Network Analysis of Freight Traffic

Document Sample
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic Powered By Docstoc
					  t ok n l s f
          s
New r A ayio
   rih T afi
  F eg t rfc


          I L
           N
          F A

       rprdo
      Peae fr
   eat n fr rnp r
      m
  D pr eto Tasot

              by
     D Tas o aLd
    M S rnm dlt




 a Spe br 09
  e
D t:etm e 20
 e 290
 v 5
  :    re
R f 004_
­r
CONTENTS

1.    Introduction and Background

2.    The Strategic National Corridors

3.    Summary of Methodology Adopted

4.    Summary of Results and Findings – Roads

5.    Summary of Results and Findings – Rail

6.    Conclusions and Recommendations

Appendix 1: Project Terms of Reference
Appendix 2: Background Maps
Appendix 3: Detailed Methodology Statement, Methodology Maps and Additional Information
Appendix 4: Summary Results Maps – Roads
Appendix 5: Turning Movements Analysis – Roads
Appendix 6: Summary Results Maps – Railways
Appendix 7: Summary Results – Railways
Appendix 8: Turning Movements Analysis – Railways
This report has been prepared under contract for WSP-PB, under the terms of the

     Department for Transport Technical Research Framework PPRO 4/45/4.

Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 1	                                                Page 1



SECTION 1. INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND

Section 1.1       Introduction

1.1	    As part of the Delivering a Sustainable Transport System (DaSTS) process, the
        Department for Transport (DfT) has identified 14 Strategic National Corridors in
        England, covering all transport modes and linking key conurbations and international
        gateways. One of the aims of the DaSTS process is to identify and analyse problem
        areas on the strategic corridors. The analysis undertaken will subsequently inform
        the generation of options with the potential to resolve the identified issues.

1.2	    The problem identification and option generation process, by its nature, must involve
        an analysis of demand for network capacity. Freight has to be considered along with
        passenger flows, as freight movements essentially use the same networks (roads and
        railway lines). However, it is also recognised that freight demand has to be analysed
        separately from passenger flows as there are different drivers behind choice of mode,
        vehicle and routing.

1.3	    In order to understand freight demand better and its contribution to total network
        usage, the Freight and Logistics Division (FLD) of the DfT commissioned a study in
        February 20091 to examine freight movements along all 14 Strategic National
        Corridors (both for road traffic and the parallel railway routes) and identify the
        contribution freight is making to highly stressed areas on the road infrastructure. All
        14 Strategic National Corridors were to be examined together, as the DfT has
        considered it important to understand more fully end-to-end journeys and how the
        corridors inter-link with each other i.e. how freight traffic moves between corridors2.

1.4	    The DfT already have a good understanding of the volume of goods vehicles moving
        on the road network from annual traffic statistics. Other detailed information, such as
        commodities being conveyed, length of haul and the domestic/international split, is
        available but is less well documented. In addition, combining such data and
        assigning it to the highway network has not previously been undertaken on a large
        scale.

1.5	    The study has therefore been designed to investigate what commodities goods
        vehicles are likely to be carrying and over what distances, particularly on those
        sections of the strategic highway network which experience network stress. This
        interpretation will be derived from the MDS Transmodal GB Freight Model. In

1
 Via Technical Research Framework PPRO 4/45/4
2
 The study Terms of Reference specified an analysis of 'surface freight on the 14 corridors' (i.e. road
and railways). Consequently, demand for coastal shipping has not been considered. However,
coastal shipping may have a role to play in providing solutions to identified problems on some
corridors e.g. flows of some materials from south west to south east England or from Scotland to the
south east/south coast could move by water rather than surface freight modes.

Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 1	                                           Page 2



        addition the study will analyse Network Rail data to identify volumes and commodities
        of freight traffic moving on parallel railway routes. Consideration of coastal shipping is
        outside the scope of this study but coastal shipping is part of the solution to
        addressing issues on the network.

1.6	    The study outputs will provide a good understanding of how freight is using the
        network and contributing to issues on the network at a particular point in time. It is
        based on 2007 data and will not reflect changes in land use patterns, population
        centre growth or the impacts of major road or rail schemes completed since 2007.
        The key aims of the study were as follows:

    •	 Add value to existing data on network usage, in particular asigning it to the highway
       and railway networks;
    •	 Undertake an analysis of freight demand, for both HGV traffic and rail freight along
       the 14 Strategic National Corridors;
    •	 Identify the main freight routes, for both HGV traffic and rail freight, along each
       corridor;
    •	 Assess the contribution freight activity makes to total vehicle flow at stressed points
       on the network, and the nature of freight activity on those links, particularly
       considering the commodities being conveyed, length of haul and the
       domestic/international split;
    •	 To compare freight demand on the highway network with rail freight activity on the
       parallel railway routes; and
    •	 Overall, better inform the DaSTS process and the types of action or intervention
       (including modal shift) that the DfT expects to consider in relation to freight.

1.7	    The commission was awarded to MDS Transmodal through the Department’s Lot 4
        Research framework. This written document presents the results and key findings of
        this study. The full Terms of Reference for this study are attached to this document in
        Appendix 1.

1.8	    The MDS Transmodal GB Freight Model has been utilised as the main analytical tool,
        supplemented by DfT traffic count data and information from other sources. In terms
        of road freight traffic, the study has established the current numbers of heavy goods
        vehicles (HGVs) on a link-by-link basis for all major ‘long distance’ roads along the 14
        Strategic National Corridors. The data has been differentiated by direction, vehicle
        type (rigid or articulated), length of haul, commodities being conveyed and the
        proportion of traffic which is international in nature. International traffic has been
        further differentiated by type (roll-on roll-off, maritime container) and port of
        entry/departure. Freight’s contribution to total vehicle demand has been established
        by comparing the total volumes of HGVs with the number of cars, light vans and
        coaches using each road. This has allowed us to establish the links on the national
        corridors which experience severe network stress and the contribution freight flows
        make towards this stress.


Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 1	                                           Page 3




1.9	    Alongside the road freight traffic analysis, an assessment of freight flows on the main
        railway lines along each corridor has also been undertaken. This analysis has
        quantified current freight train volumes (mean daily trains) by train type (intermodal or
        bulk/semi-bulk), commodities being conveyed and length of haul. However, the study
        was not required to consider rail freight demand against passenger train demand or
        rail network capacity.

1.10	 The study methodology adopted has broadly followed that devised during a ‘pilot
      study’ undertaken between October and December 2008. The main purpose of this
      study was to ‘road-test’ a methodology which would identify freight’s contribution to
      network usage and congestion, in anticipation of a fuller application across all
      strategic corridors at a later date. The ‘pilot study’ focused on the Rugby-
      Birmingham-Manchester section of Strategic National Corridor Eight (London to North
      West England corridor), and examined both the M6 and the parallel West Coast
      Mainline (WCML) railway.

1.11	 The ‘pilot study’ was managed by MDS Transmodal, with specialist inputs provided
      by Mott MacDonald (data and forecasts with respect to non-freight road vehicle
      traffic). The study reported in December 2008, and a summary of the results are
      presented as a ‘case study’ in Annex B of the document Delivering a Sustainable
      Transport System: The Logistics Perspective (which was also published by the DfT in
      December 2008). The 'pilot study' enabled a number of technical issues to be
      identified and resolved prior to implementation in this project. These included issues
      associated with the assignment of road traffic to the strategic highway networks. In
      addition, the 'pilot study' only assigned trains to the railway network on 'sum of both
      directions' basis. This has been addressed in this study through a modification to the
      rail assignment programme to allow trains to be routed by direction. The main
      difference between this project and the ‘pilot study’ is that forecasts for freight
      demand (road and rail) have not been undertaken.



Section 1.2 Delivering a Sustainable Transport System: The Logistics Perspective

1.12	 The DfT published Delivering a Sustainable Transport System: the Logistics
      Perspective in December 20083. This document set out how the DaSTS process,
      including the ‘five goals’ summarised above, would relate to the logistics sector. In
      particular, it looks in more detail at the issues concerning the movement of freight
      within Great Britain, across modes, including the nature and composition of freight
      flows on the major corridors. It also discusses how Government and industry will
      need to work together to ensure that freight benefits from and contributes to the DfT’s
      goals.

3
 Document can be downloaded at http://www.dft.gov.uk/pgr/freight/. All figures stated in this sub­
section are therefore sourced from or quoted directly from the Logistics Perspective document.

Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 1	                                        Page 4




1.13	 The document notes that "the quantity of freight transported in Great Britain has
      continued to increase overtime, with distance travelled increasing more quickly than
      the volume of goods transported" (para 4). However, it also notes that over the last
      ten years this growth has been at a lower rate than Gross Domestic Product (GDP),
      indicating a decoupling of GDP and freight activity. This trend is not generally seen
      elsewhere in Europe.

1.14	 Road transport dominates freight movements, carrying two-thirds of goods moved.
      But in recent years the mix of road freight traffic has changed, with the number of
      vans increasing markedly. Despite the dominance of road freight, there has been
      substantial growth in rail freight, which is up by almost 50% cent over the past
      decade. This growth has been focused in the existing bulk and unitised markets.
      One of the reasons for road’s high freight market share is the relatively short
      distances that much freight travels. Analysis of the origins and destinations of goods
      shows that, on average, around 70% of road freight has its origin and destination
      within the same region, and is therefore not appropriate for modal shift onto rail and
      water. The East and West Midlands are significant destinations for unit load freight
      (given their concentration of national distribution centres).

1.15	 Traditionally, the DfT has focused its analysis on mode rather than commodity, in
      particular examining and quantifying HGVs or train numbers rather than focusing on
      the logistical detail of what freight is moved, origins and destinations etc. However, to
      enable identification of problems on the network and appropriate solutions to these
      problems, a more detailed understanding of the composition of freight traffic on key
      routes and the factors generating freight demand on them is needed. This study is
      intended to better inform that process.

1.16	 The Logistics Perspective clearly states that freight is a commercial, market-driven
      activity. Most investments are made by the private sector in accordance with normal
      commercial criteria. Freight services are commercial decisions taken by freight and
      logistics companies in partnership with their customers. The DfT’s focus is on the
      outcomes that arise from freight transport. Its main concern is to ensure that freight is
      able to move as efficiently as possible, reducing costs to business and consumers,
      and also to see that freight’s impacts on wider society is maintained at an appropriate
      level. The document outlines the main levers available to Government to influence
      these outcomes:

        •    Investment;
        •    Regulation (both domestically and internationally);
        •    Ensuring compliance with regulations;
        •    Creating a long-term planning framework; and
        •    Funding, incentives and the promotion of best practice.



Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 1	                                         Page 5



1.17	 The document notes that key trends that are currently expected to shape the future
      nature and impacts of freight will include:

        •	 Sustained growth in imports, placing significant demands on key international
           gateways and the links to and from them;
        •	 A continued increase in numbers of light goods vehicles, where growth of around
           65 per cent is forecast to 2025;
        •	 A further decrease in local emissions from new road vehicles;
        •	 A continued reliance on air freight for the transport of goods of high value or great
           urgency; and
        •	 Increased return of reused or recycled products from consumers.

1.18	 The document notes that detailed work is already under way within the DfT to ensure
      that the needs and impacts of freight services are incorporated fully into future policy
      and investment decisions. This includes gaining a better understanding of the nature
      of commodities and traffic on the key transport corridors and identifying areas where
      freight suffers from, or contributes to, network congestion (partly informed by this
      study). It notes that the types of action or intervention that the DfT expects to
      consider in relation to freight will probably remain similar to the levers in use today,
      but the decisions to inform them will be based on a more sophisticated understanding
      of the sector and the potential impacts of the actions. These could include:

    •	 Investment in network infrastructure and technology;
    •	 Managing networks in a different way so as to improve capacity of traffic within
       existing facilities;
    •	 Regulatory changes, such as limited changes to the dimensions of vehicles;
    •	 Adapting the coverage of logistics issues in National Policy Statements, in order to
       influence the configuration of supply chains;
    •	 Providing modal shift grant funding in a more targeted manner so that schemes
       which benefit a particular part of the network are prioritised and adapting the level of
       funding to meet overall needs; and
    •	 The introduction of new areas of best practice, either alongside or as part of the
       Freight Best Practice scheme.

1.19	 Overall, this study is intended to better inform this process and the types of action or
      intervention that the DfT might consider in relation to freight. There include, among
      others, the following:

    •	 Providing important information to industry, regional and local government with
       regards to commodities moving at key locations on the strategic network;
    •	 Assessing the nature of freight activity on the highway network and comparing this
       with freight demand on parallel railway routes;
    •	 Better informing 'modal shift' potential, particularly with regards to commodities
       moving, length of haul and key origins/destinations; and

Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 1	                                          Page 6



    •	 Identifying the key international gateways for freight movements and the main
       corridors which serve them.

Section 1.3       The Logistics Market

1.20	 The exact nature of freight activity along the 14 Strategic National Corridors will be
      influenced by the ‘logistics economy’ in general, and by the type of industry located
      along or at the extremities of the corridors in particular. Since the 1960s, the British
      economy has gradually changed from one largely based around heavy industries to
      one that is dominated by the service sectors. With respect to inland freight transport,
      this has manifested itself in a number of ways, including:

    •	 A gradual decline in the movement of heavy bulk and semi-bulk materials. The
       railways dominated the transport of such materials and, as a result, the total amount
       of cargo lifted by the railways fell steadily from the 1960s to the mid 1990s (just over
       250 million tonnes per annum in 1960 to just around 100 million tonnes per year by
       the early 1990s);
    •	 Steady growth in the amount of finished consumer type goods delivered.
       Compared with bulk commodities, such goods are generally moved in much smaller
       but more frequent consignments and are therefore ideally suited to some form of unit
       load transport (e.g. HGV or maritime container). Given a number of factors, including
       the cost and quality of services provided by the former nationalised railway industry,
       and land-use policies which encouraged (and promoted) the development of
       warehousing at non rail-linked sites (and close to motorway junctions), the road
       haulage industry has come to dominate the movement of consumer type goods.
       Between 1960 and the mid 1990s, the amount of goods lifted by road transport
       doubled. Even over long distances e.g. from mainland Europe, the road transport
       sector has the dominant market share; and
    •	 An increase in the amount of consumer goods imported to Britain. This
       increase has generally been at the expense of domestically produced goods.
       Although in some cases, imports often ensure year-round supplies of goods that
       were hitherto domestically sourced, but seasonal in nature, e.g. fresh produce
       imported from Spain outside the British growing season. Imports of maritime
       containers, particularly to distant destinations, often go by rail (particularly since the
       mid 1990s, as privatisation and competition ensured more competitive rail services),
       though short-medium distance flows and imports from mainland Europe are still
       dominated by road transport. In addition, a further impact of this trend has been a
       growing demand for large scale warehousing at strategic locations along the
       transport network. Previously, domestically produced goods were generally stored at
       the factory before delivery, but imported goods require dedicated storage facilities.

1.21	 Consequently, the movement of general cargo and retail consumer goods forms an
      important sector within overall logistics market. The major cities and conurbations,
      which are located along or at the extremities of the corridors being examined, are


Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 1	                                        Page 7



        major destinations for finished consumer type goods (shops in urban areas and out­
        of-town retail parks). In addition, the ‘retail economy’ includes the associated
        distribution facilities, which are also located at key sites along a number of the
        corridors (see below).

1.22	 Despite these structural changes within the wider economy, Britain is still a major
      producer and consumer of bulk and semi-bulk commodities. A number of the major
      river estuaries accommodate major petro-chemical plants. Around 30% of electricity
      is generated at coal-fired power stations, which rely on imports of coal via a limited
      number of deep-water berths. The Humber and Tees estuaries are still major
      producers of steel, both for domestic consumption and export. The construction
      sector has been particularly active over the past decade, with primary aggregates
      sourced from a handful of major quarries in the Mendips, East Midlands and Peak
      Districts. The movement of traditional bulk and semi-bulk cargo is still likely to form a
      part of the logistics market along the strategic corridors.

1.3.1	 Distribution Centres

1.23	 Distributors of retail or consumer type goods, whether they are retailers, their
      suppliers or appointed third party logistics contractors, generally organise their supply
      chain strategies around distribution centre 'hubs', of which there are basically two
      types.     National Distribution Centres (NDC) act as inventory holding points,
      particularly for imported goods, before re-distribution to other stages in the supply
      chain. They are termed 'national' because they serve the whole of Great Britain (and
      sometimes Ireland) from the one site. They are normally associated with suppliers to
      the retail industry, particularly importers of electrical goods, beers/wines/spirits and
      clothing, who require facilities to consolidate goods from a number of origins before
      re-distribution to either a Regional Distribution Centre (see below) or direct to an end
      user (retail outlet).

1.24	 Regional Distribution Centres (RDC) are similar to NDCs in that they receive, hold
      and then re-distribute goods to the next stage in the supply chain, normally multiple
      retail outlets. However there are a number of important differences. They have a
      regional hinterland e.g. the South East, South West. More importantly their primary
      role is to consolidate and re-distribute goods in shorter periods of time (sometimes
      within 24-48 hours), rather than acting as inventory holding locations. Consequently
      dwell times are much shorter at a RDC. They are therefore normally associated with
      retailers. Normally, goods are received in 'bulk' and then split into smaller
      consignments for re-distribution in mixed HGV size loads i.e. with other smaller
      consignments.

1.25	 Some retailers also operate some NDCs alongside their network of RDCs. A NDC
      associated with a retailer is generally holding slower moving lines (seasonal items



Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 1	                                          Page 8



         such as garden furniture, Christmas trees etc.) or goods with long supply lead times
         (such as DVD players manufactured in Taiwan).

1.26	 To date, the northern home counties/Midlands following the M1/M6 transport
      corridors (so called ‘golden triangle’) has been the logistics market’s preferred
      location for large scale NDCs. Major NDC locations, among others, include:

    •	   Milton Keynes (East of England);
    •	   Northampton (East Midlands);
    •	   DIRFT (near Crick, East Midlands);
    •	   Magna Park (Lutterworth, East Midlands);
    •	   Rugby (West and East Midlands)
    •	   Nuneaton (West Midlands);
    •	   Coventry (West Midlands);
    •	   Leicester (East Midlands); and
    •	   Hams Hall (near Coleshill, West Midlands).

1.27	 This position has resulted from, among other factors:

    •	 Its central location in relation to the main origins and destinations of cargo in Britain.
       It is possible to round trip to/from most other regions in Britain within a HGV driver's
       daily driving time restriction (9 to 10 hours per shift);
    •	 Its location at the hub of the national motorway network;
    •	 The availability of land at competitive rates, which allowed the development of large
       NDCs – planning authorities in the late 1980s/1990s pursued land-use policies which
       encouraged the development of warehousing at non rail-linked sites close to
       motorway junctions, thereby ensuring a continual supply of sites with B8 consents
       and
    •	 Availability of labour.

1.28	 More recently, sites along the A14 towards Kettering and Corby, near Peterborough
      (both East of England region), in the northern Nottinghamshire (East Midlands) and
      around Doncaster (Yorks and Humber) have also been developed for NDCs. This
      has resulted from a need for competitively priced large plots to simply store imported
      goods (shortage of supply in the golden triangle) and the increased sourcing of cargo
      via the east coast ports (e.g. Felixstowe, Immingham)

1.29	 Maps 2.1 and 2.2 in Appendix 2 shows total distribution centre floor space by
      Postcode District (source: Valuation Office Agency) alongside the road and rail
      network forming the 14 strategic corridors. Postcode Districts coloured red and
      purple show the highest concentrations of warehouse floor space. The ‘golden
      triangle’ is clearly visible on the maps.




Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 1	                                        Page 9



1.30	 Large scale RDCs need to be located close to the main conurbations of Britain. This
      is because they need to be a short distance from the next stage in the supply chain
      (retail outlets), in order to minimise re-distribution transport costs. This explains why
      property developers seek to develop sites, and retailers occupy warehouse units, on
      what could be regarded as 'expensive real estate' close to urban areas, rather than
      on lower cost sites. The table below shows different regions and a selection of the
      major locations for RDCs within those regions (though RDCs are located elsewhere).

Table 1.1: Regions and RDC Locations

Region                                   RDC Locations

Greater South East (i.e. covering        Maidstone/Aylesford
the South East, London and East          Dartford/East London
of England planning regions)             Hertfordshire
                                         West London
                                         Bracknell
                                         Didcot
                                         Brentwood
                                         Thurrock
Midlands (East and West)                 Tamworth
                                         Nuneaton
                                         Hinckley
                                         Coventry
                                         Coleshill
                                         Hams Hall (rail-linked)
                                         Coleville
                                         Nottingham
                                         Stoke
North West/North Wales                   Warrington
                                         Haydock
                                         Middleton
                                         Wigan
Yorkshire/Humber                         Leeds
                                         Normanton
                                         Wakefield
                                         Doncaster
North East                               Tees
                                         Washington
South West/South Wales                   Bristol
                                         Magor


1.31	 The consumer goods ‘supply chain’ can therefore be defined as the flow of goods
      from manufacturer/port to retail outlet via suppliers, retailers and their NDCs and
      RDCs. On this basis, the supply chain in Britain will generally follow one of four
      patterns:



Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 1	                                       Page 10



    •	   Domestic manufacturer/Port to Supplier's NDC to Retailer's RDC to retail outlet
    •	   Domestic manufacturer/Port to Retailer's NDC to Retailer's RDC to retail outlet
    •	   Domestic manufacturer/Port to Retailer's NDC to retail outlet
    •	   Domestic manufacturer/Port to Retailer's RDC to retail outlet

1.32	 Consequently, retail goods will be ‘lifted’ two or three times before they are purchased
      in retail outlets.

1.33	 Which one of the four ‘supply chains’ goods will follow is normally dictated by lead
      times (origin), time sensitivity and the quantities being moved in one move. Goods
      with short lead times and those which are time sensitive will generally move direct
      from producers to RDCs. For example, fresh produce (including cargo imported from
      mainland Europe) will move directly to RDCs. However, goods with longer lead times
      (e.g. Far-East sourced) and seasonal items will generally move initially to NDCs

1.34	 On this basis, inbound and outbound transport movements at NDCs and RDCs will
      generally be as follows:

NDCs - Inbound
  •	 Imports in maritime containers, either arriving by road (from port or off-site intermodal
      terminal) or direct by rail freight at rail-linked sites;
  •	 Imports from mainland Europe in HGVs via roll-on roll-off ferry services; and
  •	 Domestic (smallest).

NDCs - Outbound
  •	 To RDCs, mainly by road but possibly some direct rail freight at rail-linked sites; and
  •	 To retail outlets

RDCs - Inbound
  •	 Domestic from producer by road (particularly food produce);
  •	 Domestic from NDC, arriving mainly by road but possibly some direct rail freight at
      rail-linked sites;
  •	 Imports from mainland Europe via roll-on roll-off ferry services (particularly food
      produce and beers, wines and spirits); and
  •	 Imports in maritime containers (less significant compared with NDC).

RDC - Outbound
  •	 To retail outlets

1.35	 We would therefore expect the sections of the strategic corridors serving high
      concentrations of warehouse floor space and the corridors feeding into the major
      conurbations to display the following types of freight flows:

    •	 Lift-on lift-off (LoLo)Maritime Containers, both by road and rail freight;

Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 1	                                                                   Page 11



    •	 International roll-on roll-off (RoRo) traffic (road); and
    •	 Domestic flows of food and manufactured goods, principally road traffic but also
       some domestic flows by rail over longer distances.

1.36	 Maps 2.3 and 2.4 in Appendix 2 shows the main ports handling unit load imports
      destined for NDCs and RDCs alongside the road and rail network forming the 14
      strategic corridors. These are listed in the table below by traffic type.

Table 1.2: Major Unit Load Ports in England

Port                                                                        Traffic Type

                                                                                   1
Dover                                                                       RoRo
Channel Tunnel                                                              RoRo
                                                                                 2
Thamesport                                                                  LoLo
Dartford                                                                    RoRo
Purfleet                                                                    RoRo
Tilbury                                                                     LoLo
Harwich Haven ports (Felixstowe, Harwich and Ipswich)                       LoLo and RoRo
Humber ports (Immingham, Humber Sea Terminal, Hull and                      LoLo and RoRo
Goole)
Teesside ports (Teesport and Hartlepool)                                    LoLo and RoRo
Heysham                                                                     RoRo
Liverpool                                                                   LoLo and RoRo
Bristol                                                                     LoLo
Southampton                                                                 LoLo
Portsmouth                                                                  RoRo
1. Roll-on roll-off – road goods vehicles (either driver accompanied or unaccompanied trailers) which are driven onto or from
ferries
2. Lift on lift off – maritime containers which are lifted to/from ships by means of gantry cranes


1.37	 We would therefore expect those corridors serving these ports to display significant
      numbers of road vehicles for both LoLo and RoRo, and for the railway lines to be
      handling large volumes of maritime container traffic.

Section 1.3.2 Bulk and Semi-bulk Traffics

1.38	 Despite the importance of the ‘retail economy’, Britain is still a key producer and
      consumer of bulk and semi-bulk commodities. Rail freight has traditionally had a
      large market share within these sectors. Maps 2.3 and 2.4 in Appendix 2 also shows
      some of the key production and consumption sites for bulk and semi-bulk cargoes
      alongside the road and rail network forming the 14 strategic corridors. These are
      listed in the table below.




Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 1	                                                   Page 12



Table1.3 : Major Producers and Consumers of Bulk/Semi-bulk Commodities

Aggregates (Primary source)           Steel	                         Coal Power Stations       Bulk Ports
                                                 1
East Midlands Quarries                Lackenby                       Cottam                    Humber
                                                2
Mendip Hills                          Llanwern                       Didcot                    Tees
                                                   1
Peak District Quarries                Port Talbot                    Drax                      Liverpool
                                                    1
                                      Scunthorpe                     Eggborough                Southampton
                                              2
Oil Refineries                        Shotton                        Ferrybridge               Thames Estuary
Coryton (Thames)                                                     Fiddlers Ferry
Fawley (Southampton Water)            1. Steel production            Ironbridge
Lindsey and Humber (Humber)           2. Post production processes   Ratcliffe
Port Clarence (Tees)                                                 Rugeley
Stanlow (Mersey)                                                     West Burton

Car Factories	                        Auto Components                Car Import/Export Ports
Swindon – Honda                       Dagenham – Ford                Purfleet
Burnaston (Derby) – Toyota            Deeside – Toyota               Dagenham
Ellesmere Port – GM Europe            Bridgend – Ford                Medway (Sheerness)
Washington – Nissan                                                  Southampton
Oxford – Mini                                                        Humber
Castle Bromwich – Jaguar                                             Bristol (Portbury)
Solihull – Land Rover                                                Tees (Hartlepool)
Liverpool – Jaguar/Land Rover                                        Tyne


1.39	 Demand for primary aggregates tends to be in locations distant from the main ‘land­
      won’ resources (generally in urban areas where the main construction projects are
      located). The main centres for land-won aggregates production in England are the
      East Midlands, Peak District and Mendips. As a result, there is a need to transport
      aggregates (at the lowest possible cost) from the ‘land-won’ resources to stockpile
      sites close to the major conurbations. The aggregates producers make great use of
      rail freight for trunk hauls of product to urban areas. We would therefore expect
      significant volumes of bulk rail freight traffic on the strategic corridors serving these
      locations.

1.40	 The three major steel production sites in Britain are on the Humber, Teesside and
      South Wales (Port Talbot). Other post-production facilities process the ‘raw’ steel into
      usable products e.g. coils, plate steel, girders etc…Major consumers of steel include
      the car factories of the Midlands and North West, the construction sector and other
      heavy engineering plants. We would therefore expect significant volumes of steel
      traffic by both rail freight and road transport on the strategic corridors serving these
      locations.

1.41	 The major coal fired power stations were constructed in late 1960s/early 1970s in the
      Midlands, North West and Yorkshire. These locations were chosen as they were
      close to the major coal fields which existed at that time. Given the contraction of the
      domestic coal production sector, most coal which is burnt to produce electricity is now


Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 1	                                              Page 13



         imported. The two major ports with sufficient deep-water to accommodate the largest
         bulk ships are at Immingham and Hunterston (Clyde). We would therefore expect
         significant volumes of coal traffic moving by rail freight traffic on the strategic corridors
         serving these locations.

1.42	 There are currently eight major car manufacturing plants in Great Britain. Since the
      demise of Rover, all are now owned by overseas investors. In addition to making
      cars for the domestic market, all of the plants export finished vehicles to the rest of
      Europe and deep-sea markets. These locations consequently attract significant
      inward flows of components and generate outbound movements of finished cars to
      major export ports along the coast. These same ports also handle imported cars
      from overseas factories (which are then distributed inland). There are also a number
      of major auto-component factories.

Section 1.3.3 Airfreight

1.43	 The airfreight market is essentially divided into four segments.

    •	   Airfreight carried in the bellyholds of scheduled or charter passenger flights;
    •	   Airfreight carried in dedicated freighter aircraft;
    •	   Express service providers; and
    •	   Mail.

1.44	 The bellyhold market is dominated by the long-haul scheduled passenger airlines.
      This is for three main reasons;

    •	 Intra-European flights generally use smaller narrow bodied aircraft with limited
       payload capacity e.g. Airbus A320, Boeing 737 compared to the larger aircraft used
       on inter-continental flights e.g. Boeing 747 and the new Airbus A380;
    •	 The road freight industry can normally match door to door transit times over such
       distances but for considerably cheaper rates;
    •	 Long haul flights tend to be operated by scheduled carriers rather than charter
       airlines; and
    •	 Demand on most routes is generally not large enough to justify a dedicated freighter
       aircraft.

1.45	 Also, the short haul operations of the scheduled carriers are now generally based
      around the low cost business model (i.e. internet sales, ticketless travel and short
      turn-around times etc.) meaning no time to load/discharge freight. However, the
      scheduled airlines themselves are generally not involved in the management of
      airfreight logistics, and they will normally sell their bellyhold capacity to agents, known
      as airfreight forwarders. The initial collection of goods from a shipper or final delivery
      to a receiver is undertaken by road haulage and is usually subcontracted by the
      forwarder to a specialist logistics/distribution providers.


Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 1	                                         Page 14




1.46	 Dedicated freighter aircraft operate on a similar basis. The freight division of a
      scheduled carrier or a specialist airfreight airline will operate scheduled ‘freight only’
      flights, and they will sell capacity on those flights to airfreight forwarders. However,
      scheduled flights dedicated to freight are only utilised on routes that attract large
      enough volumes to justify a whole aircraft. Also dedicated freighter aircraft can be
      chartered for one-off large individual consignments.

1.47	 Express service providers, also known as Integrators, operate a different approach
      compared with the airfreight forwarders, and they dominate express service provision.
      The ‘integrators include organisations such as UPS, Fedex, DHL and TNT. DHL and
      TNT are now owned by the German and Dutch Post Offices respectively.

1.48	 The express service providers operate hub and spoke distribution networks. Their
      main operating strategy is to fly their own dedicated freighters between airport hubs
      over as many routes as is practical and economic. For example, UPS flies between
      East Midlands Airport and Köln-Bonn, their main hub for European freight distribution
      and transhipment purposes. In the latter case, these connect with other outgoing
      flights carrying freight further a-field within Europe or intercontinental hub airports.
      The express service providers mainly provide timely guaranteed delivery of goods,
      the transit of which is often measured in hours rather than the days taken by bellyhold
      airfreight e.g. collection day A, delivering day B before 09.00.

1.49	 International mail services are provided by the Royal Mail for letters and by
      Parcelforce for parcels. They operate in conjunction with post offices in overseas
      countries to fulfil bilateral agreements between countries concerning the international
      distribution of post in each other’s countries and the pooling of revenue earned
      through the sale of postage stamps. In the domestic market, Royal Mail is now
      subject to full market competition. Royal Mail will charter dedicated freighters where
      critical mass allows and but they also use scheduled passenger airlines when
      bellyhold capacity is available and critical mass is insufficient to justify freight only
      flights.

1.50	 Efficient airfreight services (bellyhold, express and mail) all require the use of 'transit
      sheds'. Air cargo is not loaded direct from delivering road vehicle to aircraft, and a
      number of important functions/processes need to be undertaken before beforehand.
      These functions/processes are undertaken at a transit shed. These include:

    •	 Cargo bound for an aircraft needs to be security 'screened' and cleared by Customs
    •	 Road vehicles delivering air cargo to an airport will contain consignments for a variety
       of destinations. Cargo therefore needs to be consolidated with cargo for the same
       flight at a transit shed;
    •	 Air cargo is generally delivered to/collected from aircraft in specialist rigid goods
       vehicles. At some point, therefore, cargo has to be transferred from the normal road


Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 1	                                                    Page 15



       goods vehicle to the specialist equipment. This can be undertaken at a transit shed;
       and
    •	 Freight forwarders holding cargo until they have sufficient volume to fill the bellyhold
       on a flight require a facility to store the goods.

1.51	 Consequently, handlers of airfreight cargo require transit shed capacity. By their very
      nature, transit sheds need to be located close to airports or even within the airport
      perimeter.

1.52	 The table below shows airfreight volumes handled at UK airports in 2008 by airport
      and market type.

Table 1.4: Airfreight at UK Airports 2008

                                               Tonnes
                                                           1
                           Bellyhold        Cargo Aircraft      Total

London
London Heathrow               1,315,070              81,984      1,397,054
South East
London Gatwick                  103,767               4,935        108,702
Kent International                    0              25,673         25,673
East England
London Stansted                    1,434           196,304         197,738
Luton                              2,352            38,166          40,518
East Midlands
East Midlands                          54          261,453         261,507
West Midlands
Birmingham                       10,644               1,548         12,192
North West
Manchester                       78,022              63,759        141,781
Others
Belfast International                322             35,792         36,114
Prestwick                             20             22,946         22,966
       2
Others                             9,875             28,033         37,908

Total                         1,521,560            760,593       2,282,153

1. Dedicated freighter and express service providers.2. Includes airports in regions quoted above
Source: Civil Aviation Authority


1.53	 The table shows that the bellyhold market is dominated by London Heathrow and to a
      lesser extent London Gatwick and Manchester. It is at these airports that most long-
      haul scheduled flights are handled in Britain (principal bellyhold carriers). Given that
      express aircargo has to move overnight, the express service providers prefer to
      operate at airports where night flying is permitted. Landing slots at Heathrow and

Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 1	                                       Page 16



        Gatwick are effectively fully occupied by passenger services and there are restrictions
        on night-time flying. Consequently, the express service providers have located at
        other airports where they can gain access to landing slots which suit their operational
        requirements e.g. London Stansted and East Midlands.

1.54	 As many long-haul destinations served by scheduled passenger airlines only operate
      from Heathrow, airfreight forwarders in other English regions, Wales and Scotland are
      effectively forced to buy bellyhold capacity on flights from Heathrow in order to satisfy
      shipper requirements. Forwarders in Manchester, Leeds, Glasgow etc. therefore
      consolidate cargo at regional collection points which is then trunked by road
      (articulated HGVs) to Heathrow’s transit sheds. Similarly, the express service
      providers tend to operate at one hub airport which serves all of England and Wales.
      Again, cargo is consolidated regionally before trunking by road (articulated HGVs) to
      the hub airport for overnight despatch. As a result, airfeight generates inland flows of
      cargo (using articulated HGVs) between transit sheds located close to airports and
      regional consolidation points.

1.55	 In tonnage terms, it should be noted that Heathrow Airport generates around the
      same volume of cargo over a year as a large RDC (circa 50,000 square metres).
      Consequently, the volume of cargo generated by other airports is comparatively low
      compared with other domestic freight sources.

Section 1.3.4 Transport Economics: Road v Rail

1.56	 It is possible to compare the cost of moving goods by road and rail freight. However,
      making direct comparisons can be complicated, given that a number of factors are
      involved and the need to undertake any comparison on a ‘like with like’ basis e.g.
      moving coal by rail would need to be compared with moving coal by road using the
      equivalent HGV equipment. Cost model analysis is particularly useful, as varying
      circumstances or base assumptions can be applied and the resultant costs
      compared.

1.57	 Most retail/consumer type goods are moved by road using semi-trailers (generally
      13.6m length) hauled by an appropriate tractor unit. Standard semi-trailers of this
      length have a cargo capacity of around 28 tonnes (assuming the vehicle is able to
      operate at the 44 tonnes gross weight) though in practice most vehicles would be fully
      loaded well below this limit when handling retail type goods. The equivalent rail
      freight operation would involve the use of a semi-trailer sized intermodal unit, such as
      a maritime container or swap body. These can be transported by rail freight, and
      then transferred to HGVs for final collection/delivery where required (when origin and
      destination are not rail-linked).

1.58	 A cost modelled analysis can compare the operating costs of the two modes,
      assuming:


Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 1	                                        Page 17




    •	 A standard HGV tractor unit and 13.6m length semi-trailer combination – British
       registered vehicle and running on UK duty paid fuel; and
    •	 Full-length intermodal train – 500m trailing length (e.g. 24 x 60ft wagons – 72TEU)
       hauled by diesel traction, paying standard Network Rail Track Access Charges and
       assuming adequate volume to fill a daily train.

1.59	 Such a modelled cost comparison would show that rail freight would be cost
      competitive with road haulage in the following circumstances:

    •	 Where neither end of the journey is rail-linked, rail freight becomes cost competitive
       with road transport at distances over 500km;
    •	 Where one end of the journey is rail-linked, rail freight becomes cost competitive with
       road transport at distances over 300km; and
    •	 Where both ends of the journey are rail-linked, rail freight generally is always cost
       competitive compared to road transport over 50km given adequate volume to fill a
       daily train.

1.60	 Given a full-length train (400-500m), rail freight has significantly lower operating costs
      on a per unit basis compared with road haulage. Therefore flows between two rail-
      linked sites will generally always be cheaper by rail given adequate volume to fill a
      daily train. What makes rail uncompetitive (in cost terms) is the need to use local
      road hauls where one or both ends of a trip are not rail-linked. Also, a significant
      proportion of rail freight’s costs are fixed, meaning that as train length increases per
      unit costs decline. Operating reduced length trains will therefore impact on rail’s
      competitiveness, thereby increasing the distance over which it can offer a cost
      competitive service compared with road haulage.

1.61	 Most facilities producing or receiving bulk and semi-bulk cargoes are rail-linked and
      can handle reasonably long trains. This explains rail freight’s large market share in
      these sectors.

1.62	 When transporting goods from a non rail-linked origin to a non rail-linked destination
      e.g. from a NDC on a road only connected site to a RDC on a road only connected
      site, a road haulage operation would be able to move the goods direct from origin to
      destination. However, an intermodal rail freight operation would involve the use of
      road hauls to and from local intermodal rail terminals. At the origin, the intermodal
      unit would be collected by road and delivered to a local rail terminal, where it would
      be loaded onto a train for the trunk haul by rail. Similarly, the intermodal unit would
      be collected from another local rail terminal and delivered by road to the final
      destination. The two local road hauls required adds costs to the overall door to door
      operation and, as a result, the break-even distance is considerable. In Britain, only
      flows from the south of England and the Midlands to Scotland are effectively
      competitive by rail where neither end is rail-linked i.e. over 500km


Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 1	                                      Page 18




1.63	 When one end of the journey is rail-linked e.g. from a deep-sea container port to a
      non rail-linked NDC or from a rail-linked NDC to a non rail-linked RDC, only one such
      local road haul would be required. Being rail-linked allows the transfer of intermodal
      units to/from rail without use of the public road network. By eliminating one road-
      haul, some of the additional costs can be removed from the overall door to door
      operation, thereby lowering the break-even distance. A road haulage operation
      would still be able to move the goods direct from origin to destination. This explains
      why rail freight has a large market share for the inland clearance of maritime
      containers from the south east deep-sea container ports to the 'M62 corridor' i.e. over
      300km

1.64	 On the core road network, particularly those passing around or linking the major
      conurbations, we would expect to find short to medium length domestic flows less
      than 300km being dominant e.g. intra-regional flows (RDC to store) and from
      Midlands NDCs to RDCs/stores in the English regions. Consequently, many flows
      will be more cost competitive (and logistically more practical) by road transport.
      Future options will therefore have to be road based. However, a land-use policy
      which directed all major freight generators, such as NDCs, RDCs, to rail-linked sites
      would encourage ‘modal shift’ as it would create a “network effect” between rail-linked
      sites. Flows between ports and RDCs and from NDCs to RDCs would be more cost
      competitive by rail freight. This could potentially have a significant impact on HGV
      volumes along the core road network.




Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 2                                              Page 19



SECTION 2. THE STRATEGIC NATIONAL CORRIDORS

Section 2.1       Defining the Corridors

2.1     The 14 Strategic National Corridor routes studied are summarised in the table below.

Table 2.1: Strategic National Corridors Routes Studied

             Corridor                         Road Component               Railway Component

Corridor 1: London to Kent             M20 from M25 to A20            West London Line (Willesden
Ports (Dover/Channel Tunnel)           A20 from Folkestone to Dover   Junction-Clapham Junction)
                                                                      Clapham Junction-Swanley-
                                                                      Maidstone East/Ashford-
                                                                      Continental Junction
Corridor 2: London to Gatwick          M23 from M25                   Brighton Mainline from Clapham
                                       M23 Gatwick Spur               Junction to Gatwick
                                       A23 to Gatwick
Corridor 3: London to                  M3 from M25 to A33 to Jct 9    South West Mainline from
Southampton                            (shared with Corridor 4)       Southampton via Staines and
                                                                      Byfleet Junction
Corridor 4: South Coast Ports to       M275                           Southampton to West Coast
the Midlands                           M27                            Mainline at Nuneaton (WCML)
                                       M271                           via Basingstoke, Reading,
                                       M3 to Jct 9 (shared with       Didcot, Oxford, Leamington and
                                       Corridor 3)                    Coventry
                                       A34 to M40                     Leamington to WCML at
                                       M40 to M42 (shared with        Stafford via Birmingham and
                                       Corridor 8)                    Sutton Park Line

Corridor 5: London Orbital             M25 and Dartford Crossing      North London Line (NLL)
                                       M1, M11, M23, M3, M4, M40      Tottenham and Hampstead Line
                                       inside M25 and Heathrow Spur   (THL)
Corridor 6: London to South            M4 from M25 to Second Severn   Great Western Mainline
West and South Wales                   Crossing                       (GWML) from Acton to Severn
                                       M48 and Severn Bridge          Tunnel via Reading and
                                       M5 from M4 to Jct 31           Swindon
                                       M5 spur road to Avonmouth      Berks and Hants line from
                                       Docks                          Reading to Westbury
Corridor 7: Bristol to the             M5 from M6 to M4               Birmingham (Washwood Heath)
Midlands                               M42 from M5 to M6              to Bristol line
                                       M42 from M6 to A42             Washwood Heath-Derby­
                                       A42 from M42 to M1             Nottingham




Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 2	                                                Page 20




             Corridor                          Road Component                 Railway Component

Corridor 8: London to the West         M1 from M25 to M6                 WCML from Willesden to
Midlands, North Wales, North           M6 to Scottish Border             Carlisle (including Northampton
West and Scotland                      M56                               Loop)
                                       M61                               Nuneaton to Landor Street
                                       M40 from M25 to M42 (shared       terminal
                                       with Corridor 4)                  Rugby-Coventry-Stechford­
                                                                         Wolverhampton-Stafford
Corridor 9: Trans-Pennine              M62                               Trans-Pennine from Liverpool to
                                       M60                               Leeds via Chat Moss,
                                       M18                               Manchester and Standedge
                                       M180                              Mirfield to Immingham
                                       A180 from M180 to Grimsby         Manchester to Sheffield via
                                                                         Hope Valley
Corridor 10: London to the East        M1 from M25 to A1(M) (shared      Midland Mainline (MML) from
Midlands, Yorkshire, North East        with Corridor 8 from M25 to M6)   London via Sheffield to
and Scotland                           A1/A1(M)                          Wakefield
                                       A168 and A19 to Teesport and      East Coast Mainline (ECML) to
                                       Hartlepool                        Leeds and Newcastle
                                                                         Leeds-Settle-Carlisle

Corridor 11: Haven Ports to the        A14 from Felixstowe to M1/M6      Felixstowe-Ipswich­
Midlands                               A120                              Peterborough-Nuneaton
Corridor 12: London to Haven           A12 from Felixstowe to M25        Great Eastern Mainline (GEML)
Ports                                                                    from Ipswich to NLL
Corridor 13: Stansted Corridor         M11 from M25 to A14               West Anglia Mainline from
                                                                         London to Stansted
Corridor 14: London to Thames          A13 from M25 to Tilbury           North Kent Line
Gateway Ports                          A2 from M25 to M2 Jct 5           London-Tilbury
                                       A249 from M2 to Sheerness
                                       A289 from M2 to Thamesport


2.2	    Maps 3.1 and 3.3 in Appendix 3 illustrates the roads and railway lines which comprise
        these routes. The first task of the analysis, therefore, was to identify the ‘links’ on the
        14 corridors to be analysed.

Section 2.2       Defining the Links

2.3	    In terms of the road network, a ‘link’ has been defined as follows:

    •	 On motorways – section of road between two junctions (including limited access
       junctions);
    •	 On dual carriageways with grade separated junctions – section of road between
       junctions (including limited access junctions);



Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 2	                                       Page 21



    •	 On other dual carriageways (i.e. with at-grade junctions) – section of road between
       junctions with ‘A’ roads; and
    •	 On single carriageway roads - section of road between junctions with ‘A’ roads.

2.4	    For the railway networks in each route, a ‘link’ has been defined as a section of track
        between major railway junctions i.e. where different railway lines join or diverge.
        Maps 3.4 to 3.6 in Appendix 3 illustrates each of the railway lines analysed and the
        link locations on those lines.




Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 3	                                         Page 22



SECTION 3. SUMMARY OF METHODOLGY ADOPTED

3.1	    This section of the report provides a brief summary of the methodology adopted and
        the data outputs and analysis subsequently generated. Appendix 3 to the main report
        provides a more detailed 'technical' description of the methodology adopted.

Section 3.1       Overview

3.2	    In summary, the following analysis has been completed:

    •	 Established current daily HGV numbers for each defined link on the 14 Strategic
       National Corridor routes studied;
    •	 Undertaken a detailed analysis of daily HGV numbers for each defined link by
       direction, vehicle type (rigid or articulated), length of haul, commodities being
       conveyed and domestic/international split. International traffic has been further
       differentiated by type (roll-on roll-off, maritime container) and port of entry/departure;
    •	 Established freight’s contribution to total vehicle demand for each defined link i.e. the
       number of HGVs compared with the number of cars, light vans and coaches;
    •	 Established total vehicle demand for each defined link during the morning and
       evening peaks. This has been followed by an assessment of network stress (vehicle
       demand/design capacity);
    •	 Assessed the nature of freight demand on those links which display network stress at
       peak hours; and
    •	 Undertaken a detailed analysis of rail freight demand for each identified link, followed
       by an assessment of train types and length of haul.

3.3	    All the generated data and analysis has been collated in two output tables (one for
        road and one for rail freight).

Section 3.2       Analytical Tools and Data Sources

3.4	    The principal analytical tool utilised for this study has been the MDS Transmodal GB
        Freight Model. This model was developed by MDS Transmodal to analyse current
        and forecast future freight flows within, to and from Great Britain by mode, route,
        origin/destination and commodity. The current version is GB Freight Model Version 5
        (GBFMv5).

3.5	    GBFM v5 consists of several modules; including:

    •	 A multi-dimensional base matrix, built up from several sources, which describes the
       origin, destination and commodity of goods moving within Great Britain and to/from
       Great Britain. Sources include the Continuing Survey Road Goods Transport
       (CSRGT – combined data from years 1999 to 2005, scaled to 2004 levels), Network
       Rail billing data, Revenue and Customs trade data and Maritime Statistics;


Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 3	                                                  Page 23



        •	 A calibrated cost model which replicates rates in the market and ‘explains’ mode
           choice by route and the routeing of cargo (by ferry/shipping route/Channel Tunnel)
           between Great Britain and mainland Europe;
        •	 A vehicle choice and load factor model used to ‘convert’ road tonnes into HGV
           numbers; and
        •	 A rail assignment model that is based upon current operating behaviour (route
           choice, tonnes/trains by commodity).

3.6	       The model has been audited by the Integrated Transport Economic Appraisal (ITEA)
           division of the DfT and it has been adopted by the Department as part of the National
           Transport Model. A GBFMv5 Update Report and User Guide Report, submitted to
           DfT in March 2008, provide more information on the latest version of GBFM4.

3.7	       In addition to the GBFMv5, traffic count and FORGE data has been supplied by the
           DfT.

    The DfT undertakes 'traffic counts' at key locations on the strategic highway network, generally links
    between junctions and on slip-roads at grade separated junctions. Counts are undertaken using a
    combination of Automatic Traffic Counters (ATCs - located on or beneath the surface of the road)
    and manual counts. ATCs 'count' the numbers of vehicles passing on a daily basis and they are able
    to differentiate traffic by vehicle type (effectively a daily 'census' of traffic).

    The daily count data recorded by the ATCs is collated and analysed in various forms. The most
    relevant data set for this study is the Annual Average Daily Flow (AADF) data which uses a
    combination of automatic and manual counts. AADF represents total daily traffic flow (24 hours) at a
    particular count point on the road network, expressed as a mean daily flow across all 365 days of the
    year. The AADF is differentiated by the following vehicle types:

    •           Pedal cycles;
    •           Two wheeled motor vehicles;
    •           Cars and taxis;
    •           Buses and coaches;
    •           Light goods vehicles (vans);
    •           Rigid HGVs; and
    •           Articulated HGVs.




4
    Documents can be download at www.dft.gov.uk/pgr/economics/rdg/gbfreightmodel.

Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 3	                                                  Page 24




    FORGE is a model used as part of the National Transport Model (NTM) operated by the DfT.
    FORGE stands for Fitting On of Regional Growth and Elasticities. It is a further development of the
    "Fitting On" process which was originally developed for use in the 1997 National Road Traffic
    Forecasts (GB) and subsequently extended for modelling of the Ten Year Plan in July 2000.

    FORGE acts as the highway supply module of NTM. The NTM Demand models provide figures
    giving the all-day traffic growth between base and future years for different vehicle and trip types.
    These demand forecasts are applied to a highly disaggregate database of actual traffic data
    assembled from the Department's manual and automatic traffic counts. FORGE also models the
    impacts of all road investment and traffic management policies occurring on the network and outputs
    detailed traffic, speed, congestion, cost and emission results.

    The FORGE data supplied for this project is as follows:

        •    Time period data allowing an estimation of traffic flow during the morning and evening peak,
             the inter-peak and at weekends; and
        •    The design capacity of each defined highway link as used in the NTM.

    Further work is being undertaken to update these capacities for certain road types, particularly trunk
    roads in urban areas.


Section 3.3         Road Traffic

3.8	        In summary, the analysis of traffic demand in 2007 on the strategic highway network
            has been undertaken as follows:

            1. Actual traffic volumes on each defined link, as reported by the DfT’s AADF count
            records, were sourced for 2007.

            Output: AADF traffic count figures for all vehicle types on each defined link

            2. GBFM v5 was run in ‘forecast mode’5 to establish total road freight tonnages
            moving in Great Britain by traffic type (domestic, maritime container, roll-on roll-off
            etc.), origin/destination and commodity.

            Output: Series of origin/destination matrices for each variable (there are 2,600 Great
            Britain origin and destination zones in GBFMv5), with each origin-destination flow
            expressed as tonnes lifted.

            3. 'Conversion' of tonnes lifted to daily HGV trips. The tonnes per HGV 'conversion
            factor' varies by commodity and distance travelled.



5
    GBFMv5's base year is 2004. A forecast for 2007 traffic was therefore produced.

Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 3                                           Page 25



        Output: Series of origin/destination matrices for each variable (same zones), with
        each origin-destination flow expressed as daily HGV trips.

        4. The daily HGV trips in each origin/destination matrix were then ‘run’ through a road
        assignment programme to establish daily HGV numbers for each defined link (see
        Section 2) by traffic type, origin/destination and commodity. The road assignment
        programme effectively routes each origin-destination HGV trip across the national
        road network based on the lowest generalised cost route between each origin and
        destination zone.

        Output: Table describing daily HGV trips for each defined highway link by traffic type,
        origin/destination, commodity and direction (essentially GBFMv5's estimate of daily
        HGV traffic by link and direction).

        Given the scope of this project, in order to aid the analysis, it was decided to group
        the commodities into six broad groupings. Each grouping is intended to contain
        similar type commodities. These are:

        •    Commodity group 1 – Temperature controlled foods;
        •    Commodity group 2 – Ambient foods;
        •    Commodity group 3 – Construction and metals;
        •    Commodity group 4 – Crude materials and manufactured goods;
        •    Commodity group 5 – Petro-chemicals; and
        •    Commodity group 6 – Other bulks.

        Commodity groups 1, 2 and 4 broadly reflect the type of goods which at some point in
        the supply chain will pass through NDCs and/or RDCs. A list at the end of Appendix
        3 describes the different commodities which comprise the six groups.

        5. In order to aid analysis and presentation and quality of outputs (particularly via
        maps), the individual link data for each corridor has been combined into ‘sequences’
        between key locations. Essentially, the sequences represent a series of continuous
        links on the network (i.e. two or more links in a row) where there is little change in the
        pattern of flow of goods vehicles. Appendix 3 describes the criteria adopted to
        established the sequences and the distance-weighted average formula used to
        calculate the sequence values (including a worked example).

        This averaging has been done prior to the scaling to AADF figures such that
        instances of GBFM assigning too little traffic to a particular link do not skew the
        average. Individual links with under 100 assigned HGVs have been ignored in the
        sequence averaging. Map 3.2 in Appendix 3 illustrates each of the corridors and the
        sequences.




Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 3                                          Page 26



        6. Using the AADF figures for HGVs for each defined link as ‘control totals’,
        GBFMv5's estimation of daily HGV trips were scaled accordingly so that they
        matched the AADF count figures e.g. if the AADF reported 5,500 daily HGVs and the
        GBFMv5 output was 5,000 daily HGVs, the individual GBFM outputs by commodity,
        traffic type etc were multiplied by 1.1. Most scalings were near to x 1.0 (80% within
        the 0.5 to 2.0 range).

        7. The AADF data for each defined link was ‘converted’ into Passenger Car Units
        (PCUs) as follows:

             •   Car and LGVs – AADF x 1
             •   Buses and coaches – AADF x 2.5
             •   Rigid HGVs – AADF x 1.9; and
             •   Articulated HGVs – AADF x 2.9.

        8. Time period data (sourced from FORGE – see box above) has allowed an
        estimation of traffic flow (in PCUs per hour) during the morning and evening peak, the
        inter-peak and at weekends. Using the Design Capacity data for each link (also
        sourced from FORGE), these figures have subsequently allowed the calculation of
        flow:capacity ratios for each of the defined links (i.e. vehicle flow in PCUs divided by
        link capacity in PCUs).

        This data has enabled those links which are displaying ‘network stress’ to be
        identified. Links which display a ratio of less than 0.75 (i.e. vehicle flow is less than
        75% of link capacity) are generally considered to be roads which do not suffer from
        network stress on a regular basis. However, links with a flow:capacity ratio equal to
        or greater than 0.75 (i.e. vehicle flow is greater than 75% of link capacity) are
        considered to be roads which experience stress (delays) on a regular basis, while
        links with a ratio equal to or greater than 1.00 (i.e. vehicle flow is greater than link
        capacity) are considered ‘high stress’ roads (significant delays on a regular basis).
        This is a widely recognised method of calculating 'network stress'.

        9. 'Turning movement’ data has also been provided at connections between the
        strategic corridors and at other key interchanges e.g. into urban areas or junctions
        close to major distribution facilities. For road freight flows, ‘turning movements’ data
        has been defined as quantifying the proportion of daily HGV traffic ‘turning’ from one
        corridor onto another corridor by direction. This analysis is derived from the road
        assignment programme. Map 3.2 in Appendix 3 illustrates each of the corridors and
        the location of the turning movements. The full turning movement data is shown in
        Appendix 5

3.9     The following flow charts briefly describe the approach described above.




Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 3                                  Page 27



Summary of Methodology Adopted

    2. GBFMv5: Origin/Destination matrices, tonnes lifted by traffic type (domestic, LoLo,
                                        ,
                                  RoRo) commodity etc.




              Convert’tonnes lifted to daily HGV trips and run through road assignment programme
   3. GBFMv5: ‘




   4. GBFMv5: Daily HGV trips run through road assignment programme and assigned to network




                 ndividual linkdata combined into sequences.
              5. I




                                                                          1. AADF Traffic counts by vehicle type, link
                6. Scale GBFM outputs to AADF
                                                                                         and direction


                                                                                                    Map results
 Output: Daily HGV trips by traffic type, commodity etc. scaled to AADF (output
                                                                                                 nterpret observed
                                                                                                 I
                                       table)
                                                                                                      patterns


Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 3                                Page 28





      Output: Daily HGV trips by traffic type, commodity etc. scaled to AADF (output
                                            table)




              7. Convert vehicle flows to Passenger Car Units (PCUs)                      1. AADF Traffic counts by vehicle type, linkand
                                                                                                             direction



     Output: Total traffic flow by link and direction in
                    PCUs (output table)




    Output: AM and PM peak traffic flow by linkand
                                                                       8. Peakhours flow data and linkcapacities by
            direction in PCUs (output table)
                                                                                 direction (from FORGE )




                          dentify stressed links
                  Output: I



         Map results and interpret observed patterns




Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 3	                                                   Page 29



3.10	 As with any model, the GBFMv5 has a number of limitations. With respect to this
      study, the main limitations are summarised below, with a more detailed explanation
      provided in Appendix 3:

        •	 The tonnes to HGVs 'conversion' can lead to directional imbalances, with too
           many HGVs reported in the direction of the cargo and too few HGVs reported in
           the other direction;
        •	 Routing is based on the lowest generalised cost route between each origin and
           destination zone, and the model assigns the HGVs to routes on an 'all-or-nothing'
           basis. It does not take account of other factors such as congestion;
        •	 Data at the extremities of corridors can become unreliable;
        •	 AADF data has a number of limitations, including the fact that it can be difficult to
           differentiate between large vans/buses etc and small HGVs; and
        •	 Attempting to differentiate HGV traffic at too detailed a level (i.e. using too many
           variables) will ultimately produce very small numbers.

Output Table

3.11	 The main ‘deliverable’ of the above described analysis is an Output Table describing,
      for each identified link on the 14 Strategic National Corridors, the following
      information.

Main Heading                               Description of Data
Corridor Definition                        Indicates the corridor, sequence number and direction
AADF data: Observed              Traffic   Daily vehicle trips, divided by the following vehicle types:
Counts                                              Rigid HGVs
                                                    Articulated HGVs
                                                    Total HGVs (i.e. Artic + Rigid)
                                                    Cars and taxis
                                                    Light vans (LGV)
                                                    Two wheeled motor vehicles
                                                    Buses and coaches
                                           Road number, direction of travel, Census Point ID and start/end
                                           definition of link.
                                           AADF for the different vehicle types converted into PCUs
AADF to GBFM v5 scaling factors            The scaling factor used to adjust the GBFM v5 output per link to
                                           the AADF HGV data (scaling at sequence level)
International traffic                      Daily HGV trips, divided into the following:
                                                    Roll-on roll-off imports and exports
                                                    Maritime container imports and export
Domestic traffic                           Daily HGV trips, divided into the following:
                                                    Short haul trips (<100km)
                                                    Medium haul trips (100-299km)
                                                    Long haul trips (=>300km)
Commodities                                Daily HGV trips, divided into the following commodity groups:
                                                    Temperature controlled foodstuffs


Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 3	                                                     Page 30



                                                  Other food stuffs
                                                  Construction and metals
                                                  Crude materials and manufactured items
                                                  Petroleum products
                                                  Other bulks
Distance bands                             Daily HGV trips divided into 11 distance bands
Average distance                           Average distance per HGV trip, Mean and Median
RoRo imports and exports by port           Daily HGV trips, divided port of entry or departure (10 port
group                                      groupings)
Maritime Container imports and             Daily HGV trips, divided port of entry or departure (8 main ports)
exports
Traffic by time of day (FORGE              Number of lanes and capacity per lane (PCUs per hour)
data)                                      Percentage of heavy and light vehicle traffic in the following
                                           time periods:
                                                     AM peak
                                                     PM peak
                                                     Inter-peak
                                                     Weekend
Traffic flow in PCUs per hour              Traffic flow per hour (in PCUs) in the following time periods:
                                                     AM peak
                                                     PM peak
                                                     Inter-peak
                                                     Weekend
Capacity, Flow and Stress                  Link capacity (PCUs per hour)
                                           Ratio of vehicle flow to link capacity, divided into three groups:
                                                     Low stress (<0.75)
                                                     Stressed (0.75-0.99)
                                                     High stress (=>1.00)


3.12	 Effectively two output tables have been produced. The first table presents the above
      described demand analysis using the 'raw' link-by-link data while the second table
      describes the analysis based on the sequenced data.

Section 3.4       Rail Freight Data

3.13	 Sourced from Network Rail billing data (BIFS), rail freight traffic in 2007 for each
      defined link on the Strategic National Corridor routes studied has been established
      and analysed.

3.14	 Similar to the road traffic analysis, this data has been ‘run’ through a rail assignment
      programme to establish daily train numbers for each link6. The rail assignment model
      has been enhanced specifically for this project to permit a direction of travel analysis
      (previously the programme estimated trains by route sum of both directions).


6
  Similar to the road assignment programme, the rail assignment programme effectively routes rail
freight flows across the national railway network.

Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 3	                                                   Page 31



3.15	 Network Rail’s BIFS raw data details every movement of every wagon along every
      link in the whole network throughout the whole year. Unlike the road data (which is
      modelled through GBFM, which itself has inputs from various sources including the
      CSRGT sample survey), the Network Rail data is a complete census and therefore
      the data should be an accurate and precise representation of traffic in 2007.

3.16	 Similar to the road traffic analysis, ‘turning movements’ data has been provided at
      connections between the strategic corridors and at other key interchanges. Maps 3.3
      to 3.6 in Appendix 3 illustrates each of the corridors, links assessed and the location
      of the turning movements. The results of the turning movement analysis is shown in
      Appendix 8.

Output Table

3.17	 The main ‘deliverable’ of the above described exercise is an Output Table describing,
      for each defined link on the 14 Strategic National Corridors, the following information.

Main Heading                               Description of Data

Corridor                                   Corridor number and link order
Direction                                  Direction of travel i.e. east, west, north or south
Daily trains                               Mean number of freight trains per day
Intermodal Daily Trains                    Mean number of intermodal freight trains per day (intermodal
                                           being defined as any train conveying some form of intermodal
                                           unit on a platform wagon e.g. maritime container, but not ‘bulk’
                                           commodities which are sometimes conveyed in containers e.g.
                                           gypsum, household waste)
International Intermodal                   Mean number of international intermodal freight trains per day,
                                           divided into import and export flows (international intermodal
                                           being defined as maritime containers moving to/from a port and
                                           via the intermodal trains via the Channel Tunnel)
Domestic Intermodal                        Mean number of domestic intermodal freight trains per day,
                                           divided into import and export flows (being defined as having a
                                           domestic origin and destination)
Bulk daily trains                          Mean number of bulk freight trains per day, (bulk being defined
                                           as all other traffics which are not intermodal)
Daily tonnes                               Freight demand per link expressed as tonnes lifted.
Commodity                                  Freight demand per link divided into the following commodity
                                           groups:
                                                    Containers
                                                    Coal
                                                    Metal
                                                    Ores
                                                    Aggregates
                                                    Auto
                                                    Petro/chemicals
                                                    Waste


Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 3                                                 Page 32



                                                   Other non-bulk (further disaggregated into 16 sub­
                                                   categories)
                                                   Network Rail engineering
Distance bands                            Mean number of daily freight trains and tonnes lifted, divided
                                          into 6 distance bands
Average distance                          Average distance per train and per tonne, Mean and Medium
International Intermodal                  Mean number of international intermodal trains, divided by:
                                          Import and export flow
                                          Port of entry/departure




Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 4	                                       Page 33



SECTION 4. SUMMARY OF RESULTS AND FINDINGS – ROADS

4.1	    The final Output Table has been supplied to the DfT (in electronic form) containing
        the analysis data described in Section 3.3 above for each defined road link across the
        14 Strategic National Corridors. The main aim of this section of the report is
        threefold, namely:

    •	 To summarise the key results with respect to road freight demand across each
       Strategic National Corridor;
    •	 To analyse and interpret the identified results and data trends from a commercial and
       logistics market perspective; and
    •	 To assess the contribution freight activity makes to total vehicle flow on those
       sections of the corridor which display network stress and the nature of freight activity
       on those links.

4.2	    These aims have been addressed in two stages. Firstly, a summary overview on a
        national basis of the main data contained in the Output Table, provided through a
        mapped analysis and data tables. Secondly, a more detailed analysis of the Output
        Tables data at individual corridor level. This analysis has focused on the level of
        traffic flow (freight and all vehicles), commodities being moved together with
        identifying those links which display 'network stress' during at least one time period
        and describing the nature of freight activity on those links.

Section 4.1       National Summary and Overview

4.3	    Appendix 4 to this main report contains a series of maps that summarise the main
        data contained in the Strategic Road Network Output Table at a national level; but it
        should be noted that the interpretation provided below is also drawn from the data
        contained in the Output Table. The outputs displayed in the maps is the ‘sequenced’
        data rather than the ‘raw’ link-by-link data. It is important to note that the data
        displayed in the maps is a 'snap-shot' of freight vehicle activity during 2007. Over
        time, the identified patterns may change as a result of, for example, land use and
        economic developments.

4.4	    Map 4.1 describes the estimated HGV contribution to total traffic moving along the
        strategic national roads, described as a percentage of total traffic (expressed as
        passenger car units – PCUs – where 1 articulated HGV is equivalent to 2.9 standard
        cars and 1 rigid HGV is equivalent to 1.9 standard cars). The interesting points to
        note are as follows:

    •	 There is a relatively low average daily vehicle flow but high percentage of HGVs
       (40% or greater) on the northern section of Corridor 8 (M6 north of Preston), the
       eastern section of Corridor 9 (M180 and A180 in north Lincolnshire), the eastern and
       western extremities of Corridor 11 (A14 near Felixstowe and M1/M6 interchange


Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 4	                                         Page 34



         respectively) and on Corridor 10 in the South Yorkshire/Nottinghamshire border area.
         Essentially, these parts of the strategic national corridors are serving areas of
         England with low population densities (hence low demand for road capacity from
         non-freight vehicles) but they also link/connect to areas which are important freight
         generators (Scotland in the case of the M6, Humber ports for the M180/A180 and
         Felixstowe for the A14). Consequently, total vehicle flow is fairly low but a relatively
         high proportion of those flows are goods vehicles;

    •	 There is a low average daily vehicle flow but significant percentage of HGVs (30% or
       greater) across the majority of Corridor 1 (M20), Corridor 10 (A1 from A14 to South
       Yorkshire and north of M1/A1 interchange) and Corridor 11 (A14). Again, these
       routes link/connect to areas which are important freight generators (Channel ports for
       Corridor 10) but where demand for road capacity from non-freight vehicles is
       relatively low;

    •	 There is a high average daily vehicle flow and significant percentage of HGVs (30% ­
       39%) on the eastern section of Corridor 5 (M25), Corridor 8 (M1 and M6 from Rugby
       to Preston), Corridor 9 (Trans-Pennine from Manchester to Leeds) and Corridor 13
       (Stansted). These parts of the strategic national corridors are serving areas of
       England with high population densities and they also link/connect to areas which are
       important freight generators. Areas of high population density will result in higher
       demand for road capacity from non-freight vehicles. However, these are also
       ‘consumption’ areas which naturally attract freight activity in addition to the important
       freight generators which are located in these areas. This explains the significant
       percentage of freight traffic; and

    •	 There is a high average daily vehicle flow but with a low percentage of HGVs (less
       than 20%) on Corridor 3 (M3), western section of Corridor 5 (M25), Corridor 6 (M4
       and M5), Corridor 7 and Corridor 9 (M60 around Manchester and M62 near Leeds
       and Bradford). This does not necessarily mean that freight demand on these
       corridors is low, but as a proportion of total traffic if forms a lower percentage than
       other corridors.

4.5	    Map 4.2 illustrates the road links with a high proportion of short distance HGV trips
        (where 40% or more of HGV trips are less than 50km.) Clearly, freight flows around
        the major urban conurbations tend to be dominated by very short distance
        movements. These are generally the final ‘legs’ in the supply chain, for example
        RDC to retail outlet flows or movements of aggregates from rail-linked terminals to
        construction sites.

4.6	    Map 4.3 describes the road links with a high proportion of long distance HGV trips
        where 40% or more of HGV trips are greater than 300km (long distance traffic which,
        given the economics, is more likely to be attracted to ‘modal shift’ i.e. rail freight).



Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 4	                                        Page 35



         The corridors/sections of corridors where more than 40% of HGV traffic is moving
         more than 300km are:

    •	 Corridor 1 – coastbound (RoRo export traffic);
    •	 Corridor 8 – Northampton to Birmingham, north of Birmingham and north of
       Warrington (trunk flows from NDCs in the Midlands and Anglo-Scottish traffic); and
    •	 Corridor 10 – A1 from A1/A14 interchange to the North East.

4.7	     Corridors showing the least percentage of long distance traffic include Corridor 5
         (M25), Corridor 6 (M4), Corridor 9 (Trans-Pennine M62) and Corridor 10 from Rugby
         to Leeds (M1).

4.8	     The Output Table also includes mean length of haul. Generally, the sections of most
         corridors between the major conurbations display fairly long distance HGV trips
         (200km and above), while sections running through major urban conurbations are
         characterised by much shorter distance traffic. Again, the following corridors/sections
         of corridors are predominantly accommodating long distance traffic:

    •	 Corridor 1 (M20);
    •	 Corridor 8 – M1 and M6; and
    •	 Corridor 10 – A1 from A1/A14 interchange to the North East.

4.9	     Map 4.4 illustrates the proportion of HGVs on the strategic national roads which are
         domestic traffic (i.e. not RoRo, LoLo or other international) as a percentage of total
         HGV traffic. At least 50% of HGV traffic on most links is domestic, the exceptions
         being:

    •	   Corridor 1 (M20);
    •	   Corridor 11 (Haven ports to Midlands);
    •	   Corridor 12 (Haven ports to M25);
    •	   Corridor 10 (near Teesside);
    •	   Corridor 13 (Stansted); and
    •	   Corridor 14 (M2/A2 and A13).

4.10	 These corridors/sections of corridors can therefore be considered to have a ‘gateway’
      role in addition to handling domestic freight flows.

4.11	 This is confirmed when looking at Map 4.5 which describes the proportion of HGVs
      on the strategic national roads which are international roll-on roll-off (RoRo) or lift-on
      lift-off (LoLo)traffic as a percentage of total HGV traffic.

4.12	 From the data within the Outputs Table, the key corridors/sections of corridors which
      handle RoRotraffic are as follows:



Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 4	                                      Page 36



    •	 Corridor 1 (M20) – over 50% RoRo traffic (to be expected as it serves Dover and
       Channel Tunnel);
    •	 Corridor 3 (M3) – at least 10% (serves Portsmouth);
    •	 Corridor 5 (M25 eastern sections) – 25-50% RoRo traffic (serves Dover and Channel
       Tunnel);
    •	 Corridor 8 (M1 and M6 to North West) – at least 10% RoRo traffic and higher on M1
       northbound (25-50%);
    •	 Corridor 9 (near Humber ports) – at least 10% RoRo traffic and higher on M180/A180
       (25-50%);
    •	 Corridor 10 (A1 from A14/A1 to Yorkshire) – at least 10%; and
    •	 Corridor 12 (Stansted) – at least 10%.

4.13	 A significant proportion of RoRo import traffic is initially destined for RDCs located
      around the M25, in the Midlands, around the M6/M60 in the North West and around
      Leeds/Wakefield. As described in Section 1.3.1, imports from mainland Europe are
      generally destined for RDCs as they have shorter lead times and are time-sensitive in
      nature (e.g. fresh produce). The map clearly shows import RoRo traffic to/from these
      areas and the corridors utilised.

4.14	 Apart from Corridors 11 and 12 (where LoLo traffic accounts for at least 10% of all
      HGV traffic and between 25-50% of HGV traffic around Ipswich/Felixstowe) and part
      of Corridor 10 near Liverpool, LoLo traffic generally accounts for less than 10% of all
      HGV traffic. This is to be expected as they serve major deep-sea container ports
      (Felixstowe and Liverpool). In any case, beyond the South East rail freight has a
      significant market share for the inland despatch of maritime containers, particularly to
      the M62 corridor (Corridor 9) and the North East.

4.15	 Map 4.6 provides a regional analysis of HGVs on the strategic national roads by
      commodity type, as a percentage of HGV trips of a particular commodity type being
      carried on the strategic national roads in each region. It should be highlighted again
      that these commodity groupings were chosen to bring together the wide range of
      commodities into a manageable number of categories. They give an indication of
      what is happening across the network, but a more detailed analysis would require
      these groupings to be re-visited and, depending on the objectives of the analysis,
      matched by certain factors e.g. distribution pattern.

4.16	 Table 4.1 further illustrates the relative proportions of the six commodity types being
      transported along each of the 14 Strategic National Corridors. Generally, between
      10-15% of HGV trips on most corridors/sections of corridors across the network are
      conveying temperature controlled food, though on Corridor 8 – the M1 and M6 to the
      North West – the figure is slightly lower at around 5-10% of HGV trips. The difference
      is statistically marginal (i.e. just under 10% on Corridor 8, just over 10% on the other
      corridors) and does not suggest that Corridor 8 is undertaking any other significant



Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 4	                                           Page 37



        role. It probably reflects a slightly higher proportion of non-food consumer cargo being
        delivered to or collected from NDCs in the Midlands.

Table 4.1: Proportions of the six commodity types being transported along each of the
14 Strategic National Corridors

    Corridor            Temp.         Other food Construction    Crude       Petroleum   Other
                      controlled                   & metals     materials    products    bulks
                         food

                1               8%             14%       23%           40%         1%       14%
                2               8%              9%       33%           46%         2%        3%
                3              12%             14%       22%           41%         3%        6%
                4              11%             16%       23%           40%         4%        6%
                5               9%             12%       25%           41%         5%        8%
                6              12%             15%       31%           32%         5%        6%
                7              10%             16%       26%           37%         3%        7%
                8               9%             18%       23%           38%         3%       10%
                9               8%             15%       29%           31%         5%       12%
               10               9%             16%       29%           33%         3%       10%
               11               8%             20%       24%           37%         2%        9%
               12               6%             18%       22%           43%         2%        9%
               13              11%             14%       27%           35%         3%       10%
               14               8%             10%       25%           37%        13%        8%



4.17	 Generally, around 10-20% of HGV trips on most corridors/sections of corridors are
      conveying non-temperature controlled food. However, Corridors 8 (M6 north of
      Birmingham), Corridor 10 (A1 from A14/A1 to Yorkshire) and 11 (Haven ports to
      Midlands) show a higher percentage of HGV trips being related to ambient food
      products (20-30%). Again the difference is statistically marginal and does not point to
      any significantly different roles.

4.18	 Generally, around 35-50% of all HGV trips on corridors passing through the Midlands
      and South East are conveying crude materials or manufactured goods. Corridors in
      the north of England show a slightly lower percentage of HGV trips conveying crude
      materials or manufactured goods (20-30%). This probably reflects the higher
      concentration of 'heavy industry' in the north of England together with a probable
      slightly lower 'consumer' spend, therefore producing lower proportion of consumer
      type cargo.

4.19	 Food products (temperature controlled and ambient) and crude materials or
      manufactured goods are generally the type of cargoes which pass through a
      distribution centre at some stage in the supply chain. Collectively, these commodities
      account for over 50% of all HGV trips across all corridors. Essentially, everyone


Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 4	                                        Page 38



        consumes foods and buys clothes etc. at broadly the rate across the country, and this
        is reflected in the pattern of distribution of these cargoes.

4.20	 Apart from those sections of corridors in close proximity to the major oil refineries
      (Stanlow on the Mersey, Humber refineries, Fawley near Southampton and Coryton
      on the Thames) or importation facilities (Thames), less than 5% of all HGV traffic is
      conveying petroleum products.

4.21	 It is interesting to note that HGV trips carrying metals or construction materials are
      very much focused on sections of corridors close to or passing through the major
      urban conurbations. It is likely that these ‘bulky’ commodities are initially transported
      by rail freight to storage and distribution facilities close to the urban conurbations
      (lower cost over long distances). The final leg of the supply chain is then undertaken
      by road transport.

Section 4.2       Analysis of Vehicle Flow and Network Stress by Corridor

4.22	 The main aim of this sub-section is fivefold, namely:

    •	 To summarise the broad nature of freight activity along each corridor during 2007,
       with particular reference to the main freight attractors/generators and commodities
       being conveyed;
    •	 To provide a broad description of vehicle flow along each corridor and the proportion
       of that flow which is comprised of freight activity;
    •	 To identify the broad locations on the strategic road network which experienced
       'network stress' during at least one time period. This includes identifying the direction
       of travel, accounting for the fact that on some roads, particularly close to London,
       there can be significant differences between traffic flow in opposing directions;
    •	 To assess the contribution freight activity makes to total vehicle flow at the identified
       'stressed' locations, in particular quantifying the proportion of vehicle flow which
       consists of freight vehicles; and
    •	 To analyse the nature of freight activity at the identified locations, particularly
       considering the commodities being conveyed, length of haul and the
       domestic/international split.

4.23	 'Network stress' is defined as a flow:capacity ratio (i.e. vehicle flow in PCUs per hour
      divided by network capacity in PCUs per hour) equal to or greater than 0.75. Roads
      with a flow:capacity ratio of less than 0.75 (i.e. vehicle flow is less than 75% of link
      capacity) are generally considered to be ones which do not suffer from network stress
      on a regular basis. However, roads with a flow:capacity ratio of more than 0.75 (i.e.
      vehicle flow is greater than 75% of link capacity) are considered to ones which
      experience stress (delays) on a regular basis, while roads with a ratio of above 1.00
      (i.e. vehicle flow is greater than link capacity) are considered ‘high stress’ roads
      (significant delays on a regular basis).


Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 4	                                          Page 39




4.24	 The analysis described below does not consider the 'reason(s)' for the identified
      stress. These are likely to be numerous and could include, among other factors, the
      sheer volume of vehicle demand compared with carriageway capacity, layout or
      junction design. Identifying these factors is beyond the scope of this study.

4.25	 The Output Table also includes, for each defined link on the strategic highway
      network, AADF counts for light goods vehicles or vans i.e. vehicles designed to
      convey cargo with a gross vehicle weight up to 3.5 tonnes (therefore does not require
      an Operator's Licence). However, beyond being able to quantify the number of light
      goods vehicles using each link and establish their contribution to total traffic flow, it is
      not possible to undertake a detailed analysis of van activity similar to that produced
      for medium/large goods vehicles. This is for a number of important reasons,
      including:

    •	 GBFMv5 does not cover the van sector of the freight market. All analysis produced
       by GBFM is for road goods vehicles greater than 3.5 tonnes gross vehicle weight.
       GBFM's base matrix for road freight demand is derived from the CSRGT, which only
       surveys and records freight activity for vehicles over 3.5 tonnes gross vehicle weight
       i.e. those that require an Operators Licence. As a result, there is no audited or
       reliable source of data relating to freight lifted using light goods vehicles;
    •	 While vans are used for the commercial movement of freight e.g. parcels, couriers,
       catering supplies, internet home shopping etc.., they are also used to a large degree
       for other activities which cannot be considered freight. For example, plumbers,
       electricians, builders and photo-copier engineers also use light goods vehicles as
       part of their day-to-day operations. It is not possible to distinguish between freight
       and non-freight activities from the AADF data; and
    •	 It can be difficult to differentiate between light goods vehicles and other vehicles of a
       similar size e.g. mini-bus within the AADF dataset

4.26	 Consequently, this report does not consider analysis of van activity similar to that
      produced for medium/large goods vehicles.

Corridor 1: London to Kent Ports (Dover/Channel Tunnel)

4.27	 Corridor 1 extends from the Port of Dover and the Channel Tunnel to the M25 London
      Orbital motorway via the A20, M20 and M26. It passes the population centres of
      Folkestone, Ashford and Maidstone. The main freight generating locations along the
      corridor are:

    •	 The Channel Tunnel and Port of Dover (RoRo traffic). In 2007, the Channel Tunnel
       and Port of Dover combined handled around 3.8 million HGV units (approximately
       62% of all RoRo traffic passing through British ports);



Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 4	                                         Page 40



    •	 Logistics warehousing around Maidstone, Aylesford, Sittingbourne and Faversham.
       Many major distributors have established RDCs in these locations serving south
       London and Kent, Surrey and Sussex. While located further away from London (the
       largest consumption area in the South East) compared with other popular locations
       for warehousing (e.g. Dartford), the additional transport costs are mitigated by lower
       land rents;
    •	 Rail-linked aggregates terminals at Sevington, Hothfield and Allington; and
    •	 Fresh produce ‘packing houses’ around the Maidstone-Paddock Wood area. These
       facilities are served by the Dover Straits ports (conveyed on RoRo vehicles from
       mainland Europe), port of Sheerness (semi-bulk or reefer containers) and local
       suppliers in season.

4.27	 The railway route forming Corridor 1 extends from Willesden Junction to the Channel
      Tunnel via the West London Line, Swanley, Maidstone East and Ashford.

Vehicle Flow

4.28	 The lowest levels of traffic are found at the eastern extremity of the corridor on the
      A20 and M20 near Dover and Folkestone at 13,000-18,000 vehicles per day. Around
      2,300 vehicles are HGVs at this location, equating to around 10%-20% of all vehicle
      traffic (or 25-40% when expressed as PCUs). The links displaying the highest levels
      of traffic are between junctions 3 and 7, the section of the M20 by-passing Maidstone
      and West Malling, at around 60,000 vehicles per day. Around 8,000 vehicles are
      HGVs at this location, equating to around 12-13% of all vehicle traffic (or
      approximately 30% when expressed as PCUs). Total traffic flow by link gradually
      increases between Folkestone and Maidstone. Freight vehicles accounts for
      between 10-15% of all vehicle traffic by link over the length of the corridor. This
      equates to between 30-40% of vehicle demand when expressed as PCUs. There is a
      step-change in flow at the M20 and M26 interchange (traffic splits or converges at this
      interchange on a broadly 50-50 basis).

4.29	 East of Maidstone, the population density is fairly low (in relation to the rest of the
      South East) with the only population centres of any significance being the moderately
      sized towns of Ashford, Folkestone and Dover. This is obviously reflected in the
      gradual decline in traffic levels east of Maidstone.

4.30	 The number of vans along the corridor varies between 3,500 and 9,000 per day per
      direction. This equates to around 15% of all traffic flow along the corridor.

Freight Activity

4.31	 The broad nature of road freight activity along the corridor is described below.




Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 4	                                        Page 41



         Domestic/International Split: Corridor 1 is an important route for international RoRo
         traffic.   At the eastern extremity of the corridor (between Ashford and
         Dover/Folkestone) RoRo traffic accounts for over 90% of freight vehicle traffic. As
         noted above, apart from Maidstone, the only population centres of any significance
         are the moderately sized towns of Ashford, Folkestone and Dover, and these are not
         large attractors/generators of freight in their own right. Consequently, the eastern
         section of the M20 is predominantly an international gateway serving the Port of
         Dover and the Channel Tunnel.

         The RoRo proportion falls to around 50% of all freight vehicle traffic at the western
         end of the M20.       From Maidstone towards the M25, the corridor is additionally
         serving the domestic market (domestic freight traffic forms around 50% of traffic). A
         significant proportion of the domestic traffic is likely to be generated by the
         concentration of distribution centres in the Maidstone-Aylesford area.

         Commodities: Food (temperature controlled and ambient) and manufactured goods
         dominate the commodity groupings. This is to be expected given the importance of
         RoRo traffic and the distribution centre activity in the Maidstone-Aylesford area.
         There are also significant flows of construction materials and metals around the
         Maidstone area, particularly in the eastbound direction.

         Length of haul: Average length of haul is around 300km at the eastern extremity of
         the corridor. This is to be expected given that most freight traffic on this section of
         the corridor is RoRo (long distance flows). Average length of haul falls to around
         150-200km at the western end of the M20, reflecting the increasing proportion of
         shorter distance domestic traffic (mainly ‘final leg’ deliveries).

       Freight during peak hours: Between 10-20% of freight traffic is in either the AM and
       PM peak hours.
Vehicle Flow and Capacity

4.32	 The broad locations along Corridor 1 which display the highest levels of network
      stress (vehicle flow:capacity ratio of 0.75 or greater) for a 2007 year dataset are as
      follows:

        •    M20: Westbound between the M25 and junction 8 during the AM peak hours;
        •    M20: Eastbound between junctions 2 and 8 during the PM peak hours.

4.33	 It is the section of the M20 which by-passes Maidstone which experiences network
      stress during the AM and PM peak periods. In particular, heading towards London
      (westbound) during the AM peak displays 'network stress' while heading away from
      London (eastbound) would appear to be reasonably free flowing at this period. In the
      PM peak hours the opposite position holds.



Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 4	                                         Page 42



4.34	 The nature of freight vehicle activity at this location can be described as follows:

    •	 Freight vehicle activity forms around 30% of all vehicle flow (expressed as PCUs);
    •	 Domestic traffic forms around 50% of all freight vehicle activity, the remainder being
       composed mainly of international RoRo traffic to/from the Dover Straits ports i.e. the
       route is a key international gateway. A significant proportion of the domestic traffic is
       likely to be generated by the concentration of distribution centres in the Maidstone-
       Aylesford area (‘final leg’ deliveries) and the town of Maidstone (consumption area);
    •	 Heading eastbound (i.e. away from London), construction/metals and manufactured
       goods form the largest commodity groupings (both around 35% of all freight vehicle
       activity). In the westbound direction, food (both temperature controlled and ambient)
       and manufactured goods dominate the commodity groupings (around 70% of all
       freight vehicle activity). This is to be expected given the importance of RoRo traffic
       and the RDC distribution centre activity in the Maidstone-Aylesford area.
    •	 Average length of haul is around 150-200km, reflecting a mix of shorter distance
       domestic traffic and longer distance RoRo traffic. Around 45-50% of HGVs are
       travelling less than 100km, and around 25-30% are moving more than 300km; and
    •	 Between 10-15% of freight traffic is in either the AM and PM peak hours.

4.35	 It would appear that the 'stressed' section of the M20 is effectively acting as both a
      long distance trunk route (predominantly for RoRo traffic i.e. international gateway)
      and as a ‘by-pass’ type route for passenger (commuter) traffic and shorter distance
      freight traffic. It is also important to note that the stressed links coincide with a
      concentration of distribution centre activity.

Corridor 2: London to Gatwick

4.36	 Corridor 2 extends from the M25/M23 interchange (junction 7 on M25 and junction 8
      of the M23) to Gatwick Airport. It includes the M23 between junctions 7 and 8, the
      M23 'spur' road at junction 8 and the A23 into the Gatwick Airport estate. It is the
      shortest of the 14 strategic national corridors, essentially acting as a link between
      south London and the M25 and Gatwick Airport. Apart from the airport, there are no
      major freight generators located on the corridor. However, the route does serve the
      towns/cities of Brighton and Hove, Crawley, Haywards Heath and Horsham
      (consumption areas).

4.37	 The railway route forming Corridor 2 extends from Clapham Junction to Gatwick
      Airport via East Croydon (Brighton Mainline).

4.38	 The M23 between the M25 and junction 9 (Gatwick Airport) handled around 55,000
      vehicles per day (both directions). Around 2,500 vehicles are HGVs at this location,
      equating to around 5% of all vehicle traffic (or approximately 13% when expressed as
      PCUs). The 'spur' road to the airport handles around 26,000 vehicles per day (both



Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 4	                                              Page 43



          directions) of which around 500 vehicles are HGVs (just under 2% of all vehicle traffic
          or 9% when expressed as PCUs).

4.39	 The number of vans along the corridor varies between 3,000 and 6,000 per day per
      direction. This equates to between 11% and 14% of all traffic flow along the corridor.

Freight Activity

4.40	 The broad nature of road freight activity along the corridor is described below.

          Domestic/international split: Around 80% of traffic is domestic.

          Commodities: Food (temperature controlled and ambient) and manufactured goods
          dominate the commodity groupings. This is to be expected given the freight
          generators/attractors located along the corridor (see above).

          Length of haul: Average length of haul is around 100km. It would therefore appear
          that much of the freight traffic is likely to be final ‘leg’ in the supply chain type flows.

          Freight during peak hours: Between 10-20% of freight traffic is in either the AM and
          PM peak hours

Vehicle Flow and Capacity

4.41	 Neither link displays network stress (for a 2007 year dataset) during the AM and PM
      peaks.




Corridor 3: London to Southampton 7

4.42	 Corridor 3 covers the M3 from the interchange with the M25 London Orbital motorway
      to the interchange with the M27 in Hampshire, passing the population centres of
      Bracknell, Farnborough, Basingstoke and Winchester. The main freight generating
      locations along the corridor are:

          •	 The continental ferry port at Portsmouth (RoRo traffic – 298,000 units in 2007);
          •	 The deep-sea container berths at Southampton (LoLo traffic – 1.1 million units in
             2007) and other port facilities (bulks and trade cars);
          •	 Logistics warehousing around Southampton, Basingstoke and Bracknell. Many
             major distributors have established RDCs in the Basingstoke and Bracknell areas,



7
    Part of corridor shared with Corridor 4

Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 4	                                         Page 44



           serving south London, Surrey and Hampshire. Many smaller ‘satellite’ distribution
           facilities are also located around Southampton;
        •	 Mendip Hills quarries; and
        •	 The major population centres of Southampton, Basingstoke, Bracknell,
           Farnborough/Aldershot and Woking (consumption areas).

4.43	 The railway route forming Corridor 3 is the South West Mainline from Clapham
      Junction to Southampton port via Staines and Byfleet Junction.

Vehicle Flow

4.44	 The lowest levels of traffic are found between junctions 8 and 9 (circa 25,000-30,000
      vehicles per day). Around 2,000 vehicles are HGVs at this location, equating to
      around 7% of all vehicle traffic (or approximately 19% when expressed as PCUs).
      From this link, traffic flow increases both towards London (northbound to M25) and
      Southampton (southbound). The links displaying the highest levels of traffic are from
      Eastleigh to the M27 (at around 65,000-70,000 vehicles per day) and from junction 4
      through to the M25 (circa 65,000 vehicles per day). Around 5,500 vehicles are HGVs
      between junctions 13-14, equating to around 10% of all vehicle traffic (or
      approximately 23% when expressed as PCUs). Freight traffic accounts for between
      7-10% of all vehicle traffic by link over the length of the corridor. This equates to
      between 18-25% of vehicle demand when expressed as PCUs. There is a step-
      change in vehicle flow at the following locations:

    •	 Junction 8 (A303 for Andover and the Westcountry); and
    •	 Junction 9 as traffic splits or converges with Corridor 4 (A34 to/from the Midlands).

4.45	 The number of vans along the corridor varies between 5,000 and 6,000 per day per
      direction. This equates to around 10% of all traffic flow along the corridor.

Freight Activity

4.46	 The broad nature of road freight activity along the corridor is described below.

        Domestic/international split: Corridor 3 is dominated by domestic traffic, though it is
        also an important route for RoRo and LoLo traffic. In the northbound direction,
        domestic traffic accounts for around 70-75% of all freight vehicle demand.
        Southbound, domestic traffic accounts for around 80% of all HGV traffic.




Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 4	                                           Page 45



        Commodities: Food (both temperature controlled and ambient) and manufactured
        goods dominate the commodity groupings. This is to be expected given the freight
        generators/attractors located along the corridor (see above). There are also
        significant flows of construction materials and metals around the at the southern end
        of the corridor.

        Length of haul: The corridor is characterised by fairly short distance freight flows, as
        average length of haul is around 150km across most of the corridor. It would
        therefore appear that much of the freight traffic is likely to be final ‘leg’ in the supply
        chain type flows.

        Freight during Peak hours: Between 10-15% of freight traffic is in either the AM and
        PM peak hours.

Vehicle Flow and Capacity

4.47	 The broad locations along Corridor 3 which display the highest levels of network
      stress (vehicle flow:capacity ratio of 0.75 or greater) for a 2007 year dataset are as
      follows:

        •	   M3: Northbound between junctions 5 to 2 (M25) during AM peak hours;
        •	   M3: Northbound between junctions 10 and 13 during AM peak hours;
        •	   M3: Southbound between junctions 2 (M25) and 5 during PM peak hours; and
        •	   M3: Southbound between junctions 10 and 13 during PM peak hours.

4.48	 The main problem areas with regards to network stress are therefore:

    •	 Northbound approaching the M25 during the AM peak hours;
    •	 Southbound leaving the M25 during the PM peak hours; and
    •	 Northbound and southbound around Eastleigh during the AM and PM peak hours.

4.49	 The nature of freight vehicle activity at these locations is described below.

    Approaching/Leaving M25.
    •	 Freight vehicle activity forms around 15-17% of all vehicle flow (expressed as PCUs);
    •	 Domestic traffic forms around 65-70% of all freight vehicle activity, the balance being
       mainly International RoRo traffic (predominantly Dover Straits but also some to/from
       the Thames);
    •	 Food (both temperature controlled and ambient) and manufactured goods dominate
       the commodity groupings (60-70% of all freight vehicle activity). This is to be
       expected given the nature of the freight generators in the corridor;
    •	 Average length of haul is around 150km. Around 30-40% of HGVs are travelling less
       than 100km, and around 12-15% are moving more than 300km. It would therefore



Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 4	                                        Page 46



       appear that much of the freight traffic is short distance in nature, a significant
       proportion of which is likely to be final ‘leg’ in the supply chain type flows; and
    •	 Around 10% of freight traffic is in either the AM and PM peak hours.

    Eastleigh
    •	 Freight vehicle activity forms around 22-24% of all vehicle flow (expressed as PCUs);
    •	 Domestic traffic forms around 70-80% of all freight vehicle activity, the balance being
       mainly International LoLo and RoRo traffic (predominantly South Coast ports –
       Portsmouth and Southampton). International LoLo traffic forms around 10% of
       freight vehicle activity. While Southampton is a major deep-sea container port, its
       impact on the corridor appears to be minimal (unlike Corridor 1 where the Dover
       Straits ports have a much greater impact);
    •	 Food (both temperature controlled and ambient) and manufactured goods dominate
       the commodity groupings (65% of all freight vehicle activity). This is to be expected
       given the nature of the freight generators in the corridor. There are also important
       flows of construction/metals (both directions) and petroleum (northbound, likely to be
       ex Fawley oil refinery);
    •	 Average length of haul is around 150km. Around 55-60% of HGVs are travelling less
       than 100km, and around 10% are moving more than 300km. It would therefore
       appear that much of the freight traffic is short distance in nature, a significant
       proportion of which is likely to be final ‘leg’ in the supply chain type flows; and
    •	 Between 10-20% of freight traffic is in either the AM and PM peak hours.

4.50	 At these locations, it would appear that the corridor is effectively acting as both a long
      distance trunk route (predominantly for freight traffic) and as a ‘by-pass’ type route for
      shorter distance intra-urban and inter-urban passenger (commuter) and freight traffic.
      It is important to note that the stressed links near Eastleigh are located close to a
      concentration of logistics warehousing and the main international gateway ports of
      Southampton and Portsmouth.           Southampton and Portsmouth are also key
      'consumers' of freight (finished goods).




Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 4	                                         Page 47



Corridor 4: South Coast Ports to Midlands 8

4.51	 Corridor 4 extends from the M40/M42 interchange near Solihull to the ports of
      Southampton and Portsmouth via the M40, A34, M3 and M27. It also includes the
      short 'spur' motorways M271 and M275. The corridor includes the main population
      centres of Banbury, Oxford, Newbury, Winchester, Southampton and Portsmouth.
      The main freight generating locations along the corridor are:

          •	 The continental ferry port at Portsmouth (RoRo traffic – 298,000 units in 2007);
          •	 The deep-sea container berths at Southampton (LoLo traffic – 1.1 million units in
             2007) and other port facilities (bulks and trade cars);
          •	 Logistics warehousing around Southampton and Didcot. In addition, the northern
             extremities of the corridor link to important NDC locations in the Midlands e.g.
             Northampton Some major distributors have established RDCs in Didcot serving
             west London and the Thames Valley. Many smaller ‘satellite’ distribution facilities
             are also located around Southampton;
          •	 Didcot power station, and rail-linked aggregates terminals at Oxford and
             Appleford; and
          •	 The major population centres of Southampton, Portsmouth, Newbury and Oxford
             (consumption areas).

4.52	 The railway route forming Corridor 4 extends from the West Coast Mainline (WCML)
      at Nuneaton to Southampton via Coventry, Leamington Spa, Oxford, Didcot, Reading
      and Basingstoke. It also includes Leamington to the WCML at Stafford via
      Birmingham and the Sutton Park line.

Vehicle Flow

4.53	 The lowest levels of traffic flow are found on the A34 to the south of Newbury (circa
      20,000 vehicles per day). Around 2,500-3,000 vehicles are HGVs at this location,
      equating to around 15% of all vehicle traffic (or approximately 30% when expressed
      as PCUs). From Newbury, traffic increases both northbound towards Oxford and onto
      the M40, and southbound towards Southampton. The links displaying the highest
      levels of traffic are on the M3 from Eastleigh to the M27 (at around 65,000-70,000
      vehicles per day). The M40 part of the corridor handles around 38,000 vehicles.
      Around 5,000 vehicles are HGVs at this location, equating to around 10-13% of all
      vehicle traffic (or approximately 25% when expressed as PCUs). Freight traffic
      accounts for between 11-15% of all vehicle traffic by link over the length of the
      corridor. This equates to between 25-30% of vehicle demand when expressed as
      PCUs. The M27 is less important if freight terms (circa 6% of vehicle demand or 15%
      when expressed as PCUs). There are a number locations where there is a step
      change in vehicle flow, namely:


8
    Part of corridor shared with Corridor 3 (M3) and Corridor 8 (M40)

Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 4	                                         Page 48




        •    M40 junction 10 (interchange with A43);
        •    M40 junction 9 (interchange with A34); and
        •    M3 junction 10 (interchange with A34).

4.54	 The number of vans along the corridor varies between 3,000 and 6,000 per day per
      direction. This equates to between 10% and 15% of all traffic flow along the corridor.

Freight Activity

4.55	 The broad nature of road freight activity along the corridor is described below.

        Domestic/international split: Corridor 4 is dominated by domestic traffic, though it is
        also an important route for RoRo and LoLo traffic to/from Portsmouth and
        Southampton respectively. Domestic traffic accounts for around 70-80% of all freight
        traffic across the corridor. While Southampton is a major container port, its impact on
        the corridor appears to be minimal.

        Commodities: Food (both temperature controlled and ambient) and manufactured
        goods dominate the commodity groupings. This is to be expected given the nature of
        the freight generators in the corridor. There are also significant flows of construction
        materials and metals around the at the southern end of the corridor.

        Length of haul: Average length of haul is broadly as expected. Freight flows around
        the urban areas are dominated by shorter distance movements (average length of
        haul circa 150-200km). Much of this freight traffic is likely to be final ‘leg’ in the
        supply chain type flows. Longer distance flows are evident on the more rural sections
        of the A34 and M40 between, where average length of haul is around 250-300km.

        Freight during peak hours: Between 10-15% of freight traffic is in either the AM and
        PM peak hours.

Vehicle Flow and Capacity

4.56	 The broad locations along Corridor 4 which display the highest levels of network
      stress (vehicle flow:capacity ratio of 0.75 or greater) for a 2007 year dataset are as
      follows:

        •    M3: Northbound between junctions 10 and 13 during AM peak hours;
        •    M3: Southbound between junctions 10 and 13 during PM peak hours;
        •    A34: Northbound and southbound around Oxford during AM peak hours;
        •    A34: Northbound and southbound around Oxford during PM peak hours; and
        •    M40: Northbound between Oxford and Banbury during PM peak hours.



Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 4	                                         Page 49



4.57	 The nature of freight vehicle activity at these locations is described below.

    M40 between Oxford and Banbury
    •	 Freight vehicle activity forms around 30% of all vehicle flow (expressed as PCUs);
    •	 Domestic traffic forms around 80% of all freight vehicle activity, the remainder being
       International RoRo (approximately 8% and to/from Dover Straits and South Coast
       ports) and International LoLo (around 4% and to/from Southampton);
    •	 Food (both temperature controlled and ambient) and manufactured goods dominate
       the commodity groupings, accounting for around 65-75% of all freight vehicle activity.
       This is to be expected given the nature of the freight generators in the corridor.
    •	 Average length of haul is around 200km. Around 20% of HGVs are travelling less
       than 100km, and around 25% are moving more than 300km. This reflects a mixture
       of freight traffic which is short distance in nature (a significant proportion of which is
       likely to be final ‘leg’ in the supply chain type flows) and longer distance traffic (RoRo
       and LoLo); and
    •	 Around 15% of freight traffic is in either the AM and PM peak hours.

    Oxford
    •	 Freight vehicle activity forms around 25-30% of all vehicle flow (expressed as PCUs);
    •	 Domestic traffic forms around 80% of all freight vehicle activity, the remainder being
       International RoRo (approximately 5%, to/from Dover Straits and South Coast ports)
       and International LoLo (around 5%, to/from Southampton);
    •	 Food (both temperature controlled and ambient) and manufactured goods dominate
       the commodity groupings, accounting for around 65-75% of all freight vehicle activity.
       This is to be expected given the nature of the freight generators in the corridor;
    •	 Average length of haul is around 200km. Around 40% of HGVs are travelling less
       than 100km, and around 20-25% are moving more than 300km, reflecting a mixture
       of freight traffic which is short distance in nature (a significant proportion of which is
       likely to be final ‘leg’ in the supply chain type flows) and longer distance traffic (RoRo
       and LoLo); and
    •	 Between 15-20% of freight traffic is in either the AM and PM peak hours.

4.58	 The A34 passing Oxford is effectively acting as both a long distance trunk route (for
      domestic and LoLo traffic) and as a ‘by-pass’ type route for shorter distance
      passenger (commuter) traffic. Oxford is also a key 'consumer' of freight (finished
      goods).

Corridor 5: London Orbital

4.59	 Corridor 5 covers orbital routes around London. In includes the M25 which forms an
      almost complete ‘ring’ around Greater London from Dartford in Kent to Thurrock in
      Essex, the ‘gap’ being the A282 Dartford Crossing (non-motorway). The corridor also
      includes the M23, M3, M4, M40, M1, M11, M25 Heathrow Spur and M4 Heathrow
      Spur inside the M25. In addition to London, it passes the population centres of

Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 4	                                         Page 50



        Dartford, Sevenoaks, Redhill, Staines, Slough, Watford and Brentwood.       The main
        freight generating locations along the corridor are:

        •	 The RoRo ferry berths at Dartford, Purfleet and Dagenham (the last two also
           handle trade car imports and exports);
        •	 The port of Tilbury (LoLo traffic);
        •	 Logistics warehousing around Dartford, Purfleet, west London (Heathrow) and
           Hertfordshire; and
        •	 London (consumption area).

4.60	 The railway routes forming Corridor 5 are:

        •	 North London Line (NLL) from Stratford to the WCML at Camden Road Junction;
           and
        •	 The Tottenham and Hampstead line (THL) from Barking to the WCML Willesden
           Junction.

Vehicle Flow

4.61	 The lowest levels of traffic are found on the southern and eastern sections of the
      M25, in particular around the M26/M20 part of the orbital motorway (circa 50-55,000
      vehicles per day). Around 5,500 vehicles are HGVs at this location, equating to
      around 12% of all vehicle traffic (or approximately 25-30% when expressed as
      PCUs). The links displaying the highest levels of traffic are on the western section of
      the M25 between the M40 and M3 interchanges, (circa 95,000-105,000 vehicles per
      day). Around 8,000 vehicles are HGVs at this location, equating to around 8% of all
      vehicle traffic (or approximately 20% when expressed as PCUs). Overall, freight
      activity appears to be more important along the eastern and northern sections of the
      M25, around 15-18% of all vehicle demand. This equates to around 35% of vehicle
      flow when expressed as PCUs. There are a number locations where there is a step
      change in vehicle flow, namely:

        •	 South of interchange with M40 (Jct 16);
        •	 North of interchange with A2 and M20 (Jct 2); and
        •	 East of interchange with M26 (Jct 5).

4.62	 The number of vans along the corridor varies between 8,000 and 10,000 per day per
      direction. This equates to around 15% of all traffic flow along the corridor.

Freight Activity

4.63	 The broad nature of road freight activity along the corridor is described below.




Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 4	                                             Page 51



        Domestic/international split: The western section of the M25 is dominated by
        domestic traffic (70-80% of HGV traffic). However, the eastern and northern part of
        the motorway accommodates a significant proportion of RoRo traffic (30-40% of HGV
        traffic).

        Commodities: Food (both temperature controlled and ambient) and manufactured
        goods dominate the commodity groupings. This is to be expected given the nature of
        the freight generators in the corridor. There are also significant flows of construction
        materials and metals moving along the corridor.

        Length of haul: Average length of haul is around 200-250km on the eastern and
        northern parts of the motorway where there is a significant proportion of RoRo traffic
        (i.e. long distance trunk hauls). The sections where domestic traffic dominates
        displays a significantly lower average length of haul (100-150km). It would therefore
        appear that much of this freight traffic is likely to be final ‘leg’ in the supply chain type
        flows.

        Freight during peak hours: Between 10-15% of freight traffic is in either the AM and
        PM peak hours.

Vehicle Flow and Capacity

4.64	 The broad locations along Corridor 5 which display the highest levels of network
      stress (vehicle flow:capacity ratio of 0.75 or greater) for a 2007 year dataset are as
      follows:

        •    Dartford Crossings: Both directions during AM and PM peak hours;
        •    M25: Clockwise between junctions 10 and 19 during AM peak hours;
        •    M25: Anticlockwise between junctions 22 and 30 during AM peak hours;
        •    M25: Anticlockwise between junctions 5 and 11 during AM peak hours;
        •    M25: Anticlockwise between junctions 14 and 19 during AM peak hours;
        •    M25: Clockwise between junctions 5 and 11 during PM peak hours;
        •    M25 Clockwise between junctions 27 and 30 during PM peak hours; and
        •    M25 Anticlockwise between junctions 9-11 during PM peak hours.

4.65	 The main problem areas with regards to network stress are therefore:

    •    M1 to M11 (AM peak);
    •    Dartford Crossings (AM and PM peak);
    •    M26 to M23 (PM Peak); and
    •    M3 to M4 to M40 (AM and PM Peak).

4.66	 The nature of freight vehicle activity at these locations is described below.



Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 4	                                     Page 52



    M1-M11
    •	 Freight vehicle activity forms around 30-35% of all vehicle flow (expressed as PCUs);
    •	 Domestic traffic forms around 60-65% of all freight vehicle activity. There are also
       significant flows of international RoRo traffic (around 25% and mainly Dover Straits
       but also to/from the Thames) i.e. key international route;
    •	 Food (both temperature controlled and ambient) and manufactured goods dominate
       the commodity groupings, accounting for around 60% of all freight vehicle activity.
       This is to be expected given the nature of the freight generators in the corridor.
       There are also significant flows of construction and metals.
    •	 Average length of haul is around 200-250km. Around 30% of HGVs are travelling
       less than 100km, and around 30% are moving more than 300km, reflecting a mix of
       shorter distance domestic traffic and longer distance RoRo traffic; and
    •	 Between 10-15% of freight traffic is in either the AM and PM peak hours.

    Dartford Crossings
    •	 Freight vehicle activity forms around 30% of all vehicle flow (expressed as PCUs);
    •	 Domestic traffic forms around 40-50% of all freight vehicle activity. There are
       significant flows of international RoRo traffic (around 35% and mainly Dover Straits
       but also to/from the Thames) i.e. key international route;
    •	 Food (both temperature controlled and ambient) and manufactured goods dominate
       the commodity groupings, accounting for around 60% of all freight vehicle activity.
       This is to be expected given the nature of the freight generators in the corridor.
    •	 Average length of haul is around 200-250km. Around 30% of HGVs are travelling
       less than 100km, and around 28% are moving more than 300km, reflecting a mix of
       shorter distance domestic traffic and longer distance RoRo traffic; and
    •	 Between 15-20% of freight traffic is in either the AM and PM peak hours.

    It is important to note that the Dartford Crossings are also located close to a
    concentration of logistics warehousing.

    M26-M23
    •	 Freight vehicle activity forms around 25% of all vehicle flow (expressed as PCUs);
    •	 Domestic traffic forms around 70% of all freight vehicle activity. There are also
       significant flows of international RoRo traffic;
    •	 Food (both temperature controlled and ambient) and manufactured goods dominate
       the commodity groupings, accounting for around 65% of all freight vehicle activity.
       This is to be expected given the nature of the freight generators in the corridor.
    •	 Average length of haul is around 150km. Around 40% of HGVs are travelling less
       than 100km, and around 10-15% are moving more than 300km, reflecting a higher
       proportion of shorter distance domestic traffic compared with the links described
       above; and
    •	 Between 10-15% of freight traffic is in either the AM and PM peak hours.




Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 4	                                          Page 53



    M3-M4-M40
    •	 Freight vehicle activity forms around 20% of all vehicle flow (expressed as PCUs);
    •	 Domestic traffic forms around 80-90% of all freight vehicle activity. It would appear
       that the western section of the M25 is dominated by domestic traffic while the
       eastern and northern part of the motorway accommodates a significant proportion of
       International RoRo traffic;
    •	 Food (both temperature controlled and ambient) and manufactured goods dominate
       the commodity groupings, accounting for around 75% of freight vehicle activity. This
       is to be expected given the nature of the freight generators in the corridor.
    •	 Average length of haul is around 100-150km. Around 40-45% of HGVs are travelling
       less than 100km, and around 10-15% are moving more than 300km. It would
       therefore appear that much of the freight traffic is short distance in nature, likely to be
       final ‘leg’ in the supply chain type flows; and
    •	 Between 10-15% of freight traffic is in either the AM and PM peak hours.

Corridor 6: London to South West and South Wales

4.67	 Corridor 6 covers the M4 and M5, extending from the M4/M25 interchange near
      Heathrow Airport to the Severn Crossings (M4 and M48) and to Exeter (M5 from the
      M4/M5 interchange). It passes the main population centres of Slough, Reading,
      Swindon, Bristol and Exeter. The main freight generating locations along the corridor
      are:

        •	 Logistics warehousing and other industrial estates around Slough, Reading,
           Swindon and Bristol. Many major distributors have established RDCs in these
           locations serving south/west London and the Thames Valley; and
        •	 The Port of Bristol
        •	 Mendip Hills quarries;
        •	 Didcot power station, and rail-linked aggregates terminals at Theale and
           Colnbrook; and
        •	 The major population centres of Slough, Reading, Swindon, Bristol and Exeter
           (consumption areas).

4.68	 The railway routes forming Corridor 6 are:

        •	 Great Western Mainline (GWML) from Acton to the Severn Tunnel via Reading,
           Swindon and Bristol Parkway; and
        •	 Berks and Hants line from Reading to Westbury.

Vehicle Flow

4.69	 The highest levels of traffic flow on the M4 are found at the eastern extremity of the
      corridor, essentially between Reading and the M25. Traffic flow grows steadily from
      around 70,000 vehicles per day near Reading to around 85,000 vehicles per day

Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 4	                                         Page 54



        approaching the M25. Around 6,000 vehicles are HGVs at this location, equating to
        around 7% of all vehicle traffic (or approximately 18% when expressed as PCUs).
        West of Reading, traffic flow gradually decreases to around 40,000 vehicles per day.
        However, there is a step change in traffic flow between junction 19 (M32 to/from
        Bristol centre) and junction 20 (M4/M5 interchange). At the eastern end of the M4,
        HGVs form around 7% of all vehicle flow (15-17% expressed as PCUs), while around
        Bristol HGVs account for around 12% of vehicle flow (25-30% expressed as PCUs).
        Junction 19 to 20 also displays the highest level of HGV flow.

4.70	 Traffic flow on the M5 gradually decreases from approximately 55,000-60,000
      vehicles per day near Bristol/Avonmouth to around 28,000 vehicles per day at Exeter.
      Around 5,000-5,500 vehicles are HGVs near Bristol/Avonmouth, equating to around
      10% of all vehicle traffic (or approximately 22% when expressed as PCUs). Overall,
      HGVs account for around 10-12% of all vehicle flow along the M5 from Bristol to
      Exeter (25% of vehicle demand expressed as PCUs).

4.71	 West of Reading, the population density is fairly low until the corridor passes Bristol
      This is obviously reflected in the gradual decline in traffic levels west of Reading.

4.72	 There are a number locations where there is a step change in vehicle flow, namely:

        •    Junction 13 – A34 (Corridor 4); and
        •    Junction 19 – M32 and Bristol centre

4.73	 Interestingly, these appears to be no significant change in vehicle flow at junction 15
      (A410 to M5 and Gloucester).

4.74	 The number of vans along the corridor varies between 3,000 and 5,000 per day per
      direction. This equates to between 8% and 12% of all traffic flow along the corridor.

Freight Activity

4.75	 The broad nature of road freight activity along the corridor is described below.

        Domestic/international split: Corridor 5 is dominated by domestic traffic. Domestic
        traffic accounts for around 90% of freight vehicle flow at the eastern extremity of the
        M4, falling to around 75-80% on the section west of Reading.

        Commodities: Food (both temperature controlled and ambient) and manufactured
        goods dominate the commodity groupings. This is to be expected given the freight
        generators/attractors located along the corridor (see above). There are also
        significant flows of construction materials and metals along the corridor.




Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 4	                                      Page 55



        Length of haul: To the east of Reading, average length of haul is around 100-150km.
        West of Reading, length of haul is significantly higher at 250-300km. It would appear
        that flows on the M4 to the east of Reading are dominated by shorter ‘final leg’
        deliveries, while the M4 to the west of Reading handles longer distance traffic.

        Freight during peak hours: Between 10-15% of freight traffic is in either the AM and
        PM peak hours.

Vehicle Flow and Capacity

4.76	 The broad locations along Corridor 6 which display the highest levels of network
      stress (vehicle flow:capacity ratio of 0.75 or greater) for a 2007 year dataset are as
      follows:

        •    M4: Eastbound between junctions 11 and 4 (M25) during AM peak hours;
        •    M4: Westbound between junctions 4 and 6 (M25) during AM peak hours;
        •    M4: Westbound between junctions 4 (M25) and 11 during PM peak hours; and
        •    M4: Eastbound between junctions 11 and 4 (M25) during PM peak hours.

4.77	 It is the section of the M4 between Reading and the M25 which experiences network
      stress during the AM and PM peak periods. During the AM peak this is
      predominantly in the eastbound (London) direction, but in both directions during the
      PM peak hours.

4.78	 The nature of freight vehicle activity at these locations is described below:

    •	 Freight vehicle activity forms around 15-18% of all vehicle flow (expressed as PCUs);
    •	 Domestic traffic forms around 90-95% of all freight vehicle activity;
    •	 Food (both temperature controlled and ambient) and manufactured goods dominate
       the commodity groupings, accounting for around 65% of freight vehicle activity. This
       is to be expected given the nature of the freight generators/consumers in the corridor
       (Reading-Slough corridor is an important location for distribution and is also a key
       'consumer' of freight – finished goods);
    •	 Average length of haul is around 100-125km. Around 50% of HGVs are travelling
       less than 100km, and approximately 10% are moving more than 300km. It would
       therefore appear that much of the freight traffic is short distance in nature, with a
       significant proportion likely to be final ‘leg’ in the supply chain type flows; and
    •	 Between 10-15% of freight traffic is in either the AM and PM peak hours.

Corridor 7: Bristol to the Midlands

4.79	 Corridor 7 extends from the A42/M1 interchange near Nottingham to the M4/M5
      interchange near Bristol via the A42, M42 and M5, passing the population centres of
      Tamworth, Birmingham, Coventry, Worcester, Cheltenham and Gloucester. It also

Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 4	                                        Page 56



        includes the M5 from the M42/M5 interchange to the M5/M6 interchange. The main
        freight generating locations along the corridor are:

        •	 Logistics warehousing in the Midlands, particularly along the A42/M42 section of
           the corridor where there is a high concentration of RDC and NDC activity. Key
           sites include the rail-linked facility at Birch Coppice (M42 Jct 10);
        •	 The automotive industry of the Midlands and associated suppliers;
        •	 The quarries of the East Midlands (Bardon, Stud Farm and Mountsorrel near
           Leicester); and
        •	 The major population centres of Tamworth, Birmingham, Coventry, Worcester,
           Cheltenham and Gloucester (consumption areas).

4.80	 The railway routes forming Corridor 7 are:

        •	 Birmingham to Bristol line from Bristol to Washwood Heath via Cheltenham;
        •	 Birmingham to Derby line via Tamworth; and
        •	 Derby-Nottingham to Humber Ports via Lincoln.

Vehicle Flow

4.81	 The highest levels of traffic flow on the corridor are found on the section of the M42
      passing to the east of Birmingham. Overall, three distinct patterns or trends can be
      identified:

    •	 M42/A42 north of Birmingham (and north of interchange with Corridor 8) – total
       vehicle flow between 25-35,000 vehicles per day per direction (4,000 or 15-17% of all
       vehicles are HGVs/30-35% when expressed as PCUs);
    •	 M42 to the east of Birmingham (and south of interchange with corridor 8) – total
       vehicle flow between 50-65,000 vehicles per day per direction (7,000 or 10-12% of all
       vehicles are HGVs/25-30% when expressed as PCUs); and
    •	 M5 south of Birmingham – total vehicle flow gradually declining from around 50­
       55,000 vehicles per day per direction just to the south of Birmingham to (6,000 or 12­
       14% of all vehicles are HGVs/25-30% when expressed as PCUs) to around 35,000
       vehicles per day per direction (4,000 or 12-14% of all vehicles are HGVs/25-28%
       when expressed as PCUs) just north of the M4/M5 interchange (Corridor 6).

4.82	 Clearly, the Birmingham conurbation is a large generator of traffic (all types). Freight
      traffic accounts for between 9-12% of all vehicle traffic over the corridor (25-30%
      when expressed as PCUs).

4.83	 South of Birmingham, the population density is fairly low until the corridor passes
      Bristol. This is obviously reflected in the gradual decline in traffic levels south of the
      M5/M42 junction.



Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 4	                                         Page 57



4.84	 There are a number locations where there is a step change in vehicle flow, namely:

        •    M42 Junction 9 – M6 (Corridor 8);
        •    M42 Junction 3 – M40 (Corridor 4 and 8); and
        •    M5 Junction 8 – M50 and South Wales

4.85	 Interestingly, these appears to be no significant change in vehicle flow at M5 junction
      11A (A410 to M4).

4.86	 The number of vans along the corridor varies between 5,000 and 9,000 per day per
      direction. This equates to between 12% and 15% of all traffic flow along the corridor.

Freight Activity

4.87	 The broad nature of road freight activity along the corridor is described below.

        Domestic/international split: Corridor 7 is dominated by domestic traffic. Domestic
        traffic accounts for around 90% of freight vehicle flow.

        Commodities: Food (both temperature controlled and ambient) and manufactured
        goods dominate the commodity groupings. This is to be expected given the freight
        generators/attractors located along the corridor (see above). There are also
        significant flows of construction materials and metals along the corridor. Interestingly,
        there are flows of petroleum products close to the Kingsbury storage depot (M42).

        Length of haul: Average length of haul appears to be around 200-250km, but with
        slightly lower distances being recorded in the vicinity of Birmingham. With the
        exception of Birmingham, therefore, much of the corridor appears to be handling
        longer distance trunk flows.

        Freight during peak hours: Between 10-15% of freight traffic is in either the AM and
        PM peak hours.

Vehicle Flow and Capacity

4.88	 The broad locations along Corridor 7 which display the highest levels of network
      stress (vehicle flow:capacity ratio of 0.75 or greater) for a 2007 year dataset are as
      follows:

        •    M42: Northbound between junctions 4 and 9 during AM peak hours;
        •    M42: Southbound between junctions 4 and 10 during AM peak hours;
        •    M42: Northbound between junctions 4 and 9 during PM peak hours; and
        •    M42: Southbound between junctions 4 and 10 during PM peak hours;



Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 4	                                              Page 58



4.89	 It is the section of the M42 to the east of Birmingham which experiences network
      stress during the AM and PM peak periods (both directions). At these locations, the
      corridor is effectively acting as both a long distance trunk route (predominantly for
      freight traffic) and as a route for shorter distance intra-urban passenger (commuter)
      and freight traffic.

4.90	 The nature of freight vehicle activity at this location can be described as follows:

      •	 Freight vehicle activity forms around 25-27% of all vehicle flow (expressed as PCUs);
      •	 Domestic traffic forms around 85-90% of all freight vehicle activity;
      •	 Food (both temperature controlled and ambient) and manufactured goods dominate
         the commodity groupings, accounting for just under 70% of all freight vehicle activity.
         This is to be expected given the freight generators/attractors located along the
         corridor (see above).
      •	 Average length of haul is around 250km. Around 20% of HGVs are travelling less
         than 100km, and while around 35-40% are moving more than 300km, suggesting that
         these links are handling some fairly long distance freight traffic. However, junctions
         7-9 display a much lower average length of haul of around 150km, suggesting a
         higher proportion of shorter distance traffic at these links (likely to be final ‘leg’ in the
         supply chain type flows); and
      •	 Between 10-15% of freight traffic is in either the AM and PM peak hours.

4.91	 It is important to note that these links are located immediately to the south of a key
      concentration of logistics warehousing (Hams Hall, Coleshill, Tamworth etc..). Also,
      the Birmingham conurbation is a key consumer of freight (finished goods).

Corridor 8: London to the West Midlands, North Wales, North West and Scotland 9

4.92	 Corridor 8 extends from the M1/M25 interchange just to the north of London to the
      Scottish border near Carlisle via the M1, M6 and A74, passing the population centres
      of Milton Keynes, Coventry, Birmingham, Stoke-on-Trent, Liverpool, Manchester and
      Preston. The corridor also includes the M40 from the M40/M25 interchange to the
      M42/M40 in the West Midlands, passing Oxford and Banbury. In addition, the M56,
      M57 and M61 motorways in Greater Manchester, Merseyside, Lancashire and
      Cheshire are also part of the corridor. The main freight generating locations along
      the corridor are:

          •	 Logistics warehousing in the Midlands and North, particularly along the Milton
             Keynes to Birmingham section of the corridor, where there is a high concentration
             of RDC and NDC activity, and around Manchester-Liverpool (RDCs). Key sites
             include the rail-linked facilities at DIRFT (M1 Jct 18) and Hams Hall (M6 Jcts 3a
             and 4);


9
    Part of corridor shared with Corridor 4 (M40) and Corridor 10 (M1).

Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 4	                                     Page 59



        •	   The automotive industry of the Midlands and associated suppliers;
        •	   The automotive industry in the North West and associated suppliers;
        •	   The Port of Liverpool (RoRo, LoLo and bulk commodities);
        •	   Major oil refinery on the River Mersey (Stanlow); and
        •	   The major population centres of Oxford, Milton Keynes, Coventry, Birmingham,
             Stoke-on-Trent, Liverpool, Warrington, Manchester, Chester and Preston
             (consumption areas)

4.93	 Corridor 8 (M1 and M6 in particular) is essentially playing a number of key roles,
      namely:

        •	 A key ‘inter-city’ route (for freight and other vehicles) between London­
           Birmingham-Liverpool/Manchester-Preston;
        •	 An intra-urban route (for freight and other vehicles) around the Birmingham
           conurbation and in the North West; and
        •	 A long distance freight route, particularly for flows from the Midlands NDCs and
           Anglo-Scottish traffic.

4.94	 The railway route forming Corridor 8 is the WCML from Wembley to Carlisle via the
      Trent Valley and the associated branches to Birmingham, Liverpool and Manchester
      (via Stoke and Crewe).

Vehicle Flow

4.95	 Traffic flows on the M1 (between the M25 and junction 19) peak at the southern end
      of the M1 between junction 7 and 10 near Luton at around 75,000 vehicles per day
      per direction. Around 8,500-9,000 vehicles are HGVs at this location, equating to
      around 12-15% of all vehicle traffic (or approximately 30% when expressed as
      PCUs). Total traffic declines slightly to around 45-48,000 vehicles per day between
      Milton Keynes and Northampton. Around 7,000-8,000 vehicles are HGVs at this
      location, equating to around 18% of all vehicle traffic (or approximately 35-40% when
      expressed as PCUs). Traffic levels increase again north of Northampton (junction 15)
      to around 55-60,000 vehicles per day per direction. Over the length of this section of
      the corridor, freight vehicle flow is around 8,000 HGVs per day (17-17% of all vehicle
      flow). This equates to around 33-36% of vehicle demand when expressed as PCUs.
      There are a number locations where there is a step change in vehicle flow, namely:

        •	 Junction 15a – where the A43 (M40-M1 link road) joins the M1;
        •	 Junction 8 – Hemel Hempstead; and
        •	 Junction 16 – Northampton north

4.96	 In traffic flow terms, the M40 can be divided into four distinct sections:




Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 4	                                       Page 60



    •	 From M25 to junction 8 – this section is effectively the London to Oxford motorway in
       addition to being a London-Midlands long distance route. Total vehicle flow is around
       45-50,000 vehicles per day (3-4,000 or 8-9% of all vehicles are HGVs/20% when
       expressed as PCUs);
    •	 Junction 8 to junction 9 – a ‘quiet section’ by-passing Oxford, probably only used by
       longer distance London-Midlands traffic. Total vehicle flow is around 30,000 vehicles
       per day (3,500 or 11% of all vehicles are HGVs/32% when expressed as PCUs);
    •	 Junction 9 to junction 10 (A43 to M1) – this is the busiest link on the M40, handling
       circa 50-60,000 vehicles per day (8,000 or 14% of all vehicles are HGVs/30% when
       expressed as PCUs). A significant number of north-south trips (which also use the
       A34 south of Oxford – Corridor 4) obviously use the junction 9-10 section of the M40
       before joining the A43 for Northampton and the M1; and
    •	 Junction 10 to M42 – Total vehicle flow is around 38-45,000 vehicles, of which
       around 11-12% are HGVs/25% when expressed as PCUs.

4.97	 There is consequently a significant ‘step change’ in demand between each of the four
      sections described above. South of junction 8, HGV traffic accounts for around 8-9%
      of total vehicle flow. North of junction 9, freight activity forms a higher proportion of
      total vehicle traffic (25-30% of vehicle demand in PCUs).

4.98	 On the M6, heading north from the junction with the M1, vehicle flow increases in
      both directions, from around 35,000 vehicles per day near Rugby (7-8,000 HGVs per
      day) through to around 60-65,000 vehicles per day through central Birmingham (9­
      10,000 HGVs per day). There is a slight dip in traffic flows north of junction 10a
      (M54), before increasing again following the merge of the M6 Toll to around 60,000
      vehicles per day through Staffordshire. Vehicle flow then gradually increases again
      north of Stoke (junction 15) to the maximum of around 80-85,000 vehicles per day
      between the M56 and M62 interchanges (12-14,000 HGVs per day). There is
      another slight fall in total traffic flow north of the M62 before increasing again on the
      section by-passing Preston (65-70,000 vehicles per day, of which around 8,000 are
      HGVs). North of Preston, total vehicle traffic is around 20-25,000 vehicles per day (4­
      5,000 HGVs per day) on the section through the lake district towards Scotland.
      Overall, freight vehicles form around 15-18% of all vehicle flow along the M6. This
      equates to between 35-45% of vehicle demand when expressed as PCUs

4.99	 There are a number locations where there is a step change in vehicle flow, namely:

        •	   Junction 2 – Coventry;
        •	   Junction 3a – traffic departing M6 for M42 and M6 Toll;
        •	   Junction 4 – interchange with M42;
        •	   Junction 10a – M54 and Telford;
        •	   Junction 12 – M6 Toll;
        •	   Junction 20 – M56 interchange;
        •	   Junction 21a – M62 interchange;

Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 4	                                         Page 61



        •    Junction 30 – M65 and M61; and
        •    Junction 32 – M55 and Blackpool

4.100 North of Preston, the population density is very low with the only population centres of
      any significance being the moderately sized towns of Lancaster, Kendal, Penrith and
      Carlisle. This is obviously reflected in the gradual decline in traffic levels north of
      Preston.

4.101 The	other key routes of Corridor 10 are the M56, M61 and M57/A5036 (which
      connects to the Port of Liverpool). The highest levels of traffic flow on the M56 is
      close to Manchester Airport and Altrincham at around 70-80,000 vehicles per day
      (5,000 or 8% are HGVs). The lowest vehicle flow is between junctions 7 (link road
      between M56 and M6 to the south) and junction 9 (interchange with M6 to the north).
      The M61 handles around 41-48,000 vehicles per day, of which around 7-8% are
      HGVs. The M57/A5036 routes displays fairly low traffic flow levels, though are the
      issues related to stress (see below). There are a number locations where there is a
      step change in vehicle flow, namely:

        •    Junction 7 – link road between M56 and M6 to the south;
        •    Junction 10 – Junction 10 is the main interchange serving south Warrington;
        •    Junction 3 – interchange with M60 and A5103 into central Manchester.

4.102 The number of vans along the corridor varies between 6,000 and 10,000 per day per
      direction. This equates to between 12% and 18% of all traffic flow along the corridor.

Freight Activity

4.103 The broad nature of road freight activity along the corridor is described below.

        Domestic/international split: On the M1, domestic traffic accounts for around 70% of
        freight vehicle activity. The balance is predominantly RoRo traffic (mainly Dover
        Straits). The M40 is dominated by domestic traffic (around 90% of freight vehicle
        activity). On the southern section of the M6, domestic traffic forms around 70-75% of
        freight vehicle activity, though north of the M62 domestic traffic is dominant (90%).
        Domestic traffic is also dominant on the M56 and M61, though the A5036 road to the
        port does display significant numbers of RoRo, LoLo and other international traffic.

        Commodities: Food (both temperature controlled and ambient) and manufactured
        goods dominate the commodity groupings. This is to be expected given the freight
        generators/attractors located along the corridor (see above). There are also
        significant flows of construction materials and metals along the corridor. Petroleum
        flows from the Stanlow refinery are also evident on the western section of the M56.




Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 4	                                         Page 62



        Length of haul: Freight flows around the major urban conurbations are dominated by
        shorter distance movements e.g. M1 and M40 close to London, Birmingham and
        North West England (average length of haul circa 150km). These are likely to be final
        ‘legs’ in the supply chain, for example RDC to retail outlet flows or movements of
        aggregates from rail-linked terminals to construction sites. Longer distance flows are
        evident on the M1 and M6 north of Northampton (flows ex NDCs) and north of
        Preston (Anglo-Scottish traffic), where average length of haul is around 250-300km.

        Freight During Peak Hours: Between 10-15% of freight traffic is in either the AM and
        PM peak hours.

Vehicle Flow and Capacity

4.104 The broad locations along Corridor 8 which display the highest levels of network
      stress (vehicle flow:capacity ratio of 0.75 or greater) for a 2007 year dataset are as
      follows:

        •	   M1: Southbound approaching the M25 during AM peak hours;
        •	   M1: Northbound between junctions 15 and 18 during PM peak hours;
        •	   M40: Northbound between Oxford and Banbury during PM peak hours;
        •	   M6: Northbound and southbound between junction 8 and M6 Toll interchange
             during AM and PM peak hours
        •	   M6: Northbound between junctions 16 and 20 during PM peak hours;
        •	   M56: Approaching Manchester during AM peak hours;
        •	   M61: Approaching Manchester during AM peak hours; and
        •	   A5036: near the Port of Liverpool during AM peak hours

4.105 The nature of freight vehicle activity at these locations is described below.

       M1 – near M25
    •	 Freight vehicle activity forms around 28-30% of all vehicle flow (expressed as PCUs);
    •	 Domestic traffic forms around 70% of all freight vehicle activity, the remainder being
       mostly international RoRo (around 20% and mainly to/from Dover Straits);
    •	 Food (both temperature controlled and ambient) and manufactured goods dominate
       the commodity groupings, accounting for around 75% of all freight vehicle activity.
       This is to be expected given the nature of the freight generators in the corridor
       (London – key consumer of finished goods).
    •	 Average length of haul is around 200-250km. Around 30% of HGVs are travelling
       less than 100km, and around 30% are moving more than 300km, suggesting that
       these links are handling some fairly long distance freight traffic (International RoRo).
       However, the domestic traffic is likely to be shorter distance traffic (final ‘leg’ in the
       supply chain type flows); and
    •	 Between 10-15% of freight traffic is in either the AM and PM peak hours.



Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 4	                                        Page 63



    M1 – Northampton to M6
    •	 Freight vehicle activity forms around 38% of all vehicle flow (expressed as PCUs);
    •	 Domestic traffic forms around 70% of all freight vehicle activity, the remainder being
       mostly international RoRo (Dover Straits);
    •	 Food (both temperature controlled and ambient) and manufactured goods dominate
       the commodity groupings, accounting for around 70-75% of all freight vehicle activity.
       This is to be expected given the nature of the freight generators in the corridor.
    •	 Average length of haul is around 250km. Around 10% of HGVs are travelling less
       than 100km, and around 40% are moving more than 300km, suggesting that these
       links are handling some fairly long distance freight traffic (International RoRo and
       flows from NDCs in Northampton to RDCs nationwide); and
    •	 Between 10-15% of freight traffic is in either the AM and PM peak hours.

    It is important to note that these links are located close to major concentrations of
    distribution warehousing.

    M6 – East and North of Birmingham
    •	 Freight vehicle activity forms around 36% of all vehicle flow (expressed as PCUs);
    •	 Domestic traffic forms around 65-70% of all freight vehicle activity to the east of
       Birmingham and around 80% on the stressed links to the north of Birmingham, the
       remainder being mostly international RoRo;
    •	 Food (both temperature controlled and ambient) and manufactured goods dominate
       the commodity groupings, accounting for around 70% of freight vehicle activity. This
       is to be expected given the nature of the freight generators in the corridor.
    •	 Average length of haul is around 250km. Around 30-35% of HGVs are travelling less
       than 100km, and around 35-40% are moving more than 300km, suggesting that
       these links are handling some fairly long distance freight traffic (International RoRo
       and flows from NDCs to RDCs nationwide). However, it is likely that a significant
       proportion of the domestic traffic will be short distance in nature; and
    •	 Between 10-15% of freight traffic is in either the AM and PM peak hours.

    Again, it is important to note that these links are located close to major concentrations of
    distribution warehousing. Also, the Birmingham conurbation is a key 'consumer' of
    freight.

    M6 – Cheshire
    •	 Freight vehicle activity forms around 38-40% of all vehicle flow (expressed as PCUs);
    •	 Domestic traffic forms around 80% of all freight vehicle activity, the remainder being
       mostly international RoRo;
    •	 Food (both temperature controlled and ambient) and manufactured goods dominate
       the commodity groupings, accounting for around 65-70% of all freight vehicle activity.
       This is to be expected given the nature of the freight generators in the corridor.
    •	 Average length of haul is around 250km. Around 25% of HGVs are travelling less
       than 100km, and around 35% are moving more than 300km, suggesting that these

Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 4	                                        Page 64



       links are handling some fairly long distance freight traffic (International RoRo and
       flows from NDCs). However, length of haul falls to around 150km on the section of
       the M6 near Warrington, suggesting a higher proportion of shorter distance traffic
       (final ‘leg’ in the supply chain type flows); and
    •	 Between 10-15% of freight traffic is in either the AM and PM peak hours.

4.106 At these locations, the corridor is effectively acting as both a long distance trunk route
      (predominantly for freight traffic) and as a route for shorter distance intra-urban
      passenger (commuter) and freight traffic.

Corridor 9: Trans-Pennine

4.107 Corridor 9 extends from Liverpool to Hull via the M62, M60 (entire orbital route) and
      A63/A1033, passing the population centres of Warrington, Manchester, Salford,
      Huddersfield, Bradford, Leeds and Wakefield. It also includes the M18, M180 and
      A180 from the M62/M18 interchange to Immingham and Grimsby. The main freight
      generating locations along the corridor are:

        •	 Logistics warehousing in the around Manchester-Liverpool and Leeds-Wakefield
           (RDCs). Key sites include the rail-linked facilities at Trafford Park (M60 Jcts 9
           and 10) and Wakefield Europort (M62 Jct 31);
        •	 The Port of Liverpool (RoRo, LoLo and bulk commodities);
        •	 The Humber Ports at Hull, Immingham, Grimsby and Humber Sea Terminal
           (RoRo, LoLo and bulk commodities);
        •	 Major oil refineries on the Humber
        •	 The Peak district quarries; and
        •	 The major population centres of Warrington, Manchester, Salford, Huddersfield,
           Bradford, Leeds and Wakefield (consumption areas).

4.108 Corridor 9 (principally the M62/M60 route) is essentially playing a number of key
      roles, namely:

        •	 A key ‘inter-city’ route (for freight and other vehicles) between Liverpool-
           Manchester and Liverpool/Manchester-Leeds/Bradford;
        •	 An intra-urban route (for freight and other vehicles) in the Manchester and
           Leeds/Bradford conurbations; and
        •	 Serving the major port facilities on the Humber.

4.109 The railway routes forming Corridor 9 are:

        •	 The main trans-Pennine railway from Liverpool to Leeds via Chat Moss,
           Manchester and Standedge;
        •	 Mirfield to Immingham via Wakefield; and
        •	 Manchester to Sheffield via Hope Valley

Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 4                                           Page 65



Vehicle Flow

4.110 The busiest section of the corridor is on the M60 along the northern edge of the
      Manchester conurbation. Traffic flow is around 75-85,000 vehicles per day per
      direction on this section of the corridor. Around 10,000-11,000 vehicles are HGVs at
      this location, equating to around 12% of all vehicle traffic (or approximately 25-30%
      when expressed as PCUs). The next busiest section is on the M62 passing through
      the Leeds/Bradford conurbation. Traffic flow is around 70,000 vehicles per day on
      this section of the corridor. Around 8,000-9,000 vehicles are HGVs at this location,
      equating to around 15% of all vehicle traffic (or approximately 28% when expressed
      as PCUs). Traffic flow is considerably lower at the western and eastern extremities of
      the corridor, particularly on the section through East Yorkshire to/from Hull. A similar
      pattern emerges on the M62 west of Warrington.

4.111 There are a number locations where there is a step change in vehicle flow, namely:

        •    M62 junction 9 – interchange with M6;
        •    M60/M62 interchange (junction 12);
        •    M60/M62 interchange (junction 18);
        •    M60 – A34 interchange;
        •    M62 junction 26 (M606 Bradford);
        •    M62 junction 29 – interchange with M1; and
        •    A180 – junction with A160 (Immingham docks).

4.112 The number of vans along the corridor varies between 6,000 and 10,000 per day per
      direction. This equates to around 15% of all traffic flow along the corridor.

Freight Activity

4.113 The broad nature of road freight activity along the corridor is described below.

        Domestic/international Split: Despite some major RoRo port facilities being located at
        the extremities of the corridor, Corridor 9 is dominated by domestic traffic. Domestic
        traffic accounts for around 90% of freight vehicle flow.

        Commodities: Food (both temperature controlled and ambient) and manufactured
        goods dominate the commodity groupings. This is to be expected given the freight
        generators/attractors located along the corridor (see above). There are also
        significant flows of construction materials and metals along the corridor. Interestingly,
        there are flows of petroleum products close to the Carrington storage depot (M60).

        Length of haul: The ‘inter-city’ nature of the Corridor is reflected in the length of haul
        data. The western section of the Corridor is dominated by short haul flows of around
        100km. Average length of haul on the eastern (Yorkshire) section of the corridor are


Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 4	                                        Page 66



        slightly longer at around 150km. Clearly the corridor is dominated by very short
        distance movements. These are likely to be final ‘legs’ in the supply chain, for
        example RDCs to retail outlet flows or movements of aggregates from rail-linked
        terminals to construction sites. Longer distance flows are evident on the M18 and
        M180 (RoRo traffic ex Immingham and Humber Sea Terminal).

        Freight During Peak Hours: Between 10-15% of freight traffic is in either the AM and
        PM peak hours.

Vehicle Flow and Capacity

4.114 The broad locations along Corridor 9 which display the highest levels of network
      stress (vehicle flow:capacity ratio of 0.75 or greater) for a 2007 year dataset are as
      follows:

        •	 M62: Eastbound from M6 to interchange with M60 during AM peak hours;
        •	 M62: Westbound from M60 to interchange with M6;
        •	 M60: Eastbound between junctions 12 and 18 during AM and PM peak hours;
        •	 M60: Westbound between junctions 12 and 18 during AM and PM peak hours;
        •	 M60: Eastbound between M67 and M56 during AM and PM peak hours;
        •	 M60: Westbound between M67 and M56 during AM and PM peak hours;
        •	 M62: Eastbound between junctions 25 and 30 during AM and PM peak hours;
        •	 M62: Westbound between junctions 25 and 30 during AM and PM peak hours;
           and
        •	 A63 in Hull during AM and Pm peak hours.

4.115 At these locations, the corridor is effectively acting as both a long distance trunk route
      (predominantly for freight traffic) and as a ‘by-pass’ route for shorter distance intra-
      urban passenger (commuter) and freight traffic.

4.116 The nature of freight vehicle activity at these locations is described below.

    M62 from M6 to /M60
    •	 Freight vehicle activity forms around 32-33% of all vehicle flow (expressed as PCUs);
    •	 Domestic traffic forms around 90% of all freight vehicle activity;
    •	 Food (both temperature controlled and ambient) and manufactured goods dominate
       the commodity groupings, accounting for around 60% of freight vehicle activity.
       Construction and metals forms around 25% of freight flows. This is to be expected
       given the nature of the freight generators in the corridor.
    •	 Average length of haul is around 100-125km. Around 60% of HGVs are travelling
       less than 100km, and around 10% are moving more than 300km. It would therefore
       appear that much of the freight traffic is short distance in nature, much of which is
       likely to be final ‘leg’ in the supply chain type flows; and
    •	 Between 10-15% of freight traffic is in either the AM and PM peak hours.

Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 4	                                     Page 67




    It is important to note that the stressed links are located close to a concentration of
    logistics warehousing (Warrington). Also, the Manchester conurbation is a key
    'consumer' of freight (finished goods).

    M60 along the northern edge of the Manchester conurbation
    •	 Freight vehicle activity forms around 28-30% of all vehicle flow (expressed as PCUs);
    •	 Domestic traffic forms around 90% of all freight vehicle activity;
    •	 Food (both temperature controlled and ambient) and manufactured goods dominate
       the commodity groupings, accounting for around 60% of freight vehicle activity.
       Construction and metals forms around 25% of freight flows. This is to be expected
       given the nature of the freight generators in the corridor.
    •	 Average length of haul is around 100-125km. Around 65% of HGVs are travelling
       less than 100km, and around 5-7% are moving more than 300km. It would therefore
       appear that much of the freight traffic is short distance in nature, much of which is
       likely to be final ‘leg’ in the supply chain type flows; and
    •	 Between 10-15% of freight traffic is in either the AM and PM peak hours.

    It is important to note that the stressed links are located close to a concentration of
    logistics warehousing. Also, the Manchester conurbation is a key 'consumer' of freight
    (finished goods).

    M60 – M67 to Stockport (M56)
    •	 Freight vehicle activity forms around 15-18% of all vehicle flow (expressed as PCUs);
    •	 Domestic traffic forms around 95% of all freight vehicle activity;
    •	 Food (both temperature controlled and ambient) and manufactured goods dominate
       the commodity groupings, accounting for around 55% of freight vehicle activity.
       Construction and metals forms around 30% of freight flows. This is to be expected
       given the nature of the freight generators in the corridor.
    •	 Average length of haul is around 100-125km. Around 60% of HGVs are travelling
       less than 100km, and around 8% are moving more than 300km. It would therefore
       appear that much of the freight traffic is short distance in nature, much of which is
       likely to be final ‘leg’ in the supply chain type flows; and
    •	 Between 10-15% of freight traffic is in either the AM and PM peak hours.

    M62 – Leeds to Bradford
    •	 Freight vehicle activity forms around 30-34% of all vehicle flow (expressed as PCUs);
    •	 Domestic traffic forms around 85-89% of all freight vehicle activity;
    •	 Food (both temperature controlled and ambient) and manufactured goods dominate
       the commodity groupings, accounting for around 55% of freight vehicle activity.
       Construction and metals forms around 30% of freight flows. This is to be expected
       given the nature of the freight generators in the corridor.
    •	 Average length of haul is around 100-125km. Around 50% of HGVs are travelling
       less than 100km, and around 4-5% are moving more than 300km. It would therefore

Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 4	                                         Page 68



         appear that much of the freight traffic is short distance in nature, much of which is
         likely to be final ‘leg’ in the supply chain type flows; and
      •	 Between 10-15% of freight traffic is in either the AM and PM peak hours.

Corridor 10: London to the East Midlands, Yorkshire, North East and Scotland 10

4.117 Corridor 10 extends from the M1/M25 interchange near London to Newcastle and
      Teesside via the M1, A1/A1(M) and A19, passing the population centres of Leicester,
      Nottingham, Derby, Sheffield, Leeds, Middlesbrough and Darlington. It also includes
      the A1/A1(M) from the interchange with the A14 to where it connects with the A1 to
      the north of Leeds.

4.118 The main freight generating locations along the corridor are:

          •	 Logistics warehousing in the Midlands, Yorkshire and North East, particularly
             along the Milton Keynes to Leicester section of the corridor, where there is a high
             concentration of RDC and NDC activity, and around Leeds, Wakefield and
             Teesside (RDCs). Key sites include the rail-linked facilities at DIRFT (M1 Jct 18),
             Wakefield Europort and the non rail-linked Magna Park at Lutterworth;
          •	 Teesport (RoRo, LoLo and bulk commodities)
          •	 The East Midlands quarries and a number of rail-linked aggregates terminals to
             the north of London; and
          •	 The major population centres of Leicester, Nottingham, Derby, Sheffield, Leeds,
             Middlesbrough and Darlington (consumption areas).

4.119 The railway routes forming Corridor 10 are:

          •	 Midland Mainline (MML) from Cricklewood to Sheffield via Leicester and onwards
             to Leeds via Barnsley;
          •	 East Coast Mainline (ECML) from London to Newcastle via Peterborough,
             Doncaster and York, and associated branch to Teesside; and
          •	 Leeds-Settle-Carlisle line.

Vehicle Flow

4.120 The busiest section of the M1 is between junction 23a (A42 from Birmingham) to
      junction 33 (Sheffield) which handles broadly 60-65,000 vehicles per day per
      direction. Around 8,000-10,000 vehicles are HGVs at this location, equating to
      around 15% of all vehicle traffic (or approximately 30-35% when expressed as
      PCUs). North of Sheffield, traffic flow declines slightly before increasing to the south
      of Leeds. In freight terms, the section from Leicester to the M18 is the most
      important.

10
     Part of corridor shared with Corridor 8 (M1)

Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 4	                                         Page 69




4.121 There are a number locations where there is a step change in vehicle flow, namely:

        •	   M1 junction 21 – interchange with M69 (from Coventry and Birmingham);
        •	   M1 junction 21a – A46 to north Leicester and Newark;
        •	   M1 junction 23a – interchange with A42 (from Birmingham);
        •	   M1 junction 33 – Sheffield south;
        •	   M1 junction 34 – Sheffield centre and Meadowhall; and
        •	   M1 junction 43 – Leeds city centre.

4.122 The A1/A1(M) north of Leeds can be divided into three distinct sections:

    •	 From the A1(M)/M1 interchange to the A1(M)/A168 (A19) interchange at Disforth –
       total vehicle flow between 35-40,000 vehicles per day (6-8,000 or 15-17% are HGVs)
    •	 From Dishforth to Durham – total vehicle flow between 20-25,000 vehicles per day
       (4,000 or 12-17% are HGVs); and
    •	 Durham to Newcastle – total vehicle flow between 45-50,000 vehicles per day (3,000
       or 12-5-6% are HGVs).

4.123 As a result, there are a number locations where there is a step change in vehicle flow,
      namely:

        •	 Between A1(M)/M1 interchange and the junction with the A63 (York);
        •	 A1(M)/M1 interchange to the A1(M)/A168 (A19); and
        •	 A1(M) junction 61.

4.124 The	 A1/A1(M) from the A14 to Yorkshire passes through an area where the
      population density is very low, with the only ‘urban’ centres of any significance being
      the moderately sized towns of Peterborough, Grantham and Newark. This is
      obviously reflected in the relatively low traffic flow – generally around 20,000 vehicles
      per day or which around 3-4,000 are HGVs (18-20%). As a result, the proportion of
      traffic which is freight activity is fairly high.

4.125 The number of vans along the corridor varies between 6,000 and 8,000 per day per
      direction. This equates to around 15% of all traffic flow along the corridor.

Freight Activity

4.126 The broad nature of road freight activity along the corridor is described below.

        Domestic/international split: Corridor 10 is dominated by domestic traffic. Domestic
        traffic accounts for around 90% of freight vehicle flow.




Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 4	                                      Page 70



        Commodities: Food (both temperature controlled and ambient) and manufactured
        goods dominate the commodity groupings. This is to be expected given the freight
        generators/attractors located along the corridor (see above). There are also
        significant flows of construction materials and metals along the corridor.

        Length of haul: Freight flows around the major urban areas are dominated by shorter
        distance movements e.g. Leicester-Sheffield (average length of haul circa 150­
        200km). These are likely to be final ‘legs’ in the supply chain, for example RDC to
        retail outlet flows or movements of aggregates from rail-linked terminals to
        construction sites. Longer distance flows are evident on the A1/A1(M) north of Leeds
        and between the A14 and Yorkshire, where average length of haul is around 250­
        300km.

        Freight During Peak Hours: Between 10-15% of freight traffic is in either the AM and
        PM peak hours.

Vehicle Flow and Capacity

4.127 The broad locations along Corridor 10 which display the highest levels of network
      stress (vehicle flow:capacity ratio of 0.75 or greater) for a 2007 year dataset are as
      follows:

        •	 M1: Northbound from Leicester to Sheffield during PM peak hours;
        •	 M1: Southbound between Leicester and Sheffield during AM and PM peak hours;
        •	 M1: Northbound approaching M62 interchange near Wakefield during AM peak
           hours;
        •	 M1: Southbound from M62 interchange near Wakefield during PM peak hours;
        •	 A1: Wetherby to M1 during AM peak hours;
        •	 A1: M1 to Wetherby during PM peak hours; and
        •	 A1: South Yorkshire and Nottinghamshire (both directions) during AM and PM
           peak hours.

4.128 The nature of freight vehicle activity at these locations is described below.

    M1 – Leicester to Sheffield
    •	 Freight vehicle activity forms around 30-35% of all vehicle flow (expressed as PCUs);
    •	 Domestic traffic forms around 93-95% of all freight vehicle activity;
    •	 Food (both temperature controlled and ambient) and manufactured goods dominate
       the commodity groupings, accounting for around 55% of freight vehicle activity.
       Construction and metals forms around 25% of freight flows. This is to be expected
       given the nature of the freight generators in the corridor.
    •	 Average length of haul is around 100-125km. Around 30-40% of HGVs are travelling
       less than 100km, and around 15-20% are moving more than 300km. It would
       therefore appear that much of the freight traffic is short distance in nature, much of

Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 4	                                             Page 71



         which is likely to be final ‘leg’ in the supply chain type flows, though with some longer
         distance flows present also; and
      •	 Between 10-15% of freight traffic is in either the AM and PM peak hours.

      These links are located just to the north of a major concentration of logistics
      warehousing.

      M1 – Wakefield-Leeds
      •	 Freight vehicle activity forms around 21-25% of all vehicle flow (expressed as PCUs);
      •	 Domestic traffic forms around 95-97% of all freight vehicle activity;
      •	 Food (both temperature controlled and ambient) and manufactured goods dominate
         the commodity groupings, accounting for around 65% of freight vehicle activity . This
         is to be expected given the nature of the freight generators in the corridor.
      •	 Average length of haul is around 100-125km. Around 50% of HGVs are travelling
         less than 100km, and around 5-10% are moving more than 300km. It would
         therefore appear that much of the freight traffic is short distance in nature, much of
         which is likely to be final ‘leg’ in the supply chain type flows; and
      •	 Between 10-15% of freight traffic is in either the AM and PM peak hours.

      It is important to note that the stressed links are located close to a concentration of
      logistics warehousing (Wakefield and Normanton).

      A1 from A1(M)/M1 Interchange to Wetherby
      •	 Freight vehicle activity forms around 35-40% of all vehicle flow (expressed as PCUs);
      •	 Domestic traffic forms around 90% of all freight vehicle activity;
      •	 Food (both temperature controlled and ambient) and manufactured goods dominate
         the commodity groupings. This is to be expected given the nature of the freight
         generators in the corridor.
      •	 Average length of haul is around 250km. Around 10% of HGVs are travelling less
         than 100km, and around 35% are moving more than 300km. It would therefore
         appear that much of the freight traffic is fairly long distance in nature; and
      •	 Between 10-15% of freight traffic is in either the AM and PM peak hours.

4.129 At these locations, the corridor is effectively acting as both a long distance trunk route
      (predominantly for freight traffic) and as a route for shorter distance passenger
      (commuter) and freight traffic.

Corridor 11: Haven Ports to the Midlands 11

4.130 Corridor 11 covers the A14 from the Port of Felixstowe to the M1/M6 interchange
      near Rugby (including shared section with A12 around Ipswich), passing the
      population centres of Ipswich, Cambridge and Kettering. A significant part of the

11
     Part of corridor is shared with Corridor 12 (A12/A14 section to the south of Ipswich)

Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 4	                                       Page 72



        corridor passes through an area of low population density (East Anglia and
        Northants), with the only centres of any significance being the moderately sized
        towns of Stowmarket, Bury St Edmonds and Newmarket in East Anglia and Kettering
        in Northants. The main freight generating locations along the corridor are:

        •	 Logistics warehousing in the Midlands, particularly near Kettering (including
           Corby) and Huntington;
        •	 The Port of Felixstowe and Harwich International Port (LoLo and RoRo); and
        •	 The major population centres of Ipswich and Cambridge (consumption areas).

4.131 In that respect, the corridor is playing a number of roles, namely:

        •	 A key long distance freight route from the Haven ports to the Midlands;
        •	 A key intra-urban route for passengers and freight activity (in and around Ipswich,
           Cambridge); and
        •	 The only direct route linking the moderately sized towns in the rural areas of the
           corridor.

4.132 The	railway route forming Corridor 11 extends from Felixstowe to Nuneaton via
      Ipswich, Ely, Peterborough and Leicester.

Vehicle Flow

4.133 Corridor 11 (principally the A14) is essentially playing a number of key roles, namely:

    •	 An intra-urban route (for freight and other vehicles) around Ipswich, Cambridge and
       Kettering-Corby; and
    •	 A long distance freight route serving the Port of Felixstowe, Harwich International
       Port and the logistics warehousing of the Midlands.

4.134 As noted above, the corridor also passes through an area of low population density,
      with the only centres of any significance being Stowmarket, Bury St Edmonds and
      Newmarket. This is reflected in the traffic flows along the A14, which ‘peak’ around
      the Ipswich, Cambridge and Kettering-Corby areas. There are also three key
      sections of the route which are ‘shared’ with other highways. These are with the A12
      to the south of Ipswich, with the A11 to the north of Newmarket (main London to
      Norwich road) and with the A6 to the south of Kettering (Bedford to Leicestershire).
      This is also reflected in the traffic flows along the A14.

4.135 There are a number locations where there is a step change in vehicle flow, namely:

        •	 The A12/A14 interchange to the east of Ipswich i.e. the shared section with the
           A12;
        •	 A14/A140 interchange to the north of Ipswich;

Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 4	                                             Page 73



        •	   The ‘shared’ section with the A11 to the north of Newmarket;
        •	   A14/M11 interchange to the north west of Cambridge;
        •	   A14/A1 interchange near Huntingdon; and
        •	   To the west and east of Kettering – the ‘shared’ section with the A6.

4.136 The number of vans along the corridor varies between 2,500 and 4,000 per day per
      direction. This equates to between 8% and 12% of all traffic flow along the corridor.

Freight Activity

4.137 The broad nature of road freight activity along the corridor is described below.

        Domestic/international split: Corridor 11 is dominated by domestic traffic (around
        75% to the east of Cambridge and 80% between the A1 and M1), however there are
        also significant flows of maritime containers and RoRo traffic.

        Commodities: Food (both temperature controlled and ambient) and manufactured
        goods dominate the commodity groupings. This is to be expected given the freight
        generators/attractors located along the corridor (see above). There are also
        significant flows of construction materials and metals along the corridor.

        Length of haul: Freight flows around the urban areas are dominated by shorter
        distance movements (average length of haul circa 150-200km). It would therefore
        appear that much of this freight traffic is likely to be final ‘leg’ in the supply chain type
        flows. Longer distance flows are evident on the more rural section of the A14
        between Stowmarket and Newmarket, where average length of haul is around 250­
        300km.

        Freight During Peak Hours: Between 10-15% of freight traffic is in either the AM and
        PM peak hours.

Vehicle Flow and Capacity

4.138 The broad locations along Corridor 11 which display the highest levels of network
      stress (vehicle flow:capacity ratio of 0.75 or greater) for a 2007 year dataset are as
      follows:

        •	   A14: Eastbound near Ipswich during the AM and PM peak hours;
        •	   A14: Westbound near Ipswich during the AM and PM peak hours;
        •	   A14: Eastbound near Newmarket during the AM and PM peak hours;
        •	   A14: Westbound near Newmarket during the AM and PM peak hours;
        •	   A14: Eastbound between Cambridge and Huntingdon during the AM and PM
             peak hours;



Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 4	                                      Page 74



        •	 A14: Eastbound between Cambridge and Huntingdon during the AM and PM
           peak hours;
        •	 A14: Eastbound near Kettering during the AM and PM peak hours; and
        •	 A14: Westbound near Kettering during the AM and PM peak hours.

4.139 The nature of freight vehicle activity at these locations is described below.

    A14/A12 Ipswich
    •	 Freight vehicle activity forms around 35-40% of all vehicle flow (expressed as PCUs);
    •	 Domestic traffic forms around 60% of all freight vehicle activity, the balance being
       mainly international LoLo (around 30%) and RoRo traffic (ex Haven ports);
    •	 Food (both temperature controlled and ambient) and manufactured goods dominate
       the commodity groupings, accounting for around 60% of freight vehicle activity. This
       is to be expected given the nature of the freight generators in the corridor.
    •	 Average length of haul is around 100-150km. Around 55% of HGVs are travelling
       less than 100km, and around 10% are moving more than 300km. It would therefore
       appear that much of the freight traffic is short distance in nature (and implying that
       longer distance International LoLo is moving by rail freight); and
    •	 Between 10-15% of freight traffic is in either the AM and PM peak hours.

     A14 Bury St Edmonds
    •	 Freight vehicle activity forms around 35% of all vehicle flow (expressed as PCUs);
    •	 Domestic traffic forms around 65% of all freight vehicle activity, the balance being
       mainly international LoLo (15%) and RoRo traffic (ex Haven ports);
    •	 Food (both temperature controlled and ambient) and manufactured goods dominate
       the commodity groupings, accounting for around 60% of freight vehicle activity. This
       is to be expected given the nature of the freight generators in the corridor.
    •	 Average length of haul is around 200-250km. Around 30% of HGVs are travelling
       less than 100km, and around 25% are moving more than 300km, reflecting a mix of
       shorter distance domestic traffic and longer distance international traffic; and
    •	 Between 10-15% of freight traffic is in either the AM and PM peak hours.

    A14: shared section of with the A10 to the north of Newmarket
    •	 Freight vehicle activity forms around 35% of all vehicle flow (expressed as PCUs);
    •	 Domestic traffic forms around 75% of all freight vehicle activity, the balance being
       mainly international LoLo (15%) and RoRo traffic (ex Haven ports);
    •	 Food (both temperature controlled and ambient) and manufactured goods dominate
       the commodity groupings, accounting for around 60% of freight vehicle activity. This
       is to be expected given the nature of the freight generators in the corridor.
    •	 Average length of haul is around 200-250km. Around 10% of HGVs are travelling
       less than 100km, and around 30% are moving more than 300km, reflecting a mix of
       shorter distance domestic traffic and longer distance international traffic; and
    •	 Between 10-15% of freight traffic is in either the AM and PM peak hours.


Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 4	                                        Page 75



      A14 Cambridge to Huntingdon
      •	 Freight vehicle activity forms around 35-40% of all vehicle flow (expressed as PCUs);
      •	 Domestic traffic forms around 75% of all freight vehicle activity, the balance being
         mainly international LoLo (around 15%) and RoRo traffic (ex Haven ports);
      •	 Food (both temperature controlled and ambient) and manufactured goods dominate
         the commodity groupings, accounting for around 60% of freight traffic. This is to be
         expected given the nature of the freight generators in the corridor.
      •	 Average length of haul is around 200-250km. Around 20% of HGVs are travelling
         less than 100km, and around 35% are moving more than 300km reflecting a mix of
         shorter distance domestic traffic and longer distance international traffic; and
      •	 Between 10-15% of freight traffic is in either the AM and PM peak hours.

      A14 Kettering
      •	 Freight vehicle activity forms around 35-40% of all vehicle flow (expressed as PCUs);
      •	 Domestic traffic forms around 75% of all freight vehicle activity, the balance being
         mainly international LoLo and RoRo traffic (ex Haven ports);
      •	 Food (both temperature controlled and ambient) and manufactured goods dominate
         the commodity groupings. This is to be expected given the nature of the freight
         generators in the corridor.
      •	 Average length of haul is around 200-250km. Around 35-40% of HGVs are travelling
         less than 100km, and around 25% are moving more than 300km, reflecting a mix of
         shorter distance domestic traffic and longer distance traffic (international and ex
         NDCs at Kettering); and
      •	 Between 10-15% of freight traffic is in either the AM and PM peak hours.

      It is important to note that the stressed links are located close to a concentration of
      logistics warehousing.

4.140 At these locations, the corridor is effectively acting as both a long distance trunk route
      (predominantly for freight traffic) and as a ‘by-pass’ route for shorter distance intra-
      urban passenger (commuter) traffic.

Corridor 12: London to Haven Ports 12

4.141 Corridor 12 extends from the A12/A14 interchange to the south of Ipswich to the M25
      junction 28 via the A12, passing the population centres of Colchester, Chelmsford
      and Brentwood. The corridor passes through an area of low population density
      (relative to the rest of the South East), with the only centres of any significance being
      the towns of Brentwood, Chelmsford and Colchester (and Ipswich at the northern
      extremity of the corridor). There is also a key section of the route which is ‘shared’
      with another highway, namely the A120 from Harwich to Stansted and the M11. The



12
     Part of corridor shared with Corridor 11 (A14 from Felixstowe to Ipswich)

Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 4	                                         Page 76



        shared section is to the north and west of Colchester. The main freight generating
        locations along the corridor are:

        •	 The Port of Felixstowe and Harwich International Port (LoLo and RoRo); and
        •	 The population centres of Brentwood, Chelmsford, Colchester and Ipswich
           (consumption areas).

4.142 The railway route forming Corridor 12 is the Great Eastern Mainline (GEML), which
      extends from Ipswich to London (Stratford) via Colchester and Chelmsford.

Vehicle Flow

4.143 The largest traffic flow on the corridor is experienced on the ‘shared’ section with the
      A120 to the north and west of Colchester. This section handles around 44,000
      vehicles per day per direction. Around 4,000 vehicles are HGVs at this location,
      equating to around 9% of all vehicle traffic (or approximately 20% when expressed as
      PCUs). South of Colchester, traffic flow gradually grows heading towards Chelmsford
      to around 40,000 vehicles per day per direction. Around 3,500 vehicles are HGVs at
      this location, equating to around 10% of all vehicle traffic (or approximately 24% when
      expressed as PCUs).

4.144 There are a number locations where there is a step change in vehicle flow, namely:

    •	 The A12/A120 interchange to the north of Colchester;
    •	 The A12/A120 interchange to the west of Colchester; and
    •	 The A12/A130 interchange – to Basildon and Southend.

4.145 The number of vans along the corridor varies between 3,000 and 5,000 per day per
      direction. This equates to between 10% and 12% of all traffic flow along the corridor.

Freight Activity

4.146 The broad nature of road freight activity along the corridor is described below.

        Domestic/international split: Domestic traffic forms around 50% of HGV flow along
        the corridor. There are significant flows of maritime containers and RoRo traffic,
        reflecting the corridor’s role as a key international gateway.

        Commodities: Food (both temperature controlled and ambient) and manufactured
        goods dominate the commodity groupings. This is to be expected given the freight
        generators/attractors located along the corridor (see above). There are also
        significant flows of construction materials and metals along the corridor.




Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 4	                                       Page 77



        Length of haul: Freight flows along the corridor are dominated by shorter distance
        movements (average length of haul circa 150-200km). It would therefore appear that
        much of the freight traffic is likely to be final ‘leg’ in the supply chain type flows.

        Freight During Peak Hours: Between 10-15% of freight traffic is in either the AM and
        PM peak hours.

Vehicle Flow and Capacity

4.147 The broad locations along Corridor 12 which display the highest levels of network
      stress (vehicle flow:capacity ratio of 0.75 or greater) for a 2007 year dataset are as
      follows:

        •	 A12: Eastbound on the ‘shared’ section with the A120 near Colchester during AM
           and PM peak hours;
        •	 A12: Westbound on the ‘shared’ section with the A120 near Colchester during AM
           and PM peak hours;
        •	 A12: Eastbound to the east of Chelmsford during AM and PM peak hours;
        •	 A12: Westbound to the east of Chelmsford during AM and PM peak hours;
        •	 A12: Approaching the M25 during the AM peak hours; and
        •	 A12: Leaving the M25 during PM peak hours.

4.148 The nature of freight vehicle activity at these locations is described below.

    A12/A120 Colchester
    •	 Freight vehicle activity forms around 25-28% of all vehicle flow (expressed as PCUs);
    •	 Domestic traffic forms around 60% of all freight vehicle activity, the balance being
       mainly international LoLo traffic (around 16%) and RoRo traffic (ex Haven ports);
    •	 Food (both temperature controlled and ambient) and manufactured goods dominate
       the commodity groupings, accounting for around 60% of freight traffic. This is to be
       expected given the nature of the freight generators in the corridor.
    •	 Average length of haul is around 150km. Around 20% of HGVs are travelling less
       than 100km, and around 7% are moving more than 300km; and
    •	 Between 10-15% of freight traffic is in either the AM and PM peak hours.

    A12 Chelmsford
    •	 Freight vehicle activity forms around 22-25% of all vehicle flow (expressed as PCUs);
    •	 Domestic traffic forms around 60% of all freight vehicle activity, the balance being
       mainly international LoLo traffic (around 15%) and RoRo traffic (ex Haven ports);
    •	 Food (both temperature controlled and ambient) and manufactured goods dominate
       the commodity groupings. This is to be expected given the nature of the freight
       generators in the corridor.
    •	 Average length of haul is around 100-150km. Around 40% of HGVs are travelling
       less than 100km, and around 7% are moving more than 300km; and

Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 4	                                        Page 78



    •	 Between 10-15% of freight traffic is in either the AM and PM peak hours.

    A12 at M25 Interchange
    •	 Freight vehicle activity forms around 20-23% of all vehicle flow (expressed as PCUs);
    •	 Domestic traffic forms around 65% of all freight vehicle activity, the balance being
       mainly international LoLo traffic (10%) and RoRo traffic (ex Haven ports);
    •	 Food (both temperature controlled and ambient) and manufactured goods dominate
       the commodity groupings. This is to be expected given the nature of the freight
       generators in the corridor.
    •	 Average length of haul is around 100-150km. Around 40% of HGVs are travelling
       less than 100km, and around 7% are moving more than 300km reflecting a mix of
       shorter distance domestic traffic and longer distance international LoLo traffic; and
    •	 Between 10-15% of freight traffic is in either the AM and PM peak hours.

4.149 At these locations, the corridor is effectively acting as both a long distance trunk route
      (predominantly for freight traffic) and as a ‘by-pass’ route for shorter distance intra-
      urban passenger (commuter) traffic.

Corridor 13: Stansted Corridor

4.150 Corridor	13 covers the M11 from the M11/A14 interchange to the north west of
      Cambridge to the M25 junction 27, passing the population centres of Cambridge,
      Bishop’s Stortford and Harlow. It also includes the M120 from the M11 (Jct 8) to
      Stansted Airport. The corridor passes through an area of low population density
      (relative to the rest of the South East), with the only centres of any significance being
      the aforementioned towns of Bishop’s Stortford and Harlow. There are no major
      generators of freight activity along the corridor, with the exception of Cambridge
      (consumption area) and Stansted Airport.

4.151 The railway route forming Corridor 13 is the West Anglia Mainline from London to
      Stansted Airport.

Vehicle Flow

4.152 In traffic flow terms, the M11 can be divided into four distinct sections:

    •	 Between the M25 and junction 8 (A120 and Stansted Airport) – handles around
       55,000 vehicles per day (of which 5,500 or 10% are HGVs/26% when expressed as
       PCUs);
    •	 Between junction 8 and the interchange with the A11 at junction 9 (traffic to Norwich
       and East Anglia depart/joins the M11 at this interchange) – handles around 40,000
       vehicles per day (of which 5,200 or 13% are HGVs/32% when expressed as PCUs);




Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 4	                                          Page 79



    •	 Between junction 9 and junction 11 (south Cambridge) – handles around 20-25,000
       vehicles per day (of which 4,500 or 14% are HGVs/35% when expressed as PCUs);
       and
    •	 Junction 11 to the A14/M11 interchange (effectively the west Cambridge by-pass) –
       handles around 40,000 vehicles per day (of which 5-6,00 or 11-13% are HGVs/30%
       when expressed as PCUs).

4.153 There is consequently a step change in demand between these four sections.	 Given
      the lack of major generators of freight activity along the corridor, the M11 would
      appear to be handling longer distance HGV flows moving between other corridors
      e.g. from London to East Anglia or South East to the Midlands.

4.154 The number of vans along the corridor varies between 3,000 and 4,500 per day per
      direction. This equates to between 10% and 12% of all traffic flow along the corridor.

Freight Activity

4.155 The broad nature of road freight activity along the corridor is described below.

        Domestic/international split: Domestic traffic forms around 70-75% of HGV flow along
        the corridor. There are significant flows of RoRo traffic along, reflecting the corridor’s
        role as an international gateway from the South East ports to the Midlands.

        Commodities: Food (both temperature controlled and ambient) and manufactured
        goods dominate the commodity groupings. This is to be expected given the freight
        generators/attractors located along the corridor (see above). There are also
        significant flows of construction materials and metals along the corridor.

        Length of haul: Freight flows along the corridor are dominated by longer distance
        movements (average length of haul circa 250-300km), again reflecting the fact that
        the M11 appears to be handling longer distance HGV flows .

        Freight During Peak Hours: Between 10-15% of freight traffic is in either the AM and
        PM peak hours.

Vehicle Flow and Capacity

4.156 The broad locations along Corridor x which display the highest levels of network
      stress (vehicle flow:capacity ratio of 0.75 or greater) for a 2007 year dataset are as
      follows:

        •	 M11: Northbound to the west of Cambridge during the AM and PM peak hours;
           and
        •	 M11: Southbound to the west of Cambridge during the AM and PM peak hours;


Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 4	                                        Page 80




4.157 The main sections of Corridor 13 experiencing network stress during the AM and PM
      peak periods is therefore around Cambridge. The corridor on this section is
      effectively acting as both a long distance trunk route (predominantly for freight traffic)
      and as a ‘by-pass’ route for shorter distance intra-urban passenger (commuter) traffic.

4.158 The nature of freight vehicle activity at these locations is described below.

    M11 Cambridge
    •	 Freight vehicle activity forms around 30% of all vehicle flow (expressed as PCUs);
    •	 Domestic traffic forms around 70% of all freight vehicle activity, the balance being
       mainly international RoRo traffic;
    •	 Food (both temperature controlled and ambient) and manufactured goods dominate
       the commodity groupings. This is to be expected given the nature of the freight
       generators in the corridor.
    •	 Average length of haul is around 200-250km, reflecting a mix of shorter distance
       domestic traffic and longer distance international RoRo traffic; and
    •	 Between 10-15% of freight traffic is in either the AM and PM peak hours.

Corridor 14: London to Thames Gateway Ports

4.159 Corridor 14 extends from the Ports of Tilbury to the M25 via the A13 and A1089,
      passing the population centre of Grays. It also extends from Thamesport and
      Sheerness to the M25 via the A2, M2 and A289 and A249, passing the Medway
      Towns, Gravesend and Northfleet. The main freight generating locations along the
      corridor are:

        •	   Port of Tilbury (deep sea containers and semi-bulks);
        •	   Dartford RoRo terminal;
        •	   Purlfeet RoRo terminal;
        •	   Thamesport (deep-sea containers);
        •	   Port of Sheerness (cars, fresh produce and bulks);
        •	   Logistics warehousing around Dartford and Sittingbourne; and
        •	   The population centres of the Medway Towns, Gravesend and Northfleet.

4.160 The railway routes forming Corridor 14 are:

        •	 London-Tilbury-Southend line from Barking to Tilbury; and
        •	 North Kent line from Clapham Junction to Hoo Junction and the Isle of Grain line
           to Thamesport.

4.161 The A13 and the A2/M2 are the two busiest routes within Corridor 14.	 The A2 (from
      the M25 to the A2/M2 interchange) displays the highest traffic flow in the corridor of
      around 50,00-55,000 vehicles per day per direction. Around 4,500 vehicles are

Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 4                                          Page 81



        HGVs at this location, equating to around 8% of all vehicle traffic (or approximately
        20% when expressed as PCUs). The M2 (by-passing the Medway Towns) handles
        around 40,000 vehicles per day per direction. Around 4,000 vehicles are HGVs at
        this location, equating to around 9% of all vehicle traffic (or approximately 24% when
        expressed as PCUs). The A13 between the M25 and the A1089 interchange handles
        around 40,000 vehicles per day per direction. Around 4,500 vehicles are HGVs at
        this location, equating to around 12% of all vehicle traffic (or approximately 25% when
        expressed as PCUs).

4.162 There are a number locations where there is a step change in vehicle flow, namely:

    •    A2/M2 interchange; and
    •    A13/A1089 interchange

4.163 The number of vans along the corridor varies between 5,000 and 8,000 per day per
      direction. This equates to between 15% and 18% of all traffic flow along the corridor.

Freight Activity

4.164 The broad nature of road freight activity along the corridor is described below.

        Domestic/international split: Domestic traffic forms around 50-75% of HGV flow along
        the A13 section of corridor. There are significant flows of LoLo traffic ex Tilbury,
        reflecting the corridor’s role as an international gateway. This is to be expected given
        the freight generators/attractors located along the corridor (see above). Traffic on the
        A2/M2 is predominantly domestic in nature, reflecting the fact that the M20 is the
        main route to/from the Channel Ports.

        Commodities: Food (both temperature controlled and ambient) and manufactured
        goods dominate the commodity groupings. This is to be expected given the freight
        generators/attractors located along the corridor (see above). There are also
        significant flows of construction materials and metals along the corridor. The large
        flows of petroleum traffic on the westbound A13 is from the oil refinery at Coryton.

        Length of Haul: Freight flows along the corridor are dominated by shorter distance
        movements (average length of haul being 100-150km). These are likely to be final
        ‘legs’ in the supply chain e.g. from the RDCs located in Dartford or Sittingbourne.

        Freight During Peak Hours: Between 10-15% of freight traffic is in either the AM and
        PM peak hours.




Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 4	                                            Page 82



Vehicle Flow and Capacity

4.165 The broad locations along Corridor 14 which display the highest levels of network
      stress (vehicle flow:capacity ratio of 0.75 or greater) for a 2007 year dataset are as
      follows:

        •	 A13: To east of M25 interchange during the AM and PM peak hours; and
        •	 A2: Between M25 and A2/M2 interchange during the AM and PM peak hours; and

4.166 The nature of freight vehicle activity at these locations is described below.

    A13 between the M25 and the A1089
    •	 Freight vehicle activity forms around 25% of all vehicle flow (expressed as PCUs);
    •	 Domestic traffic forms around 50% of all freight vehicle activity heading eastbound
       and 75% of freight traffic heading westbound. Heading eastbound the balance of
       traffic is mainly other international (i.e. non-unitised port traffic);
    •	 Food (both temperature controlled and ambient) and manufactured goods dominate
       the commodity groupings. This is to be expected given the nature of the freight
       generators in the corridor. However, heading westbound, large flows of petroleum
       products are also recorded i.e. ex Coryton refinery.
    •	 Average length of haul is around 50-100km, It would therefore appear that much of
       the freight traffic is short distance in nature, likely to be final ‘leg’ in the supply chain
       type flows; and
    •	 Between 10-15% of freight traffic is in either the AM and PM peak hours.

    A2 from M25 to A2/M2
    •	 Freight vehicle activity forms around 20% of all vehicle flow (expressed as PCUs);
    •	 Domestic traffic forms around 85% of all freight vehicle activity;
    •	 Food (both temperature controlled and ambient) and manufactured goods dominate
       the commodity groupings. This is to be expected given the nature of the freight
       generators in the corridor.
    •	 Average length of haul is around 50-100km, It would therefore appear that much of
       the freight traffic is short distance in nature, likely to be final ‘leg’ in the supply chain
       type flows; and
    •	 Between 10-15% of freight traffic is in either the AM and PM peak hours.

4.167 These sections of the corridor are is effectively ‘by-pass’ routes for shorter distance
      intra-urban passenger (commuter) traffic.




Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 5	                                           Page 83



SECTION 5. SUMMARY OF RESULTS AND FINDINGS – RAIL

5.1	    The final Output Table has been supplied to the DfT (in electronic form) containing
        the analysis data described in Section 3.4 for each defined railway link across the 14
        Strategic National Corridors. The main aim of this section of the report is threefold,
        namely:

    •	 To summarise the key results and data trends with respect to rail freight demand
       across each Strategic National Corridor; and
    •	 To analyse and interpret the identified results and data trends from a commercial and
       logistics market perspective.

5.2	    These aims have been addressed in two stages. Firstly, a summary overview on a
        national basis of the main data contained in the Output Table, provided through a
        mapped analysis. Secondly, a more detailed analysis of the Output Tables data at
        individual corridor and link-by-link level. It is important to note that the data discussed
        below (and displayed in the maps) is a 'snap-shot' of freight activity during 2007.
        Overtime, the identified patterns may change as a result of landuse and economic
        developments.

Section 5.1       National Summary and Overview

5.3	  Appendix 6 contains a set of of maps to illustrate the interpretations of the data in the
      Output Table provided within this Chapter.. It should be noted that the interpretation
      below also draws on the data within the Outputs Table.
Train Numbers by Type

5.4	    Map 6.1 illustrates the average number of daily freight trains on the railway links
        studied. The map demonstrates that the following corridors are the most intensively
        used railway routes for freight services:

    •	 Corridor 4 (South Coast to West Midlands) – particularly the Reading to Didcot
       section;
    •	 Corridor 7 (Bristol to Midlands);
    •	 Corridor 8 (WCML from London to North West and Scotland);
    •	 Corridor 9 (Trans-Pennine) – particularly in north Lincolnshire;
    •	 Corridor 10 (London to North east) – the sections north of Leicester (Midland
       Mainline) and Peterborough (East Coast Mainline);
    •	 Corridor 11 (Haven Ports to Midlands);
    •	 Corridor 12 (Haven Ports to London)

5.5	    The type of train operation and the commodities being conveyed are further
        described below.



Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 5	                                               Page 84



5.6	    Map 6.2 illustrates the average number of daily intermodal trains on the railway links
        studied. It clearly shows that intermodal train13 services are generally concentrated
        on three main corridors, namely:

        •	 Corridor 4 (South Coast to West Midlands);
        •	 Corridor 8 (WCML from London to North West and Scotland); and
        •	 Corridor 12 (GEML from Haven Ports to London).

5.7	    This is to be expected given that these corridors connect the major deep-sea
        container ports (at Southampton, Felixstowe and on the Thames) to the main
        consuming regions in Britain where rail freight enjoys a large market share for the
        inland clearance of maritime containers (compared with road haulage) i.e. the
        Midlands, North West and Scotland. Reference at this stage should be made to
        Section 1.3.4 (Transport Economics). Rail freight principally enjoys a large market
        share to these markets as it is able to offer a more cost competitive distribution
        option. Corridors 8 and 12 are also the main routes currently gauge cleared14 to
        handle 2.9m/9'6" high cube containers on standard platform wagons (W10), hence
        container trains tend to be routed along these corridors (rather than via Corridor 11).
        However, as Corridor 11 is to be gauge enhanced over the next few years (as is
        Corridor 4) and given continual growth in traffic via the Haven ports, we would expect
        this route to handle additional intermodal traffic in coming years.

5.8	    Also interesting to note is the limited number of intermodal trains handled via the
        Channel Tunnel (Corridor 1). Given the volume of import cargo and distance, we
        should expect a higher number of intermodal trains passing through the Channel
        Tunnel (i.e. it should offer a cost competitive transport option). Comparisons should
        also be made to the highways analysis (Section 4), which shows significant RoRo
        traffic via Corridor 1. However, tunnel traffic levels since 1995 have been significantly
        lower than originally forecast when the tunnel was planned and constructed. This is
        for a number of reasons including, among others, the following:

        •	 Intra-European road haulage for unitised traffic has remained competitive over the
           last few years, with drivers and hauliers from Eastern Europe helping to keep the
           price of road transport down in this highly competitive market;
        •	 The previous charging regime by Eurotunnel for freight trains; the new charging
           structure has resulted in lower fees for freight trains; and

13
   Intermodal being defined as any train conveying some form of intermodal unit on a platform wagon
e.g. maritime container, but not ‘bulk’ commodities which are sometimes conveyed in containers e.g.

gypsum, household waste

14
   Loading gauge refers to the maximum height and width in cross section of a railway line. The size

of the loading gauge will determine the size of rail freight wagon that can be conveyed on that line.

There are seven gauge profiles available on the national network, each of varying height and width.

The 'W8' gauge profile is required for standard height containers, with 'W10' being required for taller

2.9m/9'6" high cube containers.


Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 5	                                      Page 85




        •	 The rail freight market in mainland Europe has been dominated by large,
           publically-owned operators. The gradual liberalisation of the market and the
           entrance of new operators will result in a more competitive market for services
           over the coming period.

5.9	    Map 6.3 illustrates the average number of daily bulk trains on the railway links
        studied. It clearly shows that bulk train services are generally concentrated on the
        following corridors:

        •	 Corridor 6 (London to Severn) – Great Western a Mainline east of Swindon to
           London;
        •	 Corridor 7 (Bristol to Midlands) – Gloucester to Nottingham via Birmingham;
        •	 Corridor 8 (London to North West) – West Coast Mainline
        •	 Corridor 9 (Trans-Pennine) – Humber Ports to Yorkshire; and
        •	 Corridor 10 (London to North east) – Midland Mainline, East Coast Mainline north
           of Leeds and Settle to Carlisle.

5.10	 These identified corridors connect important sources of bulk materials, particularly
      aggregates, metals and coal, to key consuming markets in the South East, Midlands,
      North West and Yorkshire. These are detailed father below through an examination
      of individual commodities being moved by rail.

Commodities

5.11	 Map 6.4 provides a regional analysis of tonnes moved by commodity type on the
      railway link studied, in terms of daily tonnes lifted of each commodity type moving on
      the railway links within each region.
5.12	 Looking at the data in the Outputs Table and taking coal s moved by rail freight first),
      the key flows to note are:

        •	 Immingham (Humber Ports) to Scunthorpe steel works and coal power station in
           Yorkshire and the Midlands (Corridor 9);
        •	 Tyne to coal power station in Yorkshire and the Midlands (Corridor 10);
        •	 Hunterston (Clyde) to coal power station in Yorkshire and the Midlands (Corridor
           10, Settle-Carlisle and northern sections of the Midland Mainline);
        •	 Hunterston (Clyde) to coal power stations in the Midlands (Corridor 8 – WCML)
        •	 Avonmouth to Didcot power station (Corridor 6); and
        •	 Midlands and Yorkshire coal fields to power stations in Yorkshire and the
           Midlands (Corridors 7 and 10).

5.13	 Most coal burnt to generate electricity is now imported, the main import ports being
      on the Humber at Immingham, Clyde at Hunterston, Port of Tyne and Avonmouth.
      The power stations in Yorkshire and the Midlands, when originally planned and

Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 5	                                        Page 86



        constructed, were located within coal fields. Following the decline of the coal
        industry, they are now effectively 'isolated' inland and therefore rely on rail freight
        flows from ports.

5.14	 As the data in the Output Table is expressed as tonnes lifted, it clearly shows the
      flows of coal as 'one-way' i.e. from port/colliery to power station. However, it is
      important to remember that in terms of trains operated it is a two-way flow i.e. bulk
      trains have to return empty, it therefore requires a 'path' in both directions.

5.15	 In terms of aggregates moved by rail freight nationally by corridor (daily tonnes lifted),
      the key flows to note are:

        •	 Mendips to South East/London via GWML (Corridor 6), and onwards to Sussex
           (Corridor 2);
        •	 East Midlands to South East/London via MML (Corridor 10); and
        •	 Peak District to North West and Yorkshire via Hope Valley Line (Corridor 9).

5.16	 The Mendips, East Midlands and the Peak District are the main 'land-won' sources of
      aggregates in England. Key 'consumers' of aggregates are construction projects,
      which tend to be located in or close to the main conurbations. Again, as the data is
      expressed as tonnes lifted, it clearly shows the flows of aggregates as 'one-way' i.e.
      from quarry to consumption. However, it is important to remember that in terms of
      trains operated it is a two-way flow i.e. bulk trains have to return empty, it therefore
      requires a 'path' in both directions.

5.17	 In terms of metals moved by rail freight nationally by corridor (daily tonnes lifted), the
      key flows to note are:

        •	 South Wales to the Midlands (Corridor 7);
        •	 Humberside to Yorkshire and Midlands (Corridors 7 , 9 and 10); and
        •	 Teesside to Yorkshire and Midlands (Corridors 7 and 10).

5.18	 This is to be expected as South Wales (Port Talbot and Llanwern), Humberside
      (Scunthorpe) and Teesside (Redcar) are the main production centres for domestically
      manufactured steel. Key consumption areas are heavy industry and construction
      projects in Yorkshire and the Midlands (cars). Again, the data shows a 'one-way' flow
      and it is important to remember that in terms of trains operated it is a two-way
      movement.

5.19	 In terms of petro-chemicals moved by rail freight nationally by corridor (daily tonnes
      lifted), the key flows to note are:

        •	 Humber to Yorkshire;
        •	 Humber to Midlands; and


Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 5	                                       Page 87



        •    South Wales to South West and Midlands.

5.20	 The Humber and South Wales are both host to a number of major refineries (Total
      Lyndsey and Conoco refineries on the Humber and Texaco and Total on Milford
      Haven). They all supply a number of rail served inland distribution depots in the
      Midlands and South East. Again, the data shows a 'one-way' flow and it is important
      to remember that in terms of trains operated it is a two-way movement.

5.21	 In terms of household waste moved by rail freight nationally by corridor (daily tonnes
      lifted), the key flows to note are:

        •    London to Appleford Waste Terminal near Didcot via GWML (Corridor 6);
        •    Bristol to Calvert via GWML (Corridor 6); and
        •    Greater Manchester to Scunthorpe via Trans-Pennine (Corridor 9).

5.22	 Each of these flows consists of containerised household waste being transferred to
      landfill. Again, the data shows a 'one-way' flow and it is important to remember that
      in terms of trains operated it is a two-way movement.

5.23	 In terms of ores moved by rail freight nationally by corridor (daily tonnes lifted), the
      only flow to note is that from the Humber ports to Scunthorpe (iron ore for steel
      production). Again, the data shows a 'one-way' flow and it is important to remember
      that in terms of trains operated it is a two-way movement.

5.24	 Finally, in terms of automotive trains nationally by corridor (daily tonnes lifted), t he
      main flows to note are:

        •    Thames to North West England and Scotland (Corridor 8);
        •    Midlands to Thames (Corridor 4 and 5);
        •    Midlands to South Coast (Corridor 4) and
        •    Bristol to Midlands and North East (Corridor 7).

5.25	 Ford imports cars from mainland European plants via its own Thames-side berth at
      Dagenham. Onward distribution to car distribution depots in the North West
      (Garston) and Scotland (Glasgow) is by rail via the WCML. The Midlands to Thames
      and South Coast flows by rail are export trade car traffic (Jaguar in Castle Bromwich
      and Mini at Cowely). Portbury docks (Port of Bristol) is a major trade car importation
      port, with onward distribution to northern markets by rail.

Length of Haul

5.26	 Maps 6.5 and 6.6 show the average number of daily freight trains travelling less than
      100kms and 300kms or more respectively. The maps clearly show that most freight
      trains are travelling more than 300km.


Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 5	                                           Page 89



Section 5.2       Analysis of Freight Train Movements and Commodities by Corridor

5.27	 The main aim of this sub-section is to provide a more detailed analysis of the Output
      Tables data with respect to rail freight activity at individual corridor and link level for a
      2007 dataset. Appendix 7 to this main report contains a series of summary tables
      which describes freight train activity along the Strategic Rail Network Output Table at
      individual corridor and link-by-link level. The left-most column indicates the link within
      that corridor which the data in the subsequent columns describes. Reference should
      be made to Maps 3.4 to 3.6 in Appendix 3 which illustrates the location of the
      indicated links.

5.28	 Given that the study was not required to consider rail freight demand against
      passenger train demand or rail network capacity, the following analysis focuses on
      rail freight activity at individual corridor and link level. Capacity analysis is therefore
      beyond the scope if this study.



Corridor 1: London to Kent Ports (Dover/Channel Tunnel)

5.29	 The railway route forming Corridor 1 extends from Clapham Junction to the Channel
      Tunnel via Swanley, Maidstone East and Ashford. Links 1 to 4 incorporates the route
      from the Channel Tunnel to Nunhead Junction, where it connects with the North Kent
      Line from Thamesport. Links 5 to 6 cover the route from Nunhead Junction to
      Willesden Junction via Clapham and the West London Line. The main points to note
      are described below:

        •	 Links 1-4 accommodate between 4-5 trains per day per direction, of which around
           1-2 trains are intermodal trains to/from the Channel Tunnel (generally serving
           Daventry, Hams Hall and Trafford Park). Around 3-4 trains per day are
           aggregates trains serving the rail-linked distribution depots at Sevington
           (Ashford), Hothfield (Ashford) and Allington (Maidstone). These trains originate
           from the Mendip Hills (via Great Western Mainline); and
        •	 Links 5-6 accommodate between 17-20 trains per day per direction. In addition to
           the aforementioned Channel Tunnel trains, a further 3-4 intermodal trains to/from
           Thamesport operate along these links (5-6 intermodal trains in total per day per
           direction). The remainder of the trains comprise aggregates (originating from (ex)
           Grain or Cliffe) or metals (Medway ports).

Corridor 3: London to Southampton

5.30	 The railway route forming Corridor 3 is the Southampton Mainline from Clapham
      Junction to Southampton port via Staines and Byfleet Junction. Link 1 runs from
      Southampton to Basingstoke and is shared with Corridor 4. Links 15-21 incorporates



Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 5	                                      Page 90



        the remainder of the Southampton mainline fro Basingstoke to London. The main
        points to note are described below:

        •	 Link 1 accommodates between 25-26 trains per day per direction, of which
           around 21-21 trains are intermodal trains to/from the port of Southampton. The
           remainder of the trains are aggregates trains from Wool to London distribution
           depots, a Gypsum train to Mountfield in Sussex, an automotive export train from
           Castle Bromwich and a petroleum train ex Fawley;
        •	 Links 15-21 essentially accommodate the non-intermodal trains described in the
           previous bullet point (except the automotive train ex Castle Bromwich).

Corridor 4: South Coast Ports to the Midlands

5.31	 The railway route forming Corridor 4 extends from the West Coast Mainline (WCML)
      at Nuneaton and Stafford to Southampton via Leamington Spa, Oxford, Didcot,
      Reading and Basingstoke. Link 1 runs from Southampton to Basingstoke and is
      shared with Corridor 3. Links 2-5 covers the route from Basingstoke to Leamington
      via Oxford. Links 6 and 7 cover the route to the WCML at Nuneaton via Coventry.
      Links 8-15 incorporate the route to the WCML at Stafford from Leamington via
      Birmingham, the Sutton Park line and Bushbury Junction (Wolverhampton). The
      main points to note are described below:

        •	 Link 1 accommodates between 25-26 trains per day per direction, of which
           around 20-21 trains are intermodal trains to/from the port of Southampton (to/from
           West Midlands terminals, North West terminals and Leeds). The remainder of the
           trains are aggregates trains from Wool to London distribution depots, a Gypsum
           train to Mountfield in Sussex, an automotive export train from Castle Bromwich
           and a petroleum train ex Fawley;
        •	 Links 2-5 accommodate between 25-30 trains per day per direction, of which
           around 20-21 trains are the above described intermodal trains to/from the port of
           Southampton. The remainder of the trains are aggregates trains to Oxford and
           Appleford and automotive export trains from Castle Bromwich and Cowley; and
        •	 Around half the above described intermodal trains are routes via Links 6 and 7 to
           the WCML at Nuneaton. The remainder are either destined for West Midlands
           terminals or reach the WCML via Birmingham, the Sutton Park line and Bushbury
           Junction.

Corridor 5: London Orbital

5.32	 The railway routes forming Corridor 5 are:

        •	 North London Line (NLL) from Stratford to the WCML at Camden Road Junction;
           and



Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 5	                                    Page 91



        •	 The Tottenham and Hampstead line (THL) from Barking to the WCML Willesden
           Junction.

5.33	 Both are key routes which effectively allow trains to 'by-pass' London (though the
      lines themselves pass through London). The NLL connects the Greater Eastern
      Mainline (Corridor 12) with the WCML (Corridor 8). The THL links the London Tilbury
      and Southend line (Corridor 14) with the WCML. Links 1-5 cover the NLL and Links
      6-10 are on the THL. The main points to note are described below:

        •	 Links 1-5 accommodates between 25-30 trains per day per direction, of which
           around 22-25 trains per day are intermodal trains (mainly ex Felixstowe – see
           Corridor 12 –but also some to/from Tilbury). The remaining trains are aggregates
           trains, mainly from the East Midlands quarries.
        •	 The THL accommodates around 5 trans per day per direction, mainly aggregates
           trains. The THL is currently unable to accommodate intermodal trains – loading
           gauge clearance issues – however it is planned to enhance the gauge to provide
           additional cross-London capacity (serve planned London Gateway container port).

Corridor 6: London to South West and South Wales

5.34	 The railway routes forming Corridor 6 are:

        •	 Great Western Mainline (GWML) from Acton to the Severn Tunnel via Reading,
           Swindon and Bristol Parkway; and
        •	 Berks and Hants line from Reading to Westbury.

5.35	 Links 1-5 cover Acton Yard to Reading West Junction. Links 6-9 incorporate the
      Berks and Hants line from Reading West Junction to the Mendip quarries (Westbury).
      Links 10-12 cover a short connecting line between Westbury and the GWML at
      Wooton Bassett Junction (via Chippenham). Links 13-23 form the GWML from
      Swindon to Newport (south Wales). The main points to note are described below:

        •	 Links 1-5 accommodates around 18-22 trains per day per direction, of which
           around 2-3 are intermodal trains. Most of the trains are non-intermodal, mainly
           aggregates from the Mendip quarries but also a petro-chemical train (Coryton to
           south Wales) and scrap metals.
        •	 The Berks and Hants line handles around 8 trains per day per direction, as does
           the Westbury-Wooton Basset line (it appears that aggregates trains from the
           Mendip Hills to the South East are broadly split between the two lines); and
        •	 Links 13-23 handle around 15-17 trains per direction per day, being a mixture of
           coal (ex Avonmouth for Didcot), aggregates and metals. There is also a daily
           household waste train from Bristol to Calvert.




Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 5	                                      Page 92



Corridor 7: Bristol to the Midlands

5.36    The railway routes forming Corridor 7 are:

        •	 Birmingham to Bristol line from Bristol to Washwood Heath via Cheltenham and
           Bromsgrove (Links 1-4);
        •	 Birmingham to Derby line from Washwood Heath via Tamworth (Links 5-7); and
        •	 Derby-Nottingham to Humber Ports via Lincoln (Links 8-13).

5.37    The main points to note are described below:

        •	 Links 1-4 handle around 10-15 trains per day per direction, all of which are non­
           intermodal trains conveying metals (south Wales to Midlands distribution depots),
           coal (Avonmouth to Rugely power station) and petro-chemicals
           (Humber/Teesside to Westerleigh);
        •	 Links 5-7 handle around 15 trains per day per direction, all of which around 5
           trains are intermodal (South Coast to Yorkshire and North East). The remaining
           trains are conveying metals (south Wales to Midlands distribution depots), coal
           and petro-chemicals (Humber/Teesside to Westerleigh); and
        •	 Links 8-13 handle around 8-10 trains per day per direction, all of which are non­
           intermodal trains conveying metals (ex Humberside), coal (Immingham to Ketton)
           and petro-chemicals (Humber to Westerleigh).

Corridor 8: London to the West Midlands, North Wales, North West and Scotland

5.38    The railway route forming Corridor 8 is the WCML, comprising the following sections:

        •	   Wembley to Crewe via the Trent Valley – Links 1-9:
        •	   Crewe to Trafford Park – Links 10-11;
        •	   Crewe-Weaver Junction-Liverpool – Links 12-15;
        •	   Weaver Junction to Scottish Border – Links 17-23; and
        •	   Rugby to Walsall via Stechford – Links 24-27.

5.39    The main points to note are described below:

        •	 Links 1-9 handle around 35 trains per day per direction (though the link from
           Stafford to Crewe handled around 45 trains per day per direction). Most of these
           trains (around 30 per day) are intermodal to/from the deep-sea container ports in
           the South East (24 trains per day) or Daventry-Scotland domestic intermodal
           flows.
        •	 Crewe to Trafford Park accommodates around 14 trains per direction per day
           (mainly intermodal to/from the deep-sea container ports);




Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 5	                                        Page 93



        •	 The Liverpool branch handles around 10-12 trains per day, mainly intermodal
           to/from the deep-sea container ports but also some automotive trains to/from
           Halewood (Jaguar/Land Rover) and Garston (Ford);
        •	 Anglo-Scottish rail freight traffic (i.e. Links north of Preston) is around 20 trains
           per day per direction, of which around 12 trains per day are intermodal. The
           remainder are mainly coal trains (ex Hunterston or open-cast) to North West and
           Midlands power stations.

5.40	 Clearly, the WCML is a major rail-freight corridor. Most of the traffic is intermodal in
      nature (intermodal to/from the deep-sea container ports in the South East or
      Daventry-Scotland domestic intermodal flows) but with some important bulk
      commodity flows too.

Corridor 9: Trans-Pennine

5.41	 The railway routes forming Corridor 9 are:

        •	 The main trans-Pennine railway from Liverpool to Leeds via Chat Moss and
           Standedge – Links 1-6;
        •	 Mirfield to Immingham via Wakefield – Links 7-11; and
        •	 Manchester to Sheffield via Hope Valley – Links 12-18.

5.42	 The main points to note are described below:

        •	 Links 1-5 handle around 5 trains per day per direction, mainly aggregates (Peak
           District to Leeds), metals (Immingham to Seaforth) and household waste
           (Manchester to Scunthorpe land-fill);
        •	 Links 7-11 handle around 20-25 trains per day per direction. These trains are
           mainly conveying coal from the port of Immingham bulk terminal to Yorkshire
           power stations, but also some metals (Immingham to Seaforth) and household
           waste (Manchester to Scunthorpe land-fill); and
        •	 Links 12-16 handle around 5-8 trains per day per direction, mainly aggregates
           from the Peak District quarries.

Corridor 10: London to the East Midlands, Yorkshire, North East and Scotland

5.43	 The railway routes forming Corridor 10 are:

        •	 East Coast Mainline (ECML) from London to Newcastle via Peterborough,
           Doncaster and York, and associated branch to Teesside – Links 1-19;
        •	 Midland Mainline (MML) from Cricklewood to Sheffield via Leicester and onwards
           to Leeds via Barnsley – Links 20-39; and
        •	 York-Leeds-Settle-Carlisle – Links 40-53.



Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 5	                                       Page 94



5.44	 The main points to note are described below:

        •	 The southern section of the ECML (links 1-6) handles around 5-8 trains per day
           per direction (intermodal and aggregates). There is a step change in demand at
           Peterborough where the ECML connects with the route from Felixstowe (Corridor
           11). North of Peterborough, the ECML accommodates around 12-15 trains per
           day per direction (except the 'shared' section with Corridor 11 (Link 7) which
           handles around 20 trains per day per direction). Around 8 trains per day are
           intermodal (ex Felixstowe), the remainder being aggregates, coal and metals;
        •	 The MML is a key route for transporting aggregates from the East Midlands
           quarries to rail-linked distribution depots in the South East (10-15 trains per day
           per direction, the majority of which convey aggregates); and
        •	 The Leeds-Settle-Carlisle line is a key route for coal ex Hunterston and Scottish
           open-cast to power stations in Yorkshire (12 trains per day per direction).

Corridor 11: Haven Ports to the Midlands

5.45	 The railway route forming Corridor 11 extends from Felixstowe to Nuneaton via
      Ipswich, Ely, Peterborough and Leicester (Links 5-12 in Appendix 8 table). The main
      points to note are described below:

        •	 Links 5-9 (Ipswich to Peterborough via Ely) handles around 5-6 trains per day per
           direction, of which around 4 trains are intermodal between Felixstowe and
           Yorkshire/North East terminals;
        •	 Links 10-12 handles around 7-10 trains per day per direction, most of which are
           conveying aggregates from the East Midlands quarries to the South East and
           East Anglia. The section between Peterborough and Nuneaton is currently
           unable to accommodate intermodal trains due to loading gauge clearance issues.
           However, this route is to be upgraded (gauge enhancement) to provide additional
           capacity from Felixstowe to the Midlands which avoids London (see Corridor 5
           and Corridor 12).

Corridor 12: London to Haven Ports

5.46	 The railway route forming Corridor 12 is the Great Eastern Mainline (GEML), extends
      from Ipswich to London (Stratford) via Colchester and Chelmsford. It also includes
      the Felixstowe branch line from Ipswich to the port (Links 1-5 in the Appendix 8
      table). The main points to note are described below:

        •	 The Felixstowe branch line handled 24 trains per day per direction in 2007 (this
           has now increased), all of which were intermodal to/from the deep-sea container
           port. A planned upgrade (funded by the port) has recently been granted planning
           consent, thereby allowing the port to handle a significant number of extra trains
           per day in future years; and


Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 5	                                       Page 95



        •	 The GEML handles around 20 trains per day per direction, of which around 18-19
           trains are intermodal to/from the deep-sea container port. Most of these trains are
           destined for the Midlands, North West and Yorkshire terminals but currently pass
           through London via the NNL (see Corridor 5).

Corridor 13: Stansted Corridor

5.47	 The railway route forming Corridor 13 is the Stansted Mainline. The line currently
      handles around 3 trains per day per direction, all of which are serving rail-linked
      aggregates terminals are Broxbourne, Harlow and Bishops Stortford.

Corridor 14: London to Thames Gateway Ports

5.48	 The railway routes forming Corridor 14 are:

        •	 London-Tilbury-Southend line (LTS) from Barking to Tilbury; and
        •	 North Kent line from Clapham Junction to Hoo Junction and the Isle of Grain line
           to Thamesport.

5.49	 The main points to note are described below:

        •	 The LTS line handles around 10-15 trains per day per direction, of which around
           5-6 trains per day are intermodal to/from Tilbury deep-sea container port. The
           remainder convey aggregates, paper and trade cars (Ford imports via Dagenham
           and Mini exports);
        •	 The Isle of Grain branch line handles around 7 trains per day per direction, of
           which around 4 trains are intermodal to/from Thamesport and 3 convey
           aggregates from the Isle of Grain import berth.




Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 6)	                                         Page 96



SECTION 6. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

6.1	    Overall it would appear that the methodology has allowed a realistic description of the
        pattern of road and rail freight demand nationally. In terms of road freight activity, the
        data produced has allowed us to:

        •	 Better understand how freight is using the road network through establishing
           freight demand across the strategic national highway network by traffic type
           (rigid/articulated HGV), commodity, length of haul and the domestic/international
           split;
        •	 Identify the main international gateways and the main routes used by international
           traffic moving to/from those gateways;
        •	 Identify freight's contribution to total vehicle demand across the strategic national
           highway network; and
        •	 Assess the nature of freight activity including on those sections of the network
           experiencing stress, particularly considering the commodities being conveyed,
           length of haul and the domestic/international split.

6.2	    From the datasets produced, the Corridors which are particularly important in serving
        international gateways are as follows:

        •	   Corridor 1 (Channel Ports and Channel Tunnel);
        •	   Corridor 3 (Southampton and Portsmouth);
        •	   Corridor 4 (Southampton and Portsmouth);
        •	   Corridor 5 (Channel Ports and Channel Tunnel);
        •	   Corridor 8 (Channel Ports and Channel Tunnel);
        •	   Corridor 10 (Channel Ports and Channel Tunnel);
        •	   Corridor 11 (Haven Ports);
        •	   Corridor 12 (Haven Ports); and
        •	   Corridor 14 (Thamesports).

6.3	    The following table compares the different traffic types and commodities being moved
        along each corridor by both road and rail freight.




Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 6)                                                 Page 97



Table 6.1: Traffic Types and Commodities (summary of main flows)

             Corridor                               Road:                         Rail:
                                        Traffic Types & Commodities   Traffic Types & Commodities

Corridor 1: London to Kent             Food (temp controlled and      Construction materials
Ports (Dover/Channel Tunnel)           ambient)                       International intermodal
                                       Manufactured goods
                                       Construction materials and
                                       metals
                                       International RoRo and
                                       domestic
Corridor 2: London to Gatwick          Food (temp controlled and      NA
                                       ambient)
                                       Manufactured goods
                                       Domestic
Corridor 3: London to                  Food (temp controlled and      Maritime Containers
Southampton                            ambient)                       Construction materials
                                       Manufactured goods
                                       Construction materials and
                                       metals
                                       International RoRo and
                                       domestic
Corridor 4: South Coast Ports to       Food (temp controlled and      Maritime Containers
the Midlands                           ambient)                       Construction materials
                                       Manufactured goods             Automotive
                                       Construction materials and
                                       metals
                                       International RoRo and
                                       domestic
Corridor 5: London Orbital             Food (temp controlled and      Maritime Containers
                                       ambient)
                                       Manufactured goods
                                       Construction materials and
                                       metals
                                       International RoRo and
                                       domestic
Corridor 6: London to South            Food (temp controlled and      Construction materials
West and South Wales                   ambient)
                                       Manufactured goods
                                       Domestic
Corridor 7: Bristol to the             Food (temp controlled and      Metals
Midlands                               ambient)                       Petro-chemicals
                                       Manufactured goods
                                       Metals
                                       Domestic




Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 6)	                                                   Page 98



Corridor 8: London to the West         Food (temp controlled and         Maritime Containers
Midlands, North Wales, North           ambient)                          International intermodal
West and Scotland                      Manufactured goods                Domestic intermodal
                                       International RoRo and            Automotive
                                       domestic
Corridor 9: Trans-Pennine              Food (temp controlled and         Construction materials
                                       ambient)                          Metals
                                       Manufactured goods                Coal
                                                                         Waste
Corridor 10: London to the East        Food (temp controlled and         Maritime Containers
Midlands, Yorkshire, North East        ambient)                          Construction materials
and Scotland                           Manufactured goods                Coal
                                       Construction materials and
                                       metals
                                       International RoRo and
                                       domestic
Corridor 11: Haven Ports to the        Food (temp controlled and         Maritime Containers
Midlands                               ambient)                          Construction materials
                                       Manufactured goods
                                       International LoLo and domestic
Corridor 12: London to Haven           Food (temp controlled and         Maritime Containers
Ports                                  ambient)
                                       Manufactured goods
                                       Food (temp controlled and
                                       ambient)
                                       Manufactured goods
                                       International LoLo and domestic
Corridor 13: Stansted Corridor         Food (temp controlled and         NA
                                       ambient)
                                       Manufactured goods
                                       Domestic
Corridor 14: London to Thames          Food (temp controlled and         Maritime Containers
Gateway Ports                          ambient)
                                       Manufactured goods
                                       Construction materials and
                                       metals
                                       International LoLo and domestic


6.4     In terms of rail freight, the data produced has allowed us to:

        •	 Establish freight train demand by link; and
        •	 Differentiate freight train demand by train type, commodity, length of haul and
           domestic/international split.

6.5     The study has not considered the following:




Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 6)	                                         Page 99



        •	 The nature of light goods vehicle (van) activity. As noted in Section 4.3, there are
           issues associated with there being little or no audited/reliable data sources
           relating to freight lifted using light goods vehicles;
        •	 An assessment of rail freight demand against passenger train demand i.e.
           freight's contribution to total demand for network capacity. The study Terms of
           Reference did not require this issue to be considered;
        •	 Forecasts for future demand for road and railway network capacity. The study
           Terms of Reference did not require this issue to be considered; and
        •	 An assessment of forecast demand for road and rail freight against network
           capacity. Again the study Terms of Reference did not require this issue to be
           considered.

6.6	    Any further work beyond this study may therefore wish to address these issues.

6.7	    One of the key aims of the study was to better inform development of options to
        address issues on the network. A key solution for consideration is exploration of
        further opportunities for modal shift. In considering modal shift, the major factors
        which determine rail freight cost competitiveness are:

        •	 Length of haul;
        •	 Volume of freight moving between common origins and destinations (i.e. the
           ability to generate full length train loads); and
        •	 Whether the origin and destination of those movements are rail linked or not (i.e.
           land-use).

6.8	    For example, rail freight enjoys a large market share in the movement of dry bulk
        materials (e.g. aggregates, coal) because they are normally moved between rail-
        linked facilities and in full train-load quantities. Retail cargoes travel short distances
        between non rail-linked sites and in HGV-size loads (less than full train load). As a
        result, the road haulage market has a dominant market position as rail freight is
        uncompetitive under these conditions.

6.9	    The commodity being conveyed in itself does not have a major bearing on rail freight
        competitiveness. In both examples quoted above, it is land-use, volume and distance
        which are the major determinants and not the nature of the commodities. However,
        there are some instances where the nature of the cargo will influence modal shift
        potential, though these can normally be overcome and they tend to be secondary
        factors. For example, temperature controlled goods require the use of reefer
        equipment and standard 2.6m wide reefer intermodal units cannot be accommodated
        on some parts of the railway network due to loading gauge restrictions. However,
        narrower ‘bespoke’ equipment could be utilised to overcome this issue.

6.10	 These determining factors generally explain why certain commodities are attracted to
      rail (and therefore enjoy a large market share) while others are dominated by road


Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5
Network Analysis of Freight Traffic – Section 6)	                                    Page 100



        haulage. It may be that future measures (investment or regulatory) could be targeted
        at those commodity sectors where rail currently does not enjoy any significant market
        share, in order to bring about the necessary land-use, volume and length of haul
        conditions which enhance rail freight competitiveness. The nature of commodities
        being moved will therefore impact on any investment or regulatory measures. A
        further consideration of road flows by commodity should therefore be undertaken.

6.11	 The data produced for this study can be further manipulated to address this issue,
      allowing length of haul and freight volumes to be assessed on stressed links. In
      particular, it is possible from the data to produce an X-Y scatter graph for each
      corridor (or part of corridor) showing the following:

        •	 Each point would represent one link (sum of both directions);
        •	 The Y co-ordinate would quantify the number of HGVs on the link travelling
           300km or more; and
        •	 The X co-ordinate would represent the flow:capacity ratio (stress, say average of
           both directions and average over both the AM and PM peaks).

6.12	 At each 'stressed' link therefore, it would be possible to quantify the number of HGVs
      moving over 300km. Further interrogation would allow a full origin/destination
      analysis of those HGVs, thereby allowing a judgement concerning the potential to
      generate full length train loads. The process could be repeated showing traffic over
      200km. This might give some indication of the extra market available to rail as a
      result of building rail-connected logistics sites.




Printed on 24/03/10 11:22
Our Ref: 209004r_ver5

				
DOCUMENT INFO