Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology

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					Introduction to Human Anatomy
and Physiology

   Anatomy and Physiology
   Characteristics of Life
   Maintenance of Life
   Levels of Organization
   Organization of the Human Body
   Anatomical Terminology
     Anatomy and Physiology
   Anatomy – Science of body part morphology (structure).
       What does it look like?
   Physiology – Body part function.
       How does it works?
   Morphology is directly tied to function. (Form fits Function)
       An organ’s function depends upon how it is put together (structure).
   Human organism – well-organized unit formed by organ systems
Characteristics of Life
   Movement            Growth
   Responsiveness      Reproduction
   (Metabolism)        Absorption
   Assimilation        Development
   Circulation         Excretion
                        Respiration
Name That Characteristic

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      Growth (Development also)
Name That Characteristic

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                  (Bowel) Movement
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Quick Questions
   Turn to your partner and…
       Come up with an example for each of the
        characteristics of life…you may not use the
        examples already given!
Maintenance of Life: Requirements
of Organisms
   Western Family HOP(s)
   Water:
       Metabolism, transport, homeostasis
   Foods:
       Energy, building blocks, regulate
   Heat:
       Energy, Metabolic reactions
   Oxygen:
       Cellular respiration  Energy
   Pressure:
       Breathing, circulation
Maintenance of Life: Homeostasis
   Homeostasis: Maintaining a stable internal
    environment surrounding cells even with change
    in external environment.
       Set point: Desired internal condition
       Normal range: Range of internal condition that still
        allow for homeostasis.
       Homeostatic mechanism: Method by which stable
        internal environment is maintained
       Negative feedback: Homeostatic control mechanism
        brings internal condition back to a set point.
Quick Questions
   Turn to your partner and…
       describe a different way in which our bodies
        maintain homeostasis.
       describe what responsiveness is and why it is
        important to our survival.
       give one reason why water is important to the
        human body.
Levels of Organization

                   Tissue: 4 Basic Types
                   1. Epithelial Tissue
                   2. Connective Tissue
                   3. Muscle Tissue
                   4. Nerve Tissue
Quick Question
   Which is more complex a molecule or an
    organelle? Why?
Organization of the Human Body:
Body Cavities
Cavities within the Head
Organization of the Human Body:
Body Cavities
   Axial Portion
       Head, neck and trunk
       Organs w/n = Viscera or visceral organs
       Two major cavities
           Dorsal and Ventral
Organization of the Human Body:
Body Cavities
   Axial Portion
       Dorsal Cavities
           Cranial cavity
               w/n skull
               Contains brain, cranial cavity, sphenoidal sinus, frontal
                sinus, Orbital cavities, middle ear cavities, nasal cavity, and
                oral cavity.
           Vertebral cavity/canal
               w/n backbone
               Contains spinal cord
Organization of the Human Body:
Body Cavities
   Axial Portion
       Ventral Cavity
           Thoracic cavity
               Diaphragm separates from abdominopelvic
               Split into two regions by Mediastinum
               Contains ribs, lungs, [sternum, heart, esophagus, trachea,
                thymus gland (w/n mediastinum)]
           Abdominopelvic cavity
               Abdominal cavity
               Pelvic cavity (enclosed by hip bones)
               Contains stomach, liver, spleen, gallbladder, kidneys, most
                small and large intestines, bladder and reproductive organs.
Thoracic and Abdominopelvic
                  All organ structures have
                   three main layers:
                      Parietal: membrane attached
                       to cavity wall
                           Continuous w/ visceral
                      Cavity: potential space
                       between two membranes.
                           Some contain fluid to aid in
                            motion and decrease friction
                      Visceral: membrane that
                       covers organ
                           Continuous w/ parietal
Thoracic and Abdominopelvic
                 Lungs = Pleura
                        Parietal pleura
                        Pleural cavity
                        Visceral pleura
                     Heart = Pericardium
                        Parietal pericardium
                        Pericardial cavity
                        Visceral pericardium
                     Abdominopelvic = Peritoneum
                        Parietal peritoneum
                        Peritoneal cavity
                        Visceral peritoneum
Anatomical Planes
Body Positions
Body Regions
            Epigastric region: “upon the stomach”
            Left and right hypochondriac regions:
             “beneath the ribs”
            Umbilical region: “where the umbilical
             cord was attached”
            Left and right lumbar regions:
             “associated with lumbar region of
             vertebral column”.
            Hypogastric region: “inferior to
            Left and right iliac regions: “associated
             with iliac bones of the pelvis