed to stand for some time, and then
                                                                                  whey or sometimes skimmed milk was                                      20 parts hydraulic lime, 2% to 4% double-
                                                                                  used instead of cheese.                                                 boiled linseed oil and water are added. Two
                                                                                  Mixtures containing 1 part fat-free cheese,                             coats of this wash give a dry and wet wipe-
                                                                                  1 to 3 parts hydraulic lime and 1.5 to 2.5                              resistant surface. Earthen pigments can be
                                                                                  parts water proved effective. Small amounts                             substituted for some portion of the lime.
                                                                                  of double-boiled linseed oil (not more than
                                                                                  4% of the amount of cheese) increase wipe                               Borax-casein wash
                                                                                  resistance but reduce the workability of the                            Borax can be used instead of hydraulic lime.
                                         12.1 µ-values of
                                         water-repellent loam
                                                                                  wash. To get an even emulsion, it has to be                             It reacts chemically with casein in a way sim-
                                         plasters and sd-values                   well-mixed and stirred from time to time                                ilar to lime. With high borax content, crystals
                                         of coatings                              (sometimes every five minutes).                                         form, which can be seen in the wash. Unlike
                                                                                                                                                          lime, borax does not give a white colour,
12.1                                                                                                                      µ-value                         and is therefore preferable if dark colours
                                                                                                                                                          are desired. Chalk powder is added in order
Water-repellents loam plasters
                                                                                                                                                          to make the paint thicker and lighter in
Clayey plaster (clay = 6%, silt = 6%, sand = 88%)                                                                                                         colour. A small addition of clay powder
                                                          nontreated
                                            Wacker, STEINFESTIGER H                                                                                       increases its workability.
                            Herbol, FASSADENIMPRÄGN. HYDROPHOB
                                               Indula, HYDROPHOBIN                                                                                        If casein powder is being used instead of
                                                        Wacker, BS 15                                                                                     fat-free cheese, it must be allowed to swell
                                              Metroark, SYLTRIT 1772
                              Bayer, BAYSILONE IMPRÄGN.-EMULSION                                                                                          under water for three hours (320 g casein
Silty plaster (clay = 3%, silt = 18%, sand = 79%)
                                                          nontreated                                                                                      powder in 1 litre of water). Afterwards,
                                            Wacker, STEINFESTIGER H
                            Herbol, FASSADENIMPRÄGN. HYDROPHOB                                                                                            65 g of borax dissolved in 1 litre hot water
                                               Indula, HYDROPHOBIN
                                                        Wacker, BS 15
                                                                                                                                                          is mixed into the casein slurry and the
                                              Metroark, SYLTRIT 1772                                                                                      whole thinned with 12 litres of water.
                              Bayer, BAYSILONE IMPRÄGN.-EMULSION


                                                                                                                          sd-value                        Colourless casein coating
                                                                           0.00      0.20   0.40     0.60   0.80   1.00    1.20      1.40          1.60
                                                                                                                                                          In order to retain the natural colour of the
Coatings
                                                         Lime, 2 layers       0.00                                                                        loam surface while improving its wipe resist-
                                                  Chalk-glue, 2 layers        0.00
                                           Lime-casein (1: 8), 2 layers       0.00                                                                        ance, a coating of the following mix can be
                                           Lime-casein (1:1), 2 layers        0.00
                                              Fat-free cheese, 1 layer        0.01
                                                                                                                                                          used: 1 part fat-free cheese with 1.8 to 2
                                          Sodium waterglass, 1 layer          0.02
                                                                                                                                                          parts water and 1/8 to 1/9 part of hydraulic
                                     Lime-casein-linseed oil, 2 layers        0.02
                                    van Baerle & Co., SILIN, 2 layers         0.03                                                                        lime powder. This coating will give a colour-
                                       Alpina, ALPINA PLUS, 2 layers          0.04
                       Auro, BIENENWACHS-STREICHBALSAM, 2 layers                              0.39                                                        less to slightly milky surface, with a mild silky
                                              Rifa, SILITANIT, 2 layers                                                       1.22
                                                    Linseed oil, 1 layer                                                                    1.45          sheen caused by its fine crystal structure.
Water repellents
                                                Wacker, BS 15, 2 layers       0.00
                                            Metroark, SYLTRIT, 2 layers       0.00                                                                        Lime-suet coating
                       Bayer, BAYSILONE IMPRÄGN.-EMULS.LD, 2 layers           0.02
                    Herbol, FASSADENIMPRÄGN. HYDROPHOB, 2 layers              0.02                                                                        The following recipe from Nepal gives a
                                     Wacker, STEINFESTIGER H, 2 layers           0.09
                                                                                  0.10
                                                                                                                                                          thick, pasty weatherproof exterior coating:
                                       Indula, HYDROPHOBIN, 2 layers
( ) = Proportion by volume                                                                                                                                15 kg of powdered quick lime together with


                                                                      99          Weather protection
6 kg of tallow (melted suet) is poured into         – rye flour glue (15 litres of rye flour boiled
36 litres of water. This mixture is stirred care-   in 220 litres of water with the addition of
fully (care has to be taken because the lime        some zinc sulphate),
reacts very intensely with water and may            – agave juice,
splash and burn the skin). After adding 6 kg        – boiled banana leaf juice,
of kitchen salt and carefully stirring, this mix    – juice of the cactus opuntia,
should be allowed to stand for 24 hours in          – juice of euphorbia lactea,
a not-too-cold environment. The water layer         – kapok oil
that forms on the top of the mixture is             – raw and double-boiled linseed oil.
decanted. The pasty mix that remains is
then mixed with 3 kg of fine quartz sand            Cellulose glue paint
and applied with a brush in 3 to 5-mm-thick         Since it is very cheap, cellulose glue mixed
layers to the wall (Manandhar, 1983). This          with chalk powder is often used for painting
coating requires several weeks to cure. In          interiors. However, it offers little weather
Nepal, it is said to last for four to six years.    resistance. Its wipe resistance is also low.
A similar recipe was used successfully in
Australia (Department of Housing, 1981).            Bitumen coating
                                                                                                      Paint                      g/m2          kg/m2h0.5
Tests performed with this mix at the Build-         Bituminous emulsions offer good weather
                                                                                                      Without                    0              9.5
ing Research Laboratory (BRL) showed that           protection for exterior walls. The following
                                                                                                      Linseed oil                400            0.0
it bonds well with a rough, lean loam plas-         recipe was successfully tested at the Central
ter. But with a rammed earth surface made           Building Research Laboratory (CBRI), Roor-        Lime-casein 1:1            420/350        0.6/1.5    0.6hr/6–24hrs

of clayey loam, parts of the coating became         kee, India: 1 part of bitumen 80/100 is heated    Lime-Casein 1:8            300/300        0.7

detached over a period of several months            in a container with 2 parts of naphtha. This      Silin-paint (van Baerle)   700/250/310    0.3

due to rain and frost, probably because the         mix is then applied with a brush to a dry         Hydrophob (Herbol)         390/390        0.0
bond between the coating and the ground             loam surface. After this coating is dry, a        Baysoline LD (Bayer)       400/290        0.2
was insufficient.                                   second layer is applied. In order to protect
                                                                                                      Syltrit (Metroark)         350/320        0.0
                                                    the black surface thus formed by the sun, a
                                                                                                      BS 15 (Wacker)             450/430        0.1
Other stabilised lime washes                        final coating of lime is recommended, which
                                                                                                      Steinfestiger H (Wacker) 290/290          0.0
Several old text sources claim that in addi-        is made of 70 g of animal glue mixed into 1
tion to mixing hydraulic lime into whey, it         kg of hydraulic lime dissolved in                                                                              12.2

can also be mixed into urine. Weiss (1963)          0.5 litres of water (Jain et. al., 1978).
found that using Kaolinite clay, strength
could be increased by adding urea and               Vapour diffusion
ammonium acetate. This practice was also            Coatings can significantly reduce the vapour
common in ancient China, where extremely            diffusion of walls. It should be remembered
thin porcelain was produced by adding               that in cold climates, the vapour barrier
putrefying urine to the mix.                        effect of these coatings should be less on                                                                     12.3
According to Jain et al. (1978), the addition       the outside than on the inside.
of 70 g of animal glue dissolved in 0.5 litre       The vapour diffusion properties of paints
of boiling water and mixed with 1 kg of             available on the market are not mentioned
hydraulic lime proved good.                         in their packaging, so experience is impor-
In Auroville, India, the following coating was      tant in judging their characteristics. Results
used successfully for mud brick domes: the          of tests conducted by the BRL made with
whites of 60 eggs mixed with 2 litres of            several paints, coatings, water-repellent
buttermilk and 5 litres of palm liquor stirred      plasters and water repellents are shown in
and mixed with 40 litres of shell lime and          12.1.
4 litres of cement (Pingel, 1993).
According to various sources, the following         Water penetration
plant matter added to the lime also en-             The capillary water intake (see chapter 2,
hances wipe and weather resistance:                 p. 27) of loam surfaces is significantly influ-


                                             100    Weather protection
                          enced by their coatings. Table 12.2 gives          with the solution applied with rollers, so that
                          some capillary water intake coefficients           the liquid oozes and runs off as the roller is
                          (w-values) of loam plaster with and without        pulled down over the surface. The second
                          a variety of treatments:                           flooding has to be done before the first is
                                                                             dry. The loam surface has to be dry, and
                                                                             neither cooler than 8°C nor warmer than
                          Making surfaces water-repellent                    25°C before being treated. Only silanes and
                                                                             siloxanes require the ground to be some-
                          Water repellents                                   what moist. Normally, this application has to
                          Several colourless liquids can be used to          be repeated every few years owing to the
                          impregnate loam surfaces, making them              deteriorating effect of weather on these
                          water-repellent. A given impregnated sur-          repellents.
                          face is considered water-repellent if the
                          wetting angle of contact made by a drop of         Testing
                          water is greater than 90° (12.3). The water-       A simple method of checking the amount
                          repelling agent penetrates into the pores of       of water repulsion, used by the BRL, is
                   12.4
                          the loam without closing them, so that             shown in 12.4. Here, the treated test sam-
                          while capillary water intake is significantly      ples are rotated at the rate of 7.5 rotations/
                          reduced, vapour diffusion is not. As a rule,       min on a base and passed under a shower
                          these substances are dissolved in organic          where water at 36°C is sprayed at a rate
                          alcohols, hydrocarbons or water.                   of 12 litres per minute through an ordinary
12.2 w-values of loam     The following groups of repellents can be          hand shower. Another more sophisticated
plasters with coatings    distinguished:                                     apparatus was described in chapter 2, p. 26.
12.3 Drop of water        – silane and siloxanes
on a surface that has
                          – polysiloxanes (silicone resins)
been treated with
water repellent (right,   – siliconates                                      Lime plasters
angle larger than 90°)    – acrylic resins
and on an untreated       – silicate ester with hydrophobising addi-         Loam plasters used on exterior walls
surface (left, angle      tives                                              (described in chapter 11) are only suitable if
smaller than 90°)
                          – silicates with hydrophobising additives.         they are without cracks and water-resistant.
12.4 Simple spraying
                          Silane, siloxanes and silicone resins react        As a rule, exposed surfaces should not have
test (BRL)
12.5 Church of San        chemically with mineral substances in the          loam plasters, the most common alternative
Francisco de Asis,        loam and are highly weather-resistant; they        being lime plaster. Cement plasters are not
Ranchos de Taos, USA      reduce water intake by more than 90%.              appropriate, as they are too brittle. They
                          Vapour diffusion is decreased by only 5%           cannot withstand strong thermic and hygric
                          to 8%.                                             forces without cracking, allowing water to
                          Silicate ester and acrylic resins show similarly   penetrate the loam to cause swelling, which
                          promising water-repelling effects, but they
                          reduce vapour diffusion by 15% to 30%.
                          Since the water repellents found on the
                          market have different compositions and
                          varying effects, they should be tested before
                          use. The water absorption coefficient w of
                          different loam plasters which were flooded
                          twice with different water repellents lies
                          between 0.0 and 0.2 kg/m2h0.5 (see 12.2).


                          Application of water repellents
                          With the so-called ”flooding“ technique,
                          water repellents are applied at least twice,
                                                                                                                        12.5

                   101    Weather protection
in turn enlarges cracks and even causes          if the unbroken area of the plaster surface is
plaster to flake off.                            very large, or if the bond is poor, expanded
During repairs undertaken in 1992, the old-      metal meshes or reed mats fixed to the
est German rammed earth house, built in          ground may be required to take the plaster.
1795 (1.10), was found to have massive frost     When using reed mats, it is advisable to dip
erosion, which had destroyed the loam up         them in lime milk to prevent rotting.
to a depth of 20 cm, because water had
penetrated through cement plaster applied        Reinforcement
some decades before. A similar phenome-          Larger unbroken panels subject to strong
non was reported from New Mexico, USA            thermal forces may require reinforcement.
by Bourgeois (1991). During a restoration        For this purpose, a galvanised steel net with
carried out in 1967, the church in Ranchos       hexagonal meshes (rabbit or chicken wire
de Taos (12.5), constructed of adobes in         mesh) or similar nets are commonly used.
1815, was covered with cement plaster.           Workmen often prefer using plastic covered
Eleven years later, the cement plaster had       glass-fibre nets because they do not cor-
to be dismantled when the loam below             rode and are more pliable.
showed heavy moisture damage.
In cold climates, quick drying of the wall is    Composition
necessary if rain penetrates from the outside    Normal lime plaster usually consists of
or if vapour condensation from the inside        1 part hydraulic lime and 3 to 4 parts sand.
occurs. Therefore, the vapour diffusion          Since it is commonly used in construction
resistance of the outer layer should be          worldwide, it is not discussed further in this
lower than that of the inside.                   book. However, lime-casein plasters are less
                                                 common, and are therefore described
The German standard DIN 18550 (Part 3)           below.
states that water-repellent external plasters    Old recipes often prescribe that animal hair
should fulfil the following conditions: water    and casein be added to a normal plaster
absorption coefficient w ≤ 0.5 kg/m2 · h0.5,     to improve its behaviour. In former times,
the specific vapour diffusion resistance sd      casein was added in the form of whey or
must be ≤ 2.0 m and the product w · sd ≤         buttermilk. Casein and lime react chemically                              12.7
0.2 kg/m · h0.5.                                 to form calcium albuminate, a wash-resist-
The following sections describe the compo-       ant compound. The addition of casein             12.6 µ-values of
sition and application of non-loam contain-      reduces the water absorption of lime plas-       lime plasters (figures
                                                                                                  referred to as volu-
ing plasters.                                    ter, but at the same time hinders vapour
                                                                                                  metric parts)
                                                 diffusion.
                                                                                                  12.7 Loam wall with
Preparation of ground                            At the BRL, a lime-casein plaster for exterior   additional exterior
To provide a good bond, loam surfaces            work was successfully tested. The mix con-       insulation and wood-
that are to be plastered should be dry and       sisted of fat-free cheese, hydraulic lime and    en planks forming air
rough. Smooth surfaces should be sprayed         sand in a ratio of 1:10:40. The lime has to      cavity
                                                                                                  12.8 Plinth designs
with water, so that their outer layers will      be first intensively mixed into the cheese to
                                                                                                  made incorrectly and
moisten and swell, after which they can be       form a creamy paste without adding any
                                                                                                  correctly
grooved diagonally 2 to 3 mm deep, as            water. After allowing the mix to rest for a
shown in 11.2. While the surface so pre-         while, water and sand should be added.
pared is still moist, it should be primed with   For a thinner plaster that can be brushed on,
thin lime milk, which should penetrate the       a slightly different mixture might be ade-
ground up to a depth of several millimetres.     quate, with the proportion 1:6:25 of the
A mix of 0.5 to 1 part of fat-free white         same ingredients respectively. In warm cli-
cheese, 2 parts hydraulic lime and 30 parts      mates, some kitchen salt should be added
water has also proved successful. If the lime    to keep the lime plaster moist for a longer
plaster is exposed to severe thermal forces,     period, which improves curing.


                                           102   Weather protection
Lime Trass- Sand Fat-free Linseed Clayey Cow- µ-value   Application                                       Structural methods
     lime        cheese oil       loam dung
                                                        Before applying the plaster, the loam sur-
                                                        face should be moistened and primed with          Protection from rain
 1     –     3     –       –       –      –    11.2
                                                        lime-casein milk. The plaster is then applied     One method of preventing rain from com-
 –     1     3     –       –       –      –    10.8
                                                        in two layers, bringing the total thickness up    ing into contact with a loam wall is to pro-
 1     –     6     0.5     –       –      –     6.2
                                                        to a maximum of 20 mm. In the first layer,        vide it with a roof overhang. A sufficiently
 1     –    15     0.5     –       3      –     9.7
                                                        some cement can be added for faster cur-          high plinth (30 to 50 cm) can protect from
 1     –     3     –      0.05     –      –    15.2     ing. The second layer should be applied           splashing rain. The joint of the wall with the
 1     –     3     0.25   0.05     –      –    28.5     while the first is still slightly moist. When     plinth has to be carefully designed so that
1.5    –    10     –       –       2      6     8.0     shrinkage cracks occur, these should be           the rainwater can flow down unhindered
                                                        moistened with a brush dipped in lime milk        without entering the joint between wall and
12.6
                                                        and then closed by rubbing with a trowel.         plinth. In 12.8, solution A is unacceptable.
                                                        It should be noted that lime plasters cure        Solutions B and C may be acceptable in
                                                        when in contact with carbon dioxide from          areas with little rain. Solution D is common,
12.8
                                                        the air, and this process is only possible in     whereas E and F show perfect designs for
                                                        the presence of sufficient moisture. There-       combating this problem.
                                                        fore, walls should be sheltered from direct
                                                        sun and wind, or kept moist with a damp           Protection against rising damp
                                                        fabric.                                           Exterior loam walls have to be protected
                                                        Internal plasters can be applied in one layer.    from rising damp in the same way as baked
                                                        Gypsum plaster or gypsum-lime plaster,            brick or stone masonry walls. A damp-proof
                                                        with or without casein, can also be used in       course, usually bituminous felt, and some-
                                                        internal work. Cement plasters, however,          times plastic or metallic sheets are used.
                                                        should not be used even for internal work.        As these means are fairly expensive in the
                                                                                                          developing world, a 3 to 4-cm-thick rich
                                                        Effect on vapour diffusion                        cement concrete layer is often used as an
                                                        The effect of adding double-boiled linseed        alternative. This should be impregnated
                                                        oil and casein on reducing the vapour diffu-      with bitumen or waste mobil oil.
                                                        sion of lime plasters was tested at the BRL.
                                                        The values of the vapour diffusion resistance     Protection against flooding
                                                        coefficient µ obtained are listed in table        In kitchens and bathrooms, the plinth should
                                                        12.6.                                             have a waterproof skirting of tiles, slates,
                                                                                                          rich cement plaster etc. The skirting design
                                                                                                          should prevent water from leaking or bro-
                                                        Shingles, planks and other covers                 ken pipes, which could flood floors, from
                                                                                                          reaching the loam wall.
                                                        Besides plasters and coatings, shingles,
                                                        planks, larger covering panels or baked brick
                                                        walls separated by an air cavity can be used
                                                        to protect loam walls. These methods are
                                                        especially useful if additional thermal insula-
                                                        tion is to be applied from the outside.
                                                        A common method is shown in 12.7. In
                                                        Mesopotamia (Iraq), layers of glazed baked
                                                        bricks have sheltered adobe walls for thou-
                                                        sands of years. It is always advisable to
                                                        separate such covering layers from the wall
                                                        with an air cavity, so that rain that pene-
                                                        trates can drain out and does not harm the
                                                        wall.


                                                103     Weather protection
13 Repair of loam components




                                                       face, it may separate from it. Such weak
                                                       areas can be easily located by knocking the
                                                       plaster with the knuckles. If large quantity of
                                                       water condenses in the wall and cannot be
                                                       removed quickly enough, the loam might
                                                       swell and cause the plaster to crumble and
                                                       fall off. Such damage can also occur when
                                                       water seeps through from the outside
                                                       through cracks or holes.
                                                       Frost can also cause a similar damage if
                                                       the wall is moist and the freezing water
                                                       expands.



                                                       Repair of cracks and joints with loam
                                                       fillers

                                                13.1
                                                       Joints and cracks in dry loam components
      Repair of damaged sections of loam, espe-        cannot be repaired with plastic loam as this
      cially cracks and larger joints, demands spe-    does not bond with the dry loam surface.
      cial measures differing from those used for      When drying, the filler will separate out and
      conventional masonry or lime plasters. This      can fall off. Therefore, it is important to pre-
      chapter describes loam-specific repair prob-     treat the joint and use a mixture having as
      lems and retrofitted thermal insulation          little shrinkage as possible.
      methods using lightweight loam.
                                                       Mixtures
                                                       While designing the composition of the
      The occurrence of damage in loam                 loam filler for cracks and joints, the following
      components                                       should be considered:
                                                       • The filler must have sufficient binding
      Damage in loam components can occur              force to stick to the moistened surfaces of
      due to shrinkage by thermal contraction and      the crack or joint.
      expansion, through water impact or by            • The mix should contain sufficient coarse
      mechanical impact and abrasion.                  sand or other coarse particles so as to
      If a plaster contracts when drying, or does      minimise the shrinkage. Fibres or hair may
      not bond sufficiently with the ground sur-       also be added for the same reason.


104   Repair of loam components
                                 • In order to decrease the curing time,            Mixtures
                                 gypsum, lime or cement can be added.               As an alternative to loam fillers, all materials
                                 As these additives also make the mixture           that can be commonly used for plasters
                                 leaner, the shrinkage is reduced. The disad-       can be used as fillers. High-hydraulic lime,
                                 vantages while adding these substances             cement, gypsum, casein, cellulose and
                                 might be that the binding force and the            double-boiled linseed oil can be used as
                                 compressive strength are reduced.                  binders. Silt, sand, and gravel as well as
                                 Joints and cracks in internal elements             organic aggregates like cork, sawdust, cereal
                                 can be filled with a mixture of 1 part loam,       and rice husks, and shredded newspaper
                                 0.5 to 1 part hydraulic lime and 0.5 to            can be used as fillers. When repairing exter-
                                 1 part gypsum.                                     nal joints, organic matter should not be
                                 If the joints are exposed to weather, gyp-         used except when the mix has a high
                                 sum should not be used, but cement, high-          pH-value (which prevents growth of micro-
                                 hydraulic lime or a mixture of these totalling     organisms). Acrylic or silicone elastic syn-
                                 from 8% to 20% can be used as an addi-             thetic mixes can also be used as fillers.
                                 tive. Instead of these binders 4% to 7%            Silicone bonds with loam, provided the joint
                                 double-boiled linseed oil can also be added.       surface is dry and free of loose particles
                                 This filler stays plastic for several weeks.       before application.


                                 Application of filler
                                 In order to get a good bond between the            Repairing larger areas of damage
                                 old loam surface and the filler material,
                                 cracks should be opened up to 1 cm with            Repairing with loam
                                 loose particles brushed away and the edges         Larger eroded or flaked areas should be
                                 of the joints sufficiently moistened so that       repaired by scraping off all loose loam and
                                 the loam swells and gets plastic on the sur-       then wetting the surface before applying
                                 face. When double-boiled oil loam is used          new loam, as described in chapter 11 on
                                 as filler for repairing, the surface has to be     loam plasters.
                                 treated with linseed oil.                          In order to reduce shrinkage, each layer of
                                 The plastic filler is first applied with a knife   loam plaster should not be thicker than
                                 to both sides of the joint, and the opening        1 to 1.5 cm. If the damage is more than
                                 then filled with a drier mixture of the same       2 cm deep, it is advisable to scrape the area
                                 filler, tamped or hammered into the joint          to a depth of 4 to 6 cm. This is then filled
                                 (see 8.29). It is advisable that the joint is      with broken adobes and lean mortar. In
13.2
       13.1 Pumping light-       filled with more material than is necessary,       areas prone to frost, green bricks are not
       weight mineral loam       so that when after the filler shrinks on dry-      advisable as they are not frost-resistant.
       13.2 Additional interi-   ing, it can be compacted again when still
       or thermal insulation
                                 slightly moist.                                    Coatings
       layer of lightweight
       mineral loam in a                                                            If the coating of a loam surface is to be
       timber frame wall                                                            repaired, the old coating should first be
                                 Repair of cracks and joints with other             scraped off. The area is then primed before
                                 fillers                                            the new coating is applied. For this, lime-
                                                                                    casein milk can be used, as described in
                                 The repair of cracks and joints with a loam        chapter 12, p. 99.
                                 filler is very time-consuming and requires         If the surface is very sandy and soft, a
                                 some experience. However, other fillers            primer of lime-casein glue is better. This is
                                 which show less shrinkage and better               prepared from 1 part hydraulic lime and
                                 bonding qualities and require less labour          5 parts fat-free cheese mixed intensively for
                                 and skill are described in this chapter.           two minutes without the addition of water.
                                                                                    The mixture is allowed to stand for a while


                          105    Repair of loam components
and then thinned with water in a 1:5 pro-          Thermal insulation
portion. This glue should be used within           The exterior walls of typical timber frame
one hour (Letzner and Stein, 1987, p. 145).        houses have thicknesses of 14 to 20 cm.
                                                   The infill of the timber frame consists of
                                                   baked bricks, adobes or wattle-and-daub.
Retrofitting thermal insulation with               The U-value of these infills is between 2.0
lightweight loam                                   and 2.7 W/m2K. Taking the timber frames
                                                   into account, this gives an overall U-value
This section describes the general physical        of 1.2 to 2.2 W/m2K. Heat transmission
and structural aspects that have to be con-        through these walls is thus three to six
                                                                                                                                               13.3
sidered while enhancing the thermal insula-        times higher than it should be by modern
tion of existing exterior walls by using light-    standards in moderate and cold climates.         The same method can be used to build up
weight loam. Different types of suitable           The simplest solution, and the best in physi-    exterior thermal insulation, but here, a loam
aggregates are described in chapter 4, p. 47.      cal terms, is to increase thermal insulation     mixture with lower density is recommend-
The use of lightweight loam as infill for tim-     from the outside, that is to say, to envelope    ed.
ber-framed houses is mentioned in chapter          the building in thermal insulation. If the
9, p. 82, and highly insulating earthen wall       house is a historical landmark and therefore     Prefabricated elements
designs are discussed in chapter 14, p. 106.       not allowed to be covered with thermal           An even simpler method of building an inte-
                                                   insulation from the outside, the additional      rior thermal insulation layer is to use prefab-
Condensation                                       thermal insulation has to be applied from        ricated loam elements like larger blocks or
The later 20th century saw considerable            the inside. This usually causes problems         panels, as described in chapter 7, or to use
damage to historic timber frame houses in          because in practice, heat bridges and            lightweight loam-filled hoses as described
Germany. Most of it occurred due to con-           vapour bridges cannot be totally avoided.        in chapter 10. These can be laid without
densation in walls, a type of damage that          These can lead to partial moistening of the      formwork in a plastic state against the wall
had not earlier occurred.                          wall because of a high degree of condensa-       in one or two layers, as shown in 13.4. In
Much more humidity is produced in                  tion, and subsequently to damage of the          this case it is preferable to flatten them and
kitchens and bathrooms nowadays than in            wall surface. Furthermore, it increases the      fix them to the existing wall with steel wire
previous times. While today a daily warm           heat loss and might lead to fungus growth.       hooks (4 hooks per m2).
shower is common, earlier, people used to
wash with cold water in a basin. Further-          Lightweight loam layers
more, clothes were washed outside the              One possible method of applying additional
house in an outhouse or open area and              interior thermal insulation is shown in 13.2.
dried in the open. Today, clothes are usually      Here, a formwork is fixed to spacers mount-
washed and dried within the house. All of          ed on the historic wall, and a layer of light-
the above factors contribute to the produc-        weight mineral loam is poured or pumped
tion of much higher humidity in the timber         in. It is important that there be no space
frame house today. Also, indoor tempera-           formed between the two leaves so that the
tures are much higher nowadays in compar-          transport of capillary water and vapour is
ison to earlier times. Therefore, though the       not hindered.                                                                               13.4

relative humidity of indoor air may be about       In the project shown in 13.1, five people        13.3 Surface of a
the same, the absolute humidity is signifi-        took eight hours to complete 60 m2 of this       lightweight mineral
                                                                                                    loam wall with a den-
cantly higher. Furthermore, doors and win-         wall, using the pumping method as
                                                                                                    sity of 1,000 kg/m3
dows in timber frame houses today are              described in chapter 10, to apply a 15 to 25-
                                                                                                    after the formwork is
much better sealed. Therefore, the air             cm-thick layer of lightweight loam. Illustra-    removed
exchange rate is greatly reduced.                  tion 13.3 shows the finished surface of this     13.4 Additional interi-
All these factors lead to a much higher con-       wall after the formwork was removed. The         or thermal insulation
densation within the walls. Therefore, it is       material has a density of about 1000 kg/m3.      using hoses filled with
                                                                                                    lightweight loam
imperative that the vapour diffusion charac-       This relatively high density was chosen in
teristics of the walls are carefully controlled.   order to get sufficient noise insulation, heat
                                                   storage and humidity balancing effects.


                                            106    Repair of loam components
                 14 Designs of particular building elements




                        Joints                                          its drying, a process which might take up to
                                                                        two years (till the timber achieves its equilib-
                        When loam elements are joined to posts,         rium moisture content).
                        beams, windows or doorframes, the follow-       • Timber structures continue to swell and
                        ing considerations have to be kept in mind:     shrink slightly in use due to adsorption and
                        • With the wet loam techniques a gap            desorption of humidity.
                        occurs at the joint due to the shrinkage of     Illustration 14.1 shows some possible joint
                        the loam.                                       designs of stranglehm respectively loam-
                        • Even when the loam is dry or when dry         filled hoses, adobes and lightweight loam
                        loam elements are used, gaps may occur          with posts of timber or brickwork, or with
                        due to the contraction of the timber during     door and window frames of timber.

14.1 Possible joint
designs of stranglehm
respectively loam-
filled hoses, adobes
and lightweight loam
with posts of timber
or brickwork, or with
door and window
frames of timber.
(horizontal sections)




                                 Lightweight loam              Loam plaster                       Timber

                                 stranglehm or                 Earth blocks                       Bricks
                                 loam hoses                                                                        14.1



                 107    Designs of building elements
                           A                                              B                             C
                                                                                                  14.2


Roof rafters should not rest directly on the             Particular wall designs
earth wall, but instead on timber wall plates
or beams as seen in 14.2 A. If the rafters               Loam walls with high thermal insulation
rest on a timber post-and-beam structure                 The U-value of a 30-cm-thick rammed earth
and the wall is not load-bearing, the shrink-            wall (without lightweight aggregates) is
age of the timber structure has to be taken              about 1.3 W/m2K. In order to achieve a
into account.                                            U-value of 0.3 W/m2K with this wall, it
In 14.2 B, an elastic sealant has been intro-            would need to be 1.65 m thick. This shows
duced between the beam and wall in order                 that in cold climates where high thermal
to provide sufficient tolerance for this shrink-         insulation is required, it is not possible to
age; while in 14.2 C, the structural system is           build only with normal loam.
separated from the wall, thereby allowing a              The examples provided in 14.3 not only
greater vertical movement of the timber                  show sufficient thermal insulation with a
structure.                                               U-value of 0.3 W/m2K, but are also designed
                                                         to have sufficient thermal mass for balanc-

                                                                                                 14.3       14.2 Vertical sections
                                    Timber boards                                                           of roof structure and
                                    Windshelter                                                             load-bearing and
                                    Thermal insulation ( = 0.04)
                                    Earth blocks between                                                    non-load bearing
                                    timber skeleton
                                                                                                            walls
                                                                                                            14.3 Horizontal sec-
                                                                                                            tions of various loam
                                    Thermal insulation ( = 0.04)                                            walls with U-values
                                    Mineral lightweight loam between
                                    timber skeleton ( = 0.21)                                               of 0.3 W/m2K
                                                                                                            14.4 Wall of discard-
                                                                                                            ed car tyres filled with
                                                                                                            soil, USA
                                    Thermal insulation ( = 0.04)                                            14.5 Dome of earth-
                                    Load-bearing earth blocks                                               filled hoses, Kassel,
                                    ( = 0.7)                   ( = 0.9)
                                                                                                            Germany
                                                                                                            14.6 Prototype build-
                                                                                                            ing, Kassel, Germany


                                    Lime plaster
                                    Cork ( = 0.5) Thermal insul. ( = 0.04)
                                    Mineral lightweight loam ( = 0.21)




                                    Lime plaster
                                    Mineral lightweight loam ( = 0.18)
                                    Timber skeleton
                                    Lightweight loam plaster




                                              108        Designs of building elements
14.5                                                                                                  14.6

             ing the indoor air temperature, sufficient     In climates prone to driving rain, designs
             loam for balancing the indoor air humidity     A to F are preferable because they have
             and sufficient noise insulation as well.       separated outer leaves, which act as protec-
             Designs E and F are for load-bearing walls,    tion from the weather.
             while the others are not. The outer thermal
             insulation panels, shown in G and H, can be    Earth-filled tyre walls
             used as a lost formwork for pouring the        A possible method of using hollow blocks
             lightweight loam, while also acting as a       filled with lightweight loam for walls has
             ground for the external lime plaster. The      been described in chapter 10, p. 89. If the
             simplest and best performing solutions are J   insulation requirements are not very high,
             and K, which are formed with monolithic        these walls can be filled with plain clayey
             low-density lightweight loam walls.            soil.
14.4




       109   Designs of building elements
Michael E. Reynolds built several residences
in New Mexico, USA, having walls made of
discarded car tyres filled with soil dug out of
the foundation. Only the top tyre was filled
with concrete to which a wooden ring
anchor was fixed. The interior surface was
covered with expanded metal mesh rein-
forcement and then plastered.


Earth-filled bags
The Building Research Laboratory (BRL),
University of Kassel, Germany, tested several
approaches to building walls of earth- or
sand-filled bags or hoses. Illustration 14.5
shows a dome built in 1977 of sand and
earth-filled hoses of polyester fabric; 14.6
                                                                                                                                14.9
shows the wall of a low-cost housing pro-
totype built in Kassel in 1978. In the latter     Intermediate floors                             14.7 Filling of hoses
                                                                                                  14.8 Ramming of hoses
case, the hoses were made of jute fabric
                                                                                                  14.9 Residence, Brazil
covered by several layers of lime wash to         Traditional loam floors                         14.10 Rammed earth
prevent rotting.                                  In traditional German timber frame houses,      flooring on joists
The California architect Nader Khalili further    the intermediate floors were filled with        14.11 Spalier flooring
                                                                                                  14.12 Flooring made of
developed this idea utilising endless hoses,      loam to increase fire resistance, sound insu-   straw loam rolls
usually used to make bags for sugar or flour.     lation, and sometimes thermal insulation as     14.13 Vertical section
Illustrations 14.7 and 14.8 show the filling      well. The traditional techniques described      through timber flooring
                                                                                                  with infill of green bricks
and the ramming process; 14.9 displays a          here are very labour-intensive and, there-
                                                                                                  14.14 Earthen jack vault
built example in Brazil.                          fore, are used nowadays in renovation work      flooring
                                                  only if required by historic landmark preser-
                                                  vation codes.

                                           14.7                                                                                 14.8




                                           110    Designs of building elements
                                14.10                                                                        14.11




                                                         A




                                                         B
                                14.12                                                                        14.13



                  Rammed earth decks                               made in the same way as described in
                  Illustration 14.10 shows three different ways    chapter 9, p. 81. A bundle of straw is dipped
                  of using rammed earth as infill between          into loam slurry and wound helically around
                  or on top of wooden beams. The ceiling is        a stick, forming straw loam rolls. The sticks
                  formed of exposed timber boards, on top of       in these rolls either rest on top of the beam,
                  which moist earth is compacted. A layer of       or else are inserted into slots on the sides of
                  straw is laid onto the boards to prevent         the beams (14.12).
    14.14         loam from falling through gaps. Nowadays,
                  oilpaper is used for the same purpose.           Modern loam floors
                                                                   Today, instead of earth infill for wooden
A
                  ”Spalier“ decks                                  beams and board floors, green bricks or
                  Illustration 14.11 shows the traditional Ger-    adobes without mortar can be used, which
                  man spalier floor where wooden lathes are        eliminates drying time. Illustration 14.13 A
B
                  laid at a distance of 3 to 6 cm between the      shows a favourable design of such a floor,
                  floor beams. Straw loam is pressed from          which provides sufficient insulation against
                  above so as to form “tongues” between            airborne and structural noise. The design
C                 the lathes. The tongues are later pressed        shown in 14.13 B has the same properties,
                  to cover the lathes from underneath by a         but also offers the advantage of lower
                  trowel so as to form an even surface as          structural height and the disadvantage of
                  shown in the figure. A variation of this floor   being more labour-intensive.
D
                  was also traditionally used where, instead       Illustration 14.14 shows various designs for
                  of using the trowel, a horizontally moving       vaulted loam floors. Designs A, B and C use
                  formwork was employed.                           earthen blocks, which transfer slab loads to
                                                                   the beams by vault-action under compres-
                  Straw loam rolls                                 sion. Design D shows a non-load bearing
                  Another traditional German technique             loam vault made by pouring lightweight
                  employs straw loam rolls (German: Wickel)        loam over a curved reed mat.


            111   Designs of building elements
Rammed earth floorings                                 cement plaster surface, loam plaster that
                                                       contained loam with a high clay content
Hard-wearing floor surfaces need to meet               and large amounts of coarse sand and
very high standards. They must resist pres-            fine gravel was used. This was applied in
sure abrasion, be waterproof and show no               a 7-cm-thick layer and compacted by beat-
cracks. It is very difficult to build such sur-        ing. In order to harden the surface, it was
faces from loam, but if carefully done, it is          sprinkled with Fe3O4 flakes (flakes produced
not impossible. The most difficult criterion           by forging glowing iron) and beaten into
is to achieve sufficient strength against abra-        the surface together with cow’s blood,
                                                                                                                                     14.15
sion or surface hardness (see chapter 2,               cow’s bile or tar.
p. 34). It is often easier to avoid the effort
involved in achieving this by using brick,
                                                        A                                               B
timber or stone floor tiles over the loam,
or by covering the loam with a carpet, rug,
fabric etc.


Traditional earth floorings
Illustration 14.15 shows Niemeyer’s version
of a traditional loam floor (Niemeyer, 1946).
The base layer consists of loam, about
                                                                                                                                     14.16
15 cm thick, with high clay content. This
acts as a water barrier, and is applied in two                                                          14.15 Traditional flooring
layers that are compacted by beating or                Modern earth floorings                           for living rooms (after
                                                                                                        Niemeyer, 1946)
ramming until no cracks appear while dry-              In 1984, the two different loam floors           14.16 Modern earth floo-
ing. The next layer consists of coarse gravel,         shown in 14.16 were successfully tested at       rings (Minke, 2000)
which interrupts capillary action. Above this,         the BRL. Design A has a surface, hard            14.17 to 14.19 Making
                                                                                                        a rammed earth floor
a 10-cm-thick layer of straw loam provides             enough to be walked on, that is divided by
                                                                                                        14.20 Making a rammed
thermal insulation. An additional 4-cm-thick           a timber grid, while design B shows a loam       earth floor with a wood
layer of straw loam, stabilised with cement            floor paved with timber blocks.                  block cover
in the proportion 1:6 (1 part cement : 6 parts         The subflooring is identical in both cases,
straw loam), is added so that heavy loads              consisting of a 15-cm-thick capillary break-
can be carried. As the final layer, Niemeyer           ing layer of gravel, followed by a water and
recommends a 2-cm-thick layer of cement                vapour barrier of plastic or bituminous felt
mortar with sawdust. Two coats of water-               paper, and topped with a 10-cm-thick layer
glass are then applied while the final layer           of expanded clay that acts as thermal insu-
is still moist. Finally, after it is completely dry,   lation.
the surface is waxed.                                  The first layer of moist clayey loam is placed
The author of this study suggests reversing            on top of this subflooring and rammed
the sequence of the bottom two layers.                 (14.17 and 14.18). In both cases, a primary
To interrupt capillary action, coarse gravel           grid of timber battens (10 x 10 cm) is laid
should be used as the lowest layer. Loam               over this.
with a high clay content should form the               In design B (14.16), this grid is then filled
next layer, acting as a water and vapour               with timber blocks laid with a loam mortar
barrier (damp-proof coarse). As described              stabilised with 6% to 8% (by volume) of
below in this chapter, stabilised loam mortar          double-boiled linseed oil. The blocks are
may be substituted for cement mortar. In               placed so that the annular rings are exposed
traditional German farmhouses and barns,               (14.20).
earth floors were built in a similar way, so           In design A, a second layer of loam mortar
that even cars (without pneumatic tyres)               is applied and rammed, over which a
could drive over them. Instead of the                  secondary grid of timber strips is laid. The


                                               112     Designs of building elements
14.17




14.18




                                                                                                   14.20

        spaces thus created are then filled with a        A 12-cm-thick lightweight mineral loam is
        third layer of loam mortar stabilised with        poured on top of this layer. This provides
        6% to 8% (by volume) of double-boiled lin-        both sufficient thermal insulation and the
        seed oil. The surface is then smoothed by         required structural strength.
        rubbing with great pressure using a metal         The lightweight loam was prepared in a
        trowel (14.19) until the surface becomes          normal concrete mixer and then poured
14.19
        shiny.                                            from a wheelbarrow (14.22).
        Since this process is very labour-intensive,      In order to reduce hardening time, 4%
        the author of this study has developed an         cement was added to the mix. In order to
        alternative design requiring significantly less   achieve adequate surface hardness, a
        labour (less than a fifth):                       3-cm-thick loam mortar (containing suffi-
        The layers constituting this floor can be seen    cient coarse sand to minimise the occur-
        in 14.21. In order to break up capillary          rence of shrinkage cracks) was applied in
        action, the lowest layer is formed by coarse      two layers. For this mortar, 6% (by dry
        gravel. A damp-proof coarse of bituminous         weight) of three different stabilising agents
        felt paper is laid over this, followed by a       were successfully tested: the first, soda
        base thermal insulation layer of rockwool.        waterglass was added after being thinned
        (The latter is necessary only by the stringent    1:1 with water; the second, double-boiled
        demands for thermal insulation contained          linseed oil; and the third, lime-casein glue
        in more recent German regulations; other-         (made from 1 part hydraulic lime and
        wise lightweight loam would be sufficient.)       5 parts fat-free white cheese mixed vigor-


113     Designs of building elements
ously without water for two minutes and
                                                                                                                     Loam mortar
then allowed to stand) with additional chalk
                                                                                                                     Mineral lightweight loam
at the rate of 10%.
                                                                                                                     Thermal insulation
The mixtures were applied like plasters
                                                                                                                     Damp-proof barrier
with low moisture content and the surface
                                                                                                                     Coarse gravel
smoothed with a rotary motion of the trow-
el. After fully drying, all of these surfaces
were waxed.
All three mixtures displayed very good sur-
                                                                                  14.22                              14.21
face hardness. The linseed oil mixture had
the disadvantage of its strong odour and a
long drying time, but showed the best sur-
face hardness.




                                                                                  14.23




                                        Vapour barrier                                    Cellulose fibres
                                        Timber planks                                     Vapour barrier
                                        Lightweight straw loam (600)                      Wood wool board
                                        U = 0.8 W/m2K
                                                                                          Loam plaster
                                                                                          U = 0.22 W/m2K
 A                                                                        C




                                         Cork                                             Cork

                                         Vapour barrier                                   Hollow Hourdis brick
                                                                                          filled with loam
                                         Mineral lightweight loam (400)
                                         U = 0.25 W/m2K                                   Cellulose fibres
                                                                                          U = 0.20 W/m2K     14.24
 B                                                                        D




                                         114       Designs of building elements
                                    Inclined roofs filled with lightweight           standard, DIN 18957. Some traditional
                                    loam                                             loam-covered roofs and some recent exper-
                                                                                     iments with loam coatings are discussed in
                                    Commonly used tile-covered rafter roofs          this section.
                                    can be filled with lightweight loam in order
                                    to increase their thermal and sound insula-      Traditional roofs
                                    tion. If the space created by a typical          In many subtropical, moderate and cold
                                    16-cm-high rafter is filled with lightweight     climates, traditional flat and sometimes even
                                    loam with a density of 600 kg/m3 and the         inclined loam roofs have been built for cen-
                                    ceiling made of timber boards, the roof          turies. Typical examples are the flat roofs of
                                    achieves an U-value of 0.8 W/m2K (14.24 A).      the Pueblo Indians in New Mexico, USA
                                    Three solutions, B, C and D, show possibili-     (see 6.3), and those of the Dogon of Mali,
                                    ties for attaining higher levels of thermal      West Africa (14.25).
                                    insulation, as demanded in many northern         All flat roofs are similar in construction. Tree
                                    countries.                                       trunks or bamboo form the primary structur-
                                                                                     al elements. Branches and twigs are laid on
                                                                                     these to form a fairly dense network over
                                    Earth-covered roofs                              which straw loam can be rammed or plas-
                                                                                     tered. The final coarse consists of several
        14.21 Vertical section      In dry climate zones, flat roofs covered with    layers of clayey loam, usually containing a
        through a lightweight       earth have been in use for centuries in tradi-   large quantity of coarse sand; sometimes
        mineral loam floor
        14.22 to 14.23 Making a
                                    tional rural architecture. One of the greatest   hair, fibre or cow dung is added and care-
        lightweight mineral loam    challenges when building in developing           fully smoothed.
        floor with a loam plaster   countries is to produce successful, weather-     In areas where there is little rainfall, shrink-
        that is water-repellent
                                    resistant loam roofs that might prove            age cracks are not a problem. When water
        and abrasion-resistant
        14.24 Vertical section      durable in rainy areas. The cost of a typical    enters these cracks, clayey loam swells and
        through inclined roofs      roof structure in such countries is usually      seals them. Only in some cases are addition-
        with lightweight loam       25% to 30% of total buildings costs.             al coatings used. In Anatolia, Turkey, special
        infill
        14.25 Flat earthen roofs
                                    Loam shingles (see chapter 7, p. 70) were        clayey soil with a high salt content is taken
        of a Dogon village, Shan-   propagated in Germany in the early 20th          from the banks of the salt lakes in order
        ga, Mali                    century, and there was even a published          to seal loam roofs. Due to the hygroscopic
14.25




                             115    Designs of building elements
                                                                                          14.26                                  14.27

property of the salt, this loam stays moist      have proved that additives can increase
for longer periods, and prevents water           the weather resistance of loam.
penetration while it remains in this state.      Bases on test results of the BRL, described
If shrinkage cracks occur during drying,         in chapter 4, p. 40, a low-cost housing
swelling occurs during contact with rain         prototype was built at Pujili, Ecuador, by the
and seals the cracks. Once the rain has          group FUNHABIT, Quito, and the author.
washed off some of the salt, reducing the        The roof was made of a timber substructure
self-sealing effect of the top coarse layer,     built of tree trunks, branches and reeds. This
residents can either sprinkle salt or pour       was covered by several layers of loam plas-
salt water on it to regenerate the seal          ter that were 8 cm thick in total (14.28). The
(Dalokay, 1969).                                 first layer consists of clayey loam thinned
                                                                                                                                 14.28
When making loam-covered flat roofs, it          with pumice (0 to 12 mm diameter) and
should be kept in mind that roof edges are       waste mobil oil (52 parts loam : 28 parts        14.26 Traditional loam
susceptible to mechanical damage, especial-      pumice : 1 part oil). This mixture, which also   roof, north Venezuela
                                                                                                  14.27 Traditional flat
ly by wind and water erosion. This can be        provided thermal insulation, was laid in a       loam roofs
prevented by solutions of the type shown in      fairly dry consistency and compacted by          14.28 Vertical section
14.27. If the surface of the roof is to be       beating. The top layer, 2 to 3 cm thick, has     through a loam roof, Pujili,
                                                                                                  Ecuador
walked upon, then tiles are recommended          the following mix: 72 parts loam, 36 parts
                                                                                                  14.29 Earth block domes,
(14.27 D).                                       pumice (0 to 5 mm), 12 parts cow dung,           village near Aleppo, Syria
Illustration 14.26 shows an inclined roof        12 parts donkey dung, 8.5 parts mobil oil,       14.30 Earth block domes,
from northern Venezuela, consisting of lay-      6 parts loose Sisal fibres (3 to 5 cm long),     Siestan, Afghanistan

ers of cow dung stabilised with straw loam       and 1 part double-boiled linseed oil. After
mortar applied in several layers (8 to 12 cm),   several days, when the mixture was some-
over a wooden substructure made of               what dry, it was recompacted with a metal
branches and twigs. After the rainy season,      trowel, using great pressure, till the surface
the top layer is normally redone.                was shiny.


New solutions
In rainy areas, where inclined roofs are
common, traditional buildings do not have
loam roofs. However, recent experiments


                                          116    Designs of building elements
14.29

              Earth block vaults and domes                    and their greater heights at the centre of a
                                                              space, where light, warm air gathers and
              Vaults and domes covering interior spaces       can be easily discharged through openings,
              and made from earthen blocks are found          vaulted spaces provide better natural climat-
              mainly in religious buildings in Europe. In     ic control than standard cubic ones. They
              southern Europe, Asia and Africa, nonethe-      have smaller surface areas than cubic rooms
              less, they have also been used in residences,   of the same volume, and therefore less
              offices and public buildings (see 1.1, 1.2,     heat gain.
              14.29 and 14.30).                               In cold and moderate climates as well,
              These structures demonstrate several advan-     vaults and domes have several advantages.
              tages in hot and dry climates, especially in    As the surface area is smaller for the same
              areas with a wide range of diurnal tempera-     volume, heat loss is lower, so heating ener-
              tures. Given their inherent thermal mass        gy is reduced.
14.30                                                         In all climates, vaults and domes require less
                                                              building material to enclose a given volume.
                                                              In all developing countries, vaults and
                                                              domes are usually cheaper in comparison
                                                              with flat or slightly inclined roofs. Observa-
                                                              tion has shown that rooms with vaults and
                                                              domes have a pleasing and calming effect
                                                              on inhabitants in contrast to rooms with
                                                              flat ceilings.
                                                              Until recently vaults and domes of loam
                                                              have been built only with adobes – with the
                                                              exception of two experimental domes: the
                                                              rammed earth dome described in chapter 5,
                                                              p. 59, and a stranglehm dome built at the
                                                              BRL in 1985. In numerous arid regions,
                                                              where timber is unavailable as a building
                                                              material, techniques were developed to
                                                              construct vaults and domes from air-sea-


        117   Designs of building elements
soned adobes without structural beams,           truncated planes on four of the sides and
and even without formworks. These tech-          squinches on the other four. Solution E
niques are described in the following sec-       shows a totally different way of solving this
tions.                                           problem and can be called a bell-shaped
                                                 dome. Here, we have a continuously chang-
On the geometry of vaults and domes              ing double curvature beginning at the                                         14.31

Vaults and domes are two-dimensional             edges with an anticlastic (saddle-shaped)
curved structural elements that serve to         curvature (i.e., a curvature that is convex in
cover interior spaces. Shell structures with     one direction and concave in the perpendi-
the same geometry display very different         cular direction) and continuing to the apex
structural behaviours. They are able to trans-   with a synclastic (dome-shaped) curvature
fer bending moments to their supports.           (i.e., one that is similarly curved in both
However, masonry vaults and domes only           directions).
transfer loads under compression. If singly
curved, they are called vaults (14.31, left);    Structural behaviour
if doubly curved, they are called domes          Structurally speaking, vaults and domes are
(14.31, right). Vaults and domes can be built    curved surfaces that transfer almost exclu-
from a variety of basic geometrical elements.    sively compressive forces to their supports.
Illustration 14.32 shows two cross vaults        They are usually constructed of baked bricks
                                                                                                                               14.32
(A, B) and two domical vaults (C, D); all
forms are composed from the parts of a
barrel vault. With domes that form surfaces
of revolution, that is to say, whose forms
originate from the rotation of a curve around
a vertical axis (usually a circular arc), and
which are set above square rooms, the geo-
metrical problem resides in the need to dis-
cover a transition from the circular geometry
of the dome to the square geometry
of the room. Illustration 14.33 shows four
different systems for solving this problem.
                                                                                                                               14.33
Solution A is a truncated dome whose bot-
tom circle is drawn around the square, and       or flat stones, with joints set perpendicular    14.31 Vault and dome
vertical truncating planes meet the dome         to the surface of the dome, so that the          14.32 Shapes created by
                                                                                                  intersecting vaults
surface to form arches. Solution B is called a   courses form a radial pattern as in 14.34
                                                                                                  14.33 Types of domes
dome on pendentives. Here, a hemispherical       top. If the courses are set horizontally, so     over square plans
dome rests on the lower part of a truncated      that the masonry blocks create overhangs         14.34 “True” and “false”
                                                                                                  vaults
dome. The doubly curved triangular surfaces      within, (cf. 14.34 bottom), then we speak of
                                                                                                  14.35 to 14.36 Model
are called pendentives. Solution C shows a       a ”false“ vault or dome. In such cases, since    of a building with “false”
squinch dome whose lower circle is inscribed     each course is cantilevered over the one         vaults
on the square and the interconnecting sur-       before, the blocks are subjected to bending      14.37 Separation of
                                                                                                  forces at the support
faces, called squinches, are composed of         forces. One example of a false dome is
                                                                                                  14.38 Deflection of the
a series of arches of increasing radius. This    shown in the model illustrated in 14.35 and      resultant shear force into
solution can also be described as a truncat-     14.36.                                           the foundation

ed dome resting on the inscribed diagonal        The main problem in constructing vaults is
square with the surfaces thus left (triangular   how to transfer of the outward thrust force
in plan) being the squinches.                    at the bottom to the supports and founda-
Solution D is a partial squinch dome whose       tions. Illustration 14.37 shows how the
bottom circle is drawn around the largest        resultant forces at the support can be sepa-
regular octagon that fits the square, forming    rated into vertical and horizontal compo-


                                          118    Designs of building elements
                         14.35                                                                        14.36

        nents. The steeper the forces are conducted        bending stress, spacings between buttress-
        into the foundation, the smaller are the           es should not be too large. A structurally
        horizontal forces, and the easier the forma-       superior variation is shown in C, with but-
        tion of foundation. A rule of thumb is that        tresses connected by arches. Solution D
        the forces resulting from vault thrust and         shows the transfer of the resultant horizon-
        wall loads must fall within the middle third       tal thrust to tensile structural elements in the
        of the pedestal and foundation bases. This         floor (reinforced concrete plates, for exam-
        means that eccentricity should be no more          ple), which neutralise the thrust so that only
        than 1/6 of the breadth (14.38).                   vertical forces are transferred to the founda-
        Since this consideration can mean a very           tion. Solution E shows single tensile ties
        large and, hence expensive foundation, it          which act in the same way. They are placed
        may prove expedient to plan for additional         above the walls supporting the vault. In this
        structural measures, such as those shown           case, ring or peripheral beams have to be
14.34
        in 14.39. In solution A, for example, the incli-   provided, which can take the bending forces
        nation of the resulting load is reduced by         that occur between the tie ends. Solutions F
        means of superimposed loads. A second              and G show two different ways of diverting
        simple solution, shown in B, consists of but-      the thrust of the central dome to low lateral
        tresses. In this case, to prevent excessive        vaults.




                                                   14.37                                              14.38



 119    Designs of building elements
                                                                                                                              14.39




If two identical barrels converge in one strip
foundation, then the horizontal components
of the resultant thrust are neutralised (see
14.40 right). If, on the other hand, the bar-
rels have different shapes, then only a por-
tion of this horizontal thrust will be neu-
tralised (14.40 left).
Since adobe vaults can endure only very
small tensile forces, it is important to design
them so that, as nearly as possible, only
compressive forces occur. With a barrel vault
that bears only its own weight, this is the
case if its cross-section is an inverted cate-
nary curve, defined as the shape assumed
                                                                                          14.40                               14.41
by a freely hanging chain, which is subject-
ed only to tractive force. When inverted, this    contain the line of thrust within its middle    14.39 Possibilities of
curve represents the ideal supporting line        third (14.43 B), then this danger is avoided.   structural stabilisation
                                                                                                  14.40 Horizontal forces
(line of thrust) for a vault in which only        The ideal cross-section of a dome under         14.41 Reversed catenary
compressive forces occur under dead load          dead load is that which only creates com-       14.42 Catenaries of
(14.41). This line can be computed by the         pressive forces going downwards (merid-         same length
                                                                                                  14.43 Lines of support
catenary formula y = a cosh (x/a), and can        ional). This means a form that creates nei-
                                                                                                  14.44 to 14.45 Simula-
be defined by the position of the two points      ther tensile nor compressive ring forces.       tion of loads
of support and the apex (see 14.42). In a         If the cross-section has the shape of a         14.46 Calculation of sur-
semicircular vault, the line of support does      catenary, then compressive ring forces will     face areas

not run in the centre of the wall thickness.      occur. This might be disadvantageous if
It might even fall outside the structure, as      openings have to be cut into the dome, or
shown in 14.43 A. This causes bending             if it is a dome of large span.
stresses and usually leads to failure. If the     To work out the ideal shape of a vault, a
thickness of the vault is large enough to         slice as shown in 14.44, left, is taken out


                                           120    Designs of building elements
                      14.43                                                                      14.44




        and divided into segments of equal length.       whose axis is below the base of the dome.
        This gives segments of identical area and,       This stating assumption is already close to
        therefore, can be substituted by single loads    the ideal form, which can then be refined
        of equal magnitude acting at the centre of       by the model.
        each segment. However, in the case of a
        dome, if we take a slice, as shown in the
        figure on the right, and divide this into seg-
        ments of equal length, the widths and,
        therefore, the areas are continuously
        decreasing from the base to the apex. If
        these segments are substituted by single
        loads, then their loads are also thereby pro-
        portionally decreased. If the ideal form is to
                                                                  Vault
        be derived from a model, then, correspon-
        ding loads can be added to a chain which
14.42
        then forms this ideal curve, as seen in 14.45.
        Here, this ideal curve is shown in contrast
        to a catenary. In 14.46, formulas are given
        for calculating areas of the segments of a
        sphere. However, since the ideal form is not
        spherical, its segments have an area slightly
        differing from the one that we started from.
        Therefore, this procedure has to be consid-
        ered a first approximation, which is in prac-
        tice sufficiently accurate for smaller spans.
        Greater accuracy can be achieved by suc-
        cessive iterations, substituting the actual
14.45                                                                                            14.46
        changing radii of curvature of the segments
        measured from the model and adjusting
        the loads according to the surface areas of
        the segments thus calculated.
        The first assumption (that the dome is a
        hemisphere) cannot be used if the height is
        not equal to the half-span. In this case, one
        should start from the shape of an ellipse


 121    Designs of building elements
                                                                                                                                      14.49
                                                                                       14.47


                                                                                                        14.47 Optimised cross-
                                                                                                        sections with different h:r
                                                                                                        ratios
                                                                                                        14.48 Cross-sections
                                                                                                        14.49 Nubian vault

                                Parabola

                            Optimised section

                      Semicircle

                 Catenary



                                                                                        14.48


A more exact method to derive ideal curve             Tensile ring forces usually lead to failure.
is by graphic methods used in statics engi-           Compressive ring forces usually do not cre-
neering. At the BRL, these methods were               ate problems, except when interrupted by
used to develop a computer programme.                 large openings.
Some results for eleven different dome                Table 14.51 gives the coordinates of the ideal
proportions from h = 1.5 r to h = 0.5 r               line of support for seven different dome
(where h is the height and r the half-span)           proportions, from h = 0.8 r to h = 1.4 r
are plotted in 14.47. In each case, a skylight        (where h is the height and r the half-span),
opening of 0.2 r was taken into account.              without taking into account any openings
Illustration 14.48 shows the ideal curve in           at the apex.
comparison with a parabola, catenary and              To take into account asymmetric loads
semicircle.                                           which might occur in practice due to wind,
In the section of the dome is inside the              maintenance etc., and to conservatively
ideal curve, as happens with the catenary,            ensure that no tensile ring forces occur, it is
compressive ring forces are created. If it is         better to keep the section inside the ideal
outside, tensile ring forces will occur, as with      curve, especially in the upper part.
the lower part of a hemispherical dome.


                                                122   Designs of building elements
Nr.      y         x         y         x           y         x         y           x        y          x         y         x         y         x
 1    0.0000    1.0000    0.0000    1.0000      0.0000    1.0000    0.0000      1.0000   0.0000     1.0000    0.0000    1.0000    0.0000    1.0000
 2    0.0452    0.9854    0.0454    0.9875      0.0479    0.9885    0.0470      0.9902   0.0422     0.9912    0.0494    0.9918    0.0469    0.9929
 3    0.0973    0.9674    0.0982    0.9720      0.1013    0.9750    0.1007      0.9783   0.1016     0.9807    0.1036    0.9823    0.1013    0.9844
 4    0.1489    0.9483    0.1508    0.9556      0.1544    0.9608    0.1543      0.9658   0.1555     0.9696    0.1578    0.9724    0.1556    0.9755
 5    0.2001    0.9279    0.2030    0.9381      0.2073    0.9456    0.2077      0.9526   0.2093     0.9579    0.2118    0.9620    0.2098    0.9662
 6    0.2506    0.9061    0.2548    0.9195      0.2600    0.9295    0.2610      0.9386   0.2629     0.9456    0.2657    0.9511    0.2640    0.9565
 7    0.3005    0.8827    0.3061    0.8996      0.3123    0.9124    0.3139      0.9237   0.3164     0.9326    0.3195    0.9396    0.3180    0.9462
 8    0.3495    0.8575    0.3569    0.8782      0.3642    0.8940    0.3667      0.9079   0.3697     0.9188    0.3732    0.9274    0.3720    0.9354
 9    0.3974    0.8303    0.4069    0.8552      0.4156    0.8744    0.4191      0.8911   0.4227     0.9041    0.4267    0.9145    0.4258    0.9241
10    0.4441    0.8011    0.4562    0.8305      0.4665    0.8533    0.4711      0.8730   0.4755     0.8885    0.4800    0.9008    0.4795    0.9121
11    0.4893    0.7695    0.5043    0.8038      0.5167    0.8306    0.5226      0.8536   0.5280     0.8718    0.5331    0.8863    0.5331    0.8993
12    0.5327    0.7355    0.5513    0.7749      0.5660    0.8060    0.5736      0.8328   0.5800     0.8540    0.5859    0.8708    0.5864    0.8858
13    0.5738    0.6987    0.5967    0.7436      0.6143    0.7795    0.6239      0.8103   0.6316     0.8347    0.6384    0.8542    0.6396    0.8714
14    0.6124    0.6592    0.6402    0.7097      0.6613    0.7507    0.6733      0.7860   0.6827     0.8140    0.6905    0.8364    0.6924    0.8561
15    0.6479    0.6170    0.6815    0.6731      0.7067    0.7194    0.7217      0.7596   0.7330     0.7917    0.7422    0.8173    0.7450    0.8397
16    0.6799    0.5721    0.7200    0.6337      0.7502    0.6855    0.7688      0.7309   0.7825     0.7674    0.7932    0.7966    0.7971    0.8220
17    0.7081    0.5246    0.7554    0.5913      0.7913    0.6487    0.8143      0.6998   0.8309     0.7411    0.8436    0.7743    0.8488    0.8030
18    0.7322    0.4750    0.7872    0.5462      0.8296    0.6090    0.8578      0.6658   0.8780     0.7124    0.8930    0.7500    0.8999    0.7825
19    0.7522    0.4235    0.8149    0.4984      0.8646    0.5663    0.8988      0.6290   0.9234     0.6811    0.9414    0.7235    0.9503    0.7602
20    0.7680    0.3707    0.8384    0.4485      0.8957    0.5207    0.9369      0.5891   0.9667     0.6470    0.9883    0.6947    0.9998    0.7360
21    0.7801    0.3168    0.8576    0.3967      0.9227    0.4725    0.9716      0.5461   1.0076     0.6099    1.0336    0.6632    1.0482    0.7096
22    0.7887    0.2624    0.8725    0.3436      0.9452    0.4221    1.0023      0.5002   1.0453     0.5696    1.0767    0.6287    1.0951    0.6807
23    0.7944    0.2076    0.8836    0.2896      0.9633    0.3700    1.0286      0.4517   1.0795     0.5262    1.1172    0.5912    1.1403    0.6491
24    0.7978    0.1526    0.8912    0.2350      0.9771    0.3165    1.0504      0.4009   1.1095     0.4799    1.1544    0.5505    1.1830    0.6145
25    0.7994    0.0975    0.8961    0.1801      0.9870    0.2623    1.0675      0.3485   1.1350     0.4309    1.1879    0.5065    1.2236    0.5768
26    0.8000    0.0425    0.8987    0.1251      0.9936    0.2075    1.0804      0.2948   1.1557     0.3798    1.2170    0.4596    1.2606    0.5358
27    0.8000    0.0000    0.8998    0.0700      0.9974    0.1526    1.0894      0.2404   1.1719     0.3270    1.2415    0.4101    1.2933    0.4915
28                        0.9000    0.0000      0.9993    0.0975    1.0951      0.1856   1.1836     0.2731    1.2611    0.3585    1.3222    0.4443
29                                              0.9999    0.0425    1.0983      0.1306   1.1916     0.2185    1.2761    0.3054    1.3459    0.3944
30                                              1.0000    0.0000    1.0997      0.0755   1.1965     0.1636    1.2867    0.2513    1.3648    0.3425
31                                                                  1.1000      0.0205   1.1990     0.1086    1.2936    0.1966    1.3789    0.2892
32                                                                  1.1000      0.0000   1.1999     0.0535    1.2976    0.1416    1.3887    0.2349
33                                                                                       1.2000     0.0000    1.2995    0.0865    1.3949    0.1801
34                                                                                                            1.3000    0.0315    1.3983    0.1251
35                                                                                                            1.3000    0.0000    1.3997    0.0700
36                                                                                                                                1.4000    0.0150
37                                                                                                                                1.4000    0.0000




                                                                                                                       h                   h
                                                                                h                  h
                                   h                     h
               h
                      r                   r                     r                   r                     r                   r                   r

          h = 0.8 r           h = 0.9 r             h = 1.0 r           h = 1.1 r             h = 1.2 r           h = 1.3 r           h = 1.4 r
         72.6                75.0                  76.9                78.5                 79.7                 80.7                81.6
A      5.3374 r2           5.7789 r2             6.2195 r2           6.6941 r2            7.1685 r2            7.6426 r2           8.1514 r2
V     16.1064 r3          18.2911 r3            20.4262 r3          22.6921 r3           24.9307 r3           27.1455 r3          29.5145 r3
                                                                                                                                                  14.51




                                          123    Designs of building elements
                                                                                    construction, while if the angle is larger, the
                                                                                    adobes might slide off the top.
                                                                                    Nubian vaults need one or two vertical walls
                                                                                    onto which the inclined arches lean (14.50 A
                                                                                    and B). It is also possible to lean the arches
                                                                                    against a central ”supporting arch,“ which
                                                                                    typically has the section of the vault and has
                                                                                    to be made with shuttering (14.50 C and
                                                                                    14.52). The cross-section of the Nubian vault,
                                                                                    which is mainly loaded by its own weight,
                                                                                    should have the form of an inverted cate-
                                                                                    nary, so that it contains only compressive
                                                                                    stresses.
                                                                                    At the BRL this traditional technique was
                                                                                    refined in two ways: first, instead of using
                                                                                    rectangular formats, a square block measur-
                                                                                    ing 20 x 20 cm, 6 cm thick was used for
                                                                                    the lower part of the vault, and tapered
                                                                                    versions of these blocks were used in the
                                                                                    upper part of the vault, with the lower part
                                                                                    shortened by 1.5 cm. This reduced labour
                                                                                    input and the quantity of mortar required.
                                                                                    It was found that by using an optimum
                                                                        14.52
                                                                                    mortar composition with high binding force,
                              Nubian vaults                                         it is also possible to use adobes with thick-
                              With the Nubian vault technique, used for             nesses of up to 10 cm. This leads to further
                              centuries in Upper Egypt, vaults can be built         savings in mortar and time.
                              without any formwork by using reclining               Second, the shape of the vault was con-
                              arches made of adobe. Illustration 14.49              trolled during construction by stretching
                              shows such a vault, which is 3200 years               a cord from one support wall to the next
                              old and stands within the temple precincts            (or to the corresponding scaffolding). It is
                              of Ramses II near Luxor. Such vaults are com-         essential that this cord passes through an
                              monly constructed of adobes measuring                 eyelet on one end and is held taut by a
                              15 cm in width, 25 cm in length and only              weight. When deformed by lateral pressure,
                              5 to 6 cm in thickness. This means that the           the cord will be immediately restored by the
                     14.53
                              weight of each brick per unit area of mortar          moving weight to the correct position.
                              joint is very low, which prevents adobes in           When building the reclining arches, it is
14.50 Nubian vaults with      inclined positions from sliding during con-           advisable that the blocks forming the arch
support walls and sup-        struction. The degree of inclination of the           are held together by keeping them touching
port arch (side elevations)
14.51 Coordinates of
                              arches is a decisive factor in the construction       on the inner edge with hardly any mortar in
structurally optimised        process. This should be between 65° to 70°            between, and wedging with a stone chip
domes                         with the horizontal. As tests have shown, if          on the outer edge if required, so as to dis-
14.52 to 14.53 Construc-
                              the arches are built up at a lower angle, the         play arch action even before the mortar is
tion of a Nubian vault
with support arch             lower part of the vault might collapse during         dry (14.53).

                                          A                                     B                                  C




                                                                                                                              14.50

                      124     Designs of building elements
                                                                          method allows the arch action to come into
                                                                          effect before the mortar has dried, labourers
                                                                          can even stand on the dome while it is
                                                                          under construction.
                                                                          Different models were built at the BRL in
                                                                          order to show that a wide variety of archi-
                                                                          tectural forms can be covered with this
                                                                          technique, and that it can also be combined
                                                                          with the Nubian dome technique (14.57
                   14.54                                          14.55
                                                                          to 14.60).
                           Afghan and Persian domes                       In 14.61 a variation of the Afghan dome
                           In Afghanistan, a technique for building       technique is shown. In former times this
                           domes without formwork has been used           was often used in Persia and is therefore
                           for centuries. With this technique, bell-      called the Persian dome technique. Here,
                           shaped flat domes are produced to cover        reclining arches are started from all four
                           square rooms by constructing reclining arch-   corners of the base. In this example vaulted
                           es which are set at angles of ca. 30° to the   wind catchers have been integrated into
                           horizontal. Illustrations 14.54, 14.55 and     the dome.
                           14.56 show the construction process of a
                   14.56
                           dome (over a 4 x 4 m room), which can be
14.54 to 14.56 Construc-   built in half a day by five to six people.
tion of an Afghan dome
                           With this technique, the adobe blocks form-
14.57 to 14.48 Model
of dome shape deriving
                           ing the arch should touch at their lower
from the Nubian and        edges, and wedges should be inserted
Afghan techniques (BRL)    into the upper gaps (see 14.56). Since this




                   14.58                                                                                          14.57

                    125    Designs of building elements
Nubian domes                                                                                        14.59 to 14.60 Models
                                                                                                    of different dome shapes
The Nubian dome technique has been
                                                                                                    deriving from the Nubian
known in Upper Egypt for thousands of                                                               and Afghan techniques
years. In this technique, circumferential                                                           (BRL)
                                                                                                    14.61 Persian dome
courses of adobes are laid using a movable
                                                                                                    with wind catchers
guide (14.62).                                                                                      14.62 to 14.63 Nubian
With this technique, blocks are turned on                                                           dome (CRATerre, 1979)
edge. This avoids slippage of the freshly laid                                                      14.64 Modification
                                                                                                    of Nubian dome with
blocks. However, this requires that special
                                                                                                    eccentric guide
wedge-shaped blocks be used periodically                                                            14.65 to 14.68 Proto-
(14.63). Due to the high labour input                                                               type dome (BRL)

required most domes were built without
                                                                                            14.61
turning the blocks, that is, placing them in
radially.                                         spans, steel strips or reinforced concrete ring
The main disadvantage of the Nubian               beams or other strengthening elements
domes technique is that only spherical            have to be additionally applied. If this is not
domes can be produced. As explained in            considered, domes might fail, as has hap-
this chapter, p. 116, in spherical domes, ten-    pened in practice.
sile ring forces occur in the bottom              The group Development Workshop,
portions. Therefore, when covering larger         Lauserte, France, built several residences,
                                                  offices and public buildings in Niger using a
                                                  modified version of this technique, shown in
                                                  14.64. Here, instead of the centrally mount-
                                                  ed rotating guide, an eccentric rotating
                                                  guide is used. By this, the shape generated
                                                  can be such that the tensile ring forces in
                                                  the lower part are avoided. However, com-
                                                  pressive ring forces thus created might
                                                  cause problems if larger openings are made
                                                  for entrances or windows.
                                          14.59




                                                                                                                               14.60

                                           126    Designs of building elements
                                               Structurally optimised domes
                                               In order to avoid the disadvantages of
                                               Nubian dome technology, a new technique
                                               for making domes using a rotational guide
                                               was developed at the BRL. With this tech-
                                               nique, the structurally optimal geometry of
                                               the dome can be achieved without form-
                                               work. This geometry avoids all tensile ring
                                               forces as well as compressive ring forces.
14.63                                  14.62
                                               The derivation of this shape is described on
                                               p. 116 of this chapter.
                                               The rotational guide has a right-angled
                                               head into which the blocks are placed. This
                                               angle can be moved on a curved metal
                                               T-section bent to shape. This T-section is
                                               fixed to a rotating arm, which is in turn fixed
                                               to a vertical post. Illustrations 14.65 to 14.68
                                               show the application of this technique to
                                               a dome with a 7 m free span and 6 m of
                                               clear height, which was built at the Univer-
                                               sity of Kassel in Germany in 1992. The apex
                                       14.64   is covered with a 16-sided pyramidal sky-




14.66                                                                                     14.65

                                               light. The thickness of the dome wall is only
                                               20 cm and the cross-section was derived
                                               using a computer program in order to get
                                               the optimum shape with no ring forces, as
                                               described on p. 116 of this chapter. In order
                                               to prevent the blocks of the upper layers
                                               from sliding while under construction, the
                                               courses are not exactly perpendicular
                                               to the surface of the dome, but are slightly
14.67                                  14.68

 127    Designs of building elements
                                     14.72




                                     14.73

128   Designs of building elements
                                     14.74




                                     14.75

129   Designs of building elements
                                           14.69                                            14.70

less inclined so that the top layer has 20°                                                         14.69 Jack arch with
less inclination and a partial corbelling effect                                                    minimised formwork
                                                                                                    14.70 Dome, utilising
can be seen. This, furthermore, has the
                                                                                                    moist sand as formwork
advantage that no sound-focusing effect                                                             14.71 Completed vault
occurs (see 14.68). The blocks used were                                                            in a private residence in
                                                                                                    Kassel, Germany
tapered and extruded through a special
                                                                                                    14.72 to 14.73 Desert
snout in a mechanical brick plant.                                                                  Research Institute, Sadat
                                                                                                    City, Egypt
Domes and vaults on formwork                                                                        14.74 to 14.75 Wissa
                                                                                                    Wassef Centre, Cairo,
It is very labour- and material-intensive to
                                                                                                    Egypt
build formworks for domes, which is why
                                                                                            14.71
nearly all historical dome construction
techniques avoided it. An exception is the         Firing of earthen domes
shallow Catalonian dome (sometimes called          The Persian architect Nader Khalili has
a “funicular shell” in India), which is essen-     constructed several earthen domes in Iran
tially a bell-shaped dome that can cover           and in the USA, which he attempted to
triangular, square, rectangular or other           strengthen subsequently by firing them
shaped bases. Timber boards, steel sheets          from the inside. While the combination of
and glass-fibre reinforced polyester ele-          the four elements used to create these
ments have been used for the formwork.             spaces, earth, water, air and fire, may lend
It is, however, much easier to make a form-        them a mystic touch, they yet have several
work with moist sand, as shown in 14.70.           disadvantages regarding climate and exter-
When constructing vaults, it is much easier        nal environment. The burning of the logs,
to build a formwork, as these only have            branches and twigs creates pollution and
singly curved surfaces. Furthermore, only a        consumes large quantities of energy. Fur-
short piece of formwork can be used and            thermore, the burning process cannot be
shifted as the vault construction proceeds.        fully controlled and is hence not optimum.
This technique is normally used to construct       The uneven heating of the blocks may pro-
jack vaults (see 14.14). The jack vault shown      duce cracks reducing structural stability.
in 14.69 was built on a sparse formwork,           Also, most of the pores in the blocks are
erected on thin laths positioned underneath        closed by burning, drastically reducing their
the joints of the earth blocks. These blocks       capacity to absorb and desorb humidity
were arranged without mortar. The joints           (see chapter 1, p. 14). This, however, means
were later moistened, and then mortar was          failing to exploit the principal advantage of
filled in from above.                              loam as a building material.




                                            130    Designs of building elements
                                                                                       14.76

                                             Earthen storage wall in winter
                                             gardens

                                             In order to enhance the thermal storage
                                             and the humidity balancing effect of a win-
                                             ter garden with a floor area of 20 m2, form-
                                             ing part of a residence at Kassel, Germany,
                                             a storage wall made of wet plastic loam
                                             loaves was built (14.76 and 14.77).
                                             The loaves, measuring 20 x 14 cm, were
                                             formed by hand and stacked without mor-
                                             tar or filled joints, thereby effectively dou-
                                             bling the surface of the loam that is active
                                             in thermal storage and humidity absorption
                                             and desorbtion. The wall surface above
                                             the glazed opening, 14.76, was covered
                                             with thrown loam balls, as described in
                                             chapter 11, p. 95.
                                     14.77
      14.76 Heat storage wall
      in a winter garden
      14.77 Laying loaves
      of loam




131   Designs of building elements
Loam in bathrooms                               shower. In a bathroom with loam walls,
                                                by contrast, the mirror clears under similar
The assertion that a loam-finished bath-        conditions in only 3 to 6 minutes. This is
room is more hygienic than a tiled bath-        because loam walls absorb humidity from
room astonishes many. Both experiences          the room when its relative humidity is high-
over several years with bathrooms having        er than about 50%, and release it later
loam walls and scientific investigations        when the air humidity falls below about
regarding the absorptive and desorptive         50% (see also chapter 1, p. 14).
behaviour of loam have, however, demon-         Since humidity in bathrooms with loam
strated this assertion.                         walls reduces quickly, fungus growth cannot
Mirrors in a bathroom that is tiled up to the   occur, whereas in tiled bathrooms, the
ceiling have been observed to fog up after      humidity remains high over a longer period
a normal hot shower. With doors and win-        due to the sealed surfaces, allowing fungus
dows closed, the mirror remains fogged up       growth in the joints of the tiles, especially
to a period of 30 to 60 minutes after the       joints grouted with silicone material. While
                                                                                                                            14.78

                                                                                                14.78 Loam wallpaper
                                                                                                14.79 Bathroom, private
                                                                                                residence in Kassel,
                                                                                                Germany
                                                                                                14.80 Sanitary objects
                                                                                                covered by loam-filled
                                                                                                hoses
                                                                                                14.81 Wash basin, private
                                                                                                residence in Kassel, Ger-
                                                                                                many




                                                                                        14.79

                                          132   Designs of building elements
14.80 Bedroom, private
residence in Kassel,
Germany
14.81 Wash basin, private
residence in Kassel,
Germany
                                                                                                                      14.80

                            formaldehyde in the joint mixture prevents        tion, acts as a hanger rod, and also stiffens
                            this, it should be mentioned that this chemi-     the side partition walls. On another external
                            cal is carcinogenic.                              wall of this bedroom, shown in 8.25, p. 77,
                            Even the wall behind the shower can be of         niches and ledges for storing personal
                            loam, as long as the shower curtain wraps         effects were carved out of the stranglehm
                            around to prevent it from getting splashed,       wall.
                            see 14.80. Illustration 14.78, shows a ”loam      Shelves can be easily fixed between strang-
                            wallpaper“ over a bath tub. Old curtain fab-      lehm walls (see chapter 8, p. 77) or light-
                            ric was dipped into clayey loam slurry and        weight loam-filled hoses (see chapter 10,
                            slapped onto the wall and sculpted with           p. 90). Illustration 14.79 shows such shelves
                            the fingers. This surface can easily be made      and a mirror integrated into the wall.
                            water-resistant by coating it with water-         Illustration 14.82 shows a bathroom whose
                            repellents, double-boiled linseed oil, water-     central shower, adjacent planter and bath
                            glass or other paints and coatings.               tab are covered by loam-filled hoses.
                                                                              Even washbasins can be built from unbaked
                                                                              loam. The example shown in 14.81 is made
                            Built-in furniture and sanitary objects           of a special sandy loam with high binding
                            from loam                                         force, in which shrinkage cracks were totally
                                                                              avoided. To this mixture 6% double-boiled
                   14.81
                            As already indicated, the plasticity of loam      linseed oil was added. After drying, the
                            allows not only for the building of exterior      basin was coated with a layer of linseed oil.
                            walls, ceilings and floors but also of built-in   The example in 14.79 was used for four-
                            furniture. For this, loam elements when still     teen years without signs of deterioration.
                            wet are particularly suitable as they can be      In both cases, trap and drain fittings were
                            given a great variety of shapes; they also        mounted in a small ceramic bowl, around
                            open up new aesthetic possibilities.              which the loam was arranged. It is sculpted
                            The bedroom wall shown in 14.80 is both           of unbaked loam stabilised by 6% of
                            an external wall and a built-in closet. It is     casein-lime glue. Both washbasins proved
                            built from stranglehm elements (see chap-         to be waterproof.
                            ter 8, p. 77). The side partition walls of the
                            wardrobe also buttress the exterior wall.
                            The bamboo rod, built in during construc-


                    133     Designs of building elements
Wall heating systems

In cool and cold climates where heating
systems are necessary, wall heating systems
integrated into earth walls are a preferable
solution. They enjoy many advantages in
comparison with traditional systems. The
heat is radiated, which avoids unhealthy air
movement and dust circulation. Wall sys-
tems are more economical, easier to repair
and less inert than floor systems.
The easiest way to build a wall radiation
system is to fix plastic or copper tubes on
the existing wall and to cover them with
mud plaster, using warm or hot water for
heat transfer.
                                                                                                                        14.82



Passive solar wall heating system
                                                                                       Glass 5 mm
                                                                                       Sun shade
A residence cum office in Kassel, Germany,                                             Tubes
has an effective heating system that runs                                              Absorptive paint
                                                                                       Loam plaster
exclusively on solar energy (see p. 153). The                                                 Green bricks
solar energy is conducted through a 10-cm-
thick insulating layer of thin polycarbonate
tubes to reach a 24-cm-thick loam wall that
is covered with loam plaster. The plaster is
coated with a thin, absorptive black paint.
This wall radiates the heat into the interior
of the house. In summer, when no heating
is required, the translucent slab is covered
by a reflective curtain (sunshade) (14.83).




                                                                          Weight
                                                       Aluminium 20/100
                                                      Timber frame




                                                                                                                14.83


                                                                                   14.82 Bathroom, private
                                                                                   residence in Kassel,
                                                                                   Germany
                                                                                   14.83 Loam wall with
                                                                                   translucent thermal
                                                                                   insulation slab, acting as
                                                                                   passive solar heating
                                                                                   system




                                          134   Designs of building elements
                  15 Earthquake-resistant building




15.1 Condominium of
the Hakkas, China
                                                                                                                       15.1

                        Earth as a building material has lost its credi-   walls – like the Guatemalan house in 15.2 –
                        bility chiefly because most modern houses          can withstand earthquake shocks because
                        with earth walls cannot withstand earth-           of their ductility (flexibility).
                        quakes, and because earth is viewed a              The quality of an earthquake-resistant struc-
                        building material for the poor. In this con-       ture can be expressed in the formula
                        text, it is worth mentioning that a census
                        conducted by the Salvadoran government               structural quality = resistance x ductility
                        after the earthquake of January 13, 2001
                        (measuring 7.6 on the Richter scale), states       This means that the lower the resistance
                        that adobes houses were not worse affect-          of a given structure, the higher its flexibility
                        ed than other types of construction.               must be, while the higher its flexibility, the
                        On the other hand, many historical earth           lower the required resistance.
                        buildings have withstood several strong            It is not earth as a building material which is
                        earthquakes in recent centuries, for example       responsible for structural failures, but instead
                        the condominiums of the Hakas in China             the structural system of a given building and
                        (15.1) and many solid rammed earth fincas          the layout of its openings, as discussed in
                        in Argentina. But also houses with light-          the following sections.
                        weight roofs and flexible wattle-and-daub


                  135   Earthquake-resistant building
                                                                                          15.3



Earthquakes are caused by the movements           Therefore, one of the main structural tasks
of tectonic plates or by volcanic activity. The   when designing earthquake-resistant build-
world’s most earthquake-prone regions are         ings is to insure that walls do not fall out.
shown in 15.3. In Asia, earthquakes with
intensities of 8 on the Richter scale have
been recorded; in the Andes, ones measur-         Structural measures
ing up to 8.7. Annually, nearly a hundred
earthquakes are recorded with intensities         When designing for earthquake-prone
above 6, and twenty with intensities above        zones, it should be considered that the seis-
7 on the Richter scale. Several thousand          mic forces acting on a building are propor-
people are affected by earthquakes every          tional to its mass, and that deflection
year.                                             increases significantly with height. When
                                                                                                                                   15.6
Buildings are mainly struck by the horizontal     designing two-storeyed buildings, therefore,
acceleration created by the movement of           it is advisable that the ground floor be built
the earth. The vertical accelerations created     solid, while the upper floor is kept light,
by seismic activity are less then 50% of the      preferably with a flexible framed structure.
horizontal ones.                                  Heavy roofs with slabs, slates and tiles
Since loam buildings are rarely higher than       should be avoided in principle.
two storeys, this section mainly discusses        Walls usually fall outwards because they lack
the earthquake resistance problems of these       a closed ring beam, sufficient bending and
kinds of buildings.                               shear strength, and because door and win-
In one- or two-storeyed buildings, the prin-      dow openings weaken the wall structure.          bad           good      ideal

ciple danger during earthquakes is that           Under seismic influences, forces are concen-
walls will fall out and roofs will come down.     trated into the corners of these openings,
                                                  creating cracks. In order to reduce the dan-
                                                  ger of collapse, the following points should
                                                  be kept in mind:
                                                  1. Houses should not be located on inclined        dangerous          safe
                                                  sites (15.4).                                                                    15.5
                                                  2. The building’s resonant frequency should
                                                  not match the frequency of the earth move-
                                                  ment during earthquakes. This means that
                                                  heavy houses with solid construction should
                                                  not rest on hard rock bases, but instead on
                                           15.2

                                           136    Earthquake-resistant building
                                                                   dangerous                               dangerous




       dangerous



15.4                    safe                                       dangerous                                     safe



                   15.2 Wattle-and-daub          sandy or silty soils. Light houses, however,    able to withstand the shear forces pro-
                   house after heavy earth-      perform better on hard rock than on soft        duced.
                   quake, Guatemala 1976
                   15.3 Earthquake-prone
                                                 soil.                                           7. Walls must be stable against bending
                   areas (Houben, Guillaud,      3. The different parts of a house should not    and shear forces. Masonry work must have
                   1984)                         have foundations on different levels, nor       fully filled joints and strong mortar.
                   15.4 Location of houses
                                                 have differing heights. If they do, then they   8. Load-bearing masonry walls should have
                   on a slope
                   15.5 Ground plans             should be structurally separated. Since sec-    minimum thicknesses of 30 cm; their heights
                   15.6 Wall propotion           tions of different heights display differing    should not exceed eight times their thick-
                   15.7 Adobe walls, stabi-      resonant frequencies, they should be            nesses (15.6).
                   lised by buttresses
                   15.8 Stabilisation of walls
                                                 allowed to oscillate independently.             9. Masonry walls should be stiffened with
                   15.9 Destabilisation          4. Plans should be as compact as possible,      piers at a minimum every 4 m (with mini-
                   through horizontal impact     and should be symmetrical. Circular plans       mum sections of 30 x 30 cm), or with posts
                   of a vertical wall with a
                                                 give better rigidity than rectangular ones      that are structurally fixed in the foundation
                   framed structure stabi-
                   lised by tensile diagonals    (see 15.5).                                     (i.e. able to take movement) (15.7).
                                                 5. Foundations have to act like stiff ring      10. Wall corners, joints between walls and
                                                 anchors, and should therefore be reinforced.    across walls, as well as door openings have
                                                 6. Foundations, walls and roofs should          to be stiffened by vertical posts of either
                                                 be well fixed to each other, the joints being   timber or reinforced concrete, which are
                                                                                                 structurally fixed in the foundation, or by
                                                                                                 buttresses, so that horizontal forces do not
                                                                                                 open these elements (15.8, 15.22).
                                                                                                 11. Walls have to be finished on top by a
                                                                                                 ring beam, which has to be adequately
                                                                                                 fixed to the walls.
                                                                                                 12. Extra lintels above doors and windows
                                                                                                 should be avoided, and should be formed
                                                                                                 by ring beams (15.21).
                                                                                                 13. Roofs should be as light as possible.
                                         15.7                                                    14. The horizontal thrusts of vaults and
                                                                                                 domes should be sufficiently contained by
                                                                                                 ring beams, buttresses or ties.
                                                                                                 15. Openings destabilise walls and should
                                                                                                 be carefully proportioned (15.23).
                                                                                                 There are two basic approaches to design-
                                                                                                 ing for earthquake resistance. The first and
                                                                                                 most commonly used method is to con-
                                                                                                 struct walls, roofs and their joints stiffly
                                         15.9                                             15.8

                                         137     Earthquake-resistant building
                                                                1 Ring beam is lacking.
                                                                2 Lintels do not reach deeply enough into
                                                                  masonry.
                                                                3 The distance between door and window
                                                                  is too small.
                                                                4 The distance between openings and wall
                                                                  corner is too small.
                                                                5 Plinth is lacking.
                                                                6 The window is too wide in proportion to
                                                                  its height.
                                                                7 The wall is too thin in relation to its height.
                                                                8 The quality of the mortar is too poor,
                                                                  the vertical joints are not totally filled,                                   15.11
                                                                  the horizontal joints are too thick (more
                                                                  than 15 mm).
                                                                9 The roof is too heavy.
15.10                                                          10 The roof is not sufficiently fixed to the wall.




enough so that they cannot break or be             2. Walls are flexible (ductile) enough so that
deformed under seismic loads. The second           the kinetic energy of the earthquake is
approach is to endow the structure with            absorbed by deformation. In this case it is
sufficient ductility so that the kinetic energy    necessary to install a ring beam strong
                                                                                                                                                15.12
of any seismic impact will be dissipated via       enough to take bending forces; the joints
deformation. This is the more intelligent          between wall and ring beam, and ring
solution, especially as it entails fewer struc-    beam and roof must be strong enough.
tural problems and materials.                      3. The walls are designed as mentioned
If, for example, a vertical wall with a framed     under 2, but the roof is fixed to columns
structure stabilised by tensile diagonals is       that are separated from the wall, so that
impacted horizontally from the right (as           both structural systems can move independ-
shown in 15.9), there will be a concentration      ently, since they have different frequencies
of stress on both ends of the tie leading          during an earthquake.
                                                                                                                                                15.13
from lower left to upper right. Weakness,          Three research projects undertaken by the
then, will occur first at these joints, possibly   Building Research Laboratory, University
leading to wall failure. An elastically framed     of Kassel, Germany, analysing earthquake
structure without diagonals, on the other          damage to single-story rural houses in
hand – provided the corners are able to            Guatemala, Argentina and Chile, concluded
take some moment and that no structural            that the same errors in structural design
element is overloaded – usually allows             consistently led to collapse. The ten principal
deformation to occur without leading to            mistakes are listed in 15.10.
wall collapse. In the second case, obviously,      At the BRL, a simple test was developed
                                                                                                                                                15.14
the infill of the frame must also be some-         within the context of a doctoral thesis to
what flexible. Therefore, walls built with         show the influence of wall shape on resist-
the wattle-and-daub technique in which a           ance to seismic shocks. A weight of 40 kg
flexible network of horizontal and vertical        at the end of a 5.5-m-long pendulum was
components is plastered with loam, for             allowed to fall against a model (15.16). The
example, are less prone to damage than             rammed earth house with a square plan
masonry walls. Illustration 15.1 shows a           showed the first large cracks after the sec-
house in Guatemala that was struck by a            ond stroke (15.11). After three strokes,
heavy earthquake and was flexible enough           one section of the wall separated (15.12),
                                                                                                                                                15.15
to withstand the stress. There are three           and after four strokes the house collapsed                       15.10 Typical design
different general principles for designing         (15.13). The rammed earth house with circu-                      mistakes which might
                                                                                                                    lead to a collapse of the
earthquake-resistant structures:                   lar plan, however, displayed initial cracks                      house
1. Walls and roof are well interconnected          only after three strokes (15.14), and one                        15.11 to 15.15 Earth-
and rigid enough that no deformation               small section of the wall separated only                         quake tests with models
                                                                                                                    of square and circular
occurs during earthquakes.                         after six strokes (15.15) (Yazdani, 1985).
                                                                                                                    shape (Minke, 2002)


                                            138    Earthquake-resistant building
                                                                                                     A simple solution for stabilising rammed
                                                                                                     earth walls of lesser thicknesses is to use
                                                                                                     L, T, U, X, Y or Z shaped elements (15.17).
                                                                                                     Due to their angles, they have better stabili-
                                                                                                     ty against lateral forces. If a wall is 30 cm
                                                                                                     thick, the free ends of the elements should
                                                                                                     not be longer than 3/4 and no shorter than
                                                                                                     1/3 of their heights (see 15.19). This minimal

                                                                                                     length is necessary to transfer loads diago-
                                                                                                     nally to the plinth or foundation. If the free
                                                                                                     ends are longer than 3/4 of their heights,
                                                                                                     they should be stabilised by another angle.
                                                                                                     If the angle is well fixed on the bottom to
                                                                                                     the plinth and on the top to a ring beam,
                                                                                                     it should be larger or higher. Nevertheless,
                                                                                                     height should not exceed the width by
                                                                                                     eight times (see 15.6).
                                                                                                     The forces perpendicular to the wall are
                                                                                                     transferred into the angle parallel to the
                                                                                                     direction of force. This means that it is trans-
                                                                                                     ferred, instead of creating a concentration
                                                                                                     of stress at the inner corner of the angle.
                                                                                                     It is advisable, therefore, to enlarge the
                                                                                                     section at this corner, as shown in 15.17
                                                                                                     and 15.18.



                                                                                                                                                    15.17




                                                                                                                                                    15.18


                                                                                             15.16
15.16 Simple test to
                           15.19
study the influence of                   I < 0.75h > 0.33h
wall shape on resistance
to seismic shocks (BRL)
15.17 Elements with
correct corner details                           h                                  h
15.18 Corner solution
15.19 Recommended
proportions
                                                 33 cm

                                                                             I < 0.75h > 0.33h            normal solution          optimised solution



                                   139       Earthquake-resistant building
Openings for doors and windows                    a) The width of a window should not be
                                                  more than 1.2 m and not more than 1/3 of
Wall apertures will destabilise a wall system.    the length of the wall.
During earthquakes, diagonal cracks often         b) The length of walls between openings
occur, starting at the window edges (15.20).      must be at least 1/3 of their height and not
In order to achieve a good bond, lintels          less than 1 m.
must penetrate at least 40 cm into the wall       c) Doors must open outward. Opposite the
(15.21). In this case, however, the area          entrance door should be a large window or
above the lintel may be weak and may              another door, which acts emergency exit
come off during an earthquake, so the best        (15.24).
solution is to use the lintel as a ring beam
on which the roof structure rests. It is also
recommended that the section below the
window be built as a light, flexible structure,
for instance from wooden panels or wattle
and daub. The following rules have to be
taken into account (15.23 and 15.24).




                                                                                                                               15.20




                  dangerous                                      acceptable




                                                                                                                               15.22


                                                                                                 15.20 Typical failures
                                                                                                 caused by seismic move-
                  better                                                                         ments (Tolles et al., 2000)
                                                                                                 15.21 Types of lintels
                                                                                                 15.22 Stabilised open-
                                                                                                 ings
                                                                                                 15.23 Recommendable
                                                                                                 dimensions of openings
                                                                                                 15.24 Recommendable
                                                                                                 positions of openings
                                                                                                 15.25 to 15.26 Earth-
                                                                                                 quake-resistant low-cost
                                                                                                 housing prototype with
                                                                                                 bamboo-reinforced
                                                                                                 rammed earth walls,
                  best                                                             15.21         Guatemala 1978



                                           140    Earthquake-resistant building
                                                                                              15.25

        Bamboo-reinforced rammed earth                and 14 to 30 cm thick (15.28). The stability
15.23   walls                                         of the wall was provided by four built-
                                                      in bamboo rods 2 to 3 cm thick and the
        A bamboo-reinforced panelled rammed           T-shaped section of the wall element. These
        earth wall technique was developed in 1978    elements were fixed at the bottom to a
        as part of a research project by the BRL,     bamboo ring anchor that was embedded
        and successfully implemented jointly with     in the stone masonry plinth, and attached
        the Francisco Marroquín University (UFM)      at the top to a rectangular bamboo ring
        and the Centre for Appropriate Technology     anchor.
        (CEMAT), both in Guatemala (15.25 to          Due to the rib that was integrated into the
        15.29).                                       wall element, this element has about four
        In this project, 80-cm-wide and one-storey-   times stronger resistance against horizontal
        high bamboo-reinforced rammed earth ele-      forces than a 14 cm wall alone would have
        ments were constructed using a T-shaped       had.
15.24   metal formwork 80 cm wide, 40 cm high         After drying, a 2 cm vertical gap appears
                                                      between these elements. This is then packed
                                                      with loam. This joint acts as a pre-designed
                                                      failure joint, allowing an independent move-
                                                      ment of each element during the earth-
                                                      quake.
                                                      This means that these joints can open and
                                                      the whole structure can deform (dissipating
                                                      seismic kinetic energy) without the wall unit
                                                      breaking or falling. The posts on which the
                                                      roof rests are located 50 cm away from the
                                                      walls (15.27) on the inside, so that the roof
                                                      structure is independent of the wall system.
                                                      The rammed earth surface was not plas-
                                                      tered, but only smoothed by a trowel and
                                                      then painted with a mixture made of one
                                            15.26     bag of hydraulic lime, 2 kg common salt,


 141    Earthquake-resistant building
                                                15.27 to 15.29 Earth-
                                                quake-resistant low-
                                                cost housing prototype
                                                with bamboo-reinforced
                                                rammed earth walls,
                                                Guatemala 1978
                                                15.30 to 15.32 Earth-
                                                quake-resistant proto-
                                                type building, Alhué,
                                                Chile, 2001




15.27                                   15.28




                                                                  15.29

 142    Earthquake-resistant building
                                       15.31                                                                                               15.30

                                                                       Galvanized sheet metal    1 kg alum, 1 kg clayey soil and about
                                                                       Wind barrier              40 litres of water.
                                                                     Thermal insulation 100 mm
           OSB e = 9 mm                                                Vapour barrier            In 1998 the BRL developed another rein-
               Beam, pine                                                                        forced rammed earth wall system that was
                                                                                                 utilised for a low-cost housing project built
           OSB e = 9 mm                                                                          in cooperation with the University of Santia-
        Lightweight loam
                                                                                                 go de Chile in Alhué, Chile, in 2001 (see
              Pine e = 2"
                                                                                   Post 5"       15.30 and 15.31). Here too, the idea was to
          Ring beam Ø 5"
     Vertical reinforcement                                                                      separate the roof from the wall system and
(coligüe) Ø 3", d = 60 cm                                                       Wooden
                                                                                reinforcement    to use U-shape and L-shape elements,
                                                                                                 which stabilise themselves by their shape.
                                                                                                 To obtain additional stability, they were rein-
                                                                                                 forced by vertical rods of coligüe (similar to
                                                                                                 bamboo), 3 to 5 cm in diameter. Wall ele-
           Rammed earth                                                                          ments were also always separated by light,
                                                                                                 flexible elements, or by doors and windows.
                              Scale
                                                                                                 The lower parts of the windows and the
                                                                                                 parts above the doors were not built with
                                                                                                 solid elements, but of light timber. The
          Damp-proofing
                  Floor                                                                          gables were built in lightweight straw-loam
          Damp-proofing                                                                          stabilised by wooden elements, similar to
                  Sand
                                                                                                 the wattle-and-daub system.

               Fine gravel

            Coarse gravel

                               Stone
                                                                     Natural ground


        Compacted earth                                             Reinforcement (coligüe)
                  Stones
  Footing (poor concrete)


                                                                                       15.32




                                       143     Earthquake-resistant building
Domes                                              were made by hand in a special mould with
                                                   rounded edges. The acoustic behaviour of
In order to construct a structurally optimised     the dome was further refined by deepening
dome without formwork, the BRL devel-              the vertical joints in order to achieve some
oped a rotational guide that is fixed to a         sound absorption and by a slight cantilever-
vertical mast. An angle is fixed at the end of     ing position, which prevents the sound from
the rotating arm, against which the mason          being focused towards the centre of the
lays the adobe or soil block, allowing block       dome.
to be positioned with precision. Illustrations
15.33 to 15.36 show the application of this
construction technique for an earthquake-
resistant dome with an 8.8 m free span that
is 5.5 m in height, built in La Paz, Bolivia, in
2000. The dome is stabilised by two rein-
forced concrete ring beams, one at the bot-
tom of the dome, another at the top of the
foundation. In order to provide good sound
distribution within the dome, the adobes
                                                                                           15.34                                 15.33




                                                                                                                                 15.35
                                                                                                   15.33 to 15.34 Rotational
                                                                                                   guide
                                                                                                   15.35 to 15.36 Finished
                                                                                                   dome
                                                                                                   15.37 Wrongly designed
                                                                                                   plinth with eccentric
                                                                                                   thrust line, which col-
                                                                                                   lapses easily when hit by
                                                                                                   seismic shocks
                                                                                                   15.38 Earthquake-
                                                                                                   resistant design for a low-
                                                                                                   cost housing project in
                                                                                                   Gujarat, India
                                                                                                   15.39 to 15.40 Dange-
                                                                                                   rous shapes of vaults,
                                                                                                   Bam, Iran
                                                                                                   15.41 Vault which with-
                                                                                                   stood earthquake at Bam,
                                                                                                   Iran, Dec. 2003




                                                                                           15.36

                                            144    Earthquake-resistant building
15.37




                                                                                                      15.39
15.38
        Vaults

        An important rule for the design of plinth
        and foundation is that the resulting force at
        the bottom of the vault must pass through
        the inner third of the surface of the founda-
        tion. This means that eccentricity should be
        less than 1/6. The foundation must have a
                                                                                                      15.40
        reinforced concrete or steel beam, which
        can also withstand the additional horizontal        The best solution for the facades of vaults is
        forces created by an earthquake.                    to build them to be light and flexible, either
        Illustration 15.37 shows a section of a build-      of mats covered with earth plaster, or of
        ing which was built in an earthquake-prone          timber planks.
        area in Bolivia. Its plinth has structurally dan-   Illustration 15.38 shows a design by the
        gerous proportions, as the resultant force          author for an earthquake-resistant low-cost
        from the vault creates a bending moment in          housing project in the region of Gujarat,
        the plinth and does not stay within the inner       India.
        third of the wall, as necessary. This structure     In 2001, a proposal by the author for stabil-
        will readily collapse when hit by an earth-         ising adobe vaults with bamboo arches,
        quake.                                              which guarantee a certain degree of ductili-
        The cross-section of a vault is very important      ty, was realised in a test structure built in
        for stability. For vaults that carry only their     2001 at the University of Kassel, Germany
        own dead loads, an inverted catenary is the         (15.42 to 15.45). It was built using special
        optimal section, as no bending moments              U-shaped adobes that rest on an arch, itself
        will occur within the vault. Pointed vaults, as     built of three layers of split bamboo. The
        shown in 15.39, or ”flat“ vaults as shown in        bamboo sections were soaked in water for
        15.40, typical for Iranian architecture, col-       three days in order to render them flexible.
        lapse very easily when hit by seismic shocks,       Then they were bent over sticks, which
        whereas the vault in 15.41 withstood the            were pushed into the ground along a cate-
        heavy earthquake in Bam, Iran, in December          nary curve (15.43). To maintain the shape of
        2003. Only the front part fell off.                 the arch, the three bamboo sections were
15.41

 145    Earthquake-resistant building
                                                                                        15.44   15.45

wrapped together with galvanised steel          taken into account that if the pre-tension
wire at 50 cm intervals. The arch was verti-    of the membrane is high, the optimal sec-
cally positioned and fixed to steel bars that   tion of the vault is more like an ellipse and
stick out of the plinth. This connection must   not a reversed catenary.
be capable of absorbing tensile forces dur-     For earthquake regions in Argentina and
ing an earthquake. Above the adobe vault, a     Iran, the author developed a similar pre-
membrane of PVC-coated polyester fabric         tensioned system for mud brick vaults. Illus-
was fixed and tightened to the plinth. This     tration 15.46 shows a design for an orphan-
has two functions: first,                       age building in Bam, Iran, where vaults are
it provides shelter against rain and wind;      constructed with thicknesses of 25 cm.
second, it pre-tensions the arch, thereby       They are pre-tensioned by steel strips,
                                                                                                15.42
increasing its stability against tremors        which are tightened to the reinforced con-
during earthquakes.                             crete ring beam at the bottom of the vault.
Such tremors may deform the vault to a          Equal pre-tension forces in all parts are
certain extent, causing adobe joints to open,   ensured by using a calibrated torque
but the vault will not collapse, since it is    wrench. The optimal section of the vault
held up by the tensile pre-stressed mem-        is derived by a computer programme. It
brane at the top and the compressive pre-       guarantees that the resultant forces from
stressed bamboo arch underneath. The            the dead load of the structure and the
stability of this structure, then, depends      pre-tension forces run along the middle
mainly on its ductility. However, it must be    of the vault cross-section.

                                                                                                15.43




                                                                                                15.46

                                         146    Earthquake-resistant building
15.42 Manufacturing
custom-tailored adobes
15.43 Preparing bamboo
arches
15.44 Test vault
15.45 Vault with post-
tensioned membrane
cover
15.46 Design for an
orphanage in Bam, Iran
15.47 Dome, Kassel,
Germany, 1997
15.48 to 15.49 Prefabri-
cated wall elements
15.50 Prototype building,
Kassel, Germany, 1978




                                                                                                              15.47

                                                                    Textile walls with loam infill

                                                                    A BRL research project begun in 1977
                                                                    examined various approaches to forming
                                                                    walls using textile components filled with
                                                                    clayey soil, pumice or sand.
                                                                    Illustration 15.47 shows the dome structure
                                                                    built in 1977, from earth-filled polyester
                   15.48                                    15.49
                                                                    hoses.
                                                                    Two newly developed systems were tested
                                                                    in a prototypical low-cost house intended
                                                                    for earthquake-prone areas in developing
                                                                    countries. The first, illustrated in 15.50, con-
                                                                    sisted of walls formed by two layers of jute
                                                                    fabric. Thin wooden posts are hammered
                                                                    into the ground, and the fabric fixed to
                                                                    these from the inside. The space between
                                                                    is filled with soil.
                                                                    The research also showed that wall ele-
                                                                    ments of this type without infill can be pre-
                                                                    fabricated to lengths of up to 10 m and
                                                                    then folded and rolled up into small bundles
                                                                    (see 15.48 and 15.49).
                                                                    The second system consists of hoses of
                                                                    jute fabric filled with pumice or sandy soil
                                                                    (15.51). The fabric is covered with several
                                                            15.50

                     147    Earthquake-resistant building
                                                                15.51                                                         15.52




                                                                15.53                                                         15.54

layers of lime paint (15.52) in order to pre-   of lime paint. The roof structure rests on        15.51 to 15.52 Prototype
vent rotting of the material and to stabilise   independent posts located 50 cm away              building, Kassel, Germany
                                                                                                  15.53 to 15.55 Low-cost
the surface and make it waterproof.             from the walls on the inside. The material        housing prototype, Gua-
As part of a cooperative research project of    costs of this structure were only about one       temala, 1978
the BRL with UFM and CEMAT from                 half the cost of a comparable house made
Guatemala in 1978, a 55 m2 low-cost proto-      of cement concrete blocks.
type house was erected in Guatemala using       Walls built of fabric hoses filled with mineral
earth-filled hoses for the walls. This tech-    lightweight loam are described in chapter
nique, developed during experiments with        10, p. 90 and chapter 14, p. 133.
the earth-filled hose technique described
earlier, and adapted to local conditions in
Guatemala (15.53 to 15.55), shows very
good earthquake resistance due to its duc-
tility. Here, the hoses, measuring 10 cm in
diameter, were made from cotton fabric,
and were filled with volcanic soil containing
mainly pumice. They were dipped into lime
milk (in order to prevent rotting of the fab-
ric), and then stacked between twin vertical
posts erected at distances of 2.25 m.
Additional stability was provided by bam-
boo rods fixed vertically at a spacing of 45
cm within each panel. After the walls were
stacked, they were finished with two layers
                                                                                                                              15.55

                                         148    Earthquake-resistant building
II Built examples

       As shown by the examples in this chapter, modern
       houses whose principal building material is loam need
       have no particular or characteristic type of outward
       appearance. They can be traditional or modern, simple
       or sophisticated, humble or exclusive. In cold climates,
       the loam as a building material is normally not visible
       from the outside, since it is covered by the necessary
       additional thermal insulation and weather protection
       materials. Interiors, however, can display a variety of
       earth building techniques and their manifold applica-
       tions. In this chapter, various buildings of this kind are
       documented, together with examples from warmer
       climatic zones where less thermal insulation is needed;
       these examples, hence, also display earthen exterior
       surfaces.




 149   Introduction
                            Two semi-detached houses,
                            Kassel, Germany

                       These two houses are characterised by
                       their green facades and roofs, which merge
                       with the landscape, and by their ecologically
                       appropriate concept. The notable feature
                       of the layout is that the rooms are disposed
                       around a central multi-purpose hall with a
                       gallery above, thereby avoiding corridors
                       and integrating a winter garden. All interior
                       walls display timber frame and exposed
                       loam surfaces. The timber roofs show
                       special domical designs made from timber
                       logs. Shelves and even the sink in the bath-
                       room were built from unbaked loam (see
                       chapter 14).




                       Architect: Gernot Minke, Kassel, Germany
                       Completion: 1985
                       Area: 160 m2 + 120 m2
                       Foundation: Plain concrete strip foundation
                       Flooring: 27 cm coarse gravel; covered with
                       thermal insulation and timber plank floor or
                       14-cm-thick lightweight mineral loam with sisal
                       floor matting and, in wet rooms, cork tiles
                       External walls: Green bricks, extruded loam
                       all with additional thermal insulation, air cavity
                       and untreated wooden larch boards
                       Internal walls: Timber frame with infill of extru-
                       ded loam elements
                       Roof: Timber structure; 12 cm thermal insula-
                       tion; 2-mm-thick hot-air welded PVC-coated
                       polyester fabric; 15 cm of earth mixed with
                       expanded clay; living wild grasses


150   Built examples
151   Residences
                       Interior views of
                       two semi-detached
                       houses, Kassel,
                       Germany




152   Built examples
    Residence cum office, Kassel,
    Germany

A combined residence/office building was
built in 1992 within a residential suburb
of Kassel, Germany, that built according to
ecological standards. All main rooms as well
as a bathroom and the winter garden are
covered with earthen domes. The entrance
is covered by three jack vaults built of green
bricks, as explained in chapter 14. The cen-
tral lobby is covered by a dome with a clear
span of 5.2 m and a clear height of 4.6 m,
which is provided with a skylight consisting
of a double-layered acrylic glass dome.
Leading off from this lobby are four addi-
tional domed rooms. Each room has the
same span, with a clear height of 4 m, and
each is provided with a central skylight and
one window at normal height. The con-
struction of these five domes was carried
out using the rotational guide described
in chapter 14. Though the central dome
springs from a height of 1.75 m, and the
domes of the four other rooms at heights
of 0.75 m, no ring beam is necessary, the
structure being designed so that all resultant
forces fall within the middle third of the
foundations. The domes in the bathroom
and winter garden are formed over an
irregular hexagon, and were built using a
technique derived from the Afghan dome
technique (see chapter 14) using arches
inclined at angles of 40-60° from the hori-
zontal.
The eye-shaped opening remaining once
the two sets of arches reach the point at
which they converge is covered by changing
the pattern of arches by 90°. All domes are
covered with an additional layer of 20 cm
rock wool for thermal insulation and sealed
with a 2-mm-thick, hot-air welded rein-
forced plastic membrane, which is water-
proof and ‘root-proof’. This is covered with
15 cm of earth, which acts as substrate for
the frost-resistant and drought-resistant wild
grasses.
The single-storeyed house has a floor area
of 216 m2, including the winter garden.
Walls, shelves and sanitary objects are cov-


                                          153    Residences
                       ered by earth-filled hoses and even the
                       bathroom sink is made from unbaked loam
                       (see pages 132 and 133)

                       Architect: Gernot Minke, Kassel, Germany
                       Completion: 1993
                       Area: 155 m2 (home) + 61 m2 (office)




                       Residence cum office,
                       Kassel, Germany




154   Built examples
155   Residences
                                                        Farmhouse, Wazirpur, India


                                                    The single-storeyed house, with a floor area
                                                    (including veranda) of 206 m2, is mostly
                                                    set into the earth berms towards the north
                                                    of the lake. The south side is exposed to
                                                    the winter sun and is shaded against the
                                                    summer sun by overhangs and louvers.
                                                    The rooms are arranged around a central
                                                    patio containing a small pool with plants.
                                                    This enables cross ventilation for all rooms
                                                    and cooling by evaporation. The plan was
                                                    generated by a pattern of octagons and
      Architects: Gernot Minke, Kassel, Germany,
                                                    squares. The structural frame consists of
      and DAAT, New Delhi, India
                                                    load-bearing stone columns which support
      Completion: 1993
                                                    beams and stone slabs to form slightly
      Area: 206 m2
                                                    domical enclosures over all rooms. A light
      Walls: Stone columns with adobe infill
                                                    coloured stone roof above this structure
      Roof: Double layer of sand stone slabs with
                                                    creates an air cavity and thus reflects solar
      air cavity
                                                    radiation and provides shade to the thin
                                                    roof below. The infill walls are built with
                                                    adobes (handmade mud bricks). Wherever
                                                    the berms cover the external face, an air
                                                    cavity is formed by an inclined stone slab
                                                    resting against the wall. All external sur-
                                                    faces of the building have either air cavities
                                                    or summer shading by overhangs and lou-
                                                    vers. The stone louvers of all windows are
                                                    designed to take over the function of the
                                                    usual steel security grill, and at the same
                                                    time provide sun shading as well as the
                                                    reflection of daylight into the rooms.
                                                    Additional cooling in the summer months
                                                    is provided to all rooms by an earth tunnel
                                                    system. The distance from the 2 kW fan
                                                    to the building is about 60 m. The section
                                                    consists of two masonry ducts at average
                                                    depths of 3 m below surface. The maximum
                                                    air velocity is kept to 6 m/sec.
                                                    The elements of passive climatisation are
                                                    shown in the drawing below.




156   Built examples
    Honey House at Moab, Utah, USA


This country house was built from earth-
filled rammed tubes or sacks. The thickness
of the walls is 50 cm, and the diameter of
the interior space is 3 m. Forty tons of earth
were used in all.
The exterior surfaces are covered with
straw-loam plastering, and the edges of
the openings and the pedestal with loam
plastering. Inner surfaces were plastered
with loam.


Design and construction: Kaki Hunter, Donald
Kiffmeyer, Moab, UT, USA
Completion: 1998
Area: 11 m2




                                           157   Residences
158   Built examples
    Three-family house, Stein on the
    Rhine, Switzerland

The building is a three-storeyed post-and-
beam structure that is planked with diago-
nal buttressing sheathing. The outer walls
bear an exterior lime plastering on light-
weight wood wool construction slabs,
behind which lies a 12-cm-thick cellulose
insulation. The insides of the exterior walls
consist of 20-cm-thick rammed lightweight
woodchip shaving loam coated with loam
plastering. The weather-exposed gable is
provided with rear-ventilated larch wood
sheathing. The inner walls are filled in with
adobes. The brick roof and the balcony pro-
ject outward so that the southern rooms are
shadowed in summer, yet admit sunlit
in wintertime.




Design: Michael Nothelfer, Überlingen, Germany
Completion: 1997
Area: Basement level: 82 m2
Ground floor: 118 m2
Attic storey: 108 m2




                                          159    Residences
                                                                                   Residence, La Paz, Bolivia


                                                                               The residence is situated at the edge of
                                                                               Bolivia’s capital at a height of 3700 m
                                                                               above sea level. It is built of handmade
                                                                               adobes and consists of three crossing vaults.
                                                                               The vaults have thicknesses of 30 cm and
                                                                               give a positive time lag for sun radiation.
                                                                               This means that solar radiation enters the
                                                                               rooms in the evening and at night when
                                                                               outdoor temperatures are low. The vaults
                                                                               are plastered with an earth plaster, which
                                                                               is covered by an elastic acrylic paint to
                                                                               provide shelter against rain.




                                                                               Architect: Raul Sandoval, La Paz, Bolivia
                                                                               Completion: 1999
                                                                               Area: 84 m2

          Bedroom




                                                                     Bedroom
                                            Living room


Kitchen               Dining room




           Bathroom




                                                          Entrance




                                    160   Built examples
    Residence, Turku, Finland


The partly two-storey-high building stands
at the border of the city and accommodates
a family of five. The structural system of the
walls is provided by a timber skeleton. The
exterior walls are formed by 40-cm-thick
prefabricated cubes composed of a mixture
of clayey soil and straw. Their specific weight
is 450 kg/m2. These blocks are covered
either by timber planks or lime plaster. The
U-value of the walls is 0.28 W/m2K.


Architect: Teuvo Ranki, Turku, Finland
Completion: 1999
Area: 127 m2




                                              Storage
                                      Sauna

                                                        Kitchen
                                                                                   Winter garden




                       Utility room


                                                                     Living room




                      Children




                                                                  Terrace
                      Child




         Carport                 Bedroom




                                                            161   Residences
                           Residence and studio at Gallina
                           Canyon, New Mexico, USA

                       The two-storey residence, built of sun-dried,
                       unstabilised and locally made adobes, pro-
                       vides spectacular views from its terraces
                       and roof top of the Gallina Canyon in the
                       Sangre De Christo Mountains, north of Taos,
                       New Mexico. It displays several features of
                       environment-conscious design, such as pas-
                       sive solar heating through a combination of
                       direct solar gain with a thermal chimney,
                       which distributes warm air to the cooler
                       rooms on the north side of the house. Elec-
                       tricity is backed up by a photovoltaic sys-
                       tem, and water from the roofs is harvested
                       for gardening purposes. Interior surfaces




                       show on-site mud plaster finishes, flagstone
                       floors and recycled oak beams.

                       Architect: ONE EARTH DESIGN, Joaquin Karcher,
                       Taos, NM, USA
                       Builder: Aqua Fria Construction, Ed Baca, Taos,
                       NM, USA
                       Completion: 2001
                       Area: 390 m2




162   Built examples
                           Residence at Des Montes,
                           near Taos, New Mexico, USA

                       This sumptuous residence is located near
                       Taos, New Mexico, a town and area that
                       has a long tradition in adobe constructions.
                       The house provides two bedrooms, a circu-
                       lar living room with a guest sleeping loft
                       above and an open kitchen/dining area.
                       The roof terrace above offers breathtaking
                       views of the surrounding mountains. The
                       house has two porches, one of them open-
                       ing towards a walled garden with a water
                       fountain. All walls are built of handmade
                       adobes and are mud plastered; sometimes




                       natural pigments were added. Only natural
                       and non-toxic finishes have been used.
                       Other green features include a passive solar
                       design concept, a solar hot water system
                       and a stained concrete floor with radiant
                       heat, locally harvested lumber and a roof
                       water harvesting system which irrigates the
                       gardens.


                       Architect: ONE EARTH DESIGN, Joaquin Karcher,
                       Taos, NM, USA
                       Builder: John Havener, Cadillac Builders, Taos,
                       NM, USA
                       Completion: 2004
                       Area: 204 m2


164   Built examples
                           Casita Nuaanarpoq at Taos,
                           New Mexico, USA

                       The rooms are grouped around a central
                       staircase whose dark red coloration is
                       highly visible from outside. The house is
                       autonomous in energy terms, with photo-
                       voltaic cells supplying the required electricity.
                       The passive harvesting of solar energy by
                       the glass front, as well as the massive loam
                       storage wall within and the highly effective
                       thermal insulation provided by the outer
                       walls, formed of balls of hay, result in ade-
                       quate climate control for this house, set in
                       a desert climate with extreme temperature
                       differences.

                       Architects: Edge Architects; Ken Anderson,
                       Pamela Freund, Taos, NM, USA
                       Completion: 2004
                       Floor area: 140 m2




166   Built examples
    Residence and office at Bowen
    Mountain, New South Wales,
    Australia

The solar chimney exhausts warm air via
a funnel effect. In winter, a wood stove pro-
vides additional heating as needed.
The lower storey has a 3000 mm load-bear-
ing wall of handmade adobes. The top
storey has a post-and-beam timber struc-
ture with adobe infill of 250 mm externally
and 200 mm respectively 120 mm internally.
Walls are plastered on both sides with mud
plaster. The exterior plaster is stabilised with
cowdung. Large louvered glass openings
allow views to the bush landscape and pro-
vide solar heat gain. A wood stove gives
additional heat in winter.

Architects and builders: Ray & Lynne Trappel,
Bowen Mountain, Australia
Completion: 2004
Area: 230 m2 (residence) + 80 m2 (office)




                                            167    Residences
                           Vineyard Residence at Mornington
                           Peninsula, Victoria, Australia

                       The predominant elements of this residence,
                       which is situated in a large vineyard, are the
                       rammed earth walls. The living area extends
                       out to the north veranda, the kitchen to an
                       informal terrace area. The study opens up to
                       the garden.
                       The principal bedroom, with its walls
                       angling outward, evokes the impression of
                       continuing into the landscape. The entry
                       screen reduces western sun into the living
                       area. Cross ventilation is achieved through-
                       out all areas.

                       Architects: John Wardle Architects, Melbourne,
                       Australia
                       Completion: 2002
                       Area: 400 m2




168   Built examples
169   Residences
                           Residence, Helensville, New
                           Zealand

                       This owner-built house of 180 m2 area
                       required 9 years of work. The structure was
                       built of recycled timber, the adobes formed
                       by hand from local soil. The floors are of
                       earth slate or recycled timber. The glass
                       facade enables passive solar heating.
                       A wood fire is installed for cooking, hot
                       water and additional heating.
                       The property features many permaculture
                       aspects. There is a waterless composting
                       toilet, and a windmill pumps water to the
                       garden.


                       Architects: Graeme North, Warkworth,
                       New Zealand
                       Builders: Collen and John Brown
                       Completion: 2005
                       Area: 180 m2




170   Built examples
171   Residences
                                                                  Residence, São Francisco Xavier,
                                                                  Brazil

                                                             The residence is situated at the foot of a
                                                             mountain, on a site difficult to access.
                                                             It has been built of local building materials
                                                             such as earth, stone, bamboo and wood,
                                                             mostly taken directly from the site. Eucalyp-
                                                             tus trunks, formerly used as lamp posts and
                                                             power poles in the city, have been recycled
                                                             as posts and beams.


                                                             Architect: Maxim Bucaretchi, Brazil
                                                             Completion: 2002
                                                             Area: 330m2




               Kitchen
                                                   Library

                                            Room
                Stone
                garden
Living
room


                          Living    Room                           Room
                          room

                          Ground floor: 230 m2                 Upper floor: 100 m2


  172    Built examples
173   Residences
                           Panafrican Institute for
                           Development, Ouagadougou,
                           Burkina Faso

                       The 5,000 m2 research and training centre
                       includes three distinct groups of buildings:
                       a teaching and administrative centre,
                       including library and restaurant; housing for
                       72 students; and houses for 9 professors.
                       All walls, vaults and domes were built from
                       stabilised soil blocks that were manufac-
                       tured from local soil on site. The vaults and
                       the domes were erected in the Nubian tech-
                       nique without formwork. The exterior sur-
                       faces were plastered with a mud plaster
                       that is stabilised with lime and cement.
                       The project was started in 1981 and com-
                       pleted in 1984. In 1992 it received the Aga
                       Khan Award for Architecture.


                       Architect: Philippe Glauser, Zurich, Switzerland
                       Engineer: Ladji Camara
                       Financing: EZE (Evangelische Zentralstelle für
                       Entwicklungshilfe, Bonn-Bad Godesberg), DDA
                       (Direction de la coopération en développement
                       et de l’Aide humanitaire, Bern), IPD (Institut
                       Panafricain pour le Développement)




174   Built examples
175   Cultural, Educational and Sacral Buildings
                                                               Office building, New Delhi, India


                                                           This office building was constructed in order
                                                           to prove that domed and vaulted rooms
                                                           built of earth blocks are conducive to a bet-
                                                           ter indoor climate and can be more eco-
                                                           nomical than traditional buildings with flat
                                                           concrete roofs.
                                                           The project was built as part of a research
                                                           and development project sponsored by the
                                                           German agency Gate/GTZ.
                                                           The building provides office and laboratory
                                                           space for a research group with a usable
                                                           area of 115 m2.
                                                           The central hall acts as a multi-purpose
                                                           room for seminars, meetings and exhibi-
                                                           tions.
                                                           The three domes were built of soil blocks,
                                                           utilising a rotational slipform that was devel-
                                                           oped by the Building Research Laboratory,
                                                           University of Kassel, Germany (see p. 127).
                                                           The soil blocks were produced by a manual-
                                                           ly operated press.
                                                           For heating and cooling, an earth tunnel
                                                           system was installed. Climate conditions
                                                           require that the rooms are cooled from April
                                                           to September and heated from December
                                                           to February. For this purpose, a 100-m-long
                                                           stoneware pipe system was installed in a
                                                           depth of 3.50 m, through which ambient
                                                           air is blown by two fans. The blown air
                                                           receives the nearly constant earth tempera-
                                                           ture of about 25°C, which corresponds to
                                                           the annual mean temperature. This air cools
                                                           the building in the hot season and heats
                                                           it in the cold season.
                                                           The energy saving results in nearly 38,000
                                                           kWh per year, about 2/3 of the total amount.
                                                           The saving in building costs in comparison
                                                           with a conventional building with flat con-
                                                           crete roof was 22%.

      Foundation and plinth: Burned bricks                 Architect and supervisor: Gernot Minke,
      Vertical walls and domes: Stabilised soil blocks     Kassel, Germany
      Vaults: Handmade stabilised adobes                   Collaborator: R. Muthu Kumar, New Delhi, India
      Surface treatment: Cowdung-mud mortar with           Energy concept: N.K. Bansal, New Delhi, India
      water repellent                                      Completion: 1991
      Skylights: Acrylic glass with openings for natural   Area: 115 m2
      ventilation


176   Built examples
177   Cultural, Educational and Sacral Buildings
                           School at Solvig, Järna, Sweden


                       The two-storey building belongs to the
                       building complex of a Waldorf school. It
                       contains two classrooms, each with a small
                       entrance hall.
                       The basement walls are built of two layers
                       of 15-cm-wide lightweight concrete blocks
                       and 20 cm intervals, the cavities being filled
                       with perlite for thermal insulation. The first
                       floor has 50-cm-wide load-bearing walls
                       of solid loam loafs, topped by a timber ring
                       beam . The loafs were formed by hand from
                       local clayey soil following the rules of the
                       Dünne loam loaf technique, described in
                       chapter 8.
                       The roof is carried by a timber frame struc-
                       ture, isolated by turf and covered by stone
                       slate shingles.
                       The rooms are heated by open fireplaces.

                       Architect: Mats Wedberg, Hallstavik, Sweden
                       Completion: 1993
                       Area: 140 m2




178   Built examples
179   Cultural, Educational and Sacral Buildings
                           Kindergarten, Sorsum, Germany


                       The kindergarten has a central dome, built
                       from loam (mud) bricks and with a free
                       span of 10 m, over a multi-purpose hall. Its
                       thickness is only 30 cm. Each of the three
                       group rooms is covered with two domes
                       which meet at a central arch. The roofs of
                       the side rooms and corridors are formed
                       by a timber structure. Most of the outside
                       walls are earth-bermed. The whole building
                       is covered by a 15-cm-thick earth layer and
                       living grass.
                       The design exhibits a harmonious integra-
                       tion into the landscape, and the result is a
                       highly energy-efficient building.
                       The earth blocks were extruded in a brick
                       factory, and have a special rounded surface
                       that offers positive acoustic effect in terms
                       of sound distribution. The slight outward
                       inclination of the blocks causes a corbelling
                       effect, which eliminates the focusing of
                       acoustic waves.




                       Architect: Gernot Minke, Kassel, Germany
                       Completion: 1996
                       Area: 595 m2
                       Exterior walls, plinth: Porous bricks
                       Roof: Mud brick domes; timber structure, cov-
                       ered by 15 cm mineral wool; water and rain
                       proof plastic-covered fabric; 15 cm earth, wild
                       grass vegetation.


180   Built examples
181   Cultural, Educational and Sacral Buildings
                           Cultural Centre, La Paz, Bolivia


                       For the Goethe Institute in La Paz, an adobe
                       dome was erected as a multi-purpose hall
                       for cultural events. The dome, erected with-
                       out formwork and with the aid of a rotation
                       device, has an unobstructed diameter of
                       8.8 m and an unobstructed height of 5.65 m.
                       It was constructed of 9,400 specially hand-
                       made adobes. Corners were rounded for
                       the sake of improved space acoustics. The
                       three holes serve as grips for lighter hand-
                       ling, reducing weight and elevating thermal
                       insulation. The dome is covered by fibre-
                       glass reinforcement with a synthetic coating.
                       The acrylic coating contains aluminium pow-
                       der, which reflects ultraviolet radiation.




                       Architect: Gernot Minke, Kassel, Germany
                       Supervisor: Alexander Fischer, La Paz, Bolivia
                       Completion: 2000
                       Area: 75 m2




182   Built examples
    Mosque, Wabern, Germany


Beginning in 2005, this mosque, which has
two circular rooms of 9 m diameter, each
covered by domes, has been under con-
struction in the Hessian town of Wabern. It
will be the first mosque to be built display-
ing domes and vaults of unbaked mud
(green) bricks and covered by a green roof,
i.e. a roof of earth and living grass. The large
domes are built of special acoustic green
bricks with rounded edges, as described in
chapter 6, p. 68. The cross sections of the
domes are optimised so that no ring forces
will occur within the dome, and so that
its structurally necessary thickness is only
30 cm.

Architect: Gernot Minke, Kassel, Germany
Under construction, anticipated completion:
2006
Area: 273 m2




                                              183   Cultural, Educational and Sacral Buildings
                           Kindergarten and Nursery of
                           Druk White Lotus School, Ladakh,
                           India

                       The Druk White Lotus School at the village
                       of Shey in Ladakh is a large complex for
                       750 mixed pupils from nursery age to
                       18 years and includes also accommodation
                       for some pupils and staff. Phase 1, Kinder-
                       garten & Nursery, was completed in 2001,
                       Junior School and Administration buildings
                       in 2004, Senior School is planned for 2008.
                       The complex is located at an altitude of
                       about 3700 m in an extremely cold but
                       sunny climate.
                       Ventilated Trombe walls, wool as thermal
                       insulation layer and double-glazing were
                       used to create an acceptable indoor com-
                       fort. Key design feature were also water
                       cycle and waste management, maximised
                       solar potential through both passive and
                       active means, solar-assisted ventilated pit
                       latrines and use of local building materials.
                       The kindergarten buildings have air cavity
                       walls on three sides with granite blocks
                       laid in mud mortar. The roof is built in the
                       Ladakhi tradition: a heavy mud roof support-
                       ed by a timber structure independent of
                       the walls to provide earthquake stability.




                       Architects and engineers: Arup Associates,
                       London, Great Britain
                       Completion: 2001
                       Area: 596 m2

184   Built examples
185   Cultural, Educational and Sacral Buildings
                           Mii amo Spa at Sedona, Arizona,
                           USA


                       The building is a three-storeyed post-and-
                       beam structure that is planked with diago-
                       nal buttressing sheathing. The outer walls
                       bear an exterior lime plastering on light-
                       weight wood wool construction slabs,
                       behind which lies a 12-cm-thick cellulose
                       insulation. The insides of the exterior walls
                       consist of 20-cm-thick rammed lightweight
                       woodchip shaving loam coated with loam
                       plastering. The weather-exposed gable is
                       provided with rear-ventilated larch wood
                       sheathing. The inner walls are filled in with
                       adobes. The brick roof and the balcony pro-
                       jects outward so that the southern rooms
                       are shadowed in summer, yet admit sun-
                       light in wintertime.




186   Built examples
                                                   Architects: Gluckman Mayner Architects,
                                                   New York, USA
                                                   Completion: 2001
                                                   Area: 3160 m2



187   Cultural, Educational and Sacral Buildings
                           Tourist resort at Baird Bay, Eyre
                           Peninsula, South Australia

                       This small ecological resort lies 100 m off
                       the ocean on the Eyre Peninsula, 1000 km
                       west of Adelaide in a desert climate. It
                       provides seven bedrooms, a store and an
                       entertainment area for tourists, who may
                       go for swim with sea lions and dolphins.
                       The walls of this resort, as well as the
                       columns, retaining walls and signs, were
                       built of rammed earth from local soil sta-
                       bilised by 6 % of cement.

                       Architect: George Grayton, Perth, Australia
                       Builder: Ramtec, Perth, Australia
                       Completion: 2005
                       Area: 700 m2




188   Built examples
    Academic accommodation
    building, Charles Sturt University
    at Thurgoona, New South Wales,
    Australia

All walls of this academic accomodation
building on the campus of Charles Sturt Uni-
versity are built with rammed earth.
Mechanical cooling ducts allow air to circu-
late throughout the building. There is a con-
crete slab floor between the first and sec-
ond floors with large floor airspaces in the
foyer, finally a concrete slab roof venting to
mechanical vents.

Architect and builder: Terry Wright, Riverina
Rammed Earth Constructions, Table Top, NSW,
Australia
Completion: 2005
Area: 420 m2




             FIRST FLOOR PLAN


                                           189   Cultural, Educational and Sacral Buildings
190   Built examples
    Youth Centre at Spandau, Berlin,
    Germany

This pedagogically supervised facility offers
local children and young people opportuni-
ties for active leisure activities and play.
A 32.5-m-long massive rammed earth wall
subdivides the building and serves to con-
serve thermal energy and balance atmos-
pheric humidity.
The glazed southern facade provides pas-
sive delivery of solar energy. The northern
outer wall was decorated by graffiti artists
with the participation of the young people.
The green roof absorbs 70% of rainfall; the
remainder drains off onto the adjacent site.


Architects: ask architects, Hermann Scheidt,
Frank Kasprusch, Berlin, Germany
Completed: 2005
Area: 385 m2




                                               191   Cultural, Educational and Sacral Buildings
                          Chapel of Reconciliation, Berlin,
                        Germany

                       The chapel stands at the border formerly
                       separating West from East Berlin, on the
                       site of the former neo-Gothic Church of
                       Reconciliation, which was demolished by
                       the then East German government. The
                       interior is of oval shape, and is delimited
                       by a rammed earth wall 7.2 m in height
                       and 0.6 m in thickness. The roof and outer
                       shell, formed by vertical wooden strips,
                       represents a second oval that is eccentrically
                       configured in relation to the first.
                       The rammed earth wall contains large frag-
                       ments of broken brick from the former
                       church, as well as gravel, which together
                       constitutes 55% of the material. The clay
                       content is only 4%. This coarse-grained mix-
                       ture, with a minimal moisture content of
                       8.1%, reduces material shrinkage to only
                       0.15 %. With a humidity level of 50 % and
                       a temperature of 20°C, the equilibrium
                       moisture content of the loam is 0.7 %.
                       The admixture of flax fibres and intensive
                       compaction with a tamping roller was
                       able to produce a compressive strength of
                       3.2 N/mm2 (measured with 20 x 20 x 20 cm
                       cubes). The constantly changing radius of
                       curvature required the use of an intricate
                       special formwork.


                       Architects: Reitermann + Sassenroth, Berlin,
                       Germany
                       Completed: 2000
                       Area: 315 m2




192   Built examples
193   Cultural, Educational and Sacral Buildings
                           Center of Gravity Foundation Hall
                           at Jemez Springs, New Mexico,
                           USA

                       The building serves as the primary teaching
                       and meditation hall for the existing Zen
                       Buddhist compound, located in a high
                       mountain river valley in northern New
                       Mexico.
                       The thick rammed earth walls act as thermal
                       composites, keeping unwanted summer
                       heat out during the day and re-radiating it
                       at night. Cantilevered roof edges block sum-
                       mer sun. Cooling works via cross-ventilation
                       by opening the sliding panels to the east
                       and the entry doors to the west. In winter
                       heat is generated by geothermal water.

                       Architects: H. Predock, J. Frane, Santa Monica, CA,
                       USA
                       Completion: 2003
                       Area: 279 m2




194   Built examples
195   Cultural, Educational and Sacral Buildings
Future prospects                                         these techniques, guidelines should be developed
                                                         and training courses offered .
                                                         The practicability of these techniques will have
In areas with colder climates, earthen architecture      to be demonstrated not only with residential
may never play the dominant role it already plays        projects, in particular with low-cost housing, but
in warmer regions. Owing to climatic conditions          also in public buildings such as hospitals, schools,
and high standards of thermal insulation in Cen-         and office buildings. This would show that, if
tral and Northern Europe, for example, exterior          used correctly, earth is a long-lasting and eco-
walls need additional external thermal insulation.       nomical material that is easily available and easy
In hot and moderate climates of all continents, on       to handle and is capable of creating even presti-
the other hand, solid external walls can be built        gious buildings .
from loam without being covered. They provide
a better indoor climate and are more economical          The building of masonry walls from adobes, from
than walls made of natural stone, fired bricks or        sun-dried, unfired earth blocks, will continue to
concrete.                                                be a dominant technique simply because such
                                                         techniques can be used by masons in all parts of
Nevertheless we find an increasing tendency to           the world without special training. Adobe domes
build with loam in the cooler climates of Europe         and vaults are an economically and structurally
and America as well. This is due to a growing            valuable alternative to the usual flat or slightly
environmental consciousness and an awareness             inclined roofs of sheet metal, asbestos cement or
that not only do industrially produced materials         reinforced cement concrete. They will certainly be
require unnecessarily high energy inputs; they           used with greater frequency once an understand-
also consume scarce resources while producing            ing of their potential becomes more widespread.
pollution. Another factor is the desire to live in a
balanced and healthy indoor environment.                 The rammed earth technique is favourable for
In developing countries, where even today,               moderate and warm climates, and is also eco-
more than half of the population lives in earthen        nomical, especially if used with adequate equip-
houses, modern houses are usually not built from         ment and mechanised technology.
earth but from industrialised building materials         The knowledge of how to construct earthquake-
such as fired bricks, cement concrete and pre-           resistant buildings of adobes and rammed earth
fabricated panels of various compositions. Even          should be disseminated throughout all earth-
here, there is an increasing recognition that            quake-prone zones. It has been proven that in
the immense existing requirements for shelter            many cases, it was not the use of earthen materi-
cannot be met with industrially produced building        als as such that led to the collapse of such build-
materials and building techniques, since neither         ings during earthquakes, but rather incorrect
the productive capacity nor the necessary finan-         structural designs and bad craftsmanship.
cial resources are available. The only seemingly         In industrialised countries in moderate climatic
feasible solution is to use natural, locally available   zones, prefabricated lightweight loam elements
materials and appropriate skills and tools while         and loam plasters for interior walls will be used
integrating self-help techniques, all of which           with increasing frequency. In Germany, Austria
make earth the ideal building material .                 and the Netherlands, several types have recently
In such regions, especially those with hot and           become increasingly successful on the quickly
moderate climates, an increasing number of               growing markets for such products.
modern buildings already have walls made of
adobes or stabilised soil blocks. With low-cost
housing in these regions, where roof structures
can account for up to one third of total building
costs, the use of earthen blocks for building
vaults and domes is very promising, since these
structural types can be more economical than
industrial roofing while also creating better indoor
climate by virtue of their thermal characteristics,
potential for improved ventilation, and noise-
insulating properties.

Newly developed and successfully tested earth
construction techniques are waiting to be adapt-
ed and implemented in countries where they
have not yet been tried. In order to disseminate

                                                  196    Appendices
Measures                                             Physical values                              R- and U-values

                                                     Temperature                                  All R- and U-values in this book have been stated
In this book, all measures as regards lengths        Centigrade (Celsius) – Fahrenheit            according to the metric system. For the conver-
and areas as well as physical values are based on    Multiply by 9/5 and add 32                   sion of the metric system (USI, RSI) into the
the metric system. The Anglo-Saxon equivalent                                                     respective imperial system (U, R), the use of fac-
of the U-value (describing thermal conductivity in    °C           °F                             tors is required:
Central Europe) is the R-value, which has been       –10          14
added in brackets. In this context, it must be         0          32                                              R x 0.1761= RSI
noted that the R-values are based on the metric       10          50                                              RSI x 5.6783 = R
system.                                               20          68
To enable readers to convert values into the          30          86                              U-values are the reciprocals of the respective
imperial system that is most commonly used                                                        R-values and vice versa.
in North America we have listed the most impor-
tant conversion factors as follows:

                                                           USI (W/m2K)              RSI (m2K/W)   U (BTU/hr * sq. ft. * °F)    R (hr * sq. ft. * °F/BTU)
Lengths and areas
                                                              0.1                        10           0.018                             56.78
1 mm = 0.03937 inches                                         0.15                        6.667       0.026                             37. 86
1 cm = 0.3937 inches                                          0.2                         5           0.035                             20.39
1 m = 39.37 inches
                                                              0.3                         3.333       0.053                             18. 93

1 m2 = 10.764 square feet                                     0.5                         2           0.080                             11.36
1 ha = 2.471 acres                                            1.0                         1           0.176                               5.68

1 inch = 2.54 cm
1 foot = 30.48 cm

1 square foot = 0.093 m2
1 acre = 0.4047 ha




                                               197   Appendices
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                                                      Hofmann, U.; Schembra, F.W. et al.: “Die Trocken-             matic Control. Amsterdam, Netherlands 1994,
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                                                                                                                    Materials. St. Gallen, Switzerland 1988.

                                               198    Appendices
Turowski, R.: Entlastung der Rohstoff- und            Acknowledgements                                      Illustration credits
  Primärenergiebilanz … Dissertation, University
  of Essen, Germany 1977.
United Nations Centre for Human Settlements           The author wishes to thank all students, assistants   Adle, Kamran (Aga Kahn Award for Architecture):
  (ed.): Earth Construction Technology. Nairobi,      and colleagues, who have contributed to the              p. 175 top and bottom
  Kenia 1992.                                         research and development projects in Germany,         Atlas-Copco: 5.11
Volhard, F.: Leichtlehmbau. Karlsruhe, Germany        Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Guatemala,         Anderson, Ken: p. 166
  1983.                                               Ecuador, Hungary, India, Nigeria and Russia. It is    Bochow, K.-H.: 6.3
Vorhauer, K.: Low Cost/Self Help Housing. Gate        owing to these efforts that this book contains        Breshna: 14.30
  Modul 6/6. Eschborn, Germany 1979.                  so much data and accounts of practical work           Bucaretchi, Maxim: p. 172 left and right; p. 173
Voth, B.: Boden, Baugrund und Baustoff. Wies-         experience.                                              top and bottom
  baden/Berlin, Germany 1978.                         Special thanks are due to the research assistants     CEPED: 5.26
Walker, P.; Keable, R.; Martin, J.; Maniatidis, V.:   H. G. Merz, Ulrich Merz, Klaus Eckart, Ulla Lustig-   Consolid: 6.14
  Rammed earth: design and construction               Rössler, Kiran Mukerji, Ulrich Boemans, Uwe           Dressler, F.: 8.8
  guidelines. BREPress, Bracknell, Great Britain      Jaensch, Dittmar Hecken, Alexander Fischer,           Dufter, S.: 7.1, 7.2
  2005.                                               Arno Reich-Siggemann, Friedemann Mahlke,              El Badwan, G.: 14.29
Wehle, K.: Werkstoffe und Techniken der Malerei.      Marcio Rosa d’Avila, Ernst Müller, Saskia Baden and   Enchantment Resort (Mii Amo): p. 187 top
  Ravensburg, Germany (5th edition) 1985.             the technician Frank Millies, who built most          Fischer, Alexander: p. 160 top and centre
Weiss, A.: Angewandte Chemie 75 (1963),               of the newly developed test apparatuses and           Gerster-Rapho: 1.6
  pp. 755-762.                                        construction devices.                                 Glauser, Philippe: p. 174 top
Weller, K.; Rehberg, S.: Lösungsansätze für den                                                             Gnädinger, Alexander: cover
  energie- und rohstoffsparenden Wohnungs-            The author also wishes to thank Pawan Kumar           Gruner, D.: 1.4
  bau. DFG research project, Technical University     and Anke Lubenow, who helped in making the            Heuser: 5.12
  of Berlin, Germany 1979.                            drawings; Ulrich Boemans, Sigrid Köster, Uwe          Huber, Samuel: 192 top
Yazdani, H.: Erhöhung der Lebensdauer von             Jaensch and Friedemann Mahlke, who prepared           Karcher, Joaquin: p. 162 top, centre right and left,
  Lehmbauten in erdbebengefährdeten                   the computer graphics; Gabrielle Pfaff, who              p. 163; p. 164 top, centre right and left; p. 165
  Gebieten Afghanistans. Dissertation, University     designed the layout; as well as Shalini Hingorani,    Klomfar, Bruno: 192 bottom, 193
  of Kassel, Germany 1985.                            Rajeshwari Prakash, Sanjay Prakash and Ian Pepper     Lauber, Wolfgang: 1.9
Zogler, O.: Wohnhäuser aus Lehm. Munich,              for their assistance with the translation. Last but   Lorenz-Ladener, C.: 6.4
  Germany 2004.                                       not least, the author expresses his gratitude to      Lukas, G.: 8.9, 8.10
                                                      Ria Stein and Michael Wachholz, who provided          Mein, Trevor: p. 168 top, centre right and left;
                                                      editorial assistance and conducted image research.       p. 169 top and bottom
                                                                                                            North, Graeme: p. 170 top and centre left; p. 171
                                                      Kassel, February 2006                                 Nothelfer, Michael: p. 158 top, p. 159 top, bottom
                                                      Gernot Minke                                             right and left
                                                                                                            OKOKOK Productions: p. 157 top, bottom right
                                                                                                               and left
                                                                                                            Oliver, D.: 5.22, 5.23
                                                                                                            Pacific Adobe: 6.15
                                                                                                            Payne, Alan and Trish: p. 188 top, centre right
                                                                                                               and left, bottom
                                                                                                            Predock, Jason: p. 194 top; p. 195
                                                                                                            Reynolds, M.: 14.4
                                                                                                            Schijns, W.: 14.25
                                                                                                            Sohie, Caroline: p. 184 left and right; p. 185 top
                                                                                                               and bottom right
                                                                                                            Süß, Andreas: p. 190 top; p. 191 top and bottom
                                                                                                            Trappel, Ray: p. 167 top and bottom
                                                                                                            Weller, K.: 6.16, 6.17
                                                                                                            Wolf, S.: 5.27, 5.28
                                                                                                            Wright, Anthony: p. 189 top and bottom
                                                                                                            Yazdani, S.: 1.5, 14.54, 14.55
                                                                                                            Zernike, Harry: p. 186 top and bottom, p. 187
                                                                                                               bottom right

                                                                                                            All other images: Minke, Gernot




                                               199    Appendices
Graphic design: Gabrielle Pfaff, Berlin
Translation: Shalima Hingorami, Rajeshwari
Prakash, Sanjay Prakash, New Dehli, India;
Ian Pepper, Berlin, and Gernot Minke, Kassel,
Germany

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                                                  200    Appendices

				
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