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					                                     PC-I FORM




PAKISTAN ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION
            ISLAMABAD




  PRODUCTION OF MOLYBDENUM-99
        FOR MEDICAL USE


                     AT




   Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and
   Technology (PINSTECH), ISLAMABAD


             DECEMBER, 2003
                                                                          PC-I FORM

       PROJECT PROFORMA FOR DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS
              (INDUSTRIES,COMMERCE& MINERAL SECTOR)
                                                             Code Number for project
                                                                   (To be filled in by
                                                               Planning Commission)
                                    PART “A”
                                PROJECT DIGEST
1.   Name of project:
     PRODUCTION OF MOLYBDENUM-99 FOR MEDICAL USE.
2.   Location
     Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad.

3.   Product(s) to be manufactured
     Or Services to be provided:
     Production of Molybdenum-99 for preparation of Technetium-99m Generators for
     medical use.

4.   Authorities responsible for:
     (i)     Sponsoring:
             Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC)

     (ii)    Execution:
             Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, (PINSTECH),
             Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) Islamabad.

     (iii)   Operation, maintenance and monitoring:
             Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, (PINSTECH),
             Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) Islamabad.

5.   Time required for completion of Projects in months:
                                36 months
             (attach PERT/CPM and Bar charts etc). See Annexure A-Fig.2

6.   (a)     Plan provision:
             i.     If the project is included in the current Five Year Plan, specify
                    actual allocation.
                                             (Not Applicable)
                                          1
              ii.     If not included in the current plan, how is it now proposed to be
                      accommodated (Inter-Sectoral adjustments in allocation or other
                      resources may be indicated).
                                                   See 7 (b)
              iii.    If the project is proposed to be financed out of block provision
                      for a program, indicate:
                      Special Funds to be provided by PSDP Government of Pakistan
     Total Block      Amount Already             Amount Proposed             Balance
     Provision        committed                 for this project            available
              -              Nil            185.25 Million (Rupees)               Nil
7 (b) If project is not in the plan, what warrant its Inclusion in the plan?
                                   (Urgent National Need)
               With the expansion of nuclear medicine programme in government and
       public sector, more and more clinics are adopting nuclear techniques for diagnosis
       of different diseases. Indigenous production of Molybdenum-99 will encourage
       these practices. Molybdenum-99 is a radioisotope of molybdenum which decays to
       Technetium-99m with a half-life of 66.6 hours. Radiopharmaceuticals labelled with
       Technetium-99m (half-life 6 H) are routinely used to get image of different organs
       of human body for diagnosis of different diseases. Production of large amounts of
       Molybdenum-99 is, therefore, necessary to generate Technetium-99m wherever
       required.
               Now a days Pakistan is importing 20 Technetium-99m generators per week
       loaded with Molybdenum-99 for use in the medical centres / hospitals. Recently,
       under technical cooperation programme, International Atomic Energy Agency
       (IAEA), Vienna has provided Molybdenum-99 loading facility to PINSTECH, so
       that Technetium-99m generators (Annexure-D) conforming to the international
       standards can now be produced locally. However, Molybdenum will still be
       imported from abroad, therefore indigenous production of Molybdenum-99 in the
       country is justified. There is also a potential for export of Molybdenum-99 to
       neighboring countries like Bangladesh, Myanmar and Sri Lanka
8.     Relationship of the project with the objectives of the Sector. Indicate names of
       other projects (whether sanctioned or under preparation) which would form
       part of an integrated progamme within the sector.
       The project falls in the sector of HEALTH. Government gives top priority to patient
       care to improve the standard of life in the country. Nuclear techniques contribute a
       lot to patient care, especially to those suffering from cancerous diseases. There are
       about 20 nuclear medical centers which are using imported Technetium-99m
       generators for diagnostic imaging. After the completion of this project, eventually
       they will use Technetium-99m generators produced at PINSTECH.
                                                2
9.     Capital cost of project. Stating the
       Foreign exchange component at actual
       And projected conversion rates.

                                                               (In Million Rupees)
                                                      Local           FEC                Total
       Total Cost                                     19.70           165.55             185.25
       @ Rs.70/= per Euro €

10.    Sources of local and foreign financing:
       PSDP through Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC)


11.    (a) Annual output, (quantitative term), operating expenditure, cost of
          production, cost per unit, initially and on full operation. (in Millions)

                   Year                           1            2        3            4             5
Quantity (Molybdenum-99 produced in Ci)          690          770      850      915               928
Molybdenum-99 sold (Ci)                          624          700      780      832               884
Selling price of 1 Ci Molybdenum-99            0.0358     0.0358     0.0358    0.0358            0.0358
(In million rupees)
Income (In million rupees)                       22.34     25.06      27.92     29.78            31.64
Cost of Production (In million rupees)           2.00         2.00    2.00      2.00              2.00
Gross Profit (In million rupees)                 20.34     23.06      25.92     27.78            29.64



        (b) Benefits
                      Presently PAEC is spending ~ Rs.24 million for the purchase of Tc-
99m generators from abroad. Once the facility becomes operational the above amount will
be saved and in the coming years with marketing of Tc-99m generators to all medical
centres in Pakistan and export of Fission Molybdenum / Tc-99m generators to neighboring
countries revenue generated would increase manifolds.




                                           3
12.   Previous Approvals/Anticipatory Approval or Concept Clearance if any:
                                -   NIL –




Prepared by                                                 Dr.Mustanser Jehangir
                                                       (Chief Scientist/Head IPD)
                                                         (Name and Designation)




                                                          Dr. Abdul Ghaffar, S.I.
Submitted by                                        Director General PINSTECH)




                                                         Dr. Masud Ahmad, H.I.
Checked by                                            Member (Physical Sciences)




                                                        Mr. Parvez Butt, H.I., S.I.
Approved by                                                     Chairman PAEC



                                            4
                                     PART “B”
                 PROJECT’S DESCRIPTION AND FINANCING

13.   Location of project (attach map). Mention reasons for selection of site e.g.
      nearness of market or sources of raw material, regional development,
      availability of Infrastructure facilities and utilities i.e. rails, roads, power,
      natural gas, water, skilled labour and other resources.
      PINSTECH is situated in the outskirts of Islamabad on a metalled road and linked
      to main city of Islamabad, Rawalpindi and other cities. It is very well established
      and reputed institute having all the facilities, such as power, natural gas, water,
      skilled labour and other resources. Above all a nuclear reactor is available for
      irradiation of Uranium targets used for the production of Molybdenum-99. The
      management of radioactive products and associated waste can be carried out in
      accordance with internationally accepted safety criteria and related national
      regulations. The area map of PINSTECH is attached at Annexure-B
14.   Market analysis
      a)   Description of products/services.
           Production of Molybdenum-99 for preparation of Technetium-99m-
           generators for medical use.
      b)     Local and worldwide Demand/Supply for Last five years (indicate
             source)
             The present world demand for Moybdenum-99 is estimated at
             approximately 6000 (Curies) Ci / week (6 days pre – calibrated). Further
             growth in demand has been predicted.[Ref. Production of technologies for
             molybdenum-99 and technetium-99m IAEA, TEC DOC 1065 International
             Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Feb. 1999].For the last five years PAEC
             Medical Centres are spending Rs.24 million per year for the purchase of
             99m
                 Tc generators from overseas.[Source: Directorate of Technical
             Procurement PAEC]. Some government and private hospitals having nuclear
             medicine departments are also importing Technetium-99m-generators from
             abroad worth Rs.10 million / year.
             i)     Domestic production, quantity and value.
                                                    Nil
             ii)    Imports, quantity and value.
                    ~Rupees 34 million are being spent on the import of Technetium-
                    99m generator annually in the country.
      c)     Projected demand, supply and price over the life of the project (indicate
             source and assumptions).
             With the expansion of nuclear medicine programme in public sector more
             and more clinics are adopting nuclear techniques for diagnosis of different
             diseases. Further growth in the demand has been predicted in international
             meetings of IAEA. (Please see reference in 14 b)
                                           5
      d)     Projected Demand /Supply gap over the life of the project.
             The proposed plant has enough capacity to meet with the increase in
             demand.
      e)     Projected international demand and supply situation (if imports are not
             banned and some part of production is intended for exports)
             As in 14(d) surplus Molybdenum-99 produced may be exported to
             neighbouring countries, such as China, Myanmar, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka
             etc.
      f)     Market survey and analysis of the product(s) of all the existing and
             potential users.
             Commercial Supplier of Molybdenum-99 in the world are:
      i)     Nordion International, Canada 5000 – 6000 Ci/ batch (capacity).
      ii)    Institute National des Radioelements (IRE) Belgium 10000 Ci/ Week
             (capacity)
      iii)   Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa 8000 Ci/Week (capacity)
      iv)    Mallinckrodt Netherlands. 10000 Ci/ Week (capacity)

              There are also medium scale producers of Molybdenum-99, for example, the
      Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Russian Federation (300 Ci/ Week),
      ANSTO Australia 300 Ci / week, Argentina 100-150 Ci / Week.(Ref. as in 14.b)
              Rest of the world is importing Molybdenum-99 from above mentioned
      producers. The cost/ Ci for 99Mo varies with different suppliers for e.g., South
      Africa US$:186/ Ci and Nordion, Belgium, US$:210/ Ci.
              Expenditure for the purchase of Molybdenum-99 based Technetium-99m
      generator from overseas are as follows
      PAEC Medical Centres.                                       Rs.24 Million per year
      Government Hospitals                                        Rs.05 Million per year
      Private Hospitals                                           Rs.05 Million per year
      Total                                                       Rs.34 Million
                      The initial cost for establishing Molybdenum-99 processing facility
              is high but after completion of the project valuable foreign exchange will be
              saved. Surplus Molybdenum-99 could be exported to any country practicing
              nuclear medicine.

      g)     Give details of existing and proposed marketing arrangement /channels.
      For PAEC medical centres, Directorate of Technical Procurement (DTP) is
      arranging import of Technetium-99m generator from abroad. The same channel will
      be used for marketing our product.

15.          Description and justification of project (enclose Feasibility Study)
             Feasibility report attached as Annexure-A.



                                            6
a.   Mention the objective of the project-will the output be used for (I)
     import substitution (ii) meeting increased domestic demand (iii) export.
     Justify the objective on the basis of data e.g., in case of exports give
     likely markets and their size, competitive proof and existence or
     otherwise of quotas etc. in the importing country.
     i)       Import substitution, At the moment, about US$ 560,000 are being
              spent on the purchase of Molybdenum-99  Technetium-99m
              generators in Pakistan. To overcome the problems associated with
              the import of these generators, such as availability of hard currency
              increase in the price of Molybdenum-99, import policies, delay and
              changes in supply schedule, etc. the indigenous production of
              Molybdenum-99 in the country is justified.

     ii)      Meeting increased domestic demand, With the expansion of
              nuclear medicine programme in public sector, more and more
              clinics are adopting nuclear techniques for diagnosis and treatment
              of different diseases. The proposed plant will be capable of
              producing enough Molybdenum-99 to meet the increasing demand.

     iii)     Export, In Asia, only Indonesia is capable of producing
              Molybdenum-99, but due to certain reasons, they are unable to
              produce regularly. Hence a large market is available to export our
              product to neighboring countries.

b.   Give detailed description of major equipment, items and Structure.
     Comment on alternate technology, size of installed capacity and sources
     of supply of machinery.
     Most of the equipments will be imported. The plant will be capable of
     producing sufficient amount of Molybdenum-99 for domestic utilization as
     well as for export. There is no established alternate technology for the
     production of Molybdenum-99. The installed facility will have the capacity
     to produce 500 curies of Moly-99 per batch. The description of major
     equipment, items are given in Annexure-A.




                                   7
         c.      Give administrative structure of project implementing organization.
                                  Organization of PINSTECH

                                DIRECTOR GENERAL
                                         |
                            ASSOCIATE DIRECTOR GENERAL
                                         |

Principal                                           Head             Head                            Head
Administrator                                       IPD              CAFD                            LAO

              Head                    Head                    Head             Head      Head
              NMD                     ACL                     APD              RIAD      NCD


                Head    Head   Head          Head      Head      Head   Head          Head    Head
                 ED     HPD     CD           PCD       SID       RPD    GSD           NPD      NED


Administration                                                                                       Budget
Establishment                                                                                       Accounts
Procurement                                                                                          Audit
Transport
Store
Security

Dr.Mustanser Jehangir                   Principal Investigator, (Head IPD)
Dr.Mushtaq Ahmad,                       Co- Principal Investigator
Dr. Malik M. Ishfaq
Eng. Masood Anwar

16.      Environmental Effects:
         Indicate if there would be any problem of pollution or removal of effluents, if
         so, preventive measures proposed to be taken. Initial Environmental
         Examination and Environmental Impact Assessment report covering. Waste
         management such as storage, treatment, (chemical/physical), re-cycling/re-
         using methods may be attached.
         Waste will be generated as solid, liquid, and / or gaseous, and will include in the
         low, intermediate and even highly radioactive categories. Initial treatment of waste
         streams will be carried out at the production site, prior to short or long term storage.
         The treatment required is dictated by both the form of the waste and its activity
         level. In some instances storage facilities may need to be constructed otherwise
         PINSTECH has a well established Radioactive Waste Management Group, which
         provides the services in this regard. Radioactive waste generated as solid, liquid or
         gas will be managed according to the internationally accepted standard, set up by
         IAEA as it is already being done at PINSTECH.
                                                8
  17.       Describe R&D and Quality Control Facilities to be generated.
            A working space of ~240 m2 is needed to construct 3 hot cells and supporting laboratories.
            This space has been acquired from existing laboratories at PINSTECH and will be fitted
            with special ventilation and exhaust systems required for radiation work as per
            recommendation of IAEA. The Molybdenum-99 separation process will be installed in 3
            hot cells which will be equipped with master slave manipulators, lead glass windows and
            stainless steel lining. They will also be equipped with waste outlet devices at the bottom of
            the cells, gas inlets and conveyer system for transfer of materials. The exhaust of all the
            cells must be connected through a radioiodine filter as well as particle filter before feeding
            to the general ventilation system. For the irradiation of Uranium-235 in reactor the target
            has to be designed and fabricated in the same manner as fuel for nuclear reactors. Research
            reactor PARR-I will be utilised for this purpose.
            Self propelled shielded containers for irradiated targets would be designed for radiation
            safety reasons. Management of radioactive waste is an integral and very important part of
            Molybdenum-99 production. Rigorous quality control procedures will be adopted to
            monitor the purity of Molybdenum-99 for its use in nuclear medicine.

  18.       Give date when capital cost estimates were prepared, if prepared more than
            one year confirm if these are still valid.
            Cost estimates were prepared in July 2003.
  19.       Give breakdown of capital cost covering the whole of investment period as
            indicated below (give annual phasing over the life of the project both local as
            well as foreign exchange component and item wise details of capital cost).
             Physical       Scientific   Consumables    Book &       Training     Contingencies   Total
             infra-         equipment    and chemical   Journal
             structure      glassware    supplies
             Rs.Million     Rs.Million   Rs.Million     Rs.Million   Rs.Million   Rs.Million      Rs.Million
 st
1 Year            2.0          85            0.5           0.5          2.0             3.2           93.2
2004-05
2nd Year          2.0          65            1.0           0.5          1.0             2.0           71.5
2005–06
3rd Year          2.0         15.55          2.0            -            -              1.0          20.55
2006-07
 Total            6.0        165.55          3.5           1.0          3.0             6.2          185.25
      20.        a)     Benefits of the project including indirect benefits/social benefits
                        i.e.employment by gender, specific facilities such as schools, roads,
                        water, hospital etc.
                        If we could supply cheaper Molybdenum-99 for production of Technetium-
                        99m generators, it will encourage the use of nuclear techniques in patient
                        care. There will be a general improvement of public health. There will be
                        employment of people of both the gender for the production of
                        Molybdenum-99 as well as its use in hospitals.
            b)          Give details of revenues (taxes etc) to accrue to the Government.
                        Indigenous production of Molybdenum-99 is an import substitution. By
                        exporting surplus Molybdenum-99, we can earn foreign exchange which
                        may be taxed according to government rules.
                                                              9
                                        PART “C”
                               PROJECT REQUIREMENTS




21.   a.        Manpower: (please specify by gender where-ever possible)


                                  Number           Man Month                    Number

Manpower
Radiochemists                         3                                            -
Engineer                              1                                            -
Technetians                           4                                            -
                       Available at PINSTECH


      b)        Likely shortage of manpower by occupation.
                                None

      c)        Steps to be taken to assure availability of manpower.
                Directly hire or borrow from PINSTECH

      d)        Approximate number of persons required to be trained per year
                (locally and abroad) and the kind of skills to be learnt.
                Justification for foreign training
                Although there is sufficient theoretical background available in the Isotope
                Production Division yet practical experience in this sophisticated technology
                is lacking. Hence, 3-6 moths on the job training at a running facility for 2
                scientist/engineers and one technician involved in this program will
                certainly accelerate the acquisition of this technology in Pakistan. For the
                development of an appropriate infrastructure and human resources
                International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Vienna may also be
                approached.




                                             10
        e)       Cost per job created.
                 Will be shared by PINSTECH
Physical and other facilities/infrastructure required for project:
Items                                    Total     To be provided      To be provided
                                                   From the project    by the Govt. or
                                                   Itself              the public utility
a.      Access roads.                    -               -        Already existing
b.      Power/Natural gas supply         -              -          By PINSTECH
c.      Water and other utilities.       -              -          By PINSTECH
d.      Education facilities by type     -              -                 -
e.      Public Health requirements.          -          -          By PINSTECH
f.      Housing by type.                     -          -          By PINSTECH
g.      Others                               -          -                 -

Provide the following information regarding civil works of any kind including
      Building, Housing, Town Planning, Water Supply and Sewerage activities,
      included in the project.
i       Total covered area of the Building (basis for determining the space
        requirements) alongwith Line-plans, Number of stories etc.
               Laboratory/ building is available at PINSTECH (240 m2 space). Plan is
        attached at Annexure-C. However, some renovation work, partitioning and
        improvement in the existing premises will be required.
        ii.      If Houses provided, their number and categories alongwith covered
                 area and Line-plans.
                                      N.A.
        iii.     Size of the plot, on which Buildings/Houses are to be constructed viz the
                 percentage of open and constructed area.
                                       NA
        iv.      Give description of already completed or under construction
                 Buildings/Houses viz the new proposed construction.
                                      NA.
        v.       Existing water-supply and “Sewerage arrangement in the area as well
                 as for the present project.
                                             Already available
        vi.      Unit-cost supported by item-wise detailed estimates of the
                 Buildings/houses, separately for civil-works, water supply and
                 Sewerage, other Utilities including Heating, Ventilation and Air
                 Conditioning, (if present), external development etc.
                 Already available facilities of PINSTECH be utilized.
                                                      11
        vii.     Percentage of Contingencies, Departmental Charges and Escalation
                 based on Base-cost.
                                         Already given in 19

  Materials, supplies and Equipment Requirements: (Detail in Annexure A 3.2.1)
        1.       List of equipment

Item   Qty                        Equipment/material                        Price Million (Rs,)
001     2      Hot Cells 1+2                                                19.6 Million
                                                                            (Euros € 280,000)
002            Lead bricks for 300 mm shielding                             22.75 Million
                                                                            (Euros € 325,000)
003     4      Master slave manipulator type A201 with path-through ducts   7.7 Million
               thickness of the shielding 300 mm Pb and accessories         (Euros € 110,000)
004     2      Lead-glass window 400 x 500 x 600 mm, framed                 16.1 Million
                                                                            (Euros € 230,000)
005     1      Hot cell 3                                                   7.00 Million
                                                                            (Euros € 100,000)
006            Lead bricks for 150 mm shielding                             11.2 Million
                                                                            (Euros € 160,000)
007     2      Master slave manipulator type A201 with path-through ducts   3.85 Million
               thickness of the shielding 300 mm Pb and accessories         (Euros € 55.000)
008     1      Lead-glass window 300 x 300 x 300 mm, framed                 3.85 Million
                                                                            (Euros € 55,000)
009            Transport equipment and accessories                          5.25 Million
                                                                            (Euros € 75,000)
010            In-cell equipment for radioactive processing                 32.55 Million
               In-cell equipment for radioactive substances                 (Euros € 465,000)
               Consisting of:
011            Peripheral equipment for non-radioactive operations          9.8 Million
                                                                            (Euros € 140,000)
012            Equipment for secondary processes                            12.95 Million
               Equipment for retaining iodine and xenon as well as for      (Euros € 185,000)
               interim storage of liquid radioactive waste
013            Monitoring and control equipment                             12.95 Million
                                                                            (Euros € 185,000)
                                     Total                                  Rs.165.55 Million
                                                                            (Euros € 2365,000)


                                              12
2.     Consumable Chemical
  a)   Enriched 235U
  b)   Al2O3 impregnated with Ag NO3
  c)   NaOH
  d)   Liquid Nitrogen / Nitrogen gas
  e)   Molecular sieve
  f)   Mercurry
  g)   HNO3
  h)   Argon gas
  i)   Activated carbon
  j)   Alumina

In the case of imported material and equipment for execution, indicate:
        (a)    Certificate of imports for not manufactured locally.
               Certificates will be provided.
        (b)    Proposed source(s) of supply.
               Hans Walishchmiller GmbH, BT Dresden Germany..

Estimates of Recurring Expenditure                             2 Million / year
i)     Consumable chemicals etc.                              1 Million
ii)    Electricity Gas Water etc.                             1 Million
       After completion of the project the recurring expenditure will be met by the
       generated income.




                                         13
Annexure-A
(Feasibility Report)

                                   CONTENTS
   1.    INTRODUCTION                                  01
   2.    WORK PLAN                                     01
   3.    INPUTS                                        02
   3.1   Space Requirements                            02
   3.2   Facilities Requirements                       02
   3.2.1 Hot Cells, In-Cell and Ancillary Equipments   02
   3.2.2 Chemicals Required                            06
   3.2.3 Existing Instruments                          07
   4.    IRRADIATION AND PRODUCTION CONDITIONS         07
   4.1   Development of Target                         07
   4.2   Molybdenum-99 Yields                          07
   5.    TRANSPORTATION OF IRRADIATED TARGETS          08
   6.    DESCRIPTION OF THE PROCESS                    08
   7.    WASTE ARISING FROM 99Mo PRODUCTION            09
   8.    RECYCLING OF TARGET MATERIAL                  10
   9.    MANPOWER REQUIREMENTS                         10
   9.1   Training                                      10
   10.   COST                                          11
   11.   TIME FRAME                                    11
   12.   REFERENCES                                    11
   13.    Table.1                                      12
   14.   Table.2                                       12
   15.    Figure.1 Technological Flowsheet             13
   16.    Figure.2 Annual Phasing of Work              14
1.        INTRODUCTION
          The prominent position of technetium-99m (99mTc) in nuclear medicine practice has
been due to its near ideal nuclear properties, the ready availability in the form of
convenient 99Mo  99mTc generator systems and the rapid progress made in recent years in
the development of 99mTc radiopharmaceuticals for application in oncology, cardiology and
                    99m
other fields [1].      Tc is the short-lived (T           1/2   = 6 h) daughter product of the parent
molybdenum-99 (T 1/2 = 66 h), which is mainly produced by the nuclear fission of uranium-
235 (235U). Small amounts of      99
                                       Mo are produced also by the neutron activation method.
However, current applications of        99
                                             Mo    99m
                                                      Tc generators almost completely depend on
the fission production of 99Mo [2].
                                                      99m
          Now-a-days Pakistan is importing 20               Tc generators loaded with ~ 12 Curies of
99
     Mo (fission) for use in nuclear medical centers from overseas, mainly from Amersham
Inc, UK. To overcome the problems associated with import of 99Mo                       99m
                                                                                              Tc generators /
99                                                                     99
     Mo (fission) such as hard currency, increasing price of                Mo, import policies, delay and
changes in supply schedules, etc. the growing interest in indigenous production of
fission99Mo in the country is justified [3].
                                                                                               99
          For under taking a program for large-scale production of fission                          Mo, several
special facilities, equipment and materials are required. The most important amongst them
are (1) nuclear reactor irradiation facilities, (2) raw materials including targets for
irradiation, special chemicals and solvents required for processing and purification, (3)
handling and processing facilities equipped with gadgets for remote manipulation, (4)
recovery of enriched target Uranium-235 and finally (5) facilities for treatment and
disposal of radioactive waste. An infrastructure of skilled personnel in nuclear, chemical
and radiochemical fields must be available.

2.     WORK PLAN
(i) Selection construction of laboratories along with equipment.
(ii) Selection of target material (enriched Uranium-235).
(iii) Development of target (design of target).
(iv) Irradiation conditions (availability of reactor).
(v) Transportation of irradiated target material.
(vi) Processing (extraction of 99Mo, purification, recovery of target material 235U).
(vii) Radioactive waste management.
 3.        INPUTS
 3.1       Space Requirements
           A working space of 2000 m2 is needed to construct three hot cells and supporting
 laboratories. This space may be acquired from PINSTECH and a separate building is
 desired to be constructed with special ventilation and exhaust system as given below.
 Area                                      Pressure
 Corridor/inactive rooms etc: slightly less than the surrounding atmosphere
 Laboratory rooms:               ~ 10 mm of water reduced pressure
 Hot cells:                     30-40 mm of water reduced pressure
                                     (20-30 mm relative to laboratory room)
 All building should be air conditioned and ensuring at least 10 changes of air per hour.

 3.2 Facilities Requirements
           The entire processing plant for production of fission molybdenum-99 will be
 installed in three hot cells. All the three hot cells will be equipped with master slave
 manipulators. Hot cells will be fitted with lead glass windows and equipped with opening
 and waste outlet devices, gases inlets and conveyer system for transfer of materials. Certain
 particularly active areas will be over shielded, in order to reduce radiation inside the cells,
 and to comply the dose rates of < 2 mRem/hour at cell’s surface. The exhaust of all the
 cells must be connected through a radioiodine filter as well as through a particle filter
 before feeding in the general ventilation system. An ionization chamber in hot cell 3 will
 enable the control of the supplied activity. The details related to hot cells and in-cell
 equipments are given below in tabular form.

 3.2.1 Hot Cells, In-Cell Equipments

Item Qty       Equipment/material                                              Price
001 2          Hot Cells 1+2                                                   19.6 Million
                                                                               (Euros € 280,000)
               Hot cells 1+2 consisting of:
       2       Inner cells, complete, made of 6mm thick stainless steel
               sheet, dimensions (w x d x h): 1600 x 1500 x 2000 mm
       2       Supporting frames for the cells 1+2, steel construction with
               table plates and ceiling for lead-shielding, suitable for 300
               mm lead bricks shielding
       2       Sliding doors with frame, hollow construction to be filled
               with steel shot when mounted
      2    Sliding doors shielded with 50 mm lead for protection the
           windows
      1    Shielded sliding door for bottom port
      1    Bottom port (airlock), complete ,Ǿ 250 mm
      2    Lateral airlocks, Ǿ 160 mm, complete including
           Transport channel and 50 mm thick Pb shielding on both
           sides
      3    Shaft flanges with gaskets for driving units
      20   Flanges for cables and path-through ducts for liquids and
           gases
      4    Flanges for lighting cables
      4    Flanges for in-air and exhaust-air equipment, nominal
           diameter 100mm
      2    Bottoms safes for storage, dimensions 200 x 300 x 200
           mm, including lid and shielded sliding door
002        Lead bricks for 300 mm shielding*                           22.75M+6.203M=28.953M
                                                                       (€ 325,000+80412 =405412€)
003   4    Master slave manipulator type A201 with path-through        7.7 Million
           ducts thickness of the shielding 300 mm Pb and              (Euros € 110,000)
           accessories
004   2    Lead-glass window 400 x 500 x 600 mm, framed                16.1 Million
                                                                       (Euros € 230,000)
005   1    Hot cell 3                                                  7.0 Million
           Hot cell 3 consisting of:                                   (Euros € 100,000)
      1    Inner cell, complete made of 6mm thick stainless steel
           Sheet, dimensions (w x d x h): 1500 x 1200 x 1600 mm
      1    Supporting frame for the cell,
           Steel construction with table plate and ceiling for lead-
           shielding suitable for 150 mm lead bricks shielding
      1    Sliding door with frame, hollow construction to be filled
           with steel shot when mounted
      1    Sliding doors shielded with 50 mm lead for protection the
           windows
      1    Bottom port (airlock), complete, Ǿ 250 mm
      1    Lateral airlock, Ǿ 160 mm, complete including transport
           channel and 50 mm thick shielding on both sides
      1    Shaft flange with gasket for driving unit
      10   Flanges for cable and path-through ducts for liquids and
           gases
      2    Flanges for lighting cables
      2    Flanges for in-air and exhaust-air equipment, nominal
           diameter 80 mm
      1    Bottom safe for storage, dimensions 200 x 200 x 200 mm,
           including lid and shielded sliding door
006         Lead bricks for 150 mm shielding*                                11.2 M+3.054M= 14.254M
                                                                             (€ 160,000+39588=199588€)
007   2     Master slave manipulator type A201 with path-through             3.85 Million
            ducts thickness of the shielding 300 mm Pb and                   (Euros € 55,000)
            accessories
008   1     Lead-glass window 300 x 300 x 300 mm, framed                     3.85 Million
                                                                             (Euros € 55,000)
009         Transport equipment and accessories                              5.25 Million
            Transport equipment and accessories consisting of:               (Euros € 75,000)
      1     Carriage, max. Capacity 2.0 tons, below hot cell 1
      1     Bridge crane with hoist trolley (2.0 tons), behind cell 1, for
            heavy lead-shielded container
      1     Lead-shielded container for target transport (1.5 tons)
      2     Guides for carriage of target or waste container
      1     Loading guide at the bottom port of hot cell 1 for docking
            on a target or waste container
      1     Transport equipment for product exit at hot cell 3
      1     Product container including carriage
      1     Control device for carriage and fixture
010         In-cell equipment for radioactive processing                     32.55 Million
            In-cell equipment for radioactive substances                     (Euros € 465,000)
            Consisting of:
      6     Transport receivers, made of stainless steel
      2     Receivers, made of stainless steel
      1     Electrically heated dissolver with cooling jacket, made of
            stainless steel
      1     Mixer, made of stainless steel
      2     Chromatographic Al2O3 columns, made of stainless steel
      1     Evaporator, made of stainless steel
      2     Electrically heated two-zone sublimation furnaces
      1     Dissolver, made of stainless steel
      1     Filter for uranium separation
            (exchangeable by using a manipulator)

      1     Filter for iodine separation
            (exchangeable by using a manipulator)
      1     Filter for [99Mo] sodium molybdate product solution
            (exchangeable by using a manipulator)3
      3     Metallic reflux condensers
      6     Metallic collecting receivers
      1     Storage vessel for dispensing the [99Mo] sodium molybdate
            batches
      4     Metallic tanks for intermediate storage of liquid
            radioactive waste
      18    Metallic check valves
      ~18   Pieces of ~0.5 m long plastic tubing including connectors,
           nominal diameter 2-3 mm (in dismounted state)
      25   Solenoid valves, nominal diameter 2-3 mm, corrosion
           resistant and exchangeable
      ~500 Stainless pipe, nominal diameter 2-4 mm, including pipe
      m    connectors
      ~100 Stainless pipe, nominal diameter 10-12 mm, including pipe
      m    connectors
      6    Compressor (oil free) for compressed air, maximum
           pressure 1.5 bar
      6    Vacuum pumps (oil free), end vacuum 280 mbar
      10   Electrically operated pinch cocks
      3    Apparatus stands including clamps, made of metallic Pipes

011          Peripheral equipment for non-radioactive operations                9.8 Million
             Equipment installed outside the hot cell and necessary             (Euros € 140,000)
             for the operation of the in-cell equipment consisting of
      7      Storage jars, made of stainless steel
      30     Solenoid valves, nominal diameter 4mm, corrosion-
             resistant, for pipe installation
      9      Cooling thermostats with cooling water circulation
      100    Stainless-steel pipe including connectors, nominal
      m      diameters 4 and 6 mm
      1      Compressor (oil free) for compressed air, maximum
             pressure 2.5 bar
      1      Vacuum pump (oil free), end vacuum 250 bar
      3      Supply units for rinsing gas (nitrogen or argon)

012          Equipment for secondary processes                            12.95 Million
             Equipment for retaining iodine and xenon as well as for      (Euros € 185,000)
             interim storage of liquid radioactive waste
      2      Dryers (molecular sieves) for drying xenon
      6      Absorption filters (with 10 liters charcoal each)
      2      Coolers (minimum – 30 0C
      2      Compressor pumps, maximum pressure 1.5 bar
      2      Filter units for retaining iodine
      10     Valves, nominal diameter 10 mm, hand-operated
      10     Electrically operated ball stopcocks, nominal diameter 63
             mm
      1      Auxiliary fan for the exhaust-air by-pass through the iodine
             filter
      ~50    Pipe line, nominal diameter 10 mm for retaining xenon
      m
      ~30    Pipe line, nominal diameter 63 mm for iodine filter
      m
      1      Control panel for xenon retaining equipment
      1      Control unit for iodine retaining equipment
      2800   Standard lead bricks for shielding the xenon retaining equipment
       kg
       7500     Standard lead bricks for shielding the iodine filtration equipment
       kg
       1        Pump for liquid radioactive waste
       10       Valves, nominal diameter 10 mm, for interim storage, hand operated
                and corrosion resistant
       ~20m     Stainless-steel pipe, nominal diameter 10 mm

       3000     Standard lead bricks for storage room of the generator production
       kg
013             Monitoring and control equipment consisting of:                            12.95 Million
                                                                                           (Euros € 185,000)
       1        Central control panel for the complete production line
       15       External control units (on PC), for discrete process steps like heating,
                cooling etc.
       -        Diverse sensors for radioactive and non-radioactive purposes
       -        Wiring for power and control lines
       ~50       Plug connectors (Lemo) suitable for handling by manipulators
       3        Low-pressure monitors for real-time indication with optic and acoustic
                signal devices
       1        Activity meter Type ISOMED 2000 in hot cell 3
       3        Local dose ratemeters type ALMO-3 with probes
       1        Control unit for standar equipment of cells 1,2 and 3
       1        Exhaust air monitor
014             Depleted Uranium shielding**                                               8.4857M(110000€)
015             Cutting robot**                                                             3.857M(50000€)
016             Optimization of process**                                                  5.4M (70000€)
                                         Total                                             Rs.165.55 M+27M
                                                                                           =192.55(2365,000€)+350000=
                                                                                           2715000€

  *Price hike, **New items

  3.2.2     Chemicals Required
            Uranium-235 (enriched)
            Argon gas
            Nitrogen (liquid/gas)
            NaOH
            Hg(NO3)2
            HNO3
            NH4OH
            Molecular sieve
            Activated carbon
            Alumina
            Alumina impregnated with AgNO3
3.2.3 Existing Instruments
Gamma spectrometer
Beta spectrometer
Alpha spectrometer
Spectrophotometer
Atomic absorption spectrograph
Emission spectrograph
HPLC instrument
GLC instrument


4.        IRRADIATION AND PRODUCTION CONDITIONS
4.1       Development of Target
             For the irradiation of Uranium-235 in nuclear reactor the material has to be
             designed and fabricated in the same manner as fuel for nuclear reactor. It can be
             used as Uranium-Aluminide alloy extruded into aluminum clad rods or as
             uranium aluminum dispersed in aluminum matrix and pressed between aluminum
             plates. Uranium oxide may also be used as target material. Provision of enriched
             uranium-235 has to be ensured.

4.2 Molybdenum-99 Yields
235
      U= 100%, Reaction Cross section= 570 barn, 99Mo fission yield= 6.1%
                                     Half-life of 99Mo= 66 h.

99
     Mo = 1gx6.023x1023x1x1014x570x10-24 (1-e -0.693xTirr/66)
                  235x100x3.7x1010

                                                       99
Irradiation Time (Tirr)                                     Mo Yield
  8 hr                                                 19.40 Ci
 12 hr                                                 28.51 Ci
 16 hr                                                 37.24 Ci
 20 hr                                                 45.62 Ci
 24 hr                                                 53.65 Ci
 48 hr                                                 95.35 Ci
168 hr                                                199.57 Ci
                                Demand at reference date = 12 Ci


Time elapsed during;
       (i)        Cooling of target and chemical separation of 99Mo = 2 days
       (ii)       Preparation of 99mTc generators                   = 2 days
       (iii)      Transportation of 99mTc generators                = 1 day
       (iv)       Arrival at Hospital (early)                       = 2 days
       (v)        Total time elapsed after irradiation              = 7 days

Hence Reactor yield should be 70 Ci
Considering chemical processing yield = ~73%
                                   Then reactor yield should be 97 Ci

Relationship between target material, irradiation time and 99Mo yield
235                                                                     99
      U (gram)        Neutron flux                        Irradiation        Mo yield at E.O.I
                                                          time
1                     1x1014 n cm-2 s-1                     8 hr                   19.4 Ci
5                     1x1014 n cm-2 s-1                    8 hr                    97.0 Ci
                           14     -2 -1
3.4                   1x10 n cm s                         12 hr                    97.0 Ci
2.604                 1x1014 n cm-2 s-1                   16 hr                    97.0 Ci
2.126                 1x1014 n cm-2 s-1                   20 hr                    97.0 Ci
1.807                 1x1014 n cm-2 s-1                   24 hr                    97.0 Ci
1.017                 1x1014 n cm-2 s-1                   48 hr                    97.0 Ci

However, targetry and irradiation conditions starting from Ci level irradiated samples may
have to be studied first for the optimization of 99Mo recovery procedure.
5 gram 235U/week is required for irradiation purpose

5.             TRANSPORTATION OF IRRADIATED TARGETS
               Self-propelled shielding containers specially designed for irradiated targets are
required. The weight of shielding is about 2.5 Ton and thickness of lead (Pb) is 23 cm.

6.             DESCRIPTION OF THE PROCESS
               The technical scheme is presented in Fig.1. Main steps are the irradiation of the
target in reactor, transport between reactor and processing laboratory, decanning of
neutron-irradiated target, treatment of gaseous effluents particularly the retention of
radioiodine and radioxenon, separation and final purification of fission molybdenum-99
and waste treatment.
          After decanning, the neutron-irradiated Uranium is transferred into the dissolver.
Dissolution is carried out by addition of conc. HNO3 Addition of Hg (NO3)2 to the feeding
acid allows the retention of the main part of radioiodine in the uranium-fission product
solution. Radioiodine and radioxenon which escape during the decanning operation are
removed by suction through an iodine absorption filter and a xenon delay line. The iodine
filters consist of alumina impregnated with silver nitrate. The rare gas delay line consists of
molecular sieve and charcoal filled absorbers at 30 oC. The separation scheme follows the
well-Known Tucker process [4], which does not need very special chemicals. The process
solution is diluted and passed through an alumina column. After washing with 0.1 M
HNO3, H2O and 0.1M NH4OH solutions, the molybdenum-99 is eluted with 1M NH4OH.
Purification of the Mo-99 is accomplished by an additional chromatographic step followed
by sublimation of the evaporated eluate. After heating the dry residue at 1000 oC, the
purified 99Mo is dissolved in 1M NaOH and ready for loading 99Mo / 99mTc generators.

7.        WASTE ARISING FROM 99Mo PRODUCTION
          Apart from the radiation dose, the processing of irradiated uranium targets presents
two particular problems from the perspective of waste management. First, xenon and
Krypton, as well as Iodine, will be liberated in gaseous form during target dissolution.
These gases must be removed efficiently from hot cell off-gas streams to prevent their
release into the environment. In all countries strict regulations are in force regarding the
                                                131
release of such nuclides, especially for              I (mostly < 1 Ci per year per installation).
Second, the presence of long lived nuclides must be taken into consideration when the
recovery and purification of unfissioned uranium (a valuable resource) are carried out or
are under consideration.
                99
          The        Mo production process generates a variety of waste streams. The wastes are
processed or temporarily stored according to established procedures. The compositions and
main radionuclides in the waste streams for the liquid and solid wastes are summarized in
Tables 1 and 2, respectively.
          The fissile liquid waste containing uranium and fission products generated by the
99
     Mo production process is in the solution from the dissolver and the first wash solution
from the alumina column. This liquid waste is classified as high level waste (HLW) based
upon its activity and radiation.
                                                       99
          Non fissile liquid wastes generated by the        Mo production process, such as the
second and subsequent alumina column washes and scrubber solutions are designated as
intermediate level waste (ILW) based upon its activity and radiation.
          Liquid waste is also generated during the decontamination of in-cell surfaces and by
steam cleaning. This waste is classified as low level waste (LLW) which is combined with
other liquid wastes generated at facility.
          Solid wastes generated from the process include alumina columns, in-cell wastes,
air filters, charcoal and molecular sieves. The alumina columns and in-cell waste are
designated as ILW. Process off-gas filters and molecular sieves are designated LLW.
          Process off-gas mainly oxides of nitrogen and volatile fission products such as Xe,
I, Kr and 3H are generated during dissolution of the irradiated targets and is treated to
reduce emission below permissible limits then discharged.

8.        RECYCLING OF TARGET MATERIAL
          Under aspect of economy and safe guard regulations the target material has to be
recycled. Burn-up is typically 1-2 % of the uranium-235 because the molybdenum-99
saturates in this burn-up range. Quantities of plutonium produced are about 1 mg/1000Ci
99
     Mo. PUREX process may be developed to recover uranium.

9.        MANPOWER REQUIREMENTS (Technical)
          Chemist/Radiochemist 2, Chemical Engineer 1, Maintenance (Mechanical)
Engineer 1, Technical Staff 4.


9.1       Training
          Although there is sufficient theoretical background available in the Isotope
Production Division yet practical experience in this sophisticated technology is lacking.
Hence, 3-6 moths on the job training at a running facility for 2 scientist/engineers and one
technician involved in this program will certainly accelerate the acquisition of this
technology in Pakistan. For the development of an appropriate infrastructure and human
resources International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Vienna may also be approached.
10.   COST
      1st year 93.2 million (Pakistani Rupees)
      2nd Year 71.5 million (Pakistani Rupees)
      3rd Year 20.55 million (Pakistani Rupees)
      Total: 185.25 million (Pakistani Rupees)


11.   TIME FRAME
      Three years, details are presented in Fig. 2.


12.   REFERENCES
[1]   “Alternative Technologies for 99mTc Generators” IAEA-TECDOC-
      852, Vienna 1995
[2]   “Fission Molybdenum for Medical Use”, IAEA-TECDOC-515,
      Vienna 1989.
[3]   A. Mushtaq and M. Jehangir, Production of Fission molybdenum-99
      (A Review) NCD/P-119, May 1999.
[4]   W. D. Tucker, M. W. Greene, A. P. Murrenhoff, Atompraxis.
      8 (1962) 163.
Table. 1

                  Characteristics of liquid waste generated
                      by the 99Mo production process

Waste Stream               Composition      Main radionuclides
                               -1   +3   +2
Fissile liquid waste       NO3 , Al , Hg    U, Pu, Ce, 3H, Se, Zr, Mo, Tc,
                           (low pH)         Ru, Rh, Sn, Sb, Cs, Zn

Non fissile liquid waste   NH4+1, Na+1       Fission products

Decontamination waste      H2O               Low-levels of fission products.



Table. 2

Characteristics of solid waste generated by the 99Mo production process.

Waste stream               Composition             Main radionuclides
                                                   3
Spent alumina column       Al2O3                     H, Z, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh,
                                                   Ce, Cs, Co

In-cell waste              Aluminum sheath,        Small amounts of U, Pu
                           defective equipment,    and fission products
                           molecular sieve,
                           charcoal and filters
                                                   3
Air filters                Mainly HEPA filters         H, Xe, I, Kr, Cs
                                                   3
Charcoal                   Carbon                      H, I, Xe, Kr
                                                   3
Molecular seive            Molecular sieve             H, Kr, Xe, Cs.
                                                                                                                   Shipping containers
                                                                                                                   Licencing quality
                                                                                                                    assurance and Good
                                                                                                                    Manufacturing Practices
                                                                                                                   Marketing (export)
                                                                              Production of 99mTc generators
                                                                              Quality control of 99mTc
                                                                               generators
                                                                              Recovery of enriched 235U.
                                                                              Waste management
                                                                              Documentation.
                                          Transport device for
                                           irradiated targets
                                          Study of Irradiation
                                           conditions.
                                          Practical yield determination
                                          99Mo extraction and
                                           purification
                                          Quality Control
    Selection/ construction of
     laboratory
    Procurement/ Fabrication of
     Hot Cells and accessories.
    Installation of equipments.
    Development of targetry.
0                                  1                                   2                                    3                                 4
    Years
    Fig. 2.       Annual phasing of work.
              iv.     If not included in the current plan, how is it now proposed to be
                      accommodated (Inter-Sectoral adjustments in allocation or other
                      resources may be indicated).
                                                   See 7 (b)
              v.      If the project is proposed to be financed out of block provision
                      for a program, indicate:
                      Special Funds to be provided by PSDP Government of Pakistan
      Total Block     Amount Already             Amount Proposed             Balance
      Provision       committed                 for this project            available
               -                185.25       212.25 Million (Rupees)*           Nil
*An extra amount of Rs. 27 M requested will be paid to supplier of molybdenum-99
production facility
7 (b) If project is not in the plan, what warrant its Inclusion in the plan?
                                   (Urgent National Need)
               With the expansion of nuclear medicine programme in government and
       public sector, more and more clinics are adopting nuclear techniques for diagnosis
       of different diseases. Indigenous production of Molybdenum-99 will encourage
       these practices. Molybdenum-99 is a radioisotope of molybdenum which decays to
       Technetium-99m with a half-life of 66.6 hours. Radiopharmaceuticals labelled with
       Technetium-99m (half-life 6 H) are routinely used to get image of different organs
       of human body for diagnosis of different diseases. Production of large amounts of
       Molybdenum-99 is, therefore, necessary to generate Technetium-99m wherever
       required.
               Now a days Pakistan is importing 20 Technetium-99m generators per week
       loaded with Molybdenum-99 for use in the medical centres / hospitals. Recently,
       under technical cooperation programme, International Atomic Energy Agency
       (IAEA), Vienna has provided Molybdenum-99 loading facility to PINSTECH, so
       that Technetium-99m generators (Annexure-D) conforming to the international
       standards can now be produced locally. However, Molybdenum will still be
       imported from abroad, therefore indigenous production of Molybdenum-99 in the
       country is justified. There is also a potential for export of Molybdenum-99 to
       neighboring countries like Bangladesh, Myanmar and Sri Lanka
13.    Relationship of the project with the objectives of the Sector. Indicate names of
       other projects (whether sanctioned or under preparation) which would form
       part of an integrated progamme within the sector.
       The project falls in the sector of HEALTH. Government gives top priority to patient
       care to improve the standard of life in the country. Nuclear techniques contribute a
       lot to patient care, especially to those suffering from cancerous diseases. There are
       about 20 nuclear medical centers which are using imported Technetium-99m
       generators for diagnostic imaging. After the completion of this project, eventually
       they will use Technetium-99m generators produced at PINSTECH.
                                                2
14.    Capital cost of project. Stating the
       Foreign exchange component at actual
       And projected conversion rates.

                                                               (In Million Rupees)
                                                      Local           FEC                Total
       Total Cost                                     19.70           192.55             212.25
       @ Rs.70/= per Euro € (July 2003)
       @ Rs.78/= per Euro € (March 2005)
       @ Rs.74/= per Euro € (April 2006)


15.    Sources of local and foreign financing:
       PSDP through Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC)


16.    (a) Annual output, (quantitative term), operating expenditure, cost of
          production, cost per unit, initially and on full operation. (in Millions)

                   Year                           1            2        3            4             5
Quantity (Molybdenum-99 produced in Ci)          690          770      850      915               928
Molybdenum-99 sold (Ci)                          624          700      780      832               884
Selling price of 1 Ci Molybdenum-99            0.0358     0.0358     0.0358    0.0358            0.0358
(In million rupees)
Income (In million rupees)                       22.34     25.06      27.92     29.78            31.64
Cost of Production (In million rupees)           2.00         2.00    2.00      2.00              2.00
Gross Profit (In million rupees)                 20.34     23.06      25.92     27.78            29.64



        (b) Benefits
                      Presently PAEC is spending ~ Rs.24 million for the purchase of Tc-
99m generators from abroad. Once the facility becomes operational the above amount will
be saved and in the coming years with marketing of Tc-99m generators to all medical
centres in Pakistan and export of Fission Molybdenum / Tc-99m generators to neighboring
countries revenue generated would increase manifolds.




                                           3
  20.       Describe R&D and Quality Control Facilities to be generated.
            A working space of ~240 m2 is needed to construct 3 hot cells and supporting laboratories.
            This space has been acquired from existing laboratories at PINSTECH and will be fitted
            with special ventilation and exhaust systems required for radiation work as per
            recommendation of IAEA. The Molybdenum-99 separation process will be installed in 3
            hot cells which will be equipped with master slave manipulators, lead glass windows and
            stainless steel lining. They will also be equipped with waste outlet devices at the bottom of
            the cells, gas inlets and conveyer system for transfer of materials. The exhaust of all the
            cells must be connected through a radioiodine filter as well as particle filter before feeding
            to the general ventilation system. For the irradiation of Uranium-235 in reactor the target
            has to be designed and fabricated in the same manner as fuel for nuclear reactors. Research
            reactor PARR-I will be utilised for this purpose.
            Self propelled shielded containers for irradiated targets would be designed for radiation
            safety reasons. Management of radioactive waste is an integral and very important part of
            Molybdenum-99 production. Rigorous quality control procedures will be adopted to
            monitor the purity of Molybdenum-99 for its use in nuclear medicine.

  21.       Give date when capital cost estimates were prepared, if prepared more than
            one year confirm if these are still valid.
            Cost estimates were prepared in July 2003.
  22.       Give breakdown of capital cost covering the whole of investment period as
            indicated below (give annual phasing over the life of the project both local as
            well as foreign exchange component and item wise details of capital cost).
             Physical         Scientific   Consumables    Book &       Training     Contingencies   Total
             infra-           equipment    and chemical   Journal
             structure        glassware    supplies
             Rs.Million       Rs.Million   Rs.Million     Rs.Million   Rs.Million   Rs.Million      Rs.Million
 st
1 Year            2.0            85            0.5           0.5          2.0             3.0          93.0
2004-05
2nd Year          2.0           85.5           1.0           0.5          1.0             2.0          92.0
2005–06
3rd Year              -          27             -             -            -             0.25          27.25
2006-07
 Total            4.0           197.5          1.5           1.0          3.0            5.25         212.25
      20.        a)       Benefits of the project including indirect benefits/social benefits
                          i.e.employment by gender, specific facilities such as schools, roads,
                          water, hospital etc.
                          If we could supply cheaper Molybdenum-99 for production of Technetium-
                          99m generators, it will encourage the use of nuclear techniques in patient
                          care. There will be a general improvement of public health. There will be
                          employment of people of both the gender for the production of
                          Molybdenum-99 as well as its use in hospitals.
            c)            Give details of revenues (taxes etc) to accrue to the Government.
                          Indigenous production of Molybdenum-99 is an import substitution. By
                          exporting surplus Molybdenum-99, we can earn foreign exchange which
                          may be taxed according to government rules.
                                                                9
          viii.      Percentage of Contingencies, Departmental Charges and Escalation based on Base-
                     cost.
                                                    Already given in 19

  Materials, supplies and Equipment Requirements: (Detail in Annexure A 3.2.1)

          2.         List of equipment

Item    Qty                                Equipment/material                               Price Million (Rs,)
001      2        Hot Cells 1+2                                                             19.6 Million
                                                                                            (Euros € 280,000)
002               Lead bricks for 300 mm shielding*                                         22.75M+6.203M=28.953
                                                                                            M
                                                                                            (Euros € 325,000)+
                                                                                            80412€=405412€
003      4        Master slave manipulator type A201 with path-through ducts thickness of   7.7 Million
                  the shielding 300 mm Pb and accessories                                   (Euros € 110,000)

004      2        Lead-glass window 400 x 500 x 600 mm, framed                              16.1 Million
                                                                                            (Euros € 230,000)
005      1        Hot cell 3                                                                7.00 Million
                                                                                            (Euros € 100,000)
006               Lead bricks for 150 mm shielding*                                         11.2M+3.054M=14.254
                                                                                            M
                                                                                            (Euros € 160,000)+
                                                                                            39588€=199588€
007      2        Master slave manipulator type A201 with path-through ducts thickness of   3.85 Million
                  the shielding 300 mm Pb and accessories                                   (Euros € 55.000)

008      1        Lead-glass window 300 x 300 x 300 mm, framed                              3.85 Million
                                                                                            (Euros € 55,000)
009               Transport equipment and accessories                                       5.25 Million
                                                                                            (Euros € 75,000)
010               In-cell equipment for radioactive processing                              32.55 Million
                  In-cell equipment for radioactive substances                              (Euros € 465,000)
                  Consisting of:
011               Peripheral equipment for non-radioactive operations                       9.8 Million
                                                                                            (Euros € 140,000)
012               Equipment for secondary processes                                         12.95 Million
                  Equipment for retaining iodine and xenon as well as for interim storage   (Euros € 185,000)
                  of liquid radioactive waste
013               Monitoring and control equipment                                          12.95 Million
                                                                                            (Euros € 185,000)
014               Depleted Uranium shielding**                                              8.4857M(110000€)
015               Cutting robot**                                                            3.857M(50000€)
016               Optimization of process**                                                 5.4M (70000€)
                                         Total                                              Rs.165.55 M+27M
                                                                                            =192.55(2365,000€)+350
                                                                                            000=2715000€

  *Price hike, **New items
                                                        12
10.   COST
      1st year 93.0 million (Pakistani Rupees)
      2nd Year 92.0 million (Pakistani Rupees)
      3rd Year 27.25 million (Pakistani Rupees)
      Total: 212.25 million (Pakistani Rupees)


11.   TIME FRAME
      Three years, details are presented in Fig. 2.


12.   REFERENCES
[1]   “Alternative Technologies for 99mTc Generators” IAEA-TECDOC-
      852, Vienna 1995
[2]   “Fission Molybdenum for Medical Use”, IAEA-TECDOC-515,
      Vienna 1989.
[3]   A. Mushtaq and M. Jehangir, Production of Fission molybdenum-99
      (A Review) NCD/P-119, May 1999.
[4]   W. D. Tucker, M. W. Greene, A. P. Murrenhoff, Atompraxis.
      8 (1962) 163.
                                                              ANNEXURE TO PC-I


          (This part should be filled up only for revised scheme)

1.       Comparative cost estimate of the last sanctioned revised
      schemes:

Sl.No.    Items        Last sanctioned Cost         Revised Cost
                       Local Foreign     Total      Local   Foreign Total*
(a)       Lead         -     485000 € 485000 €      -     605000€ 605000€
          shielding
(b)       Depleted     -      00          00        -    110000€    110000€
          uranium
          shielding
(c)       Cutting      -        00             00   -      50000€   50000€
          robot
(d)       Optimizati   -        00             00   -      70000€ 70000€
          on of
          process
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
(i)
* Extra money needed: 120000+110000+50000+70000=350000 €




2.       Give reasons for the revision in cost estimates.
Sl.No. Items                         Reasons for the revision
(a)    Lead shielding                Price hike
(b)    Depleted uranium              New material (better)
           shielding
(c)        Cutting robot             New addition of facility
(d)        Optimization of process   For better yield of product
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
(i)
Sl. No     Items                            Expenditure
                             Local          Foreign     Total
(a)        Lead shielding    -              To be paid      120000€
(b)        Depleted          -              To be paid      110000€
           uranium
           shielding
(c)        Cutting robot     -               To be paid          50000€
(d)        Optimization of   -               To be paid          70000€
           process
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)

3.       Progress Work

(a).                             (b).               (c).

As per schedule                  Actual             Reasons
Last sanctioned                  Achievement        for delay

3 month late                 70 %       Delay in obtaining export license from
German                                           government

4. Project History:
         Date          Cost (Rs. Million)   Planned period of     Reasons for
                                              completion in        revision
                                                months.
                Local F.E   Total
March           19.7 165.55 185.25             30 (Dec 2006)      Price hike
2004

Original Sanction

01st revision      27.00 Million Rs + (185.25 M original sanction)=212.25 M

02nd revision      (NA)

03rd revision      (NA)

				
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