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					          PROMOTION OF PRIVATE SECTOR DEVELOPMENT IN AGRICULTURE
 Ministry of Agriculture and Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH

                                      PSDA Baseline Phase III Data Report




                                          Volume II-Annexes


Contents
ANNEX 1: TERMS OF REFERENCE ................................................................................... 2
ANNEX 2: BUNGOMA DISTRICT ......................................................................................... 3
ANNEX 3: KISII DISTRICT.................................................................................................... 8
ANNEX 4: NAKURU AND MOLO DISTRICTS .................................................................... 11
ANNEX 5: NAROK DISTRICT............................................................................................. 17
ANNEX 6: MURANGA DISTRICT ....................................................................................... 18
ANNEX 7: VIHIGA DISTRICT ............................................................................................. 21
ANNEX 8: DAIRY GOAT VALUE CHAIN ............................................................................ 26
ANNEX 9: POTATO VALUE CHAIN ................................................................................... 32
ANNEX 10: MANGO VALUE CHAIN ................................................................................... 49
ANNEX 11: PASSION FRUIT VALUE CHAIN ..................................................................... 60
ANNEX 12: MUSHROOM VALUE CHAIN ........................................................................... 67
ANNEX 13: HIV/AIDS AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES .................................................... 83
ANNEX 14: FACT SHEET FOR ASSOCIATIONS SUPPORTED BY PSDA ....................... 96
ANNEX 15: GROSS MARGINS .......................................................................................... 99
ANNEX 16: COST OF PURCHASED INPUTS IN POULTRY PRODUCTION ................... 105




                                                             1
                                  ANNEX 1: TERMS OF REFERENCE

The Assignment

The objective of the assignment as should be reflected in The PSDA Baseline Phase III Data Report,
is to support the PSDA team in establishing the baseline data per each indicator of the PSDA
programme document as far as they are already available and to document them in a baseline data
report. Secondly, the report should identify those indicators that require additional (small) survey work.
Thirdly the report should consider the current political climate and give early indications, on which
indicators might need revision.

Scope of work, timing and outputs

February 2008: (up to 5 days)
   1. Familiarisation with PPR report and PSDA programme documents
   2. Familiarisation with already established PSDA baseline data and information (see also Annex
      1);
   3. Familiarisation with already established monitoring data sets by other programmes and
      institutions, primarily data sets established by Tegemeo Research Institute; (TAMPA data set)
   4. Discussions with the PSDA and programme component managers on the state of baseline data
      and information as well as identification of gaps;
   5. Develop proposal for baseline data collection to close the identified gaps
End of February / Mid March: Inception Report and Inception Meeting (2 days)
March – May 2008: (3 x 7 = 21 days, including 15 field days)
   6. Implement data collection for gaps identified: development of questionnaire, identification and
      training of enumerators, organisation of data collection (in close liaison with PSDA
      management)
   7. Compile all baseline data
End of May/Beginning of June 2008: (5 days)
   8. Present results and produce a final baseline data report.




                                                    2
              ANNEXES 2-7: PSDA AREA FOCUS - DISTRICT DATA

                              ANNEX 2: BUNGOMA DISTRICT


Table 1: Output markets and Prices
Crop                   Unit                Farm      gate   Retail price      Wholesale
                                           price (KSh)      (KSh)             price (KSh)
Food crop
Maize                90 kg bag             1,000-1,200      1,280-1,440       1,200
Beans                90 kg bag             1,600            3,600             2,800
Sorghum              80 kg bag             1,125            1,800-2,000       1,800
F millet             80 kg bag             1,350            2,000-2,400       1,800
Cassava              50 kg bag             1,000            1,500
Banana cooking       15-20 kg bunch        60-150           100-200           80-100
Sweet potatoes       110 kg                600              1,000             800
G/nuts               90kg                  3,600            5,600-6,300       4,800
Irish potatoes       2 kg tin              -                40                -
Fruits
Avocados             1 fruit               3-5              5-8               5
Mangoes              10 fruits             10               20-50             20
Pineapples           1kg fruit             30               40                35
Oranges              Net                   200              300               -
Pawpaw               Crate                 200              250               -
Water melon          Piece                 30               60                40
Sweet banana         Bunch                 80               150               120
Passion fruits       Kg                    30               40                35
Source: DAO Bungoma South, Farmer Interviews


Table 2: Input prices
Input                                  Unit                         Price (KSh)
Agrochemicals
Ridomil                                1kg                          1,300
Mitraz                                 250gm                        900
Dithane M 45                           50gm                         100
Karate                                 250ml                        370
Bulldock                               50gm                         400
Spintor dust                           50gm                         250
Round up                               200ml                        220
Inorganic fertilizers
CAN                                    50 kg bag                    1,500
UREA                                   50 kg bag
DAP                                    50 kg bag                    1,850
T.S.P
D.S.P                                  50 kg bag
Mavuno planting                        50 kg bag                    1,700
Mavuno top dressing                    50 kg bag                    1,700
Organic fertilizers
Compost                                1 ton                        600
FYM                                    1 ton                        500
Source: DAO Bungoma South




                                               3
Table 3: Information on energy saving stoves, Bungoma district
Parameters              Entrepreneurs
                        1                         2                              3
Identification
Name                    Jackline Wafula           John Wafula                    Nelly Wanjala
YR stat                 2007                      2007                           2008
Dist                    Bungoma north             Bungoma north                  Bungoma
Div/subloc.             Tongaren,makhanga         Tongaren,Naitiri               Tongaren,Naitiri
Add                     260 Makhanga              0712487363                     0710277448
Value chain info
Source
Stove type               PSDA training                GTZ/PSDA, Group            ASK Show Visits
Source of stove          Maendeleo liners             Maendeleo stoves           Maendeleo liners
Cost of stove/liner      Own production               Makhanga                   Makhanga
Install cost/stove
                         Ksh.250/liner                150-250/ liner             150/ liner
                         Ksh.200                      250/stove                  250/ stove
Training assessment
Course name              Production and               Stoves production,         Stoves production
                         installation of liners       Liner installation
Duration                 4 days                       9+3 days resp.             3 days
Location                 Makanga ATC                  Makhanga and               Makhanga
                                                      Matunda
Applicability            Yes                          Yes                        Yes
Training format          Demos, practice              Demos                      Lectures, demos
Cross cutting            Envir/HIV-Yes                HIV,Envrn-Yes              HIV-Yes
Associations
Producer                 Makhanga ceramics            Mahanga ceramics           Mahanga ceramics
Marketing                _                            _                          _
Apex org (distr)         _                            _                          _
Apex rg(nation)          _                            _                          _

Source(s) of Technical   GTZ-PSDA                     GTZ/PSDA,MoA               MoA ,PSDA
skills                   Group chairman (Patrick
                         Wafula)
Input and costs          Clay, Sand, Ash, Water       Soil-100/w/barrow          Liner Ksh. 250
                         are all provided by the      Stones-50       ”          Red sand, Water,
                         owner of the household       Other inputs locally       Concrete stones
                                                      available                  provided by owner
Labour and costs         Installation fee of          installation fee of Ksh.   Installation fee of 250/=
                         Ksh.250/ maendeleo           250/ stove
                         stove
Production               2007-80 liners               2008-250 liners            2008-350 liners
                                                      2007-180 liners
Disposal                 2007-65 sold@150             2008-150 @250              2008-350 @250
                         15 installed@250             2007-174@250

Challenges               Inadequate finance           -high transportation       High transportation
                         Mismanagement                costs                      cost
                                                       Lack of materials e.g.    Lack of cooperation
                                                      mould                      among members
                                                      Poor leadership skills
                                                      Inadequate storage
                                                      facilities
Future needs             -ext markets                 More training on other     Training on record
                         Stall building at the        stove types                keeping, marketing
                         market                       Assistance in moulds       liners
                         Frequent monitoring by       acquisition



                                                  4
Parameters                   Entrepreneurs
                             1                           2                        3
                             PSDA to assess progress     Trainings on marketing
                             Establish other value       and leadership skills
                             chains in horticulture

Parameters                        Entrepreneurs
                                  4                                   5
Identification
Name                              Caroline Nakhumicho                 Patrick Wanjala
YR stat                           2006                                2006
Dist                              Bungoma north                       Bungoma north
Div/subloc.                       Tongaren, Makhanga                  Tongaren,Naitiri
Add                               0712487363                          0728442879

Value chain info
Source                            PSDA training                       GTZ/PSDA, Group
Stove type                        Maendeleo liners, upesi jikos       maendeleo liners, upesi jikos
Source of stove                   Own production                      own production
Cost of stove/liner               Ksh.250/liner                       150-250/ liner
Install cost/stove                Ksh.200                             250/stove
Training assess
Course name                       Production and installation of      Stoves production, Liner installation
                                  liners                              9 days.
Duration                          9 days                              Makhanga and Mumias
Location                          Mumias,                             Yes
Applicability                     Yes                                 Demos
Training format                   Demos, practice                     HIV,Envrn-Yes
Cross cutting                     Envir/HIV-Yes
Associations
Producer                          Makhanga ceramics                   Makhanga ceramics
Marketing                         _                                   _
Apex org (distr)                  _                                   _
Apex org(nation)                  _                                   _

Source of technical skills        GTZ-PSDA                            GTZ/PSDA,MoA
                                  Group chairman (Patrick Wafula)
Input and costs                   Clay -150/w/barrow                  Soil-100/w/barrow
                                  Sand-100/w/barrow                   Stones-50      ”
                                  Ash-15/karai                        Other inputs locally available
                                  Water locally available             Firewood-150/bundle
                                  Firewood-100/bundle
Labour and costs                  Installation fee of Ksh.200/ for    installation fee of Ksh. 200/ stove
                                  maendeleo/upesi stove
Production                        2007-275 liners                     2008-1240 liners
                                                                      2007-784 liners
                                                                      2006-200 liners
Disposal                          2007-sold@250                       2008-sold 1014 @250, 200
                                                                      installed@200
                                                                      2007-sold 384@250 ,400
                                                                      installed@200
                                                                      2006-200 installed@200
Challenges                        Inadequate finance                  Lack of funds for expansion
                                  Mismanagement                       Competition from other groups
                                  Bad debts                           Lack of production workshop
                                  Small kiln                          Lack of proper coordination of
                                                                      members
Future needs                      -linkage to markets                 More training on other stove types
                                  Kiln expansion                      Assistance in moulds acquisition



                                                   5
Parameters                        Entrepreneurs
                                  4                                 5
                                  Introduce other enterprises       Trainings on marketing and
                                  Stall building at the market      leadership skills
                                  Frequent monitoring by PSDA to
                                  assess progress
                                  Establish other value chains in
                                  horticulture

Table 4: Gross margin calculations for passion fruit, mushrooms and poultry

A. Gross margin for Passion Fruit (Unit: 1 ha)
Item                   Quantity per management           Unit       Total per management level
                       level                             cost/
                                                         price
                            1           2         3      (KSh)        1          2        3
Expected output/ yield   10,000      15,000    18,000    20         200,000    300,000   360,000
(kg/ha)
Establishment costs
Land prep                1           1         1         4,250      4,250      4,250     4,250
Holing                   1,666       1,666     1,666     5          8330       8330      8330
Fym(tons)                10          16        20        700        7,000      11,200    14,000
Hole filling             1,666       1,666     1,666     3          4,998      4,998     4,998
Fertilizer DAP           -           166       300kg     20         -          3,320     6,000
Transplanting MDs        12          12        14        70         840        840       980
Galvanized wire          0.5         1         2.5       4,000      2,000      4,000     10,000
Sisal twine              3           7         10        200        600        1,400     2,000
Cost of seedlings        1,666       1,666     1,666     10         16,660     16,660    16,660
Transport of seedlings   1,666       1,666     1,666     -          200        2,000     2,000
Training MDs             12          20        25        70         840        1,400     1,750
Post& transport          100         137       137       60         6,000      8,220     8,220

Labour for post         10           12        12        70         700        840       840
placement
Total establishment     -            -         -         -          52,418     65,658    78,228
cost
Capital recovery on                                                 17,528     21,956    26,159
estb costs
Running costs
Weeding MDs             20           30        45        70         1,400      2,100     3,150
CAN bags                -            2         3.75      1800       -          1,800     3,375
Pesticides              -            -         -         -          1,000      2,000     4,000
Spraying MDs            4            10        20        70         280        700       1,400
Top dressing MDs        -            2         4         70         -          140       280
Transport &marketing    10           15        18        700        700        10,500    12,600
per ton
Interest on capital 20% 9,680        17,240    24,805    0.2        1,936      3,448     4,961
Total running costs     -            -         40        -          16,616     20,688    29,766
Return to land          -            -         -         -          29,140     42,640    55,926
Source: DHCDO Bungoma South


B. Gross margin for Mushrooms (Variety; oyster, button, straw, shikate)
Mushroom production
Production                  unit          Quantity      Price/cost/unit       Total Revenue
A. Revenue                  kg            6             4,000                 24,000      24,000
B. Variable Costs
Seeds                       kg            4             600                   2,400



                                                    6
Polythene                      Unit        150             2             300
Firewood                                                                 220
Packaging packets              unit        180             0.5           90
Labour:     seeding,   care,   md          60              100           6,000
harvesting,    drying   and
packaging
Transportation costs           trips       3               400           1,200
TVC                                                                                   10,210
interest@20%                                                                           2,042
TC                                                                                    12,252
GM                                                                                    11,748
Production cost per kg                                                                 2,042
Source: DCO Bungoma South


C. Gross margin for Poultry (500 layers)
Parameters                                         Level of production
                                     1                     2                3
No of birds                   500                        500                500
Mortality rate                50                         25                 5
Net no of birds               450                        475                495
No of eggs per bird           240                        260                280
Total eggs                    108000                     123500             138600
Price per egg                 5                          5                  5
Total revenue for eggs        54,000                     617,500            693,000
No of culls                   450                        475                495
Price per cull                160                        160                160
Value of culls                72,000                     76,000             79,200
Manure in kg                  3,750kg                    3,750kg            3,750kg
Value per ton                 500                        500                500
Manure revenue                18,750                     18,750             18,750
Total revenue                 630,750                    712,250            790,950
Variable costs
Day olds chicks@65            32,500                     32,500             32,500
Chick mash@15,20,25           21,750                     29,000             36,250
Kerosene(20 l)@45             900                        900                900
Growers marsh@1120            4,400                      37,200             55,000
Layers marsh@1200             36,000                     45,000             84,000
Veterinary services
Vaccinations                  1,500                      4,500              9,000
Disinfection                  500                        500                500
Transport                     1,950                      2,100              3,500
Capital recovery@0,2,5.       16,720                     16,720             16,720
0.3344*50000
Total variable costs          490,820                    543,075            568,620
interest@20% TC               24,540                     27,155             28,430
TVC+ Interest                 515,360                    578,230            597,050
GM/500 birds                  115,                       142,020            193,900
                              390
GM/bird                       250                        300                390
Total cost per tray of eggs   143                        136                129
Total cost per egg            4.80                       4.60               4.30
Source: DLPO Bungoma South




                                               7
                                       ANNEX 3: KISII DISTRICT

Table 1: Energy saving stoves in Kisii district
Parameters                                                   Entrepreneurs
                                 1                               2                              3
Identification
Name                  Jared Odhiambo                 Leah Gesami                 Winfrida Okraro
YR stat               2006                           2006                        2006
Dist                  Kisii Central                  Kisii Central               Kisii Central
Div/subloc.           Mosocho, Okambo                Marani, Nyasiongo           Mosocho, Okambo
Add                   1260 Oyugis                    0728145254                  0710277448
Value chain info
Source
Stove type            Group, MoA                     GTZ/PSDA, Group             Group members
Source of stove       Maendeleo liners               Maendeleo stoves            Maendeleo liners
Cost of stove/liner   Own production                 Nyasiongo market            Own production
Install cost/stove
                      Ksh.230/liner                  120-150/ liner              150/ liner
                      Ksh.200                        250/stove                   250/ stove
Training assess
Course name           Production of liners           Stoves production,          Stoves       production    and
                                                                                 installation
Duration                  4 days                     3 days                      3 days
Location                  Oyugis Town                Nyasiongo                   Wire centre

Applicability             Yes                        Yes                         Yes
Training format           Demos, practice            Demos                       Lectures, demos
Cross cutting             HIV-Yes                    -                           HIV-Yes
Associations
Producer                  Wise Women group _         Nyasiongo W group           Wire women Group
Marketing                 _                          _                           _
Apex org (distr)          _                          _                           _
Apex rg(nation)                                      _                           _

Tech skill source         PSDA, MoA                  GTZ/PSDA, MoA               MoA ,ToTs
Input and costs           Clay-      40/w/barrow,    Soil-100/w/barrow           Sand-6000/lorry,           soil-
                          Sand-      50/w/barrow,    Stones-50     ”             2500/lorry,
                          Water -5/bucket            Other inputs locally        Water -10/jerrican
                          Firewood-500/bundle        available                   Firewood locally available
Labour and costs          Activities not itemized    Total cost Ksh. 150/        Installation fee of 250/stove
                          total 175/ liner           liner
Production         and/   2007-80 liners sold        2007-250 liners             2007-180 liners
disposal                  2006-40 liners sold        2006-175 liners sold        2006-120 liners
                          2005-37 liners sold
Challenges                high transport cost        high      transportation    Breakages of liners due to
                          Inadequate storage         costs                       poor roads
                          Sand costly                Lack of storage facility    High transportation cost
                                                     Poor leadership skills in   Lack of cooperation among
                                                     group                       members
Future needs              Need       to    acquire   Source for the market       Assistance in marketing
                          materials cheaply          Trainings on marketing      stoves in other markets
                          Marketing      linkages    and leadership skills
                          Training in other value
                          chains              e.g.
                          horticulture




                                                     8
Parameters                                                     Entrepreneurs
                                      4                            5                                6
Identification
Name                      Agness Mokaya                Joel Okioma                   James Nyangaka
YR stat                   2006                         2006                          2006
Dist                      Kisii Central                Kisii entral                  Kisii Central
Div/subloc.               Keumbu, rionge               Suneka, gesome                Mosocho, Okambo
Add                       0710213849                   0728145254                    Box 48 Mosocho
Value chain info
Source
Stove type                PSDA, MoA                    GTZ/PSDA, Group               GTZ,         MoA   Maendeleo
Source of stove           Maendeleo liners             Maendeleo stoves              liners
Cost of stove/liner       Own production               Suneka installation           Oyugis
Install cost/stove
                          Ksh.250/liner                150-200/ liner                150/ liner
                          Ksh.200                      250/stove                     250/ stove
Training assess
Course name               Production             and   Stoves production,            Stoves       production   and
                          installation of liners                                     installation
Duration                  4 days                       3 days                        3 days
Location                  Keumbu SDA                   Suneka                        Wire centre

Applicability             Yes                          Yes                           Yes
Training format           Demos lectures               Demos                         Lectures, demos
Cross cutting             HIV-Yes                      -                             HIV-Yes
Associations
Producer                  Nyamasa S H group _          Suneka youth group            Wire women Group
Marketing                 _                            _                             _
Apex org (distr)          _                            _                             _
Apex rg(nation)                                        _                             _

Tech skill source         PSDA, MoA,                   GTZ/PSDA, MoA                 MoA ,ToTs
Input and costs           Clay, Sand, Water,           Inputs   provide        by    Inputs provided by stove
                          firewood provided by         customer                      owner
                          customer
Labour and costs          Installation 200/ liner      Installation          cost    Installation fee of 250/stove
                                                       250/liner
Production         and/   2007-15 installed            2007-40 installed             2007-20 installed
disposal                  2006-2 installed             2006-21 installed             2006-12 installed
Challenges                high transport cost          high        transportation    Breakages of liners due to
                          bad debts                    costs                         poor roads
                                                       Poor leadership skills in     High transportation cost
                                                       group                         Lack of cooperation among
                                                       Poor marketing                members
Future needs              Training in other stove      Source        for    more     Train to make own liners
                          types                        markets                       Assistance in marketing
                                                       Trainings       on    liner   stoves in other markets
                                                       production




                                                       9
Table 2: Gross margin for Dairy goats, Kisii district
Item
Initial cost       Unit             Unit       price    Quantity           Total (KSh)
                                    (KSh)
Doe and buck No                     6000                2                  12,000
Purchase
Shed construction  No               2500                1                   2,500
Fodder             Load             200                 -                   2,000
establishment
Tick Control       Md               100                 60                  6,000


Dairy meal            Bag             1250              8                  10000
Salt lick             2kg             150               4                  600
Vets services         Visits          300               4                  1200
Milking labour
                      monthly         1500              10                 15,000
Interest on capital
(7%)                                                                        3941
Total                                                                      60241
Output
Milk production                                         300*2 kidding/yr
                      Lts             40                                   24,000
Kid sales             No              4000              2                  8000
Buck services         No              50                2 does/wk*52wks
                                                                            5,200
Manure               tons            800               2                    6,000
Total                                                                      43200
GM                                                                         -17041
Note: The above figures assume only 1 production cycle. Source: DLPO Kisii




                                               10
                          ANNEX 4: NAKURU AND MOLO DISTRICTS

                                 ANNEX 4A: NAKURU DISTRICT

Table 1: Input prices in Nakuru district, 2007
Type of input                                         Unit       Price (KSh)
Diammonium phosphate (D.A.P)                          50 kg      1950-2020
                                                      25kg        870 -925
Mono-ammonium phosphate (M.A.P)                       50kg          1680
Triple supper phosphate                               50kg          1650
Double super phosphate                                 50           1650
N:P:K: 17:17:17
Calcium ammonium nitrate (C.A.N)                       50kg         1600
                                                       25kg          800
                                                       10kg          400
Urea                                                   50kg         1750
Mvuno                                                  50kg         1820
23:23:0                                                50kg         1700
17:17:0                                                50kg         1650
20:20:0                                                50kg         1700

Foliar fertilizers                                     1 kg         280
Booster grow vegetative                                1 kg         295
Murphy foliar feed                                     1 litre      510
Omex                                                   1 litre      225
Bayfolan                                               5 litre      850
Farm fosca                                             1 litre      180
Easy Gro                                              500gm         180
Agro feed                                              1 litre      150
Mukulima foliar                                        5 litre      680
SEED                                                   Unit      Price (KSh)
Potato seed                                           50 KG         900
Insecticides
Danadim                                               1 litre       620
Nurelle D                                             1 litre       1400
Keshet                                                1 litre       1470
Marshal                                               1 litre       1850
Duduthion                                             1 litre       1450
Bestox                                                1 litre       2190
Metasystox                                            500ml         680
White oil                                             1 litre       250
Karate                                                500ml         600
Bulldock                                              500ml         600
Polytrin                                              250ml         460
Malathion                                             1 litre       430
Diazo 60 EC                                            20ml          60
Actellic powder                                       200gm         100
Dursban                                               1 litre       1070




                                                 11
Type of input                                       Unit                    Price (KSh)
Decis                                               1 litre                    1300
Dimethoate                                          1 litre                    620
Diazinon                                            1 litre                    1070
Furadan                                            200gm                       100
Fungicides
Ridomil                                              1kg                       1580
Milraz                                              500g                       800
Dithane M 45                                         1kg                       780
Antracol                                             1kg                       780
Herbicides
Glyphogan                                           1 litre                    800
Wand out                                            1 litre                    700
Round up                                            1 litre                    850
Fumuron                                             1 litre                    400



Table 2: Gross margin for Irish potato (Nakuru)
Item                       Unit           Price/unit (KSh)     Quantity        Total (Ksh)
Output
Yield/ha                   Kg                                      12,500
Price /kg                  KSh.            1,300 (110kg bag)        105
Gross output               KSh.                                                      136,500
Variable costs
Ploughing                  Man days              5,000                1             5,000
Harrowing                  Man days              2,000                1             2,000
Seeds                      50kg                  1,500               20             30,000
DAP                        50kg                  2,800                4             11,200
Dithane                    5kg                    500                 1             2,500
Copper oxychloride         6kg                    480                 1             2.880
Transport (inputs)                                                                   500
Planting                   Man days               100                30             3,000
Spraying                   Man days               150                30             4,500
Weeding & ridging          Man days               150                33             4,950
Harvesting                 Man days               150                30             4,500
Gunny bags                 Number                 100               100             10,000
Transport (potatoes)                                                                15,000
Sub total                                                                           96,030
Miscellaneous 5%                                                                   4,801.50
TVC                        KSh.                                                   100,831.50
GM/HA                      KSh.                                                   35,668.50




                                             12
                                  ANNEX 4B: MOLO DISTRICT

 Table 1: Targets in potato production 2007, Molo district
              Long Rain targets              Short rain targets             Total targets
Division      Ha      Yield      Productio Ha        Yield    Productio     Ha        Y/ha   Production
                      (bags/ha) n                    (bags/ n (bags)                  Bags   (bags)
                                 (Bags)              ha)
Molo          480     60         19200                                      480      60      28800

Kamara        2300     80        184000      2000     80     16000          4300     80      344000

Elburgon      1350     200       270000                                     1350     200     270000

Lare          100      136       1500        50       136    750            150      136     20400

Njoro         1000     100       100000      200      100    20000          1200     100     102000

Mau Narok     350      180       7000                                       350      180     63000

Mauche        460      135       62100       145      110    15950          605              70850

Keringet      6000     160       960000      -        -      -              6000     160     960000

Kuresoi       1250     130       162500               -      -              1250     130     16250

Olenguruon    650      225       139500                                     650      225
e                                                                                            146250
Total         13940                                                         22465            2021550


 Table 2: Achieved potato production 2007, Molo district
                Long Rain Achievements Short rain Achievements            Total Achievements
Division        Ha      Yield   Producti Ha       Yield  Producti         Ha       Yield   Total
                        (bags/  on                (bags/ on                        (bags) Prod
                        ha)     (bags)            ha)    (bags)                            (Bags)
Molo            147     60      8820       85                             172              8820

Kamara          2100    30       63000      350                           2450               63000

Elburgon        807     110                                               807       110      88036

Njoro           600     60       3600       5                             605                3600

Lare            99      110      10745      32                            131                10745

Mauche          302     120      36240      58                            360                36240

Keringet        4000    30       120000     1000      30                  5000      30       120000

Kuresoi         1205    130                                               1205      130      156650

Mau Narok       220     163      36000      150                           370                36000

Olenguruone     435     180      78300                                    435                78300

Total           9915                        1680                          11535              601391




                                                 13
 Table 3: Sweet potato production targets 2007
               Long Rain targets             Short rain targets                     Total targets
Division       Ha      Yield     Productio Ha          Yield    Prod                Ha        Yield           Production
                       (tons/h   n                     (tons/ uctio                           (tons)          (tons)
                       a)        (tons)                ha)      n
                                                                (tons)
Molo           2       9         18                                                 2            9            18

Kamara          2       10        20             2            10          20        4            10           40

Lare            7       20        140            3            20          60        10           20           200

Njoro           100     10        1000                                              100          10           1000

Mauche          29      15        435            1.5          30.5        22.5      30.5         15           457

Total           140                              6.5                                146.5                     1715



Table 4: Activities involving orphan crops
DIVISION    Type of    Variety         Quantit       No. of   Land               Expecte    Remarks
(Area)      seed                       y             farmer   under              d output
                                                     s        crop
                                                     bulkin   (Ha)
                                                     g
Molo        Sweet      KEMB 23         30 kgs        2        Small                         Crop doing well and
            potatoes   KEMB 10                                plots                         to be distributed to
                       NASPORT                                                              other           farmers     for
                       TAINAG                                                               bulking during long
                       SPK 004                                                              rains.
Elburgon    Beans      KAT X 69        264 kgs       20       11 acres                      Affected by moisture
                                                                                            stress          and     aphids.
                                                                                            Pest            control      in
            Sweet      KEMB 23         Few           3        Small                         progress.
            potatoes   KEMB 10         bunches       2        plots                         Affected by weather
                       NASPORT                       2                                      at        the     beginning.
                       TAINAG                        2                                      Some vines ready for
                       SPK 004                       2                                      bulking.
                                                                     2
Lare        Sweet      KEMB 23         900           5        50m                20ton/ha   Medium size tubers
                                                                      2
            potatoes   KEMB 10         vines         2        20 m               20ton/ha   Medium size tubers
                                                                      2
                       NASPORT         300           1        10 m               20ton/ha   Medium size tubers
                                                                      2
                       TAINAG          vines         1        10 m               20ton/ha   Early tuber formation
                                                                      2
                       SPK 004         100           1        10 m               20ton/ha   Early tuber formation
                                       vines
                                       100




                                                     14
DIVISION   Type of    Variety      Quantit    No. of    Land             Expecte    Remarks
(Area)     seed                    y          farmer    under            d output
                                              s         crop
                                              bulkin    (Ha)
                                              g
                                   vines
                                   100
                                   vines
Njoro                 KEMB 23      100        0         0                           To be distributed in
                      KEMB 10      vines                                            the      next      planting
                      NASPORT      100        8                                     season
                      TAINAG       vines      8                                     Over 50 percent dried
                      SPK 004      100        2                                     due to dry weather
                                   vines      8
                                   100        2
                                   vines
                                   100
                                   vines
                                                                 2
Mau        Sweet      KEMB 23      100        10        50 m                        Vines spreading well.
                                                                 2
           potatoes   KEMB 20      vines      3         15 m                        More farmers willing
Narok
                                                             2
                      SPK 004      30 vines   1         5m                          to     plant      but     lack
                                   10 vines                                         planting materials
                                                                     2
Mauche     Sweet      KEMB         22 kgs     7         168 m                       Yet to be distributed
           potatoes   23,KEMB                                                       for     planting        during
                      10,                                                           long rains.
                      NASPORT,                                                      Tuber formation
                      TAINAG,
                      SPK 004

Table 5: Main inputs, 2007-Molo
Item                       Unit                        Cost (KSh)                         Remarks
DAP                        50 kg                       2,550-2650                         Scarce
                           25 kg                       1,320-1600
                           10 kg                       550
MAP                        50 KG                       1500-2300                          Scarce
  23: 23: 0                50 kg                       1600 -1800                         Scarce
NPK 20: 20: 0              50 kg                       1800                               Scarce
CAN                        50kg                        1380-1450                          Available
                           25 kg                       750                                -do-
                           10 kg                       310                                -do-
UREA                       50kg                        1600-1650                          -do-
                           25 kg                       850                                -do-
                           10 kg                       350                                -do-
TSP                        50 kg                       1800                               -do-
SEED       MAIZE Hybrid 25 kg                          2875                               Available



                                              15
Item                       Unit                         Cost (KSh)          Remarks
(Simlaw)                   10 kg                        1150                -do-
                            2 kg                         240                -do-
FRESCO Hybrid              10 kg                        1150                -do-
FUNGICIDES
  Equation Pro             100 g                         100                Available
  Milraz                   500 g                         750                -do-
                           100 g                         190                -do-
                            40 g                         100                -do-
      Ridomil               1 kg                        1380                -do-
      Victory               1 kg                        1320                Scarce
                           100 g                         250                Available
      Tata Master           1 kg                        1300                -do-
                           250 g                         450                -do-
INSECTICIDES
   Bulldock                100ml                        280                 Available
   Bestox                  100ml                        200                 -do-
   Karate wg               40g                          160                 -do-
   Actellic super          500g                         360                 -do-
   Danadim                 100ml                        100                 -do-
   Duduthrin               100ml                        190                 -do-
                           200ml                        380                 -do-
  Tata Alpha               250ml                        600                 -do-
  Ogor                     1 lt                         600                 -do-
Source: DAO, Molo.

Table 6: Gross margin for Potato, Molo district (KSh)
Item                     Units               Quantity           Unit cost         Amount
Output
Yield                    Bags                120                1500              180,000
Variable cost
Land prep                Ha                  1                  4500                4,500
Harrowing                Ha                  1                  3000                3,000
Planting                 Mds                 30                 100                 3,000
Seeds                    Bags                38                 1200               45,600
Fertilizers              Bags                10                 2600               26,000
 ST
1     earthing up        Mds                 30                 100                 3,000
 ND
2     earthing up        Mds                 30                 100                 3,000
Spraying                 Mds                 4                  100                 4,000
Fungicides               Kgs                 1                  1380                1,380
Insecticides             250ml               1                  600                     600
Harvesting/sorting       Mds                 30                 100                 3,000
Packing Bags             no                  100                30                  3,000
Misc. costs 10%                                                                    10,000
TVC                                                                               110,080
Gross Margin                                                                       69,920




                                              16
                                  ANNEX 5: NAROK DISTRICT

Annex 1: Potato gross margin, Narok

Particulars                Unit           Price/unit   Quantity                    Output
                                          (KSh)                         Variable   (KSh)
                                                                        cost
                                                                        (KSh)
 Gross Output              Bag(110kg)     800          100bags                     80,000
Variable cost leasing of                               1 acre
land                       Acre           700                           700
  st
1 ploughing                Acre           1,500        Acre             1,500
Harrowing                  Acre           1,500        Acre             1,500
Furrowing                  Md             100          5                500
Seed                       Bag(50kg)      2,000        12 bags          24,000
Transport of seed-Njoro    Md             140                           1,680
                                                       12
Fertilizer DAP             Md             1,800        4 bags           7,200
Planting                   Md             100          5                500
 st
1 weeding                  Md             100          7 md             700
 nd
2 weeding                  Md             100          7                700
Redomil                    Kg             1,500        6 sprays    (1   9,000
                                                       kg/spray)
Melasystox                 Liter          1,800        1 liter          1,800
Harvesting                 Md             100          7                700
Sorting                    Md             100          5                500
Gunny bags                 Bag            30           100              300
Packing                    Bag (110kg)    100          5                500
Transport to store         Bag (110kg)    30           100bags          3,000
TVC                                                                     54,780     54,780
GM/acre/season                                                                     25,220
GM/year/acre                                                                       75,660
BEP=VC/Quantity
=54,780/100=547.80




                                            17
                                   ANNEX 6: MURANGA DISTRICT

Table 1: Gross margin from poultry 400 layers in deep litter for 18-20 months AEZ -M2
Item                            Unit               Unit price       Amount          Cost (KSh)
Gross output
Eggs                            Trays                         150              3240        486,000
Manure                          Tons                         2000                 3          6,000
Culls                           Number                        180               360         64,800
Total                                                                                      556,800
Variable costs
Day old chicks                  Number                         65               100          6,500
Brooder materials               Various                         1               700            700
Brooder construction            Pd                            100                 1            100
Paraffin                        Lts                            45                20            900
Charcoal                        Bags                          350                 2            700
Egg trays                       No                              5               180            900
Chick marsh                     70kg bag                    1,400                14         19,600
Growers marsh                   70kg bag                    1,100                46         50,600
Layers marsh                    70kg bag                    1,200               231        277,200
Labour                          Pd                            100               150         15,000
Drugs &vaccines                 Assorted                        1              3500          3,500
Subtotal variable costs                                                                    375,700
Interest on capital                                                                         67,626
TVC                                                                                        443,326
GM/flock                                                                                   113,474
GM/bird                                                                                        284
Break-even yield (trays/flock)                                                               2,488
Break-even yield (KSh/tray)                                                                    116
Assumptions:
    o Mortality rate is 10%
    o Average number of eggs laid per bird is 270 for entire production period

Table 2 1: Energy saving stoves - Muranga
Parameters                    1                      2                     3
Identification
Name                          Elizabeth Njeri        Samwel Muiruri        Daniel M Kombo
YR stat                       2006                   2005                  2004
Dist                          Muranga North          Muranga South         Muranga South
Div/subloc.                   Kiharu, Kiria          Kandara, Kiiri        Kndara,Kiiri
Add                           0725426809             0724818641            0729543862
Value chain info
Source                        GTZ-PSDA,MoA           MoA staff             GTZ/PSDA,MoA
Stove type                    Energy saver/liner     Maendeleo liners      Maendeleo liners, metal
                                                     Metal clads           clads
Source of stove                Own production        Mugoiri C             Mugoiri
Cost of stove/liner            Ksh.120(liner)        100/liner             150/liner
                                                     450/stove             450/stove
Install cost/stove             -                     Ksh.50/metal clad     50/metal clad
Training assess
Course name                    Stoves production     Stoves installation   Stoves installation
Duration                       4 days                4 days                -
Location                       Kiharu town           Air strip Muranga     Kandara 5K office
Applicability                  Yes                   Yes                   Yes
Training format                Demos, practice       Demos                 -
Cross cutting                  Non                   Non                   Non
Associations
Producer                       Central envirn Ass    Kandara 5K YG         Kandara 5KYG



                                                18
Parameters           1                       2                         3
Marketing            Central envirn Ass      Kandara 5K YG             Kandara 5K YG
Apex org (distr)     _                       -                         -
Apex org(nation)     _                       -                         -

Tech skills source   GTZ-PSDA                GTZ/PSDA                  Muranga North        Grps
                                                                       ,MoA
Input and costs      Clay-6000/lorry         Red soil                  Red sand
                     Sand-500-/lorry         Concrete stones           Water
                     Ash-150/90kg bag        Water                     Concrete stones
                     Water-10/20 liters
                     Firewood-700
Labour and costs     Firewood transport-     No breakdown of           Installation fee of 50/=
                     100                     activities
                     Water                   Paid 50/= per clad
                     transportation-500      installed
                     Stoves trasnp to
                     makt-400
                     Kneading-600
                     Molding,      resting
                     and drying-500
Production           2008-888                -                         -
                     2007-430(18 brk)
                     2006-370(57 brk)
Disposal             2008-888@120            -                         -
                     2007-412@120
                     2006-313@120
Challenges           Lack of markets         -Financial constraints    Poor storage facilities
                     Water shortages         -Lack of cohesion         Inadequate finance
                                             from group members
Future needs         -ext markets            More training on          Training on marketing of
                     -Borehole sinking       other    technologies     liners
                                             e.g. biogas               Training on production
                                                                       of cheap liners

Parameters                     4                      5                       6
Identification
Name                 Charity                 Peris Muthoni            Benjamin Mburu
YR stat              2006                    2006                     2006
District             Muranga N               Muranga N                Muranga N
Div/subloc.          Kiharu,Kiria            Kiharu,Kiria             Kahuro,Munyutha
Address              0721653908              0713864128               0723525084
Value chain info
Source of inform     GTZ/PSDA                GTZ/PSDA                 GTZ/PSDA
Type of stove        Energy saver            Energy saver             Energy saver
Source of stove      Own production          Own production           Own production
Cost of stove        120 (liner)             100 (liner)              120(liner)
Installation cost    -                       -                        -
Training assess
Name of course       Stoves production       Stoves production        Stoves production
Duration             -                       -                        -
Location             Mugoiri market          Mugoiri market           MoA Kahuro
Applicability        Yes                     Yes                      Yes
Training format      Demos                   Demos/practical          Demos
Cross cutting        Non                     Non                      Envn conservation
Associations
Producer             Central                 Central                  Central     Environmental
Marketing            Environmental           Environmental            Association
Disrt apex           Association             Association              -



                                      19
Nation apex        -                      -                       -
                   -                      -                       -
                   -                      -
Tech skills        GTZ/PSDA               PSDA, MoA               MoA, PSDA
Inputs and costs   Clay                   Clay-1500/90kg          Clay
                   White sand             Clay trasp-400          Sand
                   Wood fuel              Sand-3500/pickup        Ash
                   Water                  Water20/20litres        Water
                   Mould                  Firewood-600            Firewood
Labour and costs   Labour breakdown       Water      fetching(3   2 men,3 women
                   not available.         women@300)              Activities   breakdown
                                          Kneading(2              absent
                                          women@200)
                                          Pot rest-600
                                          Transport to kiln-
                                          600
                                          Kiln drying-600
Production         2008-8000/=            2008-800 stoves         2008-3000 stoves
                   2007-16800/=           2007-300                2007-3000
                   2006-7500/=            2006-100                2006-3000
Disposal           2007-16800/=           2008-500                2008-3000
                   2006-7500/=            2007-290                2007-3000
                                          2006-75                 2006-3000
                                                                  NB; broken not inclusive
Challenges         Water shortages        Inadequate       clay   -mismanagement of group
                   Lack of marketing      and sand                -Financial limitations
                   Insufficient funds     Lack of markets         -Poor debt recovery
                                          High costs of drying
Future needs       Need for water         Credit for buying       Linkages of producers to
                   supply                 inputs                  buyers
                   Need      to    link   Source markets          Provision of credit for
                   producer to buyers     Kiln construction       marketing.




                                   20
                                 ANNEX 7: VIHIGA DISTRICT
Table 1: Energy stoves value chain in Vihiga district
Parameters                       1                      2                                      3
Identification
Name                    Azibeta Semere       Damaris Ayuma                     Josephine Amena
YR stat                 2008                 2006                              2008
Dist                    Vihiga               Vihiga                            Vihiga
Div/subloc.             Muluma, Kegoye       Luanda,Emakhwenje                 Wamuluma, Kegoye
Add                     60 Maragoli          0723948894                        0727689077
Value chain info
Source                  Group chairlady      GTZ/PSDA                          GTZ/PSDA,MoA
Stove type              maendeleo stoves     maendeleo stoves                  maeneleo stoves
Source of stove         Chavakali            Keveye                            Chavakali
Cost of stove/liner
Install cost/stove      Ksh.250/liner        200/ liner                        250/ liner
                        Ksh.250              250/stove                         250/ stove
Training assess
Course name             Stove installation   Stoves installation               Stoves installation
Duration                2 days               4 days                            3 days
Location                Kegoye               Luanda                            Ludunguya Friends church
                                                                               Yes
Applicability               Yes                     Yes                        Lectures, demos
Training format             Demos, practice         Demos                      Non
Cross cutting               Envir/HIV-Yes           Non
Associations
Producer                    Jikoni self H G         Emakhwenje H B C           Jikoni SHG
Marketing                   _                       _                          _
Apex org (distr)            _                       _                          _
Apex org(nation)            _                       _                          _

Tech skills source          GTZ-PSDA                GTZ/PSDA                   MoA ,PSDA
                            Group chairlady
Input and costs             Clay, Sand, Ash,        Red soil,                  Liner Ksh. 250
                            Water    are     all    Concrete stones,           Red sand, Water,
                            provided by the         Water are all provided     Concrete stones provided by
                            owner    of     the     by the buyer               owner
                            household

Labour and costs            Installation fee of     installation fee of Ksh.   Installation fee of 200/=
                            Ksh.250/      rocket    250/ rocket stove
                            stove installed
Production         and/or   2008-4 installed        2008-10 installed          2008-20 installed
Disposal                                            2007-7 installed
Challenges                  Inadequate finance      -high    transportation    High transportation cost
                            High cost of clay       costs                      Lack of cooperation among
                                                     Un recovered Debts        members
Future needs                -ext markets            More training on other     Training on production and
                            Stall building at the   stove types                marketing of liners
                            market

Parameters                        4                          5                           6
Identification
Name                        Leonard Kegondi         Leah Nyamunde              Agneta Muganda
YR stat                     2008                    2008                       2008
Dist                        Vihiga                  Vihiga                     Vihiga
Div/subloc.                 Muluma, Kegoye          Luanda,Itumbu              Wamuluma, Kegoye
Add                         0726697937              0724495191                 0729397827
Value chain info



                                                    21
Source                      PSDA training          GTZ/PSDA                    MoA( Mr Oduor)
Stove type                  maendeleo stoves       maendeleo stoves            maendeleo stoves
Source of stove             Chavakali              Sewere                      Chavakali
Cost of stove/liner
Install cost/stove          Ksh.250/liner          200/ liner                  250/liner
                            Ksh.250                250/stove                   250/ stove
Training assess
Course name                 Stove installation     Stoves installation         Stoves installation
Duration                    3 days                 4 days                      3 days
Location                    Luduguya church        Luanda                      Mbale

Applicability               Yes                    Yes                         Yes
Training format             Demos, charts          Demos                       Lectures, demos
Cross cutting               non                    Non                         Non
Associations
Producer                    Jikoni self H G        Emakhwenje H B C            Jikoni SHG
Marketing                   _                      _                           _
Apex org (distr)            _                      _                           _
Apex org(nation)            _                      _                           _

Tech skills source          GTZ-PSDA               GTZ/PSDA                    MoA ,PSDA

Input and costs             Liner Ksh.250          Red soil, stones,           Liner Ksh. 250
                            Clay, Sand, Ash,       Water collected from        Sand-sh20/karai
                            Water      are   all   neighborhood                Stones-50/wbarrow
                            provided by the                                    Water- free
                            owner
Labour and costs            Installation fee of    installation fee of Ksh.    Installation fee of 250/stove
                            Ksh.250/stove          250/stove
Production         and/or   2008-12 installed      2008-9 installed            2008-9 installed
disposal
Challenges                  Lack of regular        -financial constraints      High transportation cost
                            income                 Debts from clients          Communication problem
                            High cost of clay      Poor Marketing skills       Lack of cooperation among
                                                                               members
Future needs                Promotion of local     Financial aid               Training on production and
                            production             Promote            liners   marketing of liners locally
                            Credit provision       production locally

Parameters                          7                           8                        9
Identification
Name                        Violet Cunguli           Monica Arunga             Antony Kangahi
YR stat                     2008                     2006                      2006
Dist                        Vihiga                   Vihiga                    Vihiga
Div/subloc.                 Muluma,Kegoye            Luanda,Itumbu             Wamuluma,Kigunyi
Add                         628 Maragoli             237 Luanda                60 maragoli
Value chain info
Source
Stove type                  MoA Siaya                GTZ/PSDA                  GTZ/PSDA, MoA
Source of stove             maemdeleo stoves         maendeleo stoves          maendeleo stoves
Cost of stove/liner         Chavakali                Keveye                    Chavakali
Install cost/stove
                            Ksh.250/rocket           225/rocket liner          250/ rocket liner
                            Ksh.250                  150/stove                 250/ stove
Training assess
Course name                 Stove installation       Stoves installation       Stoves installation
Duration                    2 days                   4 days                    3 days
Location                    Kegoye                   Luanda                    Ass Chief place
Applicability               Yes                      Yes                       Yes
Training format             Demos                    Demos                     Lectures, demos


                                                   22
Cross cutting               HIV-Yes                  Non                    HIV, Envrn- Yes
Associations
Producer                    Jikoni self H G          Emakhwenje H B C       Jikoni SHG
Marketing                   _                        _                      _
Apex org (distr)            _                        _                      _
Apex org(nation)            _                        _                      _

Tech skills source          GTZ-PSDA                 GTZ/PSDA               Trainers from Vihiga, PSDA
                            MoA Vihiga
Input and costs             Clay, Sand, Ash,         Red soil,              Liner Ksh. 250
                            Water       are    all   Concrete stones,       Red sand, Water,
                            provided     by   the    Water are collected    Concrete stones provided by
                            owner       of    the    from             the   owner
                            household                neighborhood
Labour and costs            Installation fee of      installation fee of    Installation fee of 250/stove
                            Ksh.250/        stove    Ksh. 150/ stove
                            installed
Production            and   2008-35 installed        2008-35 installed      2008-26 installed
/Disposal                                            2007-55 installed      2007- 4
                                                     2006-20 installed      2006-1
Challenges                  Inadequate finance       Inadequate finance     Cultural problem where men
                            High cost of clay        Over retention of      not allowed to install stoves
                            Rough roads hence        returns by the group
                            breakages
Future needs                Training          on     More training     on   Training on production and
                            marketing                other stove types      marketing of liners
                                                     Financial support
Parameters                         10                        11                      12
Identification
Name                        Jared Kevondo            Juliana Ambaja         Josephine Amena
YR stat                     2008                     2004                   2008
Dist                        Vihiga                   Vihiga                 Vihiga
Div/subloc.                 Muluma, Kegoye           LuandaItumbu           Wamuluma, Kegoye
Add                         60 Maragoli              237 Luanda             0727689077
Value chain info
Source
Stove type                  Group chairlady          MoA staff Vihiga       GTZ/PSDA, MoA
Source of stove             Maendeleo stoves         Maendeleo stoves       Maendeleo stoves
Cost of stove/liner         Chavakali                Keveye                 Chavakali
Install cost/stove
                            Ksh.250/liner            200/ liner             250/ liner
                            Ksh.250                  200/stove              250/ stove
Training assess
Course name                 Stove installation       Stoves installation    Stoves installation
Duration                    2 days                   4 days                 3 days
Location                    Kegoye                   Luanda                 Ludunguya Friends church
                                                                            Yes
Applicability               Yes                      Yes                    Lectures, demos
Training format             Demos, practice          Demos                  Non
Cross cutting               Envir/HIV-Yes            Non
Associations
Producer                    Jikoni self H G          Emakhwenje H B C       Jikoni SHG
Marketing                   _                        _                      _
Apex org (distr)            _                        _                      _
Apex org(nation)            _                        _                      _

Tech skills source          GTZ-PSDA        MoA      GTZ/PSDA and MoA       MoA ,PSDA
                            Vihiga                   Vihiga
                            Group chairlady



                                                     23
Input and costs(Ksh)     Clay, Sand, Ash,         Liners -200                 Liner Ksh. 250
                         Water       are    all   Red soil,        stones,    Red sand, Water,
                         provided     by   the    water     all     locally   Concrete stones provided by
                         owner       of    the    available                   owner
                         household
Labour and costs         Installation fee of      Installation fee of         Installation fee of 250/stove
                         Ksh.250/ stove           Ksh. 200/stove
Production               2008-20 installed        2007-6 installed            2008-20 installed
and/Disposal                                      2006-8 installed
                                                  2005-9 installed
Challenges               Inadequate finance       -high transportation        High transportation cost
                         High cost of clay        costs                       Lack of cooperation among
                         Financial constraints     Un recovered Debts         members
                         -Bad attitude from       Inadequate materials
                         community on stoves      for installation
                         Gender                   Financial constraints
                         stereotyping(stoves
                         is woman work)
Future needs             -ext markets             More training      on       Training on production and
                         Stall building at the    other stove types           marketing of liners
                         market                   Introduce      poultry
                         Build own kiln           project
                                                  Assistance in setting
                                                  up training centre




Table 2: Gross margin for dairy goats (Vihiga)
Item
Initial cost                unit           Unit price             qty                  total
Doe and buck Purchase       No             7,000                  2                    14,000
Shed construction           No             5000                   1                    5,000
Fodder establishment        Load           1200                   -                    1,200
Hand pump                   No             120                    1                    120
Vets services & service     Visits         3000                   1                     3,000
Milking labour
                            monthly        1500                   10                   15,000
Interest on capital (7%)
                                                                                        2,682.40
Total                                                                                  41,002.40
Output
Milk production                                                   450*2 kidding/yr
                             Lts            40                                         36,000
Kid sales                    No             1960                  2                    7,840
Buck services                No             50                    2 does/wk*52wks
                                                                                        5,200
Manure                       tons           500                   1.2                   6,000
Total                                                                                  55,040
GM                                                                                     14,037.60
Source: DLPO Vihiga




                                                  24
                                              Table 3: Crop prices during the year 2007 in Vihiga district


Crop             Unit    Jan    Feb    Mar      Q1      Apr    May     Jun     Q2     Jul    Aug     Sep     Q3     Oct    Nov    Dec    AVG 2007
                 kg                             Avg                            avg                           Avg
Cabbage          126     1319   1199   1323     1280    1187   1043    950     1060   870    1060    1200    1043   1000   800    600    800
Tomatoes         63.6    1490   1740   1791     1674    1660   1600    1550    1603   1060   1090    1400    1183   1600   1400   1500   1500
Large box
Carrots          137.7   1305   1108   1076     1163    1170   1200    1100    1157   1070   1050    900     1007   900    1000   1000   967
Onions spring    144.7   508    638    562      569     575    533     500     536    425    400     370     398    500    600    550    550
Dry onions net   13.2    376    364    341      360     421    493     500     471    400    515     800     572    320    330    400    350
Kales bag        -       428    845    1282     852     602    382     300     428    375    450     500     442    300    350    350    333
Oranges          93.1    1315   1298   1350     1321    1279   1200    1200    1226   1300   1400    1400    1367   1400   1500   1500   1467
Bananas          22      156    167    154      159     156    146     150     151    165    170     150     162    150    200    180    177
cooking
Bananas ripe     13.1    389    375    363      376     365    363     362     363    400    360     400     387    380    400    400    393
Field peas bag   51.3    1304   1311   1367     1327    1321   1266    1300    1296   1200   1500    1800    1500   1200   1200   1600   1333
Avocadoes        39.1    960    908    940      936     870    866     870     869    1100   1200    1200    1167   1800   1500   1400   1566
Brinjals bag     43.6    1061   1053   945      1020    1000   1150    1200    1117   1100   1100    1000    1067   1500   1500   1500   1500
Chilies bag      37.9    988    1010   1033     1010    1003   1100    1150    1084   1200   1300    1300    1267   1500   1650   1650   1600
Capsicum bag     50      1258   1220   1075     1184    1114   1150    1100    1121   1112   1000    1000    1037   1200   1500   1500   1400
Lemons net       95.2    413    479    525      472     465    450     400     438    350    550     400     433    700    750    800    750
Mangoes local    -       956    885    1055     965     1580   1200    900     1227   1590   1425    1400    1472   1400   1400   1400   1400
Passion fruits   67.4    2001   1765   1992     1920    1604   2000    1900    1835   2125   1800    2200    2042   2200   2400   2500   2367
Paw paws large   -       865    875    930      890     1000   925     923     949    1260   1200    1500    1320   1600   1400   1600   1533
box
Pineapples       -       182    182    183      182     188    175     183     182    170    180     270     207    220    200    180    200
dozen




                                                                          25
                      ANNEXES 8 – 12: AGRICULTURAL VALUE CHAINS


                             ANNEX 8: DAIRY GOAT VALUE CHAIN

Table 1: Year when farmer started keeping dairy goats
               Year                     No. of respondents                   Percent
               1979                               1                           2.44
               1996                               2                           4.88
               1999                               1                           2.44
               2000                               3                           7.32
               2003                               2                           4.88
               2004                               4                           9.76
               2005                               4                           9.76
               2006                               6                           14.63
               2007                              10                           24.39
               2008                               8                           19.51
               Total                             41                          100.00

Table 2: Source of initial information on dairy goats
 Source of initial information                          No. of respondents       Percent
 Afya 2 project                                                   1                2.44
 AGAPE Group                                                      1                2.44
 Amuabia Growers Group                                            1                2.44
 ASK show                                                         2                4.88
 Christian Partners Development Agency                            7               17.07
 Group members                                                    2                4.88
 Group officials                                                  2                4.88
 GTZ/PSDA                                                         4                9.76
 KARI                                                             1                2.44
 Ministry of Livestock Development                               14               34.15
 Other farmers                                                    3                7.32
 Seminar                                                          2                4.88
 Total                                                           41              100.00

Table 3: Dairy goat breeds kept by respondents
 Breed of dairy goat kept-1                             No. of respondents       Percent
 Alpine                                                          18               43.90
 Cross breeds                                                    11               17.07
 Local or indigenous breeds (SEAG)                                8               19.51
 Toggenberg                                                       2                4.88
 Apex                                                             1                2.44
 Pedigree                                                         1                2.44
 No response                                                      1                2.44
 Total                                                           41              100.00
 Breed of dairy goat kept-2
 Alpine                                                         2                  4.88
 Apex                                                           1                  2.44
 Local or indigenous breeds (SEAG)                              8                 14.64
 Toggenburg                                                     1                  2.44
 Missing                                                       29                 75.61
 Total                                                         41                 100.00




                                               26
Table 4: Source of breeding stock
 Source of breeding stock                            No. of respondents          Percent
 AGAPE Group                                                   1                  2.44
 Amuabia green growers youth group                             1                  2.44
 Christian partners development agency                         1                  2.44
 Egerton university                                            2                  4.88
 Gigiri                                                        1                  2.44
 Group                                                         3                  7.32
 GTZ/PSDA                                                      1                  2.44
 Kangema                                                       1                  2.44
 Local market                                                  5                  12.20
 Mbee                                                          2                  4.88
 Meru                                                          2                  4.88
 Nyainagu self help group                                      1                  2.44
 Nyeri                                                        11                  26.83
 Other farmers                                                 5                  12.20
 Oyugis                                                        4                  9.76
 Total                                                        41                 100.00

Table 5: Deployment of own household labour in specific activities
                                                                                    Std.
Own Household Male Labour                   N      Minimum     Maximum    Mean      Deviation
No. of men feeding                          28     1           11         1.5       1.895
No of days feeding                          14     1           30         25.3      9.762
Average hours per day- feeding              25     0.2         5          1.8       1.407
No. of men watering                         20     1           11         1.5       2.236
No of days watering                         11     1           30         25.4      10.433
Average hours per day- watering             17     0.1         3          0.6       0.702
No. of men - disease and pest control       20     1           11         1.5       2.236
No of days - disease and pest control       13     1           4          1.5       0.877
Average hours per day - disease and pest
control                                     18     0.1         1          0.6       0.378
No. of men milking                          11     1           1          1.0       0.000
No of days milking                          8      1           30         22.9      13.196
Average hours per day- milking              8      0.1         1          0.4       0.387
No. of men cleaning house                   20     1           1          1.0       0.000
No of days cleaning house                   12     1           30         23.2      12.379
Average hours per day- cleaning house       17     0.2         3          0.9       0.765
Own Household Female Labour
No. of women feeding                        26     1           19         1.7       3.528
No of days feeding                          10     12          30         26.7      6.993
Average hours per day- feeding              24     0.1         5          1.5       1.406
No. of women watering                       24     1           19         1.8       3.674
No of days watering                         9      12          30         28.0      6.000
Average hours per day- watering             21     0.1         5          0.6       1.044
No. of women - disease and pest control     16     1           19         2.1       4.500
No of days - disease and pest control       6      1           4          2.3       1.211
Average hours per day - disease and pest
control                                     11     0.1         1          0.4       0.400
No. of women milking                        9      1           1          1.0       0.000
No of days milking                          2      30          30         30.0      0.000
Average hours per day- milking              8      0.1         1          0.3       0.331
No. of women cleaning house                 18     1           2          1.1       0.236



                                             27
                                                                                       Std.
 Own Household Male Labour                    N      Minimum     Maximum   Mean        Deviation
 No of days cleaning house                    9      1           30        16.2        13.553
 Average hours per day- cleaning house        17     0.1         3         0.9         0.833

Table 6: Deployment of hired labour in specific activities
                                                                                       Std.
 Hired Male Labour                            N      Minimum     Maximum   Mean        Deviation
 No. of men feeding                           3      1           2         1.67        0.577
 No of days feeding                           2      30          30        30          0
 Average hours per day- feeding               2      1           1         1           0
 No. of men watering                          3      1           2         1.67        0.577
 No of days watering                          2      30          30        30          0
 Average hours per day- watering              2      0.2         1         0.6         0.566
 No. of men - disease and pest control        5      1           1         1           0
 No of days - disease and pest control        1      1           1         1           .
 Average hours per day - disease and pest
 control                                      5      0.1         1         0.43        0.349
 No. of men milking                           1      1           1         1           .
 No of days milking                           1      30          30        30          .
 Average hours per day- milking               1      1           1         1           .
 No. of men cleaning house                    2      1           2         1.50        0.707
 No of days cleaning house                    2      30          30        30          0
 Average hours per day- cleaning house        2      1           2         1.50        0.707
 Hired Female Labour
 No. of women feeding                         0
 No of days feeding                           0
 Average hours per day- feeding               0
 No. of women watering                        0
 No of days watering                          0
 Average hours per day- watering              0
 No. of women - disease and pest control      0
 No of days - disease and pest control        0
 Average hours per day - disease and pest
 control                                      0
 No. of women milking                         0
 No of days milking                           0
 Average hours per day- milking               0
 No. of women cleaning house                  0
 No of days cleaning house                    0
 Average hours per day- cleaning house        0

Table 7: Milk production level by farmers, 2007
           Number of litres              No. of farmers at this level             Percent
                 67.5                                1                             2.44
                  90                                 2                             4.88
                 100                                 1                             2.44
                 120                                 1                             2.44
                 165                                 1                             2.44
                 180                                 3                             7.32
                 300                                 2                             4.88
                 315                                 1                             2.44
                 360                                 1                             2.44




                                               28
          Number of litres               No. of farmers at this level     Percent
               365                                    1                     2.44
               405                                    1                     2.44
               480                                    1                     2.44
               540                                    3                     7.32
               600                                    1                     2.44
              1,620                                   1                     2.44
              5,475                                   1                     2.44
              Total                                  22                    53.66
             Missing                                 19                    46.34
              Total                                  41                   100.00

Table 8: Source of technical skills
 Source of Technical Skills-1                        No. of respondents     Percent
 AGAPE officials                                               1             2.44
 Christian Partners Development Agency                         8             19.51
 Group members                                                 1             2.44
 Group officials                                               2             4.88
 GTZ/PSDA                                                      5             12.20
 Ministry of Agriculture                                      15             36.59
 Ministry of Livestock Development                             8             19.51
 Tyiokoe Group from Tanzania                                   1             2.44
 Total                                                        41            100.00
 Source of Technical Skills-2
 AGAPE officials                                               1             2.44
 ASK Show                                                      2             4.88
 Christian Partners Development Agency                         1             2.44
 Group members                                                 6            14.63
 GTZ/PSDA                                                      6            14.63
 Input suppliers                                               2             4.88
 KARI                                                          1             2.44
 Ministry of Agriculture                                       6            14.63
 Ministry of Livestock Development                             3             7.32
 Neighbour                                                     1             2.44
 Other farmers                                                 1             2.44
 Private practitioners                                         1             2.44
 Seminars                                                      1             2.44
 Tom Mboya College                                             1             2.44
 Missing                                                       8            19.51
 Total                                                        41            100.00
 Source of Technical Skills-3
 Group members                                                 1             2.44
 Group officials                                               1             2.44
 GTZ/PSDA                                                      4             9.76
 ICRAF                                                         2             4.88
 Ministry of Agriculture                                       2             4.88
 Ministry of Livestock Development                             1             2.44
 Other farmers                                                 2             4.88
 Missing                                                      28            68.28
 Total                                                        41            100.00




                                              29
Table 9: Number of households buying given number of goats per year in 2007
         No. of animals bought per year           No. of mentions             Percent
                        1                                 8                    61.54
                        2                                 2                    15.38
                        3                                 1                    7.69
                        4                                 2                    15.38
                      Total                              13                   100.00

Table 10: Buyers of goat milk and average prices
 Milk buyer                                         No. of respondents        Percent
 Local people                                                4                100.00

Amount of milk bought per year (litres)
20                                                          1                 25.00
150                                                         2                 50.00
360                                                         1                 25.00
Total                                                       4                 100.00

% of total annual sales
5                                                           1                 25.00
50                                                          2                 50.00
66.7                                                        1                 25.00
Total                                                       4                 100.00

Average price offered per litre (KSh)
40                                                          2                 50.00
45                                                          1                 25.00
50                                                          1                 25.00
Total                                                       4                 100.00

Table 11: Activities undertaken by producer organizations
                                                         No. of
                                                    mentions(multiple
Activity                                              responses)              Percent
Growing vegetables                                         22                  53.66
Dairy goat farming                                         20                  48.78
Merry go round                                             15                  36.59
Bee keeping                                                 8                  19.51
Poultry production                                          7                  17.07
Counselling on HIV/AIDs                                     4                  9.76
Kitchen gardening                                           1                  2.44
Making energy saving jikos                                  3                  7.32
Mobilizing non members                                      2                  4.88
Organize sick animals checkups                              1                  2.44
Potato growing                                              2                  4.88
Producing energy saving jikos (stoves)                      2                  4.88
Banana bulking                                              2                  4.88
Installation of stoves                                      2                  4.88
Training farmers                                            3                  7.32
Giving grants                                               3                  7.32
Selling firewood                                            1                  2.44
Tree nursery                                                1                  2.44
Growing soya beans                                          1                  2.44



                                             30
                                                      No. of
                                                 mentions(multiple
Activity                                           responses)        Percent
Upgrading local breeds                                   1            2.44
Desmodium farming                                        1            2.44
Yoghurt production                                       1            2.44
Growing improved vines                                   1            2.44
Farming                                                  1            2.44
Mushroom production                                      1            2.44
Dairy cow rearing                                        1            2.44
Total                                                   41           100.00

Table 12: Problems producer organizations
                                                      No. of
                                                 mentions(multiple
Problem                                            responses)        Percent
Financial problems                                      30            36.59
Lack of commitment                                      11            13.41
Diseases                                                 4            4.88
Inadequate training                                      4            4.88
Lack of markets                                          4            4.88
Animal feeds                                             3            3.66
Management problems                                      3            3.66
Members withdrawal from the group                        3            3.66
Water shortages/drought                                  3            3.66
Conflicts among members                                  3            3.66
Low morale                                               2            2.44
Goats housing                                            2            2.44
Breed size/poor breeds                                   2            2.44
Poor infrastructure                                      2            2.44
Age between members                                      1            1.22
Poor attendance members                                  1            1.22
Poor leadership                                          1            1.22
Goats drugs                                              1            1.22
Expensive goats                                          1            1.22
Non active members                                       1            1.22
Total                                                   82           100.00




                                            31
                             ANNEX 9: POTATO VALUE CHAIN

Table 1: Potato varieties grown by sample farmers
                                               No of farmers
 Variety 1                                      responding     Percent
 Asante                                              2           3.08
 Desiree                                             1           1.54
 Dutch                                               4           6.15
 Karibu Kenya                                        2           3.08
 Nyayo                                              29          44.62
 Pima suti                                           2           3.08
 Tachi                                               2           3.08
 Tigoni                                             23          35.38
 Total                                              65         100.00
 Variety 2
 Asante                                              9         16.36
 Derasiana                                           3          5.45
 Dutch                                               1          1.82
 Karibu Kenya                                        2          3.64
 Meru                                                2          3.64
 Nyayo                                               8         14.55
 Pima suti                                           8         14.55
 Red Irish                                           2          3.64
 Robin                                               1          1.82
 Tachi                                               1          1.82
 Tigoni                                             18         32.73
 Total                                              55         100.00
 Variety 3
 Asante                                              6          9.23
 Banti                                               1          1.54
 Desiree                                             2          3.08
 Kamande                                             1          1.54
 Karibu Kenya                                        2          3.08
 Kinogo                                              1          1.54
 Meru                                                1          1.54
 Mugharuru                                           1          1.54
 Ngoro                                               1          1.54
 Nyayo                                               3          4.62
 Pima suti                                           3          4.62
 Tachi                                               1          1.54
 Tigoni                                              5          7.69
 Total                                              65         100.00
 Variety 4
 Asante                                              2         40.00
 Nyayo                                               1         20.00
 Pima suti                                           1         20.00
 Tigoni                                              1         20.00
 Total                                               5         100.00




                                            32
Table 2: Combinations of potato varieties planted by different farmers in different districts
Nakuru District, Bahati Division
 District     Division     Combination of potato varieties planted by
                          farmers                                        No. of respondents
 NAKURU       Bahati      Tigoni                                                        1
                          Nyayo                                                         3
                          Tigoni     Red Irish                                          2
                          Nyayo      Derasiana                                          3
                          Nyayo      Tigoni                                             2
                          Nyayo      Meru          Kinogo                               1
                                                                         Total         12
 MOLO         Elburgon
                          Tigoni                                                        1
                          Tigoni     Nyayo                                              3
                          Tigoni     Pima suti                                          1
                          Tigoni     Nyayo         Mugharuru                            1
                          Tigoni     Nyayo         Meru                                 1
                          Tigoni     Nyayo         Desiree                              1

                                                                          Total         8
             Mauche
                         Pima suti                                                      1
                         Nyayo       Tigoni         Pima suti                           1
                         Tigoni      Asante         Tachi           Pima suti           1

                                                                          Total         3
             Kamara
                         Tigoni      Asante                                             2
                         Karibu
                         Kenya                                                          1
                         Asante      Karibu Kenya                                       1

                                                                          Total         4
             Molo
                         Nyayo       Meru           Kamande         Tigoni              1
                         Nyayo       Tigoni         Desiree                             1
                         Nyayo       Asante         Ngoro                               1

                                                                          Total         3
             Keringet
                         Tigoni      Asante                                             1
                         Tigoni      Karibu Kenya   Asante                              2
                         Dutch       Tigoni                                             1

                                                                          Total        22
 NAROK       Olkurto
 NORTH                   Nyayo       Tigoni                                             1
                         Nyayo       Tigoni         Asante                              5
                         Nyayo       Pima suti      Tigoni                              3
                         Asante      Tigoni                                             1
                         Nyayo       Pima suti                                          1

                                                                          Total        11
             Central




                                              33
 District      Division       Combination of potato varieties planted by
                             farmers                                       No. of respondents
                             Nyayo      Pima suti     Tigoni         Asante              1
                             Nyayo      Tigoni        Asante                             1
                                                                     Total               2
               Mau
                             Tigoni                                                            1
                             Nyayo        Tigoni        Pima suti           Asante             1
                             Tigoni       Nyayo         Pima suti                              2
                             Nyayo        Pima suti                                            2
                             Nyayo        Tigoni        Asante                                 1
                             Nyayo        Tigoni                                               1
                             Nyayo        Tigoni        Banti                                  1
                                                                            Total             22
 NAROK         Mulot
 SOUTH                       Dutch                                                            2
                             Dutch        Tigoni        Karibu Kenya        Nyayo             1
                             Nyayo        Tigoni                                              1
                             Dutch        Robin                                               1
                             Karibu
                             Kenya        Dutch         Tigoni                                1
                             Dutch        Tigoni                                              1
                             Desiree      Dutch                                               1
                             Tigoni       Asante                                              1
                                                                            Total             9

Table 3: Expenditure by farmers on potato production inputs, 2007
                                           Foliar   Other                            Other
           Area      Manure Fertilizer     feed     fertilizer Pesticides            inputs   Total
                                                                                              Value
Farmer      (acres)    Value      Value        Value    Value       Value            Value    (KSh)
2           0.25       200                                                                    200
3           1                     80                                                          80
4           .                     80                                                          80
5                                 2500                                                        2500
6           0.9                   2800                                                        2800
7           0.25                  60                                186                       246
9           0.75                  150                               300                       450
10          1                     3000         400                  750                       4150
11          1                     74                                186                       260
12          0.25                  45                                100                       145
13          0.5        150        2800                              400                       3350
14          0.25                  70                                100                       170
15          1                     40                                1600                      1640
16          1.5                   3800         150                  90                        4040
17                     250                                          500                       750
18          0.5        300                                          1.25                      301.25
19          1                                  200      300                                   500
20          0.75                  80                                                          80
21          0.5                   4000                              700                       4700
22          0.5                   4000                              1200                      5200
23          1                     180                               400                       580
24          0.5                   6300                                                        6300



                                                   34
                                            Foliar    Other                     Other
           Area      Manure    Fertilizer   feed      fertilizer   Pesticides   inputs      Total
                                                                                            Value
Farmer     (acres)   Value     Value        Value     Value        Value        Value       (KSh)
25         1                   2800                                1000                     3800
26         1.5                 2200                                960                      3160
27         0.5                 300                                 400                      700
28         0.05                80                                  750                      830
29         0.5                 1800                                150                      1950
30         0.5                 4000         500                                             4500
31         1                                                       1000                     1000
32         2                                1600                   1400         17500       20500
33         0.5                 750                                 200          1500        2450
34         2.5                 4200                                120          200         4520
35         0.5                 750          120                    1280                     2150
36         1.25                1750                                500                      2250
37         0.5                 2900                                500                      3400
38         0.5                 850          80        150                                   1080
39         0.25                48                                  135                      183
40         0.25                240          250                    500                      990
41         0.75                3800                                850          1500        6150
42         2                   1600         200                    1400                     3200
43         1                   1950                                600                      2550
44         0.25                             100                    300                      400
45         0.5                 1400                                1700                     3100
46         2                   1950         90                     1650                     3690
47         0.25                4200                                800                      5000
48         0.5                 1400         250                    500          150         2300
49         5                   4200                                8000         480         12680
50         0.5                 1800         150                    750                      2700
51         0.5                 80                                  800                      880
52         0.75                36           350                    680                      1066
53         2                   80                                  2150                     2230
54         2                   1000                                4900                     5900
55         0.75                1700         150       150                       150         2150
56         0.25                1800         80                     670                      2550
57         3                   2000         200                    3600                     5800
58         0.5                 1600         190                    1100                     2890
59         1.5                 3000         350                    1950                     5300
60         0.5                 3800         100                    1100                     5000
61         0.5                 1800                                370                      2170
62         2                   3800         150                    3100         300         7350
63         0.25                680          80                     160                      920
64         0.5                 1800                   1500         270                      3570
65         0.25                1800         70        150          1800                     3820
Total      54.7                                                                             185,351
n          60                                                      n            63
Mean       0.91                                                                 Mean        2,942.08
                                                                                Std.        2,382.95
                                                                                deviation

Cost per ha = KSh.2,942.079/0.911667 = KSh.3,388.




                                                 35
Table 4: Labour utilization in potato production
                                             No.       of                        Std.
                                             respondents    Min.   Max.   Mean   Deviation
 OWN HOUSEHOLD LABOUR
 Own household Male Labour
 No. of males - land preparation             40             1      8      1.63   1.353
 Days, males - land preparation              39             1      14     5.17   3.784
 Ave Hrs per day, Male - land preparation    34             1      8      5.18   1.359
 No. of males - planting                     42             1      8      1.86   1.389
 Days male - planting                        42             1      10     2.83   2.478
 Ave Hrs per day male - planting             35             1      10     5.57   1.803
 No. of males - weeding                      38             1      6      1.84   1.305
 Days, male - weeding                        35             1      14     4.17   2.905
 Ave Hrs per day, Male - weeding             30             4      7      5.23   0.898
 No. of males - manure application           18             1      4      1.83   1.098
 Days, male - manure application             18             1      6      1.94   1.211
 Ave Hrs per day, Male - manure
 application                                 16             3      8      5.50   1.211
 Male - fertilizer application               25             1      4      1.56   1.003
 Days male - fertilizer application          23             1      10     2.26   2.220
 Ave Hrs per day, male - fertilizer
 application                                 20             1      8      4.85   1.927
 No. of males - irrigating (if any)          0
 Days, male - irrigating (if any)            0
 Ave Hrs per day, male - irrigating (if any) 0
 No. of males - spraying                     36             1      4      1.25   0.649
 days male - spraying                        34             1      8      1.59   1.417
 Ave Hrs per day male - spraying             29             0.2    8      3.80   2.178
 No. of males - harvesting                   35             1      12     2.17   2.526
 Days, male - harvesting                     36             1      15     3.86   3.673
 Ave Hrs per day, male - harvesting          30             1      8      5.53   1.548
 No. of males - grading                      21             1      12     2.38   2.974
 Days male - grading                         19             1      12     3.00   3.383
 Ave Hrs per day, male - grading             17             2      8      5.00   1.871
 No. of males - packaging fresh              14             1      10     2.86   3.134
 Days male - packaging fresh                 14             1      10     2.36   2.590
 Ave Hrs per day, male - packaging fresh     14             0.08   8      4.43   2.266
 No. of males - processing                   0
 Days male - processing                      0
 Ave Hrs per day, male - processing          0
 No. of males - packaging processed          0
 Days male - packaging processed             0
 Ave Hrs per day, male - packaging
 processed                                   0
 No. of males - others                       0
 Days male - others                          0
 Ave Hrs per day, male - others              0
 Own household Female Labour
 No. of females - land preparation           42             1      6      1.38   0.962
 Days, females - land preparation            41             1      14     4.45   3.209
 Ave Hrs per day, female - land preparation 37              2      8      5.05   1.268
 No. of females - planting                   49             1      4      1.45   0.792
 Days female - planting                      46             1      10     2.83   2.234



                                             36
                                                No.       of                        Std.
                                                respondents    Min.   Max.   Mean   Deviation
Ave Hrs per day female - planting               40             1      10     5.55   1.616
No. of females - weeding                        41             1      6      1.54   1.027
Days, female - weeding                          37             1      14     3.81   2.895
Ave Hrs per day, female - weeding               32             4      7      5.34   0.865
No. of females - manure application             24             1      3      1.42   0.776
Days female - manure application                22             1      6      1.86   1.167
Ave Hrs per day, female - manure
application                                     20             3      8      5.45   1.146
No. of females - fertilizer application         28             1      3      1.46   0.793
Days female - fertilizer application            27             1      10     2.19   2.076
Ave Hrs per day, female - fertilizer
application                                     23             0.5    8      4.98   1.933
No. of females - irrigating (if any)            1              1      1      1.00   .
Days, female - irrigating (if any)              1              1      1      1.00   .
Ave Hrs per day, female - irrigating (if any)   1              6      6      6.00   .
No. of females - spraying                       12             1      4      1.25   0.866
Days, female - spraying                         12             1      8      1.75   2.006
Ave Hrs per day female - spraying               9              0.5    6      3.39   1.764
No. of females - harvesting                     38             1      10     1.82   1.998
Days, female - harvesting                       42             1      30     4.29   5.334
Ave Hrs per day, female - harvesting            34             3      8      5.59   1.282
No. of females - grading                        25             1      8      1.60   1.528
Days female - grading                           23             1      12     2.87   3.109
Ave Hrs per day, female - grading               20             0.5    8      4.30   2.244
No. of females - packaging flesh                17             1      4      1.41   0.870
Days female - packaging flesh                   16             1      10     2.19   2.455
Ave Hrs per day, female - packaging flesh       16             0.08   8      3.91   2.387
No. of females - processing                     0
Days female - processing                        0
Ave Hrs per day, female - processing            0
No. of females - packaging processed            0
Days female - packaging processed               0
Ave Hrs per day, female - packaging
processed                                       0
No. of females - others                         0
Days female - others                            0
Ave Hrs per day, female - others                0
HIRED LABOUR
Hired Male Labour
No. of males – land preparation                 29             1      10     3.55   2.923
Days, males – land preparation                  28             1      30     4.46   5.732
Ave Hrs per day, male – land preparation        25             1.15   7      5.29   1.186
Male – planting                                 24             1      20     4.17   4.410
Days, male – planting                           24             1      10     2.88   2.383
Ave Hrs per day Male – planting                 22             4      8      5.59   1.098
Male – weeding                                  24             1      20     3.38   4.168
Days, male – weeding                            23             1      10     3.87   2.564
Ave Hrs per day, male – weeding                 20             2      8      5.45   1.395
Male – manure application                       15             1      8      2.73   1.792
Days Male – manure application                  15             1      7      2.40   1.595
Ave Hrs per day, Male – manure                  13             4      8      5.69   1.182



                                                    37
                                                No.       of                        Std.
                                                respondents    Min.   Max.   Mean   Deviation
application
Male – fertilizer application                   15             1      8      2.07   1.792
Days Male – fertilizer application              12             1      10     3.25   2.768
Ave Hrs per day, Male – fertilizer
application                                     13             4      8      5.46   1.506
male – irrigating (if any)                      1              1      1      1.00   .
Days, male – irrigating (if any)                0
Ave Hrs per day, male – irrigating (if any)     0
male – spraying                                 17             1      10     2.06   2.135
days male – spraying                            15             1      8      2.07   1.870
Ave Hrs per day male – spraying                 15             1      8      4.77   1.761
male – harvesting                               37             1      30     4.84   5.273
Days, male – harvesting                         36             1      30     4.08   6.600
Ave Hrs per day, male – harvesting              30             2      8      5.47   1.252
male – grading                                  11             1      20     4.36   5.767
Days male – grading                             11             1      8      3.09   2.809
Ave Hrs per day, male – grading                 9              3      8      5.67   1.732
male – packaging flesh                          14             1      25     5.07   6.170
Days male – packaging flesh                     13             1      8      2.38   2.434
Ave Hrs per day, male – packaging flesh         13             3      8      5.54   1.506
male – processing                               0
Days male – processing                          0
Ave Hrs per day, male – processing              0
male – packaging processed                      0
Days male – packaging processed                 0
Ave Hrs per day, male – packaging
processed                                       0
male – others                                   0
Days male – others                              0
Ave Hrs per day, male – others                  0
Hired Female Labour
No. of females - land preparation               22             1      12     3.64   3.094
Days,females - land preparation                 22             1      14     3.55   2.857
Ave Hrs per day, female - land preparation      20             4      7      5.50   0.688
female - planting                               27             1      12     3.74   2.809
Days female - planting                          27             1      10     2.52   1.988
Ave Hrs per day female - planting               23             1      8      5.57   1.376
female - weeding                                27             1      20     4.70   4.631
Days, female - weeding                          27             1      7      2.72   1.953
Ave Hrs per day, female - weeding               23             2      8      5.57   1.273
female - manure application                     6              2      8      3.17   2.401
Days female - manure application                6              1      4      2.33   1.211
Ave Hrs per day, female - manure
application                                     4              6      8      6.75   0.957
female - fertilizer application                 9              1      8      2.56   2.404
Days female - fertilizer application            8              1      10     2.88   3.091
Ave Hrs per day, female - fertilizer
application                                     9              0.5    8      5.17   2.449
female - irrigating (if any)                    0
Days, female - irrigating (if any)              0
Ave Hrs per day, female - irrigating (if any)   0



                                                    38
                                             No.       of                          Std.
                                             respondents    Min.   Max.   Mean     Deviation
 female - spraying                           3              1      8      3.33     4.041
 days female - spraying                      3              2      4      3.00     1.000
 Ave Hrs per day female - spraying           3              6      8      7.00     1.000
 female - harvesting                         34             1      18     5.68     4.702
 Days, female - harvesting                   34             1      6      2.35     1.368
 Ave Hrs per day, female - harvesting        27             4      8      5.74     1.196
 female - grading                            11             1      20     6.45     5.222
 Days female - grading                       10             1      8      2.20     2.251
 Ave Hrs per day, female - grading           10             4      8      5.80     1.476
 female - packaging flesh                    9              3      15     7.33     4.637
 Days female - packaging flesh               9              1      8      2.44     2.297
 Ave Hrs per day, female - packaging flesh   8              4      8      5.38     1.685
 female - processing                         0
 Days female - processing                    0
 Ave Hrs per day, female - processing        0
 female - packaging processed                0
 Days female - packaging processed           0
 Ave Hrs per day, female - packaging
 processed                                   0
 female - others                             0
 Days female - others                        0
 Ave Hrs per day, female - others            0

Table 5: Estimated total employment from potato production in sampled households
                                                          Sub-      HIRED          Sub-
       Activity                        OWN LABOUR         Total     LABOUR         Total
 1     LAND PREPARATION                Men      Women     hours     Men    Women   hours
       No. of persons                  1.63     1.38                3.55   3.64
       No of days                      5.17     4.45                4.46   3.55
       Hrs per day                     5.18     5.05                5.29   5.50
       Total    labour   input (man-
       hours)/hh                       43.65    31.07     74.72     83.81  70.91   154.72
 2     PLANTING
       No. of persons                  1.86     1.45                4.17   3.74
       No of days                      2.83     2.83                2.88   2.52
       Hrs per day                     5.57     5.55                5.59   5.57
       Total    labour   input (man-
       hours)/hh                       29.32    22.73     52.05     66.97  52.43   119.41
 3     WEEDING
       No. of persons                  1.84     1.54                3.38   4.70
       No of days                      4.17     3.81                3.87   2.72
       Hrs per day                     5.23     5.34                5.45   5.57
       Total    labour   input (man-
       hours)/hh                       40.21    31.29     71.51     71.18  71.26   142.44
 4     MANURE APPLICATION
       No. of persons                  1.83     1.42                2.73   3.17
       No of days                      1.94     1.86                2.40   2.33
       Hrs per day                     5.50     5.45                5.69   6.75
       Total    labour   input (man-
       hours)/hh                       19.61    14.39     34.00     37.34  49.88   87.22
 5     FERTILIZER APPLICATION
       No. of persons                  1.56     1.46                2.07   2.56



                                                 39
                                                               Sub-     HIRED                 Sub-
      Activity                         OWN LABOUR              Total    LABOUR                Total
      No of days                       2.26   2.19                      3.25  2.88
      Hrs per day                      4.85   4.98                      5.46  5.17
      Total    labour input    (man-
      hours)/hh                        17.11        15.93      33.03    36.68      37.96      74.64
6     IRRIGATING
      No. of persons                   0.00         1.00                1          0
      No of days                       0.00         1.00                           0
      Hrs per day                      0.00         6.00                           0
      Total    labour input    (man-
      hours)/hh                        0.00         6.00       6.00     0.00       0.00       0.00
7     SPRAYING
      No. of persons                   1.25         1.25                2.06       3.33
      No of days                       1.59         1.75                2.07       3.00
      Hrs per day                      3.80         3.39                4.77       7.00
      Total    labour input    (man-
      hours)/hh                        7.54         7.41       14.96    20.28      70.00      90.28
8     HARVESTING
      No. of persons                   2.17         1.82                4.84       5.68
      No of days                       3.86         4.29                4.08       2.35
      Hrs per day                      5.53         5.59                5.47       5.74
      Total    labour input    (man-
      hours)/hh                        46.39        43.49      89.88    107.99     76.68      184.67
9     GRADING
      No. of persons                   2.38         1.60                4.36       6.45
      No of days                       3.00         2.87                3.09       2.20
      Hrs per day                      5.00         4.30                5.67       5.80
      Total    labour input    (man-
      hours)/hh                        35.71        19.74      55.46    76.43      82.36      158.79
10    PACKAGING, FRESH
      No. of persons                   2.86         1.41                5.07       7.33
      No of days                       2.36         2.19                2.38       2.44
      Hrs per day                      4.43         3.91                5.54       5.38
      Total    labour input    (man-
      hours)/hh                        29.86        12.08      41.94    66.98      96.35      163.33
      SUM OF SUB-TOTALS                                        473.54                         1175.49
      GROSS TOTAL                                   1,649.03

Table 6: Potato production per household 2003-2007 (kg)
           Area 2007     2007       2006        2005            2004        2003          Yields
 Farmer (acres)          kg         kg          kg              kg          kg            kg/ha
 1         0.75          2200       .           .               .           .             2933
 2         0.25          250        250         250             250         250           1000
 3         1             1500       1500        1500            1500        1500          1500
 4         0.25          2400       800         800             1200        600           9600
 5         2             3150       .           .               .           .             1575
 6         0.5           2200       1760        .               .           .             4400
 7         0.5           1100       330         .               .           .             2200
 8         0.25          1400       1000        400             250         .             5600
 9         1             900        .           .               .           .             900
 10        0.5           7700       550         .               .           .             15400
 11        0.25          92         .           .               .           .             368
 12        0.75          3850       3080        2640            1650        1320          5133



                                               40
         Area 2007   2007    2006         2005    2004    2003    Yields
Farmer   (acres)     kg      kg           kg      kg      kg      kg/ha
13       1           2100    700          1000    .       500     2100
14       0.5         1650    .            .       .       .       3300
15       0.25        550     .            .       .       .       2200
16       1           9000    .            .       .       .       9000
17       0.5         550     .            .       .       .       1100
18       0.75        1200    1200         1200    1200    1200    1600
19       1           3000    2900         3200    .       .       3000
20       0.5         150     .            .       .       .       300
21       0.5         4000    .            .       .       .       8000
22       0.5         4000    .            .       .       .       8000
23       0.5         1100    700          1000    .       .       2200
24       0.5         2000    800          .       .       .       4000
25       0.25        1100    .            .       .       .       4400
26       1           6100    .            .       .       .       6100
27       1.5         14800   8000         8000    10000   .       9867
28       0.5         2000    1000         1200    .       .       4000
29       2.5         55000   55000        55000   55000   55000   22000
30       1.25        3400    5200         5100    3100    3200    2720
31       5           50000   .            .       .       .       10000
32       0.5         1100    1650         1000    11000   15000   2200
33       .           450     360          432     .       281
34       .           360     270          540     270     450
35       1           100     150          100     .       .       100
36       0.9         800     600          .       .       .       889
37       0.5         2100    3500         500     .       .       4200
38       .           250     100          300     150     100
39       0.5         1500    1300         .       .       .       3000
40       0.25        .       .            .       .       .
41       0.05        .       .            .       .       .
42       0.5         1430    1100         1300    1250    1150    2860
43       .           250     300          .       .       .
44       0.75        4000    2800         3200    2300    500     5333
45       2           27000   19800        12240   9000    36000   13500
46       2           4000    3000         5000    4000    2000    2000
47       0.75        2350    2200         1675    1600    1650    3133
48       0.25        9680    72650        19896   2200    200     38720
49       3           25000   20000        30000   15000   17000   8333
50       0.5         2200    1500         2000    1900    .       4400
51       1.5         6600    3200         1700    1100    1100    4400
52       0.5         2200    2310         2970    .       .       4400
53       0.5         500     .            .       .       .       1000
54       0.25        1540    .            .       .       .       6160
55       0.5         3000    .            .       .       .       6000
56       0.5         2500    600          800     600     1000    5000
57       2           3700    3400         5000    6000    .       1850
58       1           6000    .            .       .       .       6000
59       2           5500    5300         2000    2100    2200    2750
60       0.25        1300    1000         .       .       .       5200
61       1.5         6000    5500         .       .       .       4000
62       0.5         2100    .            .       .       .       4200



                                     41
           Area 2007       2007       2006            2005   2004     2003       Yields
Farmer     (acres)         kg         kg              kg     kg       kg         kg/ha
63         0.25            2700       2400            3000   2000     500        10800
64         1               6000       5700            6000   6200     6000       6000
65         2               13200      8900            5500   3300     4400       6600
                                                                      Mean       5382

Table 7: Mode of disposal of potatoes in 2006 and 2007
 Mode of disposal-1 (2007)       Disposal              No. of respondents         Percent
                                 Sales                          58                 89.23
                                 Consumption                     5                  7.69
                                   Total                       63                 96.92
                                   Missing                      2                  3.08
                                   Total                       65                 100.00
 Mode of disposal -2 (2007)
                                   Sales                        1                   1.54
                                   Consumption                 52                  80.00
                                   Donations                    1                   1.54
                                   Planting                     1                   1.54
                                   Total                       55                  84.62
 Mode of disposal -3 ( 2007)
                                   Consumption                  1
                                   Donations                    4
                                   Planting                     8
                                   Total                       13
 Mode of disposal -1 ( 2006)
                                   Sales                       42                 64.62
                                   Consumption                  2                 3.077
                                   Total                       44                 67.69
                                   Missing                     21                 32.31
                                   Total                       65                 100.00
 Mode of disposal -2 (2006)
                                   Consumption                 34                 52.31
                                   Donations                    2                  3.08
                                   Planting                     1                  1.54
                                   Total                       37                 56.92
                                   No response                 28                 43.08
                                   Total                       65                 100.00
 Mode of disposal - 3 (2006)
                                   Consumption                  1                  1.54
                                   Donations                    2                  3.08
                                   Planting                     1                  1.54
                                   Total                        4                  6.15
                                   No response                 61                 93.85
                                   Total                       65                 100.00

Table 8: Potato sold to neighbours, brokers and in the local market
 Sales           to
 neighbours          Brokers                                        Local market
 Kg/      Price                                      KSh/ KSh/ Local           Kg/     KSh/   KSh/
 month KSh/kg                       kg       Bags kg         bag    market     month   kg     bag
                     Joseph from
 40       12         Narok Town     100      .       10      .                 .       .      .



                                                 42
Sales         to
neighbours         Brokers                                       Local market
Kg/     Price                                      KSh/   KSh/   Local      Kg/      KSh/   KSh/
month KSh/kg                        kg      Bags   kg     bag    market     month    kg     bag
40      12                          .       .      .      .                 .        .      .
.       .                           .       .      .      .      Rotian     130      5      .
1400    10                          .       .      .      .                 .        .      .
.       .          From Nairobi     532     .      11     .                 .        .      .
220     .                           .       .      .      .      Murot      1320     .      1300
.       .                           .       .      .      .                 46       15     .
800     10                          .       .      .      .                 .        .      .
.       .                           270     .      .      .                 .        .      .
.       .                           .       .      .      .                 .        .      .
.       .                           192     .      12.5   .                 .        .      .
.       .                           .       .      .      .                 .        .      .
.       .                           .       .      .      .                 .        .      .
                   Joseph from
100     12         Narok Town       100     .      10     .                 .        .      .
.       .                           440     .      .      .                 .        .      .
.       .                           .       .      .      .      Enengare   1762.5   .      .
.       .                           .       .      .      .      Enengare   220      10     .
.       .                           .       .      .      .      Loibot     .        .      600
.       .                           .       .      .      .                 430      .      800
.       .                           .       .      .      .                 .        .      .
.       .                           .       20     .      1300              .        .      .
.       .                           .       .      .      .                 .        40     1500
.       .                           .       7      .      1000              .        .      .
10      12.5       Narok market     120     18     .      .                 .        .      .
.       .          Mulot Division   .       3      .      1000              .        .      .
.       .                           .       37     .      1000              .        .      .
.       .                           .       125    .      1000              .        .      .
.       .                           .       .      8.7    .                 .        .      .
.       .          Transporters     14400   .      .      800               .        .      .
.       .                           .       26     .      600               .        .      .
.       .                           .       40     .      600               .        .      .
20      .          Mr. Chege        640     .      .      .                 .        .      .
.       .                           .       .      .      .                 .        .      .
20      12                          .       .      .      .                 .        .      .
.       .                           .       .      .      .                 .        .      .
.       .                           .       .      .      800               .        .      .
.       .                           .       .      .      .                 .        .      .
.       .                           .       .      .      .                 .        .      .
.       .                           .       .      .      .                 .        .      .
.       .                           .       .      .      .                 .        .      .
.       .                           .       .      .      .                 .        .      .
50      .          Mr.Chege         500     .      .      .                 .        .      .
34      9                           .       .      .      .                 .        .      .
.       .          Joseph           .       30     .      1500              .        .      .
3600    20                          20700   15     .      .                 .        .      .
.       .                           .       150    .      1500              .        .      .
176     10                          .       .      .      .                 .        .      .
.       .                           800     11     .      .                 .        .      .
.       .                           .       .      8      .                 .        .      .



                                            43
Sales         to
neighbours         Brokers                                      Local market
Kg/     Price                                     KSh/   KSh/   Local      Kg/     KSh/   KSh/
month KSh/kg                      kg       Bags   kg     bag    market     month   kg     bag
.       .                         .        23     .      1000              .       .      .
.       .                         .        56     .      1500              .       .      .
.       .                         165      .      12.5   .                 .       .      .
.       .                         .        5      .      800               .       .      .
.       .                         50       .      .      1600              .       .      .
20      10         Mombasa        1375     .      13     .                 .       .      .
.       .          Ware           .        20     .      1000              .       .      .
.       .          Ware           .        37     .      1000              .       .      .
3300    10.9                      .        .      .      .                 .       .      .
.       .                         400      .      .      1600              .       .      .
.       .                         10       .      .      700               .       .      .
.       .                         .        4      .      2000              .       .      .
.       .                         .        15     .      1000              .       .      .
.       .                         .        15     .      1400              .       .      .
.       .                         550      .      .      600               .       .      .
165     16                        385      .      10     .                 .       .      .

Table 9: Producers’ organizations
 Name of producer organization                       No. of respondents         Percent
 Bavuni Mugaithi                                               4                 6.90
 Chamga Potato Growers                                         2                 3.45
 Chomyet Single Mothers and Widows Group                       2                 3.45
 Ear Enkitok Water and Environment FFS                         5                 8.62
 Gitwamba Self Help Group                                      2                 3.45
 Green Vision Self Help Group                                  8                 13.79
 KENAPOFA                                                      3                 5.17
 Kiamunyeki Hillside Self Help Group                           3                 5.17
 Kiptendeni CBO                                                6                 10.34
 Kojon'ga                                                      4                 6.90
 Nalipe                                                        1                 1.72
 Nanyor Potatoes Farmers SHG                                   2                 3.45
 Naretu Farmers Field School                                   2                 3.45
 Nenkare Potato Growers                                        1                 1.72
 Olamarei Self Help Group                                      1                 1.72
 Olmusaakwa Self Help Group                                    4                 6.90
 Sigor West Self Help Group                                    2                 3.45
 Tawe Group                                                    3                 5.17
 Wakulima Taitta Youth Group                                   3                 5.17
 Total                                                        58                100.00


Table 10: Year when potato producer organization was formed
 Organization                                                     Year formed
 Olmusaakwa Self Help Group                          2004         2005
 Ear Enkitok Water and Environment FFS               2004
 Kiptendeni CBO                                      2004         2005          2007
 Chamga Potato Growers                               2007
 Naretu Farmers Field School                         2005
 Olamarei Self Help Group                            2005



                                           44
 KENAPOFA                                         2005
 Nenkare Potato Growers                           2005
 Nalipe                                           .
 Nanyor Potatoes Farmers SHG                      2005          2006
 Kojon'ga                                         2005
 Kiamunyeki Hillside Self Help Group              2005
 Bavuni Mugaithi                                  2002          2006
 Gitwamba Self Help Group                         2004
 KENAPOFA                                         2006
 Green Vision Self Help Group                     2005          2006
 Chomyet Single Mothers and Widows Group          2003
 Wakulima Taitta Youth Group                      1996          2005
 Chomyet Single Mothers and Widows Group          2003
 Sigor West Self Help Group                       2007
 Tawe Group                                       2005          2006

Table 11: Problems in the producer organization
 Problems                                         No. of respondents   Percent
 Problem - 1
 None                                                     6             9.23
 Conflicts among members                                  1             1.54
 Financial constraints                                   38            58.46
 High cost of inputs                                      1             1.54
 High input costs                                         2             3.08
 Inadequate training                                      1             1.54
 Lack of certified seeds                                  3             4.62
 Lack of committment                                      2             3.08
 Lack of follow up after training                         1             1.54
 Management problems                                      1             1.54
 Poor leadership                                          7            10.77
 Poor marketing                                           1             1.54
 Unfavourable weather conditions                          1             1.54
 Total                                                   65            100.00
 Problem - 2
 Brokers                                                  2              3.57
 Conflicts among members                                  3              5.36
 Diseases                                                 1              1.79
 Few members                                              2              3.57
 Financial constraints                                    5              8.93
 High input costs                                         5              8.93
 Inadequate technical skills                              1              1.79
 Inadequate training                                      4              7.14
 Lack of certified seeds                                  9             16.07
 Lack of commitment                                       6             10.71
 Lack of connections to NGOs                              1              1.79
 Lack of follow up after training                         1              1.79
 Low rainfall                                             1              1.79
 Management problems                                      2              3.57
 Marketing problems                                       2              3.57
 Members withdrawal from group                            6             10.71
 Poor leadership                                          3              5.36
 Poor meetings                                            1              1.79



                                            45
 Problems                                           No. of respondents   Percent
 Unfavourable weather conditions                              1           1.79
 Total                                                       56          100.00
 Problem - 3
 Conflicts among members                                    1             4.17
 Difficulty with dealing with drought                       1             4.17
 Financial constraints                                      4            16.67
 Herbicides                                                 1             4.17
 High input costs                                           2             8.33
 Inaccessibility to credit                                  1             4.17
 Inadequate training                                        2             8.33
 Lack of certified seeds                                    1             4.17
 Lack of commitment                                         3            12.50
 Lack of information on value addition                      1             4.17
 Lack of knowledge on pesticides                            1             4.17
 Lack of planting land                                      1             4.17
 Management problems                                        1             4.17
 Members withdrawal from group                              4            16.67
 Total                                                     24            100.00
 Problem - 4
 Financial constraints                                      1
 High transportation cost                                   1
 Members withdrawal from group                              1
 Total                                                      3
Table 12: Activities of the producer organization
                                                    No. of respondents   Percent
 Activity - 1
 Bee keeping                                                1             1.54
 Building stores to improve potato seeds                    1             1.54
 Field demonstrations                                       1             1.54
 Financial support                                          1             1.54
 Growing vegetables                                         4             6.15
 Helping members in farms                                   1             1.54
 Maize farming                                              2             3.08
 Merry go round                                             3             4.62
 Planting and selling seeds                                 2             3.08
 Planting trees                                             2             3.08
 Potato farming                                            24            36.92
 Promoting members welfare                                  1             1.54
 Registration of new members                                1             1.54
 Sharing ideas                                              1             1.54
 Standardise packaging                                      1             1.54
 Training farmers                                          11            16.92
 Missing                                                    8            12.31
 Total                                                     65            100.00
 Activity - 2
 Advising members                                           1             1.54
 Assist in making bylaws                                    1             1.54
 Beans production                                           4             6.15
 Bee keeping                                                1             1.54
 Buying farms                                               1             1.54
 Buying shares                                              1             1.54



                                              46
                                            No. of respondents   Percent
Control production to avoid flooding                  1            1.54
Developing one group farm                             1            1.54
Field demonstrations                                  4            6.15
Funds contribution                                    1            1.54
Growing vegetables                                    3            4.62
Helping members in farms                              1            1.54
Maize farming                                         4            6.15
Merry go round                                        6            9.23
Networking with farmers                               3            4.62
Peas growing                                          2            3.08
Planting trees                                        1            1.54
Potato farming                                        5            7.69
Poultry keeping                                       1            1.54
Promoting members welfare                             1            1.54
Protecting rivers and forests                         1            1.54
Provide Jobs                                          1            1.54
Providing inputs                                      1            1.54
Table banking                                         1            1.54
Training farmers                                      6            9.23
Missing                                              12           18.46
Total                                                65          100.00
Activity – 3
Accessing loans as a group                          1             1.54
Buying inputs jointly                               1             1.54
Buying seeds                                        1             1.54
Buying shares                                       1             1.54
Check prices                                        1             1.54
Establishing a bee hive                             1             1.54
Field demonstrations                                3             4.62
Growing vegetables                                  1             1.54
Helping members in farms                            1             1.54
Maize farming                                       3             4.62
Merry go round                                      4             6.15
Organic farming                                     1             1.54
Planting and selling seeds                          1             1.54
Potato farming                                      3             4.62
Saving                                              1             1.54
Training farmers                                    7            10.77
Tree planting                                       1             1.54
Wheat farming                                       1             1.54
Missing                                            32            49.23
Total                                              65            100.00
Actvity-4
Beans production                                    1             1.54
Dairy goat production                               1             1.54
Making energy saving jikos                          1             1.54
Merry go round                                      3             4.62
Training farmers                                    1             1.54
Wheat production                                    1             1.54
Missing                                            57            87.69
Total                                              65            100.00



                                       47
                        No. of respondents   Percent
Activity - 5
Beans production                1             1.54
Wheat production                1             1.54
Merry go rounds                 1             1.54
Missing                        62            95.38
Total                          65            100.00




                   48
                               ANNEX 10: MANGO VALUE CHAIN

Table 1: Types of mangoes grown by farmers
 Farmers growing one variety                     No. of farmers growing
 only                             Variety                 variety                   Percent
                                  Apple                      4                       23.5
                                  Dondo                      1                        5.9
                                  Grafted                    5                       29.4
                                  Kent                       2                       11.7
                                  Ngoe                       2                       11.7
                                  Ngoya                      1                        5.9
                                  Tommy                      1                        5.9
                                  Total                     17                       100.0
 Farmers growing a second variety
                                  Apple                      4                       36.3
                                  Eden                       1                        9.0
                                  Kent                       3                       27.3
                                  Ngoe                       2                       18.2
                                  Tommy                      1                        9.0
                                  Total                     11                       100.0
 Farmers growing a third variety
                                  Eden                       3                       27.2
                                  Kent                       2                       18.2
                                  Ngoe                       2                       18.2
                                  Tommy                      4                       36.4
                                  Total                     11                       100.0
 Farmers growing a fourth variety
                                  Apple                      2                       20.0
                                  Eden                       3                       30.0
                                  Kent                       1                       10.0
                                  Ngoya                      1                       10.0
                                  Puttin                     1                       10.0
                                  Tommy                      2                       20.0
                                  Total                     10                       100.0
 Farmers growing a fifth variety
                                  Kent                      1                        50.0
                                  Tommy                     1                        50.0
                                  Total                     2                        100.0


Table 2: Distance to certified nursery and price of seedlings
        Farmer              Distance to certified                Cost per seedling (KSh)
                                nursery (km)               Normal                    Grafted
           1                          1                       25                      100
           2                          .                        .                       90
           3                          .                       20                       60
           4                          .                       20                        .
           5                         12                       25                        .
           6                         70                        .                       80
           7                          1                       25                      120
           8                          .                       20                        .
           9                          .                        .                       45



                                               49
       Farmer             Distance to certified                Cost per seedling (KSh)
                              nursery (km)                Normal                   Grafted
          10                        .                        .                        .
          11                        .                       20                        .
          12                        .                        .                        .
          13                        .                        .                       70
          14                       2                         .                      100
          15                      2.5                        .                      100
          16                       2                         .                       75
          17                        .                        .                      100
     No of farmers
      responding                     7                        7                       11
        Range                     1 - 70                 . 20 - 25                 .45 - 120
         Mean                      12.9                     22.1                     85.50
     Std deviation                25.46                     2.67                     21.73


Table 3: Use of own male and female labour in mango production
                                                                                        Std.
                                           N        Minimum    Maximum      Mean        Deviation
Own labour – Males
No. of males - nursery seedbed
production                                      0
Days, males - nursery seedbed
production                                      0
Average hrs per day, male - nursery
seedbed production                              0
No. of males - seeding for nursery              0
Days male - seeding for nursery                 0
Average hrs per day male - seeding for
nursery                                         0
No. of males - watering                         0
Days, male – watering                           1         1            1            1   .
Average hrs per day, male - watering            0
No. of males - thinning                         2         1           3.5       2.25           1.768
Days male – thinning                            1         1             1          1    .
Average hrs per day, male - thinning            1         4             4          4    .
No. of males -land preparation                  2         1             1          1           0.000
Days, male - land preparation                   2         1             7          4           4.243
Average hrs per day, male - land
preparation                                     0
No. of males - transplanting                    2        1.5           4        2.75           1.768
Days, male - transplanting                      2          1           2        1.50           0.707
Average hrs per day, male –
transplanting                                   1         4            4        4.00    .
No. of males - manure application              12         1           14        2.67           3.725
Days, male - manure application                10         1            7         4.1           2.644
Average hrs per day, male - manure
application                                     7         3            7        5.43           1.397
No. of males - fertilizer application           3         1            2        1.33           0.577
Days male - fertilizer application              3         1            3        2.33           1.155
Average hrs per day, male - fertilizer
application                                     1         6            6        6.00    .
No. of males - irrigation                       1         4            4        4.00    .
Days male – irrigation                          1         1            1        1.00    .



                                               50
                                                                                              Std.
                                           N        Minimum       Maximum       Mean          Deviation
Average hrs per day, male - irrigation          1           5            5          5.00      .
No. of males - spraying                        10           1            6          1.80             1.549
Days male – spraying                            7           1           14          5.43             4.392
Average hrs per day, male - spraying            5         1.5            8           5.5             2.398
No. of males - weeding                          3           1            4             2             1.732
Days male – weeding                             3           1           14          5.33             7.506
Average hrs per day, male - weeding             1           8            8          8.00      .
No. of males – pruning                         10           1            6          1.80             1.751
Days male – pruning                             7           1           14          5.14             4.670
Average hrs per day, male - pruning             5         2.5            8          5.30             1.987
No. of males - harvesting                       3           1            4          2.17             1.607
Days male - harvesting                          2           1            1          1.00             0.000
Average hrs per day, male – harvesting          0
No. of males – grading                          3           1               4          2.67         1.528
Days male – grading                             2           1               1          1.00         0.000
Average hrs per day, male - grading             1           8               8          8.00   .
No. of males - packaging fresh                  3         0.5               4          2.50         1.803
Days male - packaging fresh                     3           1               1          1.00             0
Average hrs per day, male - packaging
fresh                                           1             8             8          8.00   .
No. of males - extracting juice                 0
Days male - extracting juice                    0
Average hrs per day, male - extracting
juice                                           0
No. of males - packaging processed              0
Days male - packaging processed                 0
Average hrs per day, male - packaging
processed                                       0
No. of males – grafting                         1             1             1          1.00   .
Days male – grafting                            1             1             1          1.00   .
Average hrs per day, male - grafting            1             4             4          4.00   .
                                                                                              Std.
Own labour - Females                       N        Minimum       Maximum       Mean          Deviation

No. of females - nursery seedbed
production                                      0
Days, females - nursery seedbed
production                                      0
Average hrs per day, female - nursery
seedbed production                              0
No. of females - seeding for nursery            0
Days female - seeding for nursery               0
Average hrs per day female - seeding for
nursery                                         0
No. of females – watering                       0
Days, female – watering                         0
Average hrs per day, female – watering          0
No. of females – thinning                       0
Days female – thinning                          0
Average hrs per day, female - thinning          0

No. of females -land preparation                1             1             1   1.00          .




                                               51
                                                                                 Std.
                                           N        Minimum    Maximum    Mean   Deviation
Days, female - land preparation                0
Average hrs per day, female - land
preparation                                    0

No. of females - transplanting                 1          1          1    1.00   .

Days, female - transplanting                   1          2          2    2.00   .
Average hrs per day, female -
transplanting                                  0

No. of females - manure application            5          1          6    2.00         2.236

Days, female - manure application              5          1          7    4.00         2.828
Average hrs per day, female - manure
application                                    4          3          6    5.00         1.414

No. of females - fertilizer application        2          1          1    1.00               0

Days female - fertilizer application           1          3          3    3.00   .
Average hrs per day, female - fertilizer
application                                    1          6          6    6.00   .

No. of females - irrigation                    1          1          1    1.00   .
Days female - irrigation                       0
Average hrs per day, female - irrigation       0

No. of females - spraying                      1          1          1    1.00   .

Days female - spraying                         1          7          7    7.00   .

Average hrs per day, female - spraying         1          6          6    6.00   .

No. of females - weeding                       1          1          1    1.00   .
Days female - weeding                          0
Average hrs per day, female - weeding          0

No. of females - pruning                       2          1          1    1.00               0

Days female – pruning                          1          1          1    1.00   .

Average hrs per day, female - pruning          1         2.5        2.5   2.50   .

No. of males - harvesting                      1          1          1    1.00   .

Days female – harvesting                       1          1          1    1.00   .
Average hrs per day, female - harvesting       0

No. of females - grading                       1          1          1    1.00   .
Days female - grading                          0
Average hrs per day, female - grading          0

No. of females - packaging fresh               1          1          1    1.00   .

Days female - packaging fresh                  1          1          1    1.00   .
Average hrs per day, female - packaging
fresh                                          0



                                               52
                                                                                                  Std.
                                           N           Minimum       Maximum       Mean           Deviation
No. of females - extracting juice              0
Days female - extracting juice                 0
Average hrs per day, female - extracting
juice                                          0
No. of females - packaging processed           0
Days female - packaging processed              0
Average hrs per day, female - packaging
processed                                      0
No. of females – grafting                      0
Days female – grafting                         0
Average hrs per day, female - grafting         0


Table 4: Use of hired male and female labour in mango production
                                                                                                   Std.
                                           N            Minimum       Maximum       Mean           Deviation
Hired labour - Males
No. of males - nursery seedbed
production                                         0
Days, males - nursery seedbed
production                                         0
Average hrs per day, male - nursery
seedbed production                                 0
No. of males - seeding for nursery                 0
Days male - seeding for nursery                    0
Average hrs per day male - seeding for
nursery                                            0
No. of males - watering                            0
Days, male - watering                              0
Average hrs per day, male - watering               0
No. of males - thinning                            0
Days male - thinning                               0
Average hrs per day, male - thinning               0
No. of males -land preparation                     1             3             3           3.00    .
Days, male - land preparation                      1             7             7           7.00    .
Average hrs per day, male - land
preparation                                        1             8             8           8.00    .
No. of males - transplanting                       1             2             2           2.00    .
Days, male - transplanting                         1             1             1           1.00    .
Average hrs per day, male -
transplanting                                      1         100           100        100.00       .
No. of males - manure application                  3           1             2          1.67            0.577
Days, male - manure application                    3           2             4          3.00            1.000
Average hrs per day, male - manure
application                                        3             5             6           5.67         0.577
No. of males - fertilizer application              1             2             2           2.00    .
Days male - fertilizer application                 1             3             3           3.00    .
Average hrs per day, male - fertilizer
application                                        1             5             5           5.00    .
No. of males - irrigation                          0
Days male - irrigation                             0
Average hrs per day, male - irrigation             0
No. of males - spraying                            4             1             6           3.00         2.160



                                               53
                                                                                              Std.
                                           N        Minimum       Maximum       Mean          Deviation
Hired labour - Males
Days male - spraying                            3             2          7          4.00            2.646
Average hrs per day, male - spraying            4             5        200         54.25           97.168
No. of males - weeding                          1             5          5          5.00      .
Days male - weeding                             1             2          2          2.00      .
Average hrs per day, male - weeding             1             4          4          4.00      .
No. of males - pruning                          2             1          2          1.50            0.707
Days male - pruning                             2             2         12          7.00            7.071
Average hrs per day, male - pruning             2             7        150         78.50          101.116
No. of males - harvesting                       3             3          8          5.33            2.517
Days male - harvesting                          2             3          4          3.50            0.707
Average hrs per day, male - harvesting          3             3        150         52.33           84.583
No. of males - grading                          1             6          6          6.00      .
Days male - grading                             0
Average hrs per day, male - grading             0
No. of males - packaging fresh                  1             5             5          5.00   .
Days male - packaging fresh                     1             1             1          1.00   .
Average hrs per day, male - packaging
fresh                                           1             4             4          4.00   .
No. of males - extracting juice                 0
Days male - extracting juice                    0
Average hrs per day, male - extracting
juice                                           0
No. of males - packaging processed              0
Days male - packaging processed                 0
Average hrs per day, male - packaging
processed                                       0
No. of males - grafting                         0
Days male - grafting                            0
Average hrs per day, male - grafting            0
                                                                                              Std.
Hired labour - Females                     N        Minimum       Maximum       Mean          Deviation
No. of females - nursery seedbed
production                                      0
Days, females - nursery seedbed
production                                      0
Average hrs per day, female - nursery
seedbed production                              0
No. of females - seeding for nursery            0
Days female - seeding for nursery               0
Average hrs per day female - seeding for
nursery                                         0
No. of females – watering                       0
Days, female – watering                         0
Average hrs per day, female - watering          0
No. of females – thinning                       0
Days female – thinning                          0
Average hrs per day, female - thinning          0
No. of females -land preparation                0
Days, female - land preparation                 0
Average hrs per day, female - land
preparation                                     0




                                               54
                                                                                        Std.
                                           N        Minimum    Maximum    Mean          Deviation
Hired labour - Males
No. of females - transplanting                  1          3          3          3.00   .
Days, female - transplanting                    1          1          1          1.00   .
Average hrs per day, female -
transplanting                                   1        100        100     100.00      .
No. of females - manure application             4          1         10       5.00           3.916
Days, female - manure application               3          1          3       2.00           1.000
Average hrs per day, female - manure
application                                     3          5        100      37.00          54.562
No. of females - fertilizer application         1          3          3       3.00      .
Days female - fertilizer application            1          3          3       3.00      .
Average hrs per day, female - fertilizer
application                                     1          5          5          5.00   .
No. of females - irrigation                     0
Days female - irrigation                        0
Average hrs per day, female - irrigation        0
No. of females - spraying                       0
Days female - spraying                          0
Average hrs per day, female - spraying          0
No. of females - weeding                        1         5           5           5.0   .
Days female - weeding                           1         2           2           2.0   .
Average hrs per day, female - weeding           1         4           4           4.0   .
No. of females - pruning                        1         3           3           3.0   .
Days female – pruning                           1        12          12          12.0   .
Average hrs per day, female - pruning           0
No. of males - harvesting                       1          5          5           5.0   .
Days female – harvesting                        1          4          4           4.0   .
Average hrs per day, female - harvesting        1          4          4           4.0   .
No. of females - grading                        0
Days female - grading                           0
Average hrs per day, female - grading           0
No. of females - packaging fresh                1          5          5           5.0   .
Days female - packaging fresh                   1          1          1           1.0   .
Average hrs per day, female - packaging
fresh                                           0
No. of females - extracting juice               1          4          4           4.0   .
Days female - extracting juice                  0
Average hrs per day, female - extracting
juice                                           0
No. of females - packaging processed            0
Days female - packaging processed               0
Average hrs per day, female - packaging
processed                                       0
No. of females – grafting                       0
Days female – grafting                          0
Average hrs per day, female - grafting          0




                                               55
Table 5: Inputs in mango production
                        Amt per     Amt      Cost                      Amt per   Amt      Cost
            Input       tree        used     KSh         Input         tree      used     KSh
 Farmer Manure                                           Fertilizer
 1          Manure      20kg                 .
 2          Manure      90kg                 .
 3          Manure      9kg                  .
 4          Manure                           .
 5          Manure      15kg                        30   Urea          0.25kg                    50
 6          Manure      20kg                 .
 7          Manure                                       Fertilizer    1kg       100kg      1800
 8                                                       Fertilizer    200g                  100
 9                                                       Fertilizer    0.5kg     50kg       1500
 10                                                      Fertilizer    1.5kg                  80
 11         Manure                                       Fertilizer    0.5kg                  50
 12         Manure                           .           Copper        500g                 1000
 13         Manure                                       Fertilizer    1kg       50kg       4700
 14         Manure      2debes      20kg     .           Fertilizer    2kg       2bags      4000
 15         Manure                           .
            Manure      1debe       2tons        1200    Fertilizer    100g      50kg       1500
 16                                                      Foliar feed   50ml      1kg         500
 17


                        Amt per    Amt       Cost                      Amt per   Amt      Cost
Farmer    Pesticides    tree       used      KSh         Pesticides    tree      used     KSh
1         Bailtons                 5kg         2400      Tata alpha              1litre     1500
2         Triple 17     500g                   1300      Thiofit                 1kg      .
3         Pesticides    2ml        200ml        250      Alvatox                 100ml       300
4         Pesticides    1.7g       1kg          250                                       .
5         Bayleton      1ml                      1.5     Alphur        100ml                 170
6         Pesticides    100g                    300                                       .
7         Pesticides    46g        2kg         2000                                       .
8         Pesticides    5ml        200ml        200                                       .
9         Pesticides    2kg                     500                                       .
10        Copper                                650      Osoven                              400
11        Pesticides    5litres                1000                                       .
12        Bayleton      500g                   1500                                       .
13        Copper        2kg                     600                                       .
14        Copper                   500g         900      Fastac                  250ml      1000
15        Fungicides               1kg         1900      Copper                  1kg        1300
16        Ozalitione    500ml                .
17        Pesticides    500ml      7litres      200      White wash    10kg                  200




                                             56
                        Amt per     Amt      Cost                      Amt per   Amt       Cost
Farmer     Input        tree        used     KSh        Input          tree      used      KSh
1
2                                            .                                             .
3                                            .                                             .
4                                            .                                             .
5                                            .                                             .
6                                                                                          .
7                                            .                                             .
8                                            .                                             .
9                                            .                                             .
10                                           .                                             .
11                                           .                                             .
12                                           .                                             .
13                                           .                                             .
14                                           .                                             .
15         Bayleton                 500g         1250                                      .
16         ?                        5kg          1000   Insecticides   1litre                  1800
17         Pesticide                100ml         300


Table 6: Sources of technical skills in mango production
 Source of Technical Skills – 1                       No of farmers              Percent
 Gikindu Quality Mangoes Association                         1                     5.9
 GTZ                                                         8                    47.1
 HCDA                                                        1                     5.9
 Inputs suppliers                                            1                     5.9
 Ministry of Agriculture                                     6                    35.3
 Total                                                      17                    100.0
 Source of Technical Skills - 2
 GTZ                                                         5                    29.4
 Inputs suppliers                                            3                    17.6
 KIOF                                                        2                    11.8
 Ministry of Agriculture                                     6                    35.3
 Osho Chemicals                                              1                     5.9
 Total                                                      17                    100.0
 Source of Technical Skills - 3
 GTZ                                                         3                    23.1
 HCDA                                                        3                    23.1
 KARI                                                        1                     7.7
 KIOF                                                        1                     7.7
 Ministry of Agriculture                                     3                    23.1
 Prisons                                                     1                     7.7
 Religious people                                            1                     7.7
 Total                                                      13                    100.0
 Source of Technical Skills - 4
 Cooperative development                                     1                    25.0
 GTZ                                                         1                    25.0
 Ministry of Agriculture                                     1                    25.0
 SITE                                                        1                    25.0
 Total                                                       4                    100.0




                                             57
Table 7: Mango production 2007
                   Farmer                                          Production (kg)
                       1                                               92,453
                       2                                               6,075
                       3                                               2,000
                       4                                               8,250
                       5                                               1,000
                       6                                               18,000
                       7                                               4,495
                       8                                               26,400
                       9                                                264
                      10                                               1,320
                      11                                               3,795
                      12                                               8,000
                      13                                               99,000
                      14                                               3,300
                      15                                               6,052
                      16                                               11,000
                      17                                               2,046
                    Range                                            264-99,000
                     Mean                                              17,262
                 Std deviation                                         30,298

Note: Some of the data on production was obtained in terms of the number of mangoes rather than
kilogrammes. It was assumed that on average three mangoes weigh a kilogramme or that one mango
is about 330 g. Again the mean per farmer is relatively large because of the wide variation in the
production between the smallest and the largest producer.

Table 8: Range, mean and standard deviation in the amounts of mango consumed and sold in
kg, pieces, and incomes (per month, per year), 2007
                                      No    of                                 Std.
                                      farmers Minimum     Maximum     Mean     Deviation
 Mangoes produced consumed at
 home (kg)                            13         0.6      35          8.4      8.47
 Percent of mango production sold     13         23       95.2        84.2     21.98
 Amount of mangoes consumed at
 home per month (kg)                  5          8        1,000       255.6    423.2
 Amount of mangoes consumed at
 home per month (pieces)              9          60       1,170       396.8    437.1
 Mangoes sold per month on average
 (kg)                                 4          45       22,000      6451     10,497
 Mangoes sold per month on average
 (pieces)                             13         800      22,180      6171     6,485
 Price per kg (KSh.)                  3          20       100         56.7     40.42
 Price per piece (KSh.)               14         2        10          4.7      2.32
 Income from mangoes per month
 (KSh.)                               15         700      283,333     38,931   74747
 Income of mangoes per season
 (KSh.)                               1          400,000  400,000     400,000  .
 Amount from mangoes bought per
 year (kgs) -1                        6          200      16,900      6,021    6,822
 Amount of mangoes bought per year
 (pieces) -1                          10         800      280,000     59,677   98,012
 Percentage of total annual sale -1   11         2        100         71.8     28.95
 Average price offered per kg - 1     3          50       100         83.3     28.87
 Average price offered per piece - 1  13         2        10          4.7      2.37


                                               58
Amount of mangoes bought per year
(kgs) -2                              3         60        1,273        777.7        636.3
Amount of mangoes bought per year
(pieces) -2                           6         1,880     66,540       16,262       25,358
Percentage of total annual sale -2    8         10        67           24.9         18.06
Average price offered per kg - 2      2         100       100          100.0        0.00
Average price offered per piece - 2   6         2         3            2.6          0.49
Amount of mangoes bought per year
(kgs) - 3                             2         40        300          170.0        183.85
Percentage of total annual sale -3    2         3         8            5.5          3.54
Average price offered per kg - 3      1         100       100          100.0        .
Average price offered per piece - 3   1         3         3            3.0          .
Amount of mangoes bought per year
(kgs) - 4                             1         8,500     8,500        8500         .
Percentage of total annual sale -4    1         85        85           85.0         .
Average price offered per piece - 4   1         5         5            5.0          .


Table 9: Administrative location, name and sex of mango farmers interviewed
                                                              Name of
                                                              farmer/household
 District/Division        Location          Village           head                      Sex
 Muranga South district
 Maragua                  Maragua Ridge     Mung'etho         Thomas Kameri             Male
 Maragua                  Maragua Ridge     Mung'etho         John W. Mburu             Male
 Maragua                  Maragua Ridge     Mung'etho         Samuel Zaverio            Male
 Maragua                  Maragua Ridge     Mung'etho         Richard Maina             Male
 Maragua                  Maragua Ridge     Mung'etho         Peter Kigotho             Male
 Maragua                  Maragua Ridge     Mung'etho         Julius Macharia           Male
 Maragua                  Maragua Ridge     Mung'etho         Suleiman Mwangi           Male
 Maragua                  Maragua Ridge     Mung'etho         Simon Kamau               Male
 Maragua                  Maragua Ridge     Mung'etho         Simon Maina Karanja       Male
 Maragua                  Maragua Ridge     Mung'etho         Jonathan Muraguri         Male
 Maragua                  Maragua Ridge     Mung'etho         John Mwagu Kariuki        Male
 Maragua                  Maragua Ridge     Muchagara         Rose Wanjiku              Female
 Maragua                  Maragua Ridge     Turero            Njoroge Kabeu             Male
 Maragua                  Maragua Ridge     Muchagara         Victor Maina              Male
 Muranga North district
 Kiharu                   Gikindu           Gikindu           Daniel N. Kamau           Male
 Kiharu                   Gikindu           Kiambirwa         Peris Wanja Manyeki       Female
 Kiharu                   Gikindu           Kiambirwa         Samuel Gichuki            Male




                                           59
                           ANNEX 11: PASSION FRUIT VALUE CHAIN

Table 1: Distribution of passion fruit farmers interviewed by district, division, location and
village
 District                  Division                  Location                       Village
 Vihiga                    Vihiga                    Ikumba                         Amshira
 Vihiga                    Vihiga                    Central Maragori               Kidinye
 Hamisi                    Shamakhokho               Shamakhokho                    Mugavo
 Hamisi                    Shamakhokho               Shamakhokho                    Jirovoli
 Bungoma                   Tongareni                 Kiminini                       Bunabo
 Bungoma                   Tongalale                 Naithiri                       Naithiri
 Bungoma                   Tongareni                 Babiefu                        Luuya
 Bungoma                   Tongareni                 Kiminini                       Mbumabu
 Bungoma                   Tongareni                 Naithiri                       Makhaga
 Muranga South             Kandara                   Kitage                         Karwaya
 Muranga South             Kandara                   Kitage                         Karwaya
 Muranga South             Kandara                   Kitage                         Karwaya
 Muranga South             Kigumo                    Kigumo                         Kaimiri
 Muranga South             Kigumo                    Kigumo                         Kaimiri
 Muranga South             Kigumo                    Kirere                         Kaimiri
 Muranga South             Kigumo                    Kirere                         Kaimiri
 Muranga South             Kigumo                    Kigumo                         Kaimiri
 Muranga South             Kigumo                    Kirere                         Kaimiri

Table 2: Own household labour in passion fruit production
                                                                                   Mean     Std
                                              N        Minimum       Maximum                deviation
                     Males
 No. of males - nursery seedbed production         5             1            2       1.2         0.4
  Days, males - nursery seedbed production         4             1           21       6.3         9.8
  Average hours per day, male - nursery
 seedbed production                                3             2             5      3.7         1.5
  No. of males - seeding for nursery               4             1             1      1.0         0.0
  Days male - seeding for nursery                  2             1             2      1.5         0.7
  Average hours per day male - seeding for
 nursery                                           2             3            5       4.0         1.4
  No. of males - watering                          3             1            1       1.0         0.0
  Days, male - watering                            1           0.5          0.5       0.5   .
  Average hours per day, male - watering           1             3            3       3.0   .
 No. of males - thinning                           5             1            1       1.0         0.0
  Days male - thinning                             2             1            5       3.0         2.8
  Average hours per day, male - thinning           1             6            6       6.0   .
  No. of males -land preparation                  11             1           11       2.1         3.0
  Days male - land preparation                     8             1            7       2.8         2.7
  Average hours per day, male - land
 preparation                                       6             2           12       6.7         4.0
  No. of males - transplanting                     8             1            8       2.1         2.4
  Days, male - transplanting                       7             1           31       5.9        11.1
  Average hours per day, male -
 transplanting                                     3             2            6       3.7         2.1
  No. of males - weeding                           9             1            6       1.8         1.6
  Days male - weeding                              7             1           14       3.1         4.8
  Average hours per day male - weeding             5             2            5       3.6         1.1



                                               60
                                                                                   Mean     Std
                                                 N       Minimum       Maximum              deviation
No. of males - manure application                    7             1         16       3.4          5.6
 Days, male - manure application                     3             1           2      1.7          0.6
 Average hours per day, male - manure
application                                          4        0.75             6      2.9          2.2
No of males - fertilizer application                 4           1             2      1.3          0.5
Days male - fertilizer application                   3           1             1      1.0          0.0
 Average hours per day, male - fertilizer
application                                          1           2             2      2.0   .
 No. of males - irrigation                           3        0.75             9      3.6          4.7
 Days male - irrigation                              1           2             2      2.0   .
 Average hours per day, male - irrigation            1           3             3      3.0   .
 No. of males - spraying                             8           1             3      1.4         0.7
 Days male - spraying                                6           1             1      1.0         0.0
 Average hours per day, male - spraying              5         0.5             6      2.8         2.6
No. of males - pruning                               7           1             2      1.1         0.4
 Days male - pruning                                 5           1             7      3.8         3.0
 Average hours per day, male - pruning               4         0.5             5      2.0         2.1
No. of males - training of plants on trellises       7           1             2      1.1         0.4
 Days male - training of plants of trellises         4           1            30     11.8        13.5
 Average hours per day, male - training of
plants on trellises                                  4         0.5             5      2.4          2.1
 No. of males - harvesting                           8           1             2      1.1          0.4
 Days male - harvesting                              5           1             2      1.2          0.4
 Average hours per day, male - harvesting            5           1             8      3.4          3.0
 No. of males - grading                              3           1             1      1.0          0.0
 Days male – grading                                 3           1             2      1.3          0.6
 Average hours per day, male - grading               1         0.5           0.5      0.5   .
 No. of males - packaging fresh                      3           1             1      1.0          0.0
 Days male - packaging fresh                         3           1             1      1.0          0.0
 Average hours per day, male - packaging
fresh                                                2         0.5             1      0.8          0.4
 No. of males - extracting juice                     1           1             1      1.0   .
 Days male - extracting juice                        0
 Average hours per day, male - extracting
juice                                                1             3           3      3.0   .
 No. of males - packaging processed                  0
 Days male - packaging processed                     0
 Average hours per day, male - packaging
processed                                            0
 No. of males - others                               0
 Days male – others                                  0
 Average hours per day, male - others                0
 Family labour: females
No. of females - nursery seedbed
production                                           4             1           2      1.5          0.6
 Days, females - nursery seedbed
production                                           3             1           2      1.3          0.6
 Average hours per day, female - nursery
seedbed production                                   2             2           5      3.5          2.1
 No. of females - seeding for nursery                3             1           1      1.0          0.0
 Days female - seeding for nursery                   1             1           1      1.0   .
 Average hours per day female - seeding for
nursery                                              1             3           3      3.0   .


                                                 61
                                                                                     Mean     Std
                                                 N       Minimum       Maximum                deviation
 No. of females - watering                           5           1            2         1.2          0.4
 Days, female - watering                             2           1           21        11.0         14.1
 Average hours per day, female - watering            3         0.5            2         1.0          0.9
No. of females - thinning                            4           1            1         1.0          0.0
 Days female - thinning                              2           1            1         1.0          0.0
 Average hours per day, female - thinning            1           2            2         2.0   .
No. of females – land preparation                    9           1            4         1.6          1.0
Days females – land preparation                      6           1            7         2.3          2.4
 Average hours per day, female - land
preparation                                          5             2         10         4.6          3.2
 No. of females - transplanting                      4             1          2         1.3          0.5
 Days, female - transplanting                        4             1          3         1.8          1.0
 Average hours per day, female -
transplanting                                        2         0.2            3         1.6          2.0
No. of females - weeding                             6           1            1         1.0          0.0
 Days female - weeding                               5           1           14         4.0          5.6
 Average hours per day female – weeding              5           3            5         3.8          0.8
No. of females - manure application                  4           1            4         2.0          1.4
 Days, female - manure application                   3           1            2         1.7          0.6
 Average hours per day, female - manure
application                                          4           1               3      2.3          1.0
No of females - fertilizer application               4           1               2      1.3          0.5
Days female - fertilizer application                 3        0.75               1      0.9          0.1
 Average hours per day, female - fertilizer
application                                          3           2            4         3.0          1.0
 No. of females - irrigation                         1           3            3         3.0   .
 Days female - irrigation                            1           2            2         2.0   .
 Average hours per day, female - irrigation          2         0.5            3         1.8          1.8
 No. of females - spraying                           3           1            1         1.0          0.0
 Days female - spraying                              2         0.3            1         0.7          0.5
 Average hours per day, female - spraying            1         0.5          0.5         0.5   .
No. of females - pruning                             3           1            1         1.0          0.0
 Days female - pruning                               2           1            1         1.0          0.0
 Average hours per day, female - pruning             1           2            2         2.0   .
No. of females - training of plants on
trellises                                            2             1             2      1.5          0.7
 Days female - training of plants of trellises       2             2             2      2.0          0.0
 Average hours per day, female - training of
plants on trellises                                  2           1               5      3.0          2.8
 No. of females - harvesting                         5           1               2      1.2          0.4
 Days female - harvesting                            4           1               5      2.0          2.0
 Average hours per day, female - harvesting          5           2               8      4.0          2.5
 No. of females - grading                            3           1               1      1.0          0.0
 Days female – grading                               2           1               2      1.5          0.7
 Average hours per day, female - grading             2         0.5               3      1.8          1.8
 No. of females - packaging fresh                    3           1               2      1.3          0.6
 Days female - packaging fresh                       2           1               2      1.5          0.7
 Average hours per day, female - packaging
fresh                                                3         0.5               8      3.5          4.0
 No. of females - extracting juice                   1           1               1      1.0   .
 Days female - extracting juice                      1           1               1      1.0   .
 Average hours per day, female - extracting          2           2               3      2.5          0.7



                                                 62
                                                                                        Mean         Std
                                                N            Minimum       Maximum                   deviation
 juice
  No. of females - packaging processed                  0
  Days female - packaging processed                     0
  Average hours per day, female - packaging
 processed                                              0
  No. of females - others                               0
  Days female – others                                  0
  Average hours per day, female - others                0

Table 3: Hired labour
                                                                                                 Std.
                                                N           Minimum       Maximum       Mean     Deviation
 Male
 No. of males - nursery seedbed production          1                 4             4      4.0   .
  Days, males - nursery seedbed production          1                 1             1      1.0   .
  Average hours per day, male - nursery
 seedbed production                                 1                 8             8      8.0   .
 Total hours hired                                                                        32.0
  No. of males - seeding for nursery                1                 4             4     4.00   .
  Days male - seeding for nursery                   1                 1             1     1.00   .
  Average hours per day male - seeding for
 nursery                                            1                 8             8     8.00   .
 Total hours hired                                                                        32.0
  No. of males - watering                           2                 4             4     4.00            0.00
  Days, male - watering                             1                 1             1        1            0.00
  Average hours per day, male - watering            2                 2             2     2.00            0.00
 Total hours hired                                                                         8.0
 No. of males - thinning                            0
  Days male - thinning                              0
  Average hours per day, male - thinning            0
 Total hours hired
  No. of males -land preparation                    1              4             4        4.00   .
  Days male - land preparation                      1             30            30       30.00   .
  Average hours per day, male - land
 preparation                                        0
 Total hours hired
  No. of males - transplanting                      1                 4             4     4.00   .
  Days, male - transplanting                        1                 3             3     3.00   .
  Average hours per day, male - transplanting       0
 Total hours hired
  No. of males - weeding                            2                 4             4     4.00            0.00
  Days male - weeding                               2                 1             3     2.00            1.41
  Average hours per day male - weeding              1                 8             8     8.00   .
 Total hours                                                                              64.0
 No. of males - manure application                  0
  Days, male - manure application                   0
  Average hours per day, male - manure
 application                                        0
 Total hours
 No of males - fertilizer application               1                 4             4     4.00   .
 Days male - fertilizer application                 1                 1             1     1.00   .
  Average hours per day, male - fertilizer          1                 8             8     8.00   .



                                                63
                                                                                              Std.
                                                 N       Minimum       Maximum       Mean     Deviation
application
Total hours                                                                            32.0
No. of males - irrigation                            1             1             1      1.0
Days male - irrigation                               1             1             1      1.0
Average hours per day, male - irrigation             3             1             4     2.33         1.53
Total hours                                                                            2.33
No. of males - spraying                              3             1             1     1.00         0.00
Days male - spraying                                 2             1             4     2.50         2.12
Average hours per day, male - spraying               1             4             4     4.00   .
Total hours                                                                            10.0
No. of males - pruning                               1             3             3     3.00   .
Days male - pruning                                  0
Average hours per day, male - pruning                0

No. of males - training of plants on trellises       0
 Days male - training of plants of trellises         0
 Average hours per day, male - training of
plants on trellises                                  0
 No. of males - harvesting                           0
 Days male - harvesting                              0
 Average hours per day, male - harvesting            0
 No. of males - grading                              0
 Days male – grading                                 0
 Average hours per day, male - grading               0
 No. of males - packaging fresh                      0
 Days male - packaging fresh                         0
 Average hours per day, male - packaging
fresh                                                0
 No. of males - extracting juice                     0
 Days male - extracting juice                        0
 Average hours per day, male - extracting
juice                                                0
 No. of males - packaging processed                  0
 Days male - packaging processed                     0
 Average hours per day, male - packaging
processed                                            0
 No. of males - others                               0
 Days male – others                                  0
 Average hours per day, male - others                0
Hired labour- Females

No. of females - nursery seedbed production          1             1             1      1.0   .
 Days, females - nursery seedbed
production                                           1             1             1      1.0   .
 Average hours per day, female - nursery
seedbed production                                   1             8             8      8.0   .
Total hours                                                                             8.0

No. of females - seeding for nursery                 1             1             1      1.0   .
Days female - seeding for nursery                    1             1             1      1.0   .
Average hours per day female - seeding for
nursery                                              1             8             8     8.00   .



                                                 64
                                                                                                Std.
                                                   N       Minimum       Maximum       Mean     Deviation
Total hours                                                                               8.0
 No. of females - watering                             3             1             2      1.3         0.58
 Days, female - watering                               1             4             4      4.0   .
 Average hours per day, female - watering              3             2             2      2.0         0.00
Total hours                                                                              10.4
No. of females - thinning                              0
 Days female - thinning                                0
 Average hours per day, female - thinning              0
Total hours
 No. of females -land preparation                      2             1          2         1.5         0.71
 Days female - land preparation                        2             1         30        15.5        20.51
 Average hours per day, female - land
preparation                                            1             3             3      3.0   .
Total hours                                                                              70.0
 No. of females - transplanting                        1             2             2      2.0   .
 Days, female - transplanting                          1             3             3      3.0   .
 Average hours per day, female -
transplanting                                          1             1             1      1.0
Total hours                                                                               6.0
 No. of females - weeding                              2             1          2         1.5         0.71
 Days female - weeding                                 2             1         30        15.5        20.51
 Average hours per day female - weeding                1             8          8         8.0   .
Total hours                                                                             186.0
No. of females - manure application                    1             1             1      1.0   .
 Days, female - manure application                     1             1             1      1.0   .
 Average hours per day, female - manure
application                                            1             2             2      2.0   .
Total hours                                                                               2.0
No of females - fertilizer application                 2             1             1      1.0         0.00
Days female - fertilizer application                   2             1             1      1.0         0.00
 Average hours per day, female - fertilizer
application                                            2             2             8      5.0         4.24
Total hours                                                                               5.0
 No. of females - irrigation                           0
 Days female - irrigation                              0
 Average hours per day, female - irrigation            0
Total hours                                                                               1.0
 No. of females - spraying                             1             1             1      1.0   .
 Days female - spraying                                1             1             1      1.0   .
 Average hours per day, female - spraying              1             1             1      1.0   .
Total hours                                                                               1.0
No. of females - pruning                               2             1             2     1.50         0.71
 Days female - pruning                                 2             1             3     2.00         1.41
 Average hours per day, female - pruning               1             2             2     2.00   .
Total hours                                                                               6.0
No. of females - training of plants on trellises       0
 Days female - training of plants of trellises         0
 Average hours per day, female - training of
plants on trellises                                    0
Total hours
 No. of females - harvesting                           1             1             1      1.0   .




                                                   65
                                                                                           Std.
                                              N       Minimum       Maximum       Mean     Deviation
 Days female - harvesting                         1             1             1      1.0   .
 Average hours per day, female - harvesting       1             1             1      1.0   .
Total hours                                                                          1.0
 No. of females - grading                         1             1             1      1.0   .
 Days female – grading                            1             1             1      1.0   .
 Average hours per day, female - grading          1             1             1      1.0   .
Total hours                                                                          1.0
 No. of females - packaging fresh                 1             1             1      1.0   .
 Days female - packaging fresh                    1             1             1      1.0   .
 Average hours per day, female - packaging
fresh                                             1             1             1      1.0   .
Total hours                                                                          1.0
 No. of females - extracting juice                0
 Days female - extracting juice                   0
 Average hours per day, female - extracting
juice                                             0
 No. of females - packaging processed             0
 Days female - packaging processed                0
 Average hours per day, female - packaging
processed                                         0
 No. of females - others                          0
 Days female – others                             0
 Average hours per day, female - others           0




                                              66
                            ANNEX 12: MUSHROOM VALUE CHAIN
Table 1: Source of technical skills in mushroom production
                                                           No. of
Source 1 of Technical Skills                            respondents   Percent
Balm of Hope                                                 1         5.88
GTZ/PSDA                                                     6        35.29
Ministry of Agriculture                                      4        23.53
NALEP                                                        1         5.88
Other farmers                                                2        11.76
Seminars by other organizations                              1         5.88
VIMPRO                                                       2        11.76
Total                                                        17       100.00
Source 2 of Technical Skills
GTZ/PSDA                                                     3        17.65
Internet                                                     2        11.76
IPDA-Voca                                                    1         5.88
Jomo Kenyatta University                                     3        17.65
Juja community centre                                        1         5.88
Ministry of Agriculture                                      2        11.76
Other farmers                                                2        11.76
Seminars by other organizations                              3        17.65
Total                                                        17       100.00
Source of Technical Skills - 3
GTZ/PSDA                                                     3        17.65
Ministry of Agriculture                                      3        17.65
Other farmers                                                1         5.88
Missing                                                      10       58.82
Total                                                        17       100.00




                                       67
Table 2: Types of substrate used in mushroom production by sampled farmers
                                                                No. of
 First type of substrate used                                respondents     Percent
Dry banana leaves                                                1            5.88
Trash from beans                                                 1            5.88
Hay                                                              2           11.76
Lime                                                             1            5.88
Rice husk                                                        1            5.88
Saw dust                                                         2           11.76
Sugar cane baggase                                               1            5.88
Wheat straw                                                      8           47.06
Total                                                            17          100.00
Second type of substrate used
Grass                                                            3           17.65
Maize stovers                                                    1            5.88
Molasses                                                         1            5.88
Trash from peas                                                  1            5.88
Saw dust                                                         3           17.65
Wheat straw                                                      2           11.76
Missing                                                          6           35.29
Total                                                            17          100.00
Third type of substrate used
Dry banana leaves                                                1            5.88
Grass                                                            1            5.88
Saw dust                                                         1            5.88
Wheat straw                                                      1            5.88
Missing                                                          13          76.47
Total                                                            17          100.00




                                           68
Table 3: Grades and standards in mushroom production
 Grades and standards - 1                              Frequency   Percent
Good hygiene and sanitation                               5        29.41
Good spawn                                                2        11.76
No perfumes in the shed                                   2        11.76
Right temperature                                         3        17.65
Watering                                                  2        11.76
 Missing                                                  3        17.65
Total                                                     17       100.00
 Grades and standards - 2
Good hygiene and sanitation                               2        11.76
No smoking                                                1         5.88
Proper storing                                            1         5.88
Shed sterilization                                        1         5.88
Should be pests free                                      3        17.65
Missing                                                   9        52.94
Total                                                     17       100.00
 Grades and standards - 3
Should be pests free                                      1         5.88
Spawn sterilization                                       1         5.88
Missing                                                   15       88.24
Total                                                     17       100.00
 Grades and standards - 4
Should be pests free                                      1         5.88
 Missing                                                  16       94.12
Total                                                     17       100.00




                                          69
Table 4: Labour use in mushroom production

   (a) Seedbed preparation
Farmer Own labour                        Own labour                     Hired labour                  Hired labour                   Gross
                        Hrs/    Total                    Hrs/   Total                  Hrs/   Total                   Hrs/   Total
         Male    days   day     hrs      Female   days   day    hrs     Male    days   day    hrs     Female   days   day    hrs     Total
1        .       .      .       0        .        .      .      0       .       .             0       .        .      .              0
2        .       .      .       0        .        .      .      0       2       1      8      16      .        .      .              16
3        1       2      5       10       1        .      .      0       .       .             0       .        .      .              10
4        .       .      .       0        1        4      12     48      2       4      8      64      .        .      .              112
5        .       .      .       0        .        .      .              3       1      8      24      2        1      8      16      40
6        .       .      .       0        .        .      .              .       .             0       .        .      .              0
7        9       1      1.5     13.5     1        1      1.5    1.5     .       .             0       .        .      .              15
8        .       .      .       0        .        .      .      0       .       .             0       .        .      .              0
9        .       .      .       0        .        .      .      0       .       .             0       .        .      .              0
10       .       .      .       0        .        .      .      0       .       .             0       .        .      .              0
11       .       .      .       0        .        .      .      0       .       .             0       .        .      .              0
12       .       .      .       0        .        .      .      0       .       .             0       .        .      .              0
13       .       .      .       0        .        .      .      0       .       .             0       .        .      .              0
14       5       2      3       30       .        .      .      0       .       .             0       .        .      .              30
15       8       3      8       192      7        3      8      168     .       .             0       .        .      .              360
16       .       .      .       0        .        .      .      0       5       1      5      25      4        1      5      20      45
17                              0        .        .      .      0       12      .      .              2        .      .




                                                                  70
  (b) Seeding spawn
Farmer Own labour                    Own labour                     Hired labour                  Hired labour                   Gross
                      Hrs/   Total                   Hrs/   Total                  Hrs/   Total                   Hrs/   Total
       Male    days   day    hrs     Female   days   day    hrs     Male    days   day    hrs     Female   days   day    hrs     Total
1      .       .      .      0       .        .      .      0       6       1      3      18      9        1      3      27      45
2      1       1      8      8       .        .      .      0       2       1      8      16      .        .      .      0       24
3      1       1      2      2       1        1      2      2       .       .      .      0       .        .      .      0       4
4      .       .      .      0       1        1      4      4       .       .      .      0       .        .      .      0       4
5      2       1      4      8       .        .      .      0       .       .      .      0       .        .      .      0       8
6      .       .      .      0       2        1      3      6       4       1      3      12      .        .      .      0       18
7      .       .      .      0       .        .      .      0       .       .      .      0       .        .      .      0       0
8      .       .      .      0       .        .      .      0       .       .      .      0       .        .      .      0       0
9      12      1      4      48      4        1      5      20      .       .      .      0       .        .      .      0       68
10     12      1      4      48      4        1      4      16      .       .      .      0       .        .      .      0       64
11     12      1      6      72      4        1      6      24      .       .      .      0       .        .      .      0       96
12     1       2      5      10      .        .      .      0       .       .      .      0       .        .      .      0       10
13     12      1      4      48      4        1      4      16      .       .      .      0       .        .      .      0       64
14     5       2      3      30      .        .      .      0       .       .      .      0       .        .      .      0       30
15     8       2      6      96      7        2      6      84      .       .      .      0       .        .      .      0       84
16     .       .      .      0       .        .      .      0       5       1      5      25      4        1      5      20      45
17     .       .      .      0       .        .      .      0       12      .      .              2        .      .




                                                              71
(c) Watering

 Farme                                                                                                                                     Gros
 r       Own labour                     Own labour                       Hired labour                    Hired labour                      s
                       Hrs/da   Total   Femal                    Total   Mal     day    Hrs/da   Tota    Femal            Hrs/da   Tota
         Male   days   y        hrs     e       days   Hrs/day   hrs     e       s      y        l hrs   e         days   y        l hrs   Total
 1       .      .      .        0       .       .      .         0       1       30     0.5      15                                        15
 2       1      30     1        30      .       .      .         0       .       .      .                                                  30
 3       1      1      1        1       .       .      .         0       .       .      .                                                  1
 4       .      .      .        0       .       .      .         0       .       .      .                                                  0
 5       1      1      0.5      0.5     .       .      .         0       .       .      .                                                  0.5
 6       .      .      .        0       2       30     0.5       30      .       .      .                                                  30
 7       .      .      .        0       .       .      .         0       .       .      .                                                  0
 8       .      .      .        0       .       .      .         0       .       .      .                                                  0
 9       .      .      .        0       4       30     0.5       60      .       .      .                                                  60
 10      .      .      .        0       4       30     0.3       36      .       .      .                                                  36
 11      1      34     1        34      1       34     0.5       17      .       .      .                                                  51
 12      1      4      5        20      .       .      .         0       .       .      .                                                  20
 13      .      .      .        0       4       30     0.3       36      .       .      .                                                  36
 14      1      1      1        1       .       .      .         0       .       .      .                                                  1
 15      8      1      0.5      4       7       30     0.5       105     .       .      .                                                  109
 16                             0       .       .      .         0       4       1      4        16      5        1       4        20      36
 17                             0       .       .      .         0       1       .      .                1        1       4        4       4




                                                                   72
(d)Turning


Farmer       Own labour                      Own labour                        Hired labour                     Hired labour                      Gross
                                     Total                             Total                            Total                             Total
             Male   days   Hrs/day   hrs     Female   days   Hrs/day   hrs     Male   days    Hrs/day   hrs     Female   days   Hrs/day   hrs     Total
1            .      .      .         0                                 0       1      2       2         4       2        2      2         8       8
2            1      10     1         10                                0       .      .       .                 .        .      .                 10
3            .      .      .         0                                 0       .      .       .                 .        .      .                 0
4            .      .      .         0                                 0       .      .       .                 .        .      .                 0
5            1      1      1         1                                 0       .      .       .                 .        .      .                 1
6            .      .      .         0                                 0       4      3       3         36      .        .      .                 36
7            .      .      .         0                                 0       .      .       .                 .        .      .                 0
8            .      .      .         0                                 0       .      .       .                 .        .      .                 0
9            .      .      .         0       4                         0       .      .       .                 .        .      .                 0
10           .      .      .         0                                 0       .      .       .                 .        .      .                 0
11           .      .      .         0                                 0       .      .       .                 .        .      .                 0
12           .      .      .         0                                 0       .      .       .                 .        .      .                 0
13           .      .      .         0                                 0       .      .       .                 .        .      .                 0
14           2      1      5         10                                0       .      .       .                 .        .      .                 10
15           .      .      .         0                                 0       .      .       .                 .        .      .                 0
16           .      .      .         0                                 0       .      .       .                 .        .      .                 0
17                                   0                                 0       2      1       1         2       1        .      .                 2




                                                                        73
(e) Harvesting

 Farme
 r        Own labour                      Own labour                      Hired labour                    Hired labour                     Gross
                         Hrs/da   Total   Femal   day   Hrs/da   Tota                    Hrs/da   Tota    Femal     day   Hrs/da   Tota
          Male    days   y        hrs     e       s     y        l hrs    Male    days   y        l hrs   e         s     y        l hrs   Total
 1        .       .      .        0       .       .     .        0        6       1      2        12      9         1     2        18      30
 2        1       10     1        10      .       .     .        0        .       .      .        0       .         .     .        0       10
 3        .       .      .        0       1       .     .                 .       .      .        0       .         .     .        0
 4        .       .      .        0       1       .     .                 .       .      .        0       .         .     .        0
 5        1       1      1        1       .       .     .        0        .       .      .        0       .         .     .        0
 6        .       .      .        0       .       .     .        0        1       1      1        1       .         .     .        0       1
 7        2       .      .        0       .       .     .        0        .       .      .        0       .         .     .        0
 8        .       .      .        0       .       .     .        0        .       .      .        0       .         .     .        0
 9        .       .      .        0       4       .     0.5               .       .      .        0       .         .     .        0
 10       .       .      .        0       4       0.2   .                 .       .      .        0       .         .     .        0
 11       12      1      1        12      4       1     1        4        .       .      .        0       .         .     .        0       4
 12       1       0.25   .                .       .     .                 .       .      .        0       .         .     .        0
 13       .       .      .        0       4       .     0.25              .       .      .        0       .         .     .        0
 14       2       1      4        8       .       .     .        0        .       .      .        0       .         .     .        0
 15       2       .      .                3       .     .                 .       .      .        0       .         .     .        0
 16       .       .      .        0       0       .     .        0        4       1      4        16      5         1     4        20      36
 17       .       .      .        0       0       0     0        0        2       1      4        8       2         1     4        8       16




                                                                     74
(f) Grading

                                                                                                                                              Gros
 Farmer       Own labour                     Own labour                      Hired labour                    Hired labour                     s
                            Hrs/da   Total            day   Hrs/da   Tota                   Hrs/da   Tota    Femal     day   Hrs/da   Total
              Male   days   y        hrs     Female s       y        l hrs   Male    days   y        l hrs   e         s     y        hrs     Total
 1            .      .      .        0                               0       2       1      2        4       1         2     1        2       6
 2            .      .      .        0                               0       .       .      .        0       .         .     .        0       0
 3            .      .      .        0                               0       .       .      .        0       .         .     .        0       0
 4            .      .      .        0                               0       .       .      .        0       .         .     .        0       0
 5            2      1      1        2                               0       .       .      .        0       .         .     .        0       2
 6            .      .      .        0                               0       .       .      .        0       .         .     .        0       0
 7            .      .      .        0                               0       .       .      .        0       .         .     .        0       0
 8            .      .      .        0                               0       .       .      .        0       .         .     .        0       0
 9            .      .      .        0                               0       .       .      .        0       .         .     .        0       0
 10           .      .      .        0                               0       .       .      .        0       .         .     .        0       0
 11           .      .      .        0                               0       .       .      .        0       .         .     .        0       0
 12           .      .      .        0                               0       .       .      .        0       .         .     .        0       0
 13           .      .      .        0                               0       .       .      .        0       .         .     .        0       0
 14           .      .      .        0                               0       .       .      .        0       .         .     .        0       0
 15           2      4      2        16      3       4      2        24      .       .      .        0       .         .     .        0       40
 16           .      .      .        0                               0       4       1      4        16      1         4     5        20      36
 17           .      .      .                                                2       1      1        2                                0       2




                                                                      75
(g) Packaging (fresh)

 Farme                                                                                                                                     Gros
 r       Own labour                       Own labour                      Hired labour                    Hired labour                     s
                         Hrs/da   Total   Femal   day   Hrs/da   Tota                    Hrs/da   Tota    Femal     day   Hrs/da   Total
         Male     days   y        hrs     e       s     y        l hrs    Male    days   y        l hrs   e         s     y        hrs     Total
 1       1        1      1        1       .       .     .        0        1       1      3        3       1         1     3        3       7
 2       .        .      .        0       .       .     .        0        .       .      .        0       .         .     .        0       0
 3       2        1      1        2       1       .     .                 .       .      .        0       .         .     .        0       0
 4       .        .      .        0       1       .     .                 .       .      .        0       .         .     .        0       0
 5       .        .      .        0       .       .     .                 .       .      .        0       .         .     .        0       0
 6       .        .      .        0       .       .     .                 2       1      3        6       .         .     .        0       6
 7       .        .      .        0       .       .     .                 .       .      .        0       .         .     .        0       0
 8       .        .      .        0       .       .     .                 .       .      .        0       .         .     .        0       0
 9       12       1      2        24      4       1     2        8        .       .      .        0       .         .     .        0       8
 10      1        1      2        2       4       .     .                 .       .      .        0       .         .     .        0       0
 11      .        .      .        0       4       1     2        8        .       .      .        0       .         .     .        0       8
 12      2        1      5        10      .       .     .                 .       .      .        0       .         .     .        0       0
 13      .        .      .        0       4       1     2        8        .       .      .        0       .         .     .        0       8
 14      .        .      .        0       .       .     .        0        .       .      .        0       .         .     .        0       0
 15                               0       .       .     .        0        .       .      .        0       .         .     .        0       0
 16                               0       .       .     .        0        4       1      4        16      5         1     4        20      36
 17                               0       .       .     .        0        .       .      .        0                                0       0




                                                                     76
(h) Sun-drying

 Farmer   Own labour                      Own labour                        Hired labour                     Hired labour                      Gross
                                  Total                             Total                            Total                             Total
          Male   days   Hrs/day   hrs     Female   days   Hrs/day   hrs     Male    days   Hrs/day   hrs     Female   days   Hrs/day   hrs     Total
 1        .      .      .         0                                 0       2       1      4.5       9       4        1      4.5       18      27
 2        .      .      .         0                                 0       .       .      .         0       .        .      .         0       0
 3        .      .      .         0                                 0       .       .      .         0       .        .      .         0       0
 4        .      .      .         0                                 0       .       .      .         0       .        .      .         0       0
 5        1      2      4         8                                 0       .       .      .         0       .        .      .         0       8
 6        .      .      .         0                                 0       2       1      8         16      .        .      .         0       16
 7        1      .      .                                           0       .       .      .         0       .        .      .         0       0
 8        .      .      .         0                                 0       .       .      .         0       .        .      .         0       0
 9        .      .      .         0                                 0       .       .      .         0       .        .      .         0       0
 10       .      .      .         0                                 0       .       .      .         0       .        .      .         0       0
 11       .      .      .         0                                 0       .       .      .         0       .        .      .         0       0
 12       .      .      .         0                                 0       .       .      .         0       .        .      .         0       0
 13       .      .      .         0                                 0       .       .      .         0       .        .      .         0       0
 14       1      1      2         2                                 0       .       .      .         0       .        .      .         0       2
 15       2      4      2         16      3        4      2         24      .       .      .         0       .        .      .         0       40
 16                               0                                 0       4       1      4         16      5        1      4         20      36
 17                               0                                 0       2       1      9         18                                0       0




                                                                       77
  (i) Packaging (dried)
Farmer Own labour                       Own labour                        Hired labour                     Hired labour                      Gross
                                Total                             Total                            Total                             Total
        Male   days   Hrs/day   hrs     Female   days   Hrs/day   hrs     Male    days   Hrs/day   hrs     Female   days   Hrs/day   hrs     Total
1       .      .      .         0                                 0       6       1      4         24      9        1      4         36      60
2       .      .      .         0                                 0       .       .      .         0       .        .      .         0       0
3       .      .      .         0                                 0       .       .      .         0       .        .      .         0       0
4       .      .      .         0                                 0       .       .      .         0       .        .      .         0       0
5       1      .      .         0                                 0       .       .      .         0       .        .      .         0       0
6       .      .      .         0                                 0       2       1      2         4       .        .      .         0       4
7       .      .      .         0                                 0       .       .      .         0       .        .      .         0       0
8       .      .      .         0                                 0       .       .      .         0       .        .      .         0       0
9       .      .      .         0                                 0       .       .      .         0       .        .      .         0       0
10      .      .      .         0                                 0       .       .      .         0       .        .      .         0       0
11      .      .      .         0                                 0       .       .      .         0       .        .      .         0       0
12      .      .      .         0                                 0       .       .      .         0       .        .      .         0       0
13      .      .      .         0                                 0       .       .      .         0       .        .      .         0       0
14      1      1      1         1                                 0       .       .      .         0       .        .      .         0       1
15                              0                                 0       .       .      .         0       .        .      .         0       0
16                              0                                 0       4       1      4         16      5        1      4         24      40
17                              0                                 0                                0       .        .      .         0       0




                                                                    78
(j) Steaming
  Farmer Own labour                      Own labour                        Hired labour                     Hired labour                      Gross
                                 Total                             Total                            Total                             Total
         Male   days   Hrs/day   hrs     Female   days   Hrs/day   hrs     Male    days   Hrs/day   hrs     Female   days   Hrs/day   hrs     Total
1                                                                  0       1       1      8         8                                 0       8
2        1      1      8         8                                 0       .       .      .         0                                 0       8
3                                0                                 0       .       .      .         0                                 0       0
4                                0                                 0       .       .      .         0                                 0       0
5                                0                                 0       .       .      .         0                                 0       0
6                                0                                 0       .       .      .         0                                 0       0
7                                0                                 0       .       .      .         0                                 0       0
8                                0                                 0       .       .      .         0                                 0       0
9                                0                                 0       .       .      .         0                                 0       0
10                               0                                 0       .       .      .         0                                 0       0
11                               0                                 0       .       .      .         0                                 0       0
12                               0                                 0       .       .      .         0                                 0       0
13                               0                                 0       .       .      .         0                                 0       0
14                               0                                 0       .       .      .         0                                 0       0
15                               0                                 0       .       .      .         0                                 0       0
16                               0                                 0       12      3      .         0                                 0       0
17                               0                                 0                                0       2        1




                                                                      79
(k) Sterilization of room
 Farmer Own labour                            Own labour                        Hired labour                     Hired labour                      Gross
                                      Total                             Total                            Total                             Total
          Male    days      Hrs/day   hrs     Female   days   Hrs/day   hrs     Male    days   Hrs/day   hrs     Female   days   Hrs/day   hrs     Total
 1        .       .         .         0       .        .                0       6       2      1         12      9        2      4         72      84
 2        .       .         .         0       .        .                0       .       .      .         0       .        .      .         0       0
 3        .       .         .         0       .        .                0       .       .      .         0       .        .      .         0       0
 4        .       .         .         0       .        .                0       .       .      .         0       .        .      .         0       0
 5        .       .         .         0       .        .                0       2       3      1         6       2        3      4         24      30
 6        .       .         .         0       .        .                0       .       .      .         0       .        .      .         0       0
 7        .       .         .         0       .        .                0       .       .      .         0       .        .      .         0       0
 8        .       .         .         0       .        .                0       .       .      .         0       .        .      .         0       0
 9        .       .         .         0       .        .                0       .       .      .         0       .        .      .         0       0
 10       12      1         .         0       4        1                0       .       .      .         0       .        .      .         0       0
 11       .       .         .         0       .        .                0       .       .      .         0       .        .      .         0       0
 12       .       .         .         0       .        .                0       .       .      .         0       .        .      .         0       0
 13       12      1         .         0       4        1                0       .       .      .         0       .        .      .         0       0
 14       .       .         .         0                                 0       .       .      .         0       .        .      .         0       0
 15       .       .         .         0                                 0       .       .      .         0       .        .      .         0       0
 16                                   0                                 0       4       1      4         16      5        1      4         24      40
 17                                   0                                 0                                0       .        .      .         0       0




                                                                           80
(l) Sterilization of planting materials
  Farmer Own labour                               Own labour                        Hired labour                     Hired labour                      Gross
                                          Total                             Total                            Total                             Total
           Male     days    Hrs/day       hrs     Female   days   Hrs/day   hrs     Male    days   Hrs/day   hrs     Female   days   Hrs/day   hrs     Total
 1                          0                                               0       6       1      1         6       4        9      1         36      42
 2                          0                                               0                                0                                         0
 3                          0                                               0                                0                                         0
 4                          0                                               0                                0                                         0
 5                          0                                               0                                0                                         0
 6                          0                                               0                                0                                         0
 7                          0                                               0                                0                                         0
 8                          0                                               0                                0                                         0
 9                          0                                               0                                0                                         0
 10                         0                                               0                                0                                         0
 11                         0                                               0                                0                                         0
 12                         0                                               0                                0                                         0
 13                         0                                               0                                0                                         0
 14                         0                                               0                                0                                         0
 15                         0                                               0                                0                                         0
 16                         0                                               0                                0                                         0
 17                         0                                               0                                0                                         0




                                                                               81
Table 5: Household income sources and amounts (KSh per year)
           Horticultural              Sales    of
           produce sales Sales     of trees and Sales       of   Sales    of               Employ-             Other
 Farmer (fresh)           cereals     firewood    poultry        cow milk      Business    ment      Pension   sources   Total
 1         .              .           .           .              .             .           .                   60,000    60,000
 2         122,000        .           .           .              21,600        .           .         340,000   .         483,600
 3         36,000         .           .           .              72,270        .           .                   .         108,270
 4         .              .           .           .              .             .           .                   84,000    84,000
 5         3,000          .           .           .              .             .           192,000             .         195,000
 6         .              .           .           .              .             324,000     .                   240,000   564,000
 7         .              .           .           .              .             240,000     .                   120,000   360,000
 8         .              10,000      .           .              .             .           .                   .         10,000
 9         .              5,000       .           .              36,000        .           .                   7,600     48,600
 10        .              .           3,000       1,200          23,040        .           .                   6,000     33,240
 11        .              .           .           .              .             .           .                   .
 12        .              59,200      .           .              .             720,000     .                   2,000     781,200
 13        .              6,500       .           .              75,600        .           .                   6,000     88,100
 14        16,000                     .           .              122,400       36,000                          .         174,400
 15        .                          80,000      5,000                                                        .         85,000
 16        .                                                                                                   .
 17        .                                                                                                   96,000    96,000
           177,000        80,700      83,000      6,200          350,910       1,320,000   192,000   340,000   621,600   3,171,410
 Mean      10,412         4,747       4,882       365            20,642        77,647      11,294    20,000    36,565    186,554




                                                                    82
                   ANNEX 13: HIV/AIDS AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES

Table 1: Knowledge about HIV/AIDS
 Level of knowledge                  No. of respondents                 Percent
 ”Just a little”                               9                         10.71
 “Moderate”                                   27                         32.14
 “Enough”                                     44                         52.38
 Missing (no response)                         4                          4.76
 Total                                        84                        100.00

Table 2: Knowledge about STDs
 Level of knowledge                  No. of households                  Percent
 ”Just a little”                             16                          19.05
 “Moderate”                                  34                          40.48
 “Enough”                                    28                          33.33
 Missing                                      6                           7.14
 Total                                       84                         100.00

Table 3 Household knowledge about:
 Level of knowledge                  No. of households                  Percent
 ”Just a little”                             15                          17.86
 “Moderate”                                  29                          34.52
 “Enough”                                    31                          36.90
 Missing                                      9                          10.71
 Total                                       84                         100.00

Table 4: Basic knowledge about condoms
 (a) Do you know anything, seen or heard about
 condoms?                                          No. of respondents        Percent
 Yes                                                        14                16.67
 No                                                         70                83.33
 Total                                                      84               100.00
 (b) Reaction to the statement “Condoms break
 easily so they are not reliable”                  No. of respondents        Percent
 Yes                                                        47                55.95
 No                                                         25                29.76
 Missing (no response)                                      12                14.29
 Total                                                      84               100.00
 (c) Response to the statement “Even though
 condoms can break, I still use them”              No. of respondents        Percent
 Yes                                                        12                14.29
 No                                                         61                72.62
 Missing (no response)                                      11                13.10
 Total                                                      84               100.00
 (d) Response to the statement “Using condoms is
 the best way to prevent getting STDs and AIDS”    No. of respondents        Percent
 Yes                                                        14                16.67
 No                                                         66                78.57
 Missing (no response)                                       4                4.76
 Total                                                      84               100.00
 (e) Response to the statement “Condoms are too
 small”                                            No. of respondents        Percent
 Yes                                                        12                14.29



                                           83
No                                                         58            69.05
Missing (no response)                                      14            16.67
Total                                                      84            100.00
(f) Response to the statement “People who carry
condoms have sex with a lot of people”              No. of respondents   Percent
Yes                                                          50           59.52
No                                                           28           33.33
Missing (no response)                                         6           7.14
Total                                                        84          100.00
(g) Response to the statement “Condoms are
easy to get at work”                                No. of respondents   Percent
Yes                                                          21           25.00
No                                                           51           60.71
Missing (no response)                                        12           14.29
Total                                                        84          100.00
(h) “When I use a condom I do not have fun”         No. of respondents   Percent
Yes                                                          14           16.67
No                                                           38           45.24
Missing (no response)                                        32           38.10
Total                                                        84          100.00
(i) Response to the question “Have you ever used
a condom?”                                          No. of respondents   Percent
Yes                                                          30           35.71
No                                                           51           60.71
Missing (no response)                                         3           3.57
Total                                                        84          100.00

(j) Response to the question “Do you know where
to get the female condom?”                         No. of respondents    Percent
Yes                                                          21           25.00
No                                                           55           65.48
Missing (no response)                                         8           9.52
Total                                                        84          100.00
(k) Response to the question “Are you worried
about exclusion from community if you have
AIDS?”                                              No. of respondents   Percent
Yes                                                          43           51.19
No                                                           36           42.86
Missing (no response)                                         5           5.95
Total                                                        84          100.00

Table 5: Reactions to basic facts about HIV/AIDS
 (i) Can someone be infected without showing
 symptoms of AIDS?                                 No. of respondents    Percent
 Yes                                                        77            91.67
 No                                                          3            3.57
 Missing                                                     4            4.76
 Total                                                      84           100.00
 (ii) Can someone with HIV infection but no
 symptoms pass the infection to someone else?      No. of respondents    Percent
 Yes                                                        82            97.62
 No                                                          1            1.19
 Missing                                                     1            1.19
 Total                                                      84           100.00



                                             84
(iii) Can one get HIV from kissing someone who
looks healthy?                                    No. of respondents   Percent
Yes                                                        30           35.71
No                                                         48           57.14
Missing                                                     6           7.14
Total                                                      84          100.00

(iv) Can one get HIV from shaking hands?          No. of respondents   Percent
Yes                                                         2           2.38
No                                                         81           96.43
Missing                                                     1           1.19
Total                                                      84          100.00
(v) Can one get HIV from sharing cups, plates
and spoons with an infected person?               No. of respondents   Percent
Yes                                                         5           5.95
No                                                         79           94.05
Total                                                      84          100.00
(vi) Can someone get HIV from using the same
toilet with an infected person?                   No. of respondents   Percent
Yes                                                         6           7.14
No                                                         78           92.86
Total                                                      84          100.00
(vii) Can someone get HIV from a mosquito
bite?                                             No. of respondents   Percent
Yes                                                        10           11.90
No                                                         74           88.10
Total                                                      84          100.00
(viii) Can someone get HIV by having
unprotected sex with a person who has HIV?        No. of respondents   Percent
Yes                                                        78           92.86
No                                                          3           3.57
Missing                                                     3           3.57
Total                                                      84          100.00

Table 6: Reactions to common myths about HIV/AIDS
 (a) Most people who have HIV/AIDS show signs
 of being sick right away                         No. of respondents   Percent
Agree                                                     3             3.57
Disagree                                                 78             92.86
Missing (no response)                                     3             3.57
Total                                                    84             100

(b) Traditional healers can cure AIDS             No. of respondents   Percent
Agree                                                     3             3.579
Disagree                                                 81             96.43
Total                                                    84             100


(c) Sex with a virgin cures AIDS                  No. of respondents   Percent
Disagree                                                 81             96.43
Missing (no response)                                     3             3.57
Total                                                    84             100


                                           85
able 7: More reactions to basic facts about HIV/AIDS
  (i) Children born to HIV infected mothers may
  also be infected                                     No. of respondents   Percent
  Agree                                                         70           83.33
  Disagree                                                      13           15.48
  System                                                         1           1.19
  Total                                                         84          100.00
  (ii) Currently is there any cure for HIV/AIDS?       No. of respondents   Percent
  Yes                                                            6           7.14
  No                                                            78           92.86
  Total                                                         84          100.00
  (iii) Do you think people who are HIV infected
  will eventually die earlier than other people in
  general?                                             No. of respondents   Percent
  Yes                                                           45           53.57
  No                                                            36           42.86
  Missing                                                        3           3.57
  Total                                                         84          100.00
  (iv) Can you protect yourself from getting
  HIV/AIDS by proper condom use?                       No. of respondents   Percent
  Yes                                                           43           51.19
  No                                                            39           46.43
  Missing                                                        2           2.38
  Total                                                         84          100.00
-
  (v) Can you protect yourself from getting
  HIV/AIDS by avoiding injections or procedures
  with unsterilized instruments?                       No. of respondents   Percent
  Yes                                                           82           97.62
  No                                                             1           1.19
  Missing                                                        1           1.19
  Total                                                         84          100.00
  (vi) Can you protect yourself from getting
  HIV/AIDS by avoiding sexual intercourse?             No. of respondents   Percent
  Yes                                                           83           98.81
  Missing                                                        1           1.190
  Total                                                         84          100.00
  (vii) Can you protect yourself from getting
  HIV/AIDS by avoiding HIV infected blood?             No. of respondents   Percent
  Yes                                                           82           97.62
  Missing                                                        2           2.38
  Total                                                         84          100.00
  (viii) Can you protect yourself from getting
  HIV/AIDS by using antibiotic after intercourse?      No. of respondents   Percent
  Yes                                                            5           5.95
  No                                                            70           83.33
  Missing                                                        9           10.71
  Total                                                         84          100.00
  (ix) Can you protect yourself from getting
  HIV/AIDS by having one uninfected faithful
  partner?                                             No. of respondents   Percent
  Yes                                                           61           72.62
  No                                                            18           21.43
  Missing                                                        5           5.95
  Total                                                         84          100.00


                                             86
(x) Can you get infected with HIV/AIDS after a
single sexual intercourse?                         No. of respondents      Percent
Yes                                                         80              95.24
Missing                                                      4              4.76
Total                                                       84             100.00

Table 1: How should people care for those with HIV/AIDS?
 Responses                                            No. of respondents      Percent
 First reply
 Assist financially                                             1               1.19
 Avoid stigmatization                                           1               1.19
 Balanced diet                                                  2               2.38
 Counselling them                                              10              11.90
 Maintain cleanliness                                           1               1.19
 Offer encouragement                                            4               4.76
 Praying for them                                               1               1.19
 Provide care                                                   5               5.95
 Provide drugs                                                  1               1.19
 Provide love                                                  52              61.90
 Provide support                                                2               2.38
 Provide treatments                                             3               3.57
  Missing                                                       1               1.19
 Total                                                         84              100.00
 Second reply
 ARVs                                                           1               1.19
 Ask God for repentance                                         1               1.19
 Assist financially                                             1               1.19
 Avoid stigmatisation                                           1               1.19
 Balanced diet                                                  8               9.52
 Counselling them                                               7               8.33
 Help buy ARVs                                                  1               1.19
 Integrate with them                                            1               1.19
 Involvement in community activities                            1               1.19
 Offer encouragement                                            7               8.33
 Proper feeding                                                 1               1.19
 Provide care                                                   7               8.33
 Provide love                                                   4               4.76
 Provide proper treatment                                       2               2.38
 Provide support                                                4               4.76
 Provide treatments                                             4               4.76
 Providing good nutrition                                       1               1.19
 Visiting them                                                  3               3.57
  Missing                                                      29              34.52
 Total                                                         84              100.00
 Third reply
 ARVs                                                           1               1.19
 Counseling them                                                3               3.57
 Offer encouragement                                            1               1.19
 Pray for them                                                  1               1.19
 Proper feeding                                                 1               1.19
 Provide care                                                   3               3.57
 Provide love                                                   1               1.19
 Provide treatments                                             2               2.38


                                             87
Responses                                             No. of respondents   Percent
Visiting them                                                   3            3.57
Missing                                                        68           80.95
Total                                                          84          100.00

Table 2: Sources of knowledge on HIV/AIDS
                                                      No. of households    Percent
Source of knowledge-1
Healh clinic                                                 60            71.43
Medical clinic at work place                                  4             4.76
Public baraza                                                 5             5.95
Newspapers                                                    2             2.38
Radio                                                        12            14.29
Television                                                    1             1.19
Total                                                        84            100.00
Source of knowledge-2
Medical clinic at work place                                 23            27.38
Local medical doctor                                         21            25.00
Public baraza                                                14            16.67
Newspapers                                                    4             4.76
Radio                                                         7             8.33
Television                                                    6             7.14
Friends                                                       1             1.19
Colleagues                                                    2             2.38
Religious leaders                                             6             7.14
Total                                                        84            100.00
Source of knowledge-3
Local medical doctor                                         18            21.43
Public baraza                                                24            28.57
Newspapers                                                   14            16.67
Radio                                                         6             7.14
Television                                                    5             5.95
Friends                                                       4             4.76
Family                                                        1             1.19
Colleagues                                                    1             1.19
Posters or pamphlets at work place                            2             2.38
Religious leaders                                             2             2.38
Missing                                                       7             8.33
Total                                                        84            100.00
Source of knowledge-4
Public baraza                                                16            19.05
Newspapers                                                   21            25.00
Radio                                                        18            21.43
Television                                                    5             5.95
Friends                                                       3             3.57
Family                                                        3             3.57
Colleagues                                                    1             1.19
Posters or pamphlets at work place                            1             1.19
Trainers & counsellors on HIV-AIDS at place of work           1             1.19
Religious leaders                                             3             3.57
Missing                                                      12            14.29
Total                                                        84            100.00



                                              88
                                                      No. of households   Percent
Source of knowledge-5
Newspapers                                                   15           17.86
Radio                                                        22           26.19
Television                                                   16           19.05
Friends                                                       6            7.14
Family                                                        2            2.38
Colleagues                                                    2            2.38
Posters or pamphlets at work place                            3            3.57
Religious leaders                                             2            2.38
Missing                                                      16           19.05
Total                                                        84           100.00
Source of knowledge-6
Radio                                                        15           17.86
Television                                                   19           22.62
Friends                                                      13           15.48
Family                                                        6            7.14
Colleagues                                                    2            2.38
Posters or pamphlets at work place                            5            5.95
Trainers & counsellors on HIV-AIDS at place of work           2            2.38
Religious leaders                                             4            4.76
Missing                                                      18           21.43
Total                                                        84           100.00
Source of knowledge-7
Television                                                   15           17.86
Friends                                                      19           22.62
Family                                                        8            9.52
Colleagues                                                    5            5.95
Posters or pamphlets at workplace                             4            4.76
HIV/AIDS trainers and counselors at place of work             2            2.38
Religious leaders                                             5            5.95
Missing                                                      26           30.95
Total                                                        84           100.00
Source of knowledge-8
Friends                                                      14           16.67
Family                                                       16           19.05
Colleagues                                                    9           10.71
Posters or pamphlets at workplace                             4            4.76
HIV/AIDS trainers and counselors at place of work             3            3.57
Religious leaders                                             5            5.95
Missing                                                      33           39.29
Total                                                        84           100.00
Source of knowledge-9
Family                                                       12           14.29
Colleagues                                                   15           17.86
Posters or pamphlets at work place                            8            9.52
HIV/AIDS trainers and counselors at place of work             1            1.19
Religious leaders                                             9           10.71
Missing                                                      39           46.43
Total                                                        84           100.00
Source of knowledge-10
Colleagues                                                   11            13.10



                                              89
                                                       No. of households   Percent
Posters or pamphlets at workplace                               3            3.57
HIV/AIDS trainers and counselors at place of work               5            5.95
Religious leaders                                              17           20.24
Missing                                                        48           57.14
Total                                                          84          100.00
Source of knowledge-11
Posters or pamphlets at workplace                              10           11.90
HIV/AIDS trainers and counselors at place of work               1            1.19
Religious leaders                                               6            7.14
Missing                                                        67           79.76
Total                                                          84           100.00
Source of knowledge-12
HIV/AIDS trainers and counselors at place of work               9           10.71
Religious leaders                                               1            1.19
Missing                                                        74           88.10
Total                                                          84           100.00
Source of knowledge-13
Religious leaders                                               8            9.52
Internet                                                        1            1.19
Missing                                                        75           89.29
Total                                                          84           100.00

Table 3: Ways of controlling the spread of HIV/AIDS

Responses                                             No. of respondents   Percent
First reply
Abstain from sex                                               22           26.19
Being faithful to your partner                                  8           9.52
Counselling                                                     1           1.19
Educating people on HIV/AIDs                                   27           32.14
Getting saved                                                   1           1.19
Having one partner                                              1           1.19
Incorporate AIDS lesson in school curriculum                    3           3.57
Jobs to youth to avoid idleness                                 2           2.38
Keep up awareness campaign                                      7           8.33
More advertisements                                             1           1.19
Reduce prostitution                                             3           3.57
Seeking treatment                                               1           1.19
Sensitize youths on HIV                                         1           1.19
Test to know status                                             3           3.57
Use condoms                                                     1           1.19
                                                                2           2.38
Total                                                          84          100.00
Second response                                       No. of respondents   Percent
Abstain from sex                                                5           5.95
Being faithful to God                                           1           1.19
Being faithful to your partner                                 13           15.48
Check blood before transfusion                                  2           2.38
Discourage ARVs to stop spreading                               1           1.19
Educating people on HIV/AIDs                                    6           7.14
Giving condoms                                                  1           1.19




                                               90
Responses                                           No. of respondents   Percent
God fearing                                                   1           1.19
Having one partner                                            1           1.19
Incorporate AIDS lesson in school curriculum                  1           1.19
Jobs to youth to avoid idleness                               3           3.57
Keep up awareness campaign                                    4           4.76
Mandatory HIV teachings in churches                           1           1.19
More research on vaccines                                     1           1.19
Test to know status                                           7           8.33
Train chiefs so that educate the people                       1           1.19
Use condoms                                                   3           3.57
Use of condoms                                                1           1.19
Youth involvement in activities like sports                   1           1.19
 Missing                                                     30           35.71
Total                                                        84            100
Third response                                      No. of respondents   Percent
Abstain from sex                                              1           1.19
Avoid pornography                                             1           1.19
Being faithful to your partner                                2           2.38
Check blood before tranfusion                                 1           1.19
Counselling                                                   1           1.19
Educating people on HIV/AIDs                                  6           7.14
God fearing                                                   1           1.19
Having one partner                                            1           1.19
Keep up awareness campaign                                    1           1.19
Provision of free drugs                                       1           1.19
Reduce prostitution                                           1           1.19
Sterilized injections                                         1           1.19
Test to know status                                           1           1.19
Use condoms                                                   2           2.38
 Missing                                                     63           75.00
Total                                                        84          100.00
Fourth response                                     No. of respondents   Percent
Check blood before transfusion                                1           1.19
Jobs to youth to avoid idleness                               1           1.19
Reduce drinking alcohol                                       1           1.19
 Missing                                                     81           96.43
Total                                                        84          100.00


Table 4: Views on environmental problems
 Responses                                          No. of respondents   Percent
 First reply
 Deforestation                                             11             13.10
 Diseases                                                   8              9.52
 Drought                                                   10             11.90
 Dust                                                       1              1.19
 Environmental degradation                                  1              1.19
 Flooding                                                   5              5.95
 Frost                                                      1              1.19
 Hail stones                                                1              1.19
 Poor disposal of chemicals                                 1              1.19




                                               91
Responses                                 No. of respondents   Percent
Soil erosion                                       28           33.33
Soil infertility                                    2            2.38
Soil PH                                             1            1.19
Water pollution                                     2            2.38
Water shortage                                      8            9.52
Missing                                             4            4.76
Total                                              84          100.00
Second reply                              No. of respondents   Percent
Crop destruction by heavy rainfall                  1            1.19
Deforestaion                                        3            3.57
Deforestation                                       5            5.95
Diseases                                           19           22.62
Drought                                             9           10.71
Environmental pollution                             1            1.19
Floods                                              1            1.19
Land degradation                                    1            1.19
Malaria                                             1            1.19
Plastic bags                                        1            1.19
Poor disposal of plastics                           1            1.19
Poor infrastructure                                 2            2.38
Poor roads                                          1            1.19
Soil acidic                                         1            1.19
Soil erosion                                        7            8.33
Striga weed                                         1            1.19
Striga weeds                                        2            2.38
Water shortage                                      6            7.14
Wind                                                1            1.19
Wind erosion                                        1            1.19
Missing                                            19           22.62
Total                                              84          100.00
Third reply                               No. of respondents   Percent
Air pollution                                       1            1.19
Cold                                                1            1.19
Cold climate                                        1            1.19
Deforestation                                       3            3.57
Diseases                                            2            2.38
Drought                                             3            3.57
Flooding                                            2            2.38
Hailstones                                          1            1.19
Poor planting methods                               1            1.19
Soil erosion                                        9           10.71
Soil infertility                                    1            1.19
Striga weeds                                        1            1.19
Unfertile soil                                      1            1.19
Use of chemicals                                    1            1.19
Water pollution                                     1            1.19
Water run off                                       1            1.19
Water shortage                                      1            1.19
Missiing                                           53           63.10
Total                                              84          100.00
Fourth reply                              No. of respondents   Percent



                                     92
Responses                                        No. of respondents   Percent
Air pollution                                              1            1.19
Diseases                                                   3            3.57
Poor dirt disposal                                         1            1.19
Water pollution                                            1            1.19
Missing                                                   78           92.86
Total                                                     84          100.00

Table 5: Impact of environmental problems
 Impact of environmental problems-1              No. of respondents   Percent
 Low production                                           52           61.90
 Food shortages                                           10           11.90
 Water shortage                                            2            2.38
 Soil infertility                                          2            2.38
 Crop diseases                                             1            1.19
 Desertification                                           1            1.19
 Diseases                                                  1            1.19
 Drying up potatoes                                        1            1.19
 Eroding soil especially inputs                            1            1.19
 Flooding                                                  1            1.19
 Food insecurity                                           1            1.19
 Health problems thus low labour                           1            1.19
 High food prices                                          1            1.19
 Infected animals                                          1            1.19
 Lack of rain                                              1            1.19
 Unpredictable rains                                       1            1.19
 Missing                                                   6            7.14
 Total                                                    84          100.00
 Impact of environmental problems-2              No. of respondents   Percent
 Food shortages                                           13           15.48
 Low production                                            6            7.14
 High food prices                                          6            7.14
 Food insecurity                                           5            5.95
 Health problems thus low labour                           2            2.38
 Water shortage                                            2            2.38
 Conflicts for water resources                             1            1.19
 Destruction of water catchment areas                      1            1.19
 Diseases                                                  1            1.19
 Environmental pollution                                   1            1.19
 Extra expenses on inputs                                  1            1.19
 Fuel shortage                                             1            1.19
 High cost of treatment                                    1            1.19
 High input costs                                          1            1.19
 Hunger                                                    1            1.19
 Inadequate natural resources                              1            1.19
 Inadequate rain                                           1            1.19
 Low crop supply                                           1            1.19
 More poverty                                              1            1.19
 Mosquito breeding                                         1            1.19
 Perishability of produce                                  1            1.19
 Missing                                                  35           41.67
 Total                                                    84          100.00



                                            93
Impact of environmental problems-3                    No. of respondents           Percent
Food shortages                                                  3                    3.57
Low rainfall                                                    2                    2.38
Water shortage                                                  2                    2.38
Conflicts for water resources                                   1                    1.19
Destruction of Ozone layer                                      1                    1.19
High cost of treatment                                          1                    1.19
High food prices                                                1                    1.19
People health                                                   1                    1.19
Soil infertility                                                1                    1.19
Water conflicts                                                 1                    1.19
Missing                                                        70                  83.33333
Total                                                          84                     100

Table 6: Role PSDA is likely to play in the future in handling environmental problems
 Role PSDA is likely to play in the future in handling
 environmental problems-1                                     No. of respondents        Percent
 Train farmers on soil erosion/conservation, environmental
 problems, value addition, etc.                                        38               45.24
 Fund projects to handle these problems                                18               21.43
 Assist in planting trees                                               2                2.38
 Provide tree seedlings                                                 2                2.38
 Carry research on causes and handling                                  1                1.19
 Control flooding                                                       1                1.19
 Link farmers to agroforestry institution                               1                1.19
 Provide mosquito nets                                                  1                1.19
 Providing chemicals                                                    1                1.19
 Providing extension services                                           1                1.19
 Providing irrigation means                                             1                1.19
 Providing tree nurseries                                               1                1.19
 Sampling soil                                                          1                1.19
 Soil sampling                                                          1                1.19
 Train in importance of conservation                                    1                1.19
 Missing                                                               13               15.48
 Total                                                                 84               100.00

Role PSDA is likely to play in the future in handling
environmental problems-2                                  No. of respondents            Percent
Fund projects to handle these problems                             12                    14.29
Train farmers                                                       9                    10.71
Provision of certified seeds                                        3                     3.57
Provide tree seedlings                                              3                     3.57
Build dykes                                                         1                     1.19
Construction of culverts                                            1                     1.19
Control prices                                                      1                     1.19
Education on environmental problems                                 1                     1.19
Funding of soil conservation structures                             1                     1.19
Introduce energy saving jikos                                       1                     1.19
Keep awareness                                                      1                     1.19
Provide non chemical fertilizers                                    1                     1.19
Providing chemicals                                                 1                     1.19
Providing drugs                                                     1                     1.19
Providing mosquito nets                                             1                     1.19



                                              94
Provision of tree seedlings                                              1             1.19
Small income generating projects                                         1             1.19
Train in importance of conservation                                      1             1.19
Water supply                                                             1             1.19
Missing                                                                 42            50.00
Total                                                                   84            100.00
Role PSDA is likely to play in the future in handling
environmental problems-3                                         No. of respondents   Percent
Provide tree seedlings                                                     2            2.38
Building dykes                                                             1            1.19
Education on environmental problems                                        1            1.19
Provide experts                                                            1            1.19
Training farmers                                                           1            1.19
Missing                                                                   78           92.86
Total                                                                     84          100.00
Role PSDA is likely to play in the future in handling
environmental problems-4                                         No. of respondents   Percent
Construction of dips                                                       1            1.19
Missing                                                                   83           98.81
Total                                                                     84          100.00

Table 7: What does farmer need to handle soil erosion more effectively?
What does farmer need to handle soil erosion more
effectively? (1)                                                 No. of respondents   Percent
Dig trenches                                                              10           11.90
Construct gabions                                                          8            9.52
Train farmers                                                              8            9.52
Tree planting                                                              4            4.76
Finance to control soil erosion                                            1            1.19
Funds to control erosion                                                   1            1.19
Knowledge on soil erosion control                                          1            1.19
Planting along contours                                                    1            1.19
Soil conservation measures                                                 1            1.19
Tree seedlings                                                             1            1.19
Missing                                                                   48           57.14
Total                                                                     84          100.00
What does farmer need to handle soil erosion more effectively?
(2)
Tree seedlings                                                           5              5.95
Dig trenches                                                             3              3.57
Training farmers                                                         3              3.57
Tree planting                                                            2              2.38
Contour farming                                                          1              1.19
Funding                                                                  1              1.19
Plant grass                                                              1              1.19
Planting along contours                                                  1              1.19
Missing                                                                 67             79.76
Total                                                                   84            100.00
What does farmer need to handle soil erosion more effectively?
(3)
Mulching                                                                 1              1.19
Training farmers                                                         1              1.19
Missing                                                                 82             97.62
Total                                                                   84            100.00



                                                  95
                ANNEX 14: FACT SHEET FOR ASSOCIATIONS SUPPORTED BY PSDA
             Fact sheet for Associations supported by PSDA and Benchmarking partners

Name of association

Address                          ...
Telephone                        ...
Mobile                           ...
Fax                              ...
e-mail                           ...
Contact                          Person: ...
                                 Function: ...

Description of the association

Specific orientation             Commodity:                        Value chain stage(s):
                                 ...                               ...
                                 Other, specify:
                                 ...
Headquarter location             ...

Geographical reach/              Districts:
areas covered                    ...
Formation and registration       Year of formation: ...             Year of registration: ...
                                 Formation on initiative of:        Registered with:
                                 ...                                ...
Brief history

Type of association              Farmers’ association              Local association           
                                 Traders’ association              Regional association        
                                 Processors’ association           National association        
                                 Consumers’ association            Federation                  
                                 Other,                            Other,                      
                                 specify: ...                       specify: ...
Members
(brief description: small,
medium, large scale, main
activities, capacities, etc.)
Vision

Mission

Organisational and               General assembly                Office infrastructure, specify:
operational structures           Management committee            -
in place                         Executive board                 -
                                 Other,                          -
                                 specify .                        -
Documents developed for          Constitution          Member service needs assessment 
strategic orientation and        Association strategy  Business plan        Annual plan       
operations                       Record keeping        Balance sheet        Job descriptions
                                                                                                
                                 Other, specify: ...
Key strategic partners           public, specify:...
                                 private, specify:...
                                 donors, specify:
                                 ...




                                                   96
Fact sheet for
Associations supported by PSDA and Benchmarking partners
                                                           page 2
SWOT Analysis

Strengths                        -                     -
                                 -                     -
                                 -                     -
Weaknesses                       -                     -
                                 -                     -
                                 -                     -
Opportunities                    -                     -
                                 -                     -
                                 -                     -
Threats                          -                     -
                                 -                     -
                                 -                     -

Needs for association development

Organisational development       -
                                 -
                                 -
                                 -
Management capacities            -
                                 -
                                 -
                                 -
Service development              -
                                 -
                                 -
                                 -
Others, specify                  -
                                 -
                                 -
                                 -

Cooperation with PSDA

Support given to date        -
                             -
                             -
                             -
                             -
Expected impacts             -
of the cooperation           -
                             -
                             -
                             -
Lessons learnt               -
in this cooperation          -
                             -
                             -
                             -




                                         97
Fact sheet for
Associations supported by PSDA and Benchmarking partners
                                                                                                page 3

Quantitative indicators

Indicator 1:                No. of full members:
Membership                  2005: ...         2006: ...   2007: ...       2008: ...
                            No. of associate members:
                            2005: ...         2006: ...   2007: ...       2008: ...
                            % of female members:
                            2005: ...         2006: ...   2007: ...       2008: ...
                            % of members paying membership fees:
                            2005: ...         2006: ...   2007: ...       2008: ...
Indicator 2:                No. of full-time staff: ...          % female of full-time staff:   ...
Human resources             No. of part-time staff: ...          % female of part-time staff:   ...
Indicator 3:                Income/ Year (KSh):
Financial situation         2005: ...         2006: ...   2007: ...       2008: ...
Indicator 4:                % of annual income from registration (member entry) fees:
Main sources of income      2005: ...         2006: ...   2007: ...       2008: ...
                            % of annual income from membership fees:
                            2005: ...         2006: ...   2007: ...       2008: ...
                            % of annual income from charged services:
                            2005: ...         2006: ...   2007: ...       2008: ...
                            % of annual income from sponsoring:
                            2005: ...         2006: ...   2007: ...       2008: ...
                            other sources, specify:
                            ...
Qualitative indicators
Indicator 5:                -
Services packages           -
developed                   -
                            -
Indicator 6:                -
Successes achieved          -


Indicator 7:                .
Member satisfaction

Indicator 8:                ...
Reputation
(incl. source of
information)
Outlook
Prospects for the sustai-   ...
nability of the
association
Plans of the association    -
for the future              -
                            -
Future cooperation          -
with PSDA                   -
                            -
Contact person PSDA         ...
Date of entry/ up-date      ...




                                                98
                                  ANNEX 15: GROSS MARGINS

   (1) BUNGOMA DISTRICT

Table 1: Passion fruit gross margin (Unit 1 ha)
Item                      Quantity per management    Unit    Total per management level
                          level                      cost/
                                                     price
                            1         2        3     (KSh)     1         2        3
Expected output/ yield   10,000    15,000   18,000   20      200,000   300,000   360,000
(kg/ha)
Establishment costs
Land preparation         1         1        1        4,250   4,250     4,250     4,250
Digging holes            1,666     1,666    1,666    5       8330      8330      8330
Manure (tons)            10        16       20       700     7,000     11,200    14,000
Filling holes            1,666     1,666    1,666    3       4,998     4,998     4,998
Fertilizer DAP           -         166      300kg    20      -         3,320     6,000
Transplanting (MD)       12        12       14       70      840       840       980
Galvanized wire          0.5       1        2.5      4,000   2,000     4,000     10,000
Sisal twine              3         7        10       200     600       1,400     2,000
Cost of seedlings        1,666     1,666    1,666    10      16,660    16,660    16,660
Transport of seedlings   1,666     1,666    1,666    -       200       2,000     2,000
Training (MD)            12        20       25       70      840       1,400     1,750
Posts & transport        100       137      137      60      6,000     8,220     8,220

Labour       for     post 10       12       12       70      700       840       840
placement (MD)
Total      establishment -         -        -        -       52,418    65,658    78,228
cost
Capital recovery on                                          17,528    21,956    26,159
establishment costs
Sub-total                                                    122,364   155,072   184,415
Running costs
Weeding (MD)              20       30       45       70      1,400     2,100     3,150
CAN bags                  -        2        3.75     1800    -         1,800     3,375
Pesticides                -        -        -        -       1,000     2,000     4,000
Spraying (MD)             4        10       20       70      280       700       1,400
Top dressing (MD)         -        2        4        70      -         140       280
Transport & marketing     10       15       18       700     700       10,500    12,600
per ton
Interest on capital 20%   9,680    17,240   24,805   0.2     1,936     3,448     4,961
Total running costs       -        -        40       -       16,616    20,688    29,766
Establishment          +                                     139,080   176,706   214,181
Running Costs
Gross margin/ha                                              60,920    123,294   145,819
Labour (MD) total         58       86       120
Gross margin/MD of -               -        -        -       1050      1434      1215
labour
MD=man days of labour
Source: DHCDO Bungoma South




                                                99
Table 2: Mushroom gross margin (Variety; oyster, button, straw, shikate)
Production                 Unit           Quantity      Price/cost/unit  Total costs   Total
                                                                                       Revenue
A. Revenue                     Kg            6             4,000                       24,000
B. Variable Costs
Seeds                          Kg            4             600           2,400
Polythene                      Unit          150           2             300
Firewood                                                                 220
Packaging packets              Unit          180           0.5           90
Labour:     seeding,   care,   Md            60            100           6,000
harvesting,    drying   and
packaging
Transportation costs           trips         3             400           1,200
Sub-total                                                                10,210
Interest@20%                                                              2,042
TVC                                                                      12,252
GM=Revenue-TVC                                                                    11,748
Production cost per kg                                                   2,042
Source: DCO Bungoma South

Table 3: Poultry gross margin (500 layers)
Parameters                                         Level of production
                              1                        2                     3
No of birds                   500                      500                   500
Mortality rate                50                       25                    5
Net no of birds               450                      475                   495
No of eggs per bird           240                      260                   280
Total eggs                    108000                   123500                138600
Price per egg                 5                        5                     5
Total revenue for eggs        54,000                   617,500               693,000
No of culls                   450                      475                   495
Price per cull                160                      160                   160
Value of culls                72,000                   76,000                79,200
Manure in kg                  3,750kg                  3,750kg               3,750kg
Value per ton                 500                      500                   500
Manure revenue                18,750                   18,750                18,750
Total revenue                 630,750                  712,250               790,950
Variable costs
Day olds chicks@65            32,500                   32,500                32,500
Chick mash@15,20,25           21,750                   29,000                36,250
Kerosene(20 l)@45             900                      900                   900
Growers marsh@1120            4,400                    37,200                55,000
Layers marsh@1200             36,000                   45,000                84,000
Veterinary services
Vaccinations                  1,500                    4,500                 9,000
Disinfection                  500                      500                   500
Transport                     1,950                    2,100                 3,500
Capital recovery@0,2,5.       16,720                   16,720                16,720
0.3344*50000
Total variable costs          490,820                  543,075               568,620
interest@20% TC               24,540                   27,155                28,430
TVC+ Interest                 515,360                  578,230               597,050
GM/500 birds                  115,390                  142,020               193,900
GM/bird                       250                      300                   390
Total cost per tray of eggs   143                      136                   129
Total cost per egg            4.80                     4.60                  4.30
Source: DLPO Bungoma South




                                                 100
    (2) KISII DISTRICT

Table 1: Gross margin for Dairy goats (Assuming 1 production cycle)*
Item                                 Unit        Unit price Quantity                         Total (KSh)
                                                 (KSh)
Output
Milk production                      Litres      40           300*2 kidding/yr               24,000
Kid sales                            No          4000         2                              8000
Buck services                        No          50           2 does/wk*52wks                 5,200
Manure                               Tons        800          2                               6,000
Total                                                                                        43,200
Tick Control                         Man days 100             60                              6,000
                                     (MDs)
Dairy meal                           Bag         1250         8                              10000
Salt lick                               2 kg           150             4                     600
Vets services                          Visits          300             4                      1200
Milking labour                         Monthly         1500            10                    15,000
Interest on capital (7%)                                                                      3941
Total                                                                                        60241
Gross margin= Revenue-TVC                                                                    -17041
Initial cost
Doe and buck Purchase                  No              6000            2                     12,000
Shed construction                      No              2500            1                      2,500
Fodder establishment                   Load            200             -                      2,000
Total establishment costs                                                                    16,500
*The assumption of 1 production cycle is unrealistic since the enterprise is long-term.
 Source: DLPO Kisii

NAKURU DISTRICT

Table 1: Gross margin for Irish potato (Unit 1 ha)
Item                       Unit           Price/unit (KSh)            Quantity            Total (KSh)
Output
Yield/ha                   Kg                                              12,500
Price /kg                  KSh.             1,300 (110kg bag)               105
Gross output               KSh.                                                               136,500
Variable costs
Ploughing                  Ha                      5,000                      1                 5,000
Harrowing                  Ha                      2,000                      1                 2,000
Seeds                      50kg                    1,500                     20                30,000
DAP                        50kg                    2,800                      4                11,200
Dithane                    5kg                      500                       1                 2,500
Copper oxychloride         6kg                      480                       1                 2.880
Transport (inputs)                                                                               500
Planting                   Man days                 100                       30                3,000
Spraying                   Man days                 150                       30                4,500
Weeding & ridging          Man days                 150                       33                4,950
Harvesting                 Man days                 150                       30                4,500
Gunny bags                 Number                   100                      100               10,000
Transport (potatoes)                                                                           15,000
Sub total                                                                                      96,030
Miscellaneous 5%                                                                              4,801.50
TVC                        KSh.                                                              100,831.50
Gross margin/ha            KSh.                                                              35,668.50
Gross margin per man KSh.                                                                      289.99
day



                                                 101
      (3) MOLO DISTRICT

Table 1: Gross margin for Irish Potato
Item                     Units           Quantity   Unit cost (KSh)   Amount (KSh)
Output
Yield                     Bags           120        1500                180,000
Variable cost
Land prep                 Ha             1          4500                 4,500
Harrowing                 Ha             1          3000                 3,000
Planting                  Man days       30         100                  3,000
Seeds                     Bags           38         1200                 45,600
Fertilizers               Bags           10         2600                 26,000
 ST
1     earthing up         Man days       30         100                  3,000
 ND
2     earthing up         Man days       30         100                  3,000
Spraying                  Man days       4          100                  4,000
Fungicides                Kgs            1          1380                 1,380
Insecticides              250ml          1          600                   600
Harvesting/sorting        Man days       30         100                  3,000
Packing Bags              Number         100        30                   3,000
Misc. costs 10%                                                          10,000
TVC                                                                     110,080
Gross margin/ha           KSh.                                           69,920
Gross margin per man      KSh.                                           563.87
day




                                         102
    (4) NAROK DISTRICT

Table 1: Irish Potato gross margin

Particulars                Unit           Price/unit   Quantity          Variable    Output
                                          (KSh)                         cost (KSh)   (KSh)
Gross Output               Bag (110kg)    800          100 bags                      80,000
Variable cost leasing      Acre           700          1 acre           700
of land
 st
1 ploughing                Acre           1,500        Acre             1,500
Harrowing                  Acre           1,500        Acre             1,500
Furrowing                  Man days       100          5                500
Seed                       Bag (50kg)     2,000        12 bags          24,000
Transport of seed-         Man days       140          12               1,680
Njoro
Fertilizer DAP             Bags (50 kg)   1,800        4 bags           7,200
Planting                   Man days       100          5                500
 st
1 weeding                  Man days       100          7                700
 nd
2 weeding                  Man days       100          7                700
Redomil                    Kg             1,500        6 sprays    (1   9,000
                                                       kg/spray)
Melasystox                 Liter          1,800        1 liter          1,800
Harvesting                 Man days       100          7                700
Sorting                    Man days       100          5                500
Gunny bags                 Bag            30           100              300
Packing                    Bag (110kg)    100          5                500
Transport to store         Bag (110kg)    30           100 bags         3,000
TVC                                                                     54,780       54,780
GM/acre/season             KSh.                                                      25,220
GM/year/acre               KSh.                                                      50,440
Gross margin/ha            KSh.                                                      126,100
Gross     margin/man       KSh.                                                      1,051
day
Break-even         point   BEP=TVC/Quantity            KSh54,780/100 bags            547.80
(BEP)




                                                103
(6) MURANGA DISTRICT

Table 1: Poultry gross margin (Unit: 400 layers in deep litter for 18-20 months AEZ -M2)
Item                             Unit              Unit price       Quantity        Value/Cost
                                                                                    (KSh)
Gross output
Eggs                             Trays                        150              3240        486,000
Manure                           Tons                        2000                 3          6,000
Culls                            Number                       180               360         64,800
Total                                                                                      556,800
Variable costs
Day old chicks                   Number                        65               100          6,500
Brooder materials                Various                        1               700            700
Brooder construction             Pd                           100                 1            100
Paraffin                         Litres                        45                20            900
Charcoal                         Bags                         350                 2            700
Egg trays                        No                             5               180            900
Chick marsh                      70kg bag                   1,400                14         19,600
Growers marsh                    70kg bag                   1,100                46         50,600
Layers marsh                     70kg bag                   1,200               231        277,200
Labour                           Per day                      100               150         15,000
Drugs &vaccines                  Assorted                       1              3500          3,500
Subtotal variable costs                                                                    375,700
Interest on capital                                                                         67,626
TVC                                                                                        443,326
GM/flock                                                                                   113,474
Gross margin/bird                                                                              284
Break-even yield (trays/flock)                                                               2,488
Break-even yield (KSh/tray)                                                                    116
Assumptions:
    o Mortality rate is 10%
    o Average number of eggs laid per bird is 270 for entire production period

VIHIGA DISTRICT

Table 1: Dairy goat gross margin
Item                        Unit               Unit     price   Quantity             Total (KSh)
                                               (KSh)
Initial cost
Doe and buck purchase       Number             7,000            2                    14,000
Shed construction           Number             5000             1                    5,000
Fodder establishment        Load               1200             -                    1,200
Hand pump                   Number             120              1                    120
Vets services & service     Visits             3000             1                     3,000
Milking labour              Monthly            1500             10                   15,000
Interest on capital (7%)                                                              2,682.40
Total                                                                                41,002.40
Output
Milk production             Litres             40               450*2 kidding/yr     36,000
Kid sales                   Number             1960             2                    7,840
Buck services               Number             50               2 does/wk*52wks       5,200
Manure                      Tons               500              1.2                   6,000
Total                                                                                55,040
GM                                                                                   14,037.60
Source: DLPO Vihiga




                                             104
                               ANNEX 16: COST OF PURCHASED INPUTS IN POULTRY PRODUCTION
                                                                                                                Total
                                 No. of Price       Value                          No.     of Price     Value   value
Farmer   Input 1          Amount birds  (KSh)       (KSh) Input 2           Amount birds      (KSh)     (KSh)   (KSh)
A        Feeds            1      470    1550        1550  Gumboro                             300               1550
B        Feeds            45            940         42300 Abbeflox          100               400       40000   82300
C        Watering cans    9      500    200         1800  Layers mash       7      500        1500      10500   12300
D        Chick mash       5      300    1480        7400  Growers mash      30     300        1380      41400   48800
E        Multi vitamins          500    1200              Chick mash        9      500        1500      13500   13500
F        Feeds            35     300    1500        52500 Medicine          1      300        1200      1200    53700
G        Dime             1      .      800         800   DCP               10     600        80        800     1600
H        Layers mash      7      50     1250        8750                                                        8750
I        Gumboro                 1100   450               Newcastle                             280

                                   No. of   Price                                 No.      of Price
         Input 3          Amount   birds    (KSh)           Input 4        Amount birds       (KSh )
A        Oxysol plus      .        .        300             Roxacin        .      .           500
B        Multi vitamins   100      .        180     18000   Dewormers             .           300              18000
C        Chick mash       6        300      1700    10200   Growers mash   90     300         1300      117000 127200
D        Layers mash      7        550      1500    10500   Rice husk      .      .           4850      4850   15350
E        Growers mash     28       500      1580    44240   Layers mash    2.5    500         1650      4125   48365
F                         .        .        .                              .      .           .
G        Layers mash      65       .        1250    81250   Trays          .      .           20                81250
H                         .        .        .                              .      .           .
I        Egg formula      .        .        300             Layers formula .      .           150

                                 No. of                                            No.     of
         Input 5          Amount birds  Price               Input 6         Amount birds        Price
A        Glucose          .      .      600                 Multivitamins   .      .            150
B        Fuzol            1      .      500         500     Fowl pox        1      .            1500    1500    2000
                                                            Feeding
C        Rice husks       .        .        12000           troughs         11     500          400     4400    4400
D        Feeding          12       550      320   3840      Watering        12     .            220     2640    6480


                                                              105
    troughs                                          troughs
E   Troughs          50     500      200     10000              .      .            .       10000
F                    .      .        .                          .      .            .
    Feeding                                          Watering
G   troughs          .      .        400             troughs    .      .            200
H                    .      .        .                          .      .            .
I   Askarix          1      .        350     350                .      .            .       350

                            No. of                                     No.     of
    Input 7          Amount birds    Price           Input 8    Amount birds        Price
A                    .      .        .                          .      .            .
B   Fowl typhoid     .      .        1500                       .      .            .
C   Multi vitamins          500      400             Levacide          500          450
D   Multi vitamins          550      600                        .      .            .
E                    .      .        .                          .      .            .
F                    .      .        .                          .      .            .
G                    .      .        .                          .      .            .
H                    .      .        .                          .      .            .
I                    .      .        .                          .      .            .




                                                       106

				
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