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Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology

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Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology Powered By Docstoc
					Introduction to Human Anatomy
and Physiology

   Anatomy and Physiology
   Characteristics of Life
   Maintenance of Life
   Levels of Organization
   Organization of the Human Body
   Anatomical Terminology
     Anatomy and Physiology
   Anatomy – Science of body part morphology (structure).
       What does it look like?
   Physiology – Body part function.
       How does it works?
   Morphology is directly tied to function. (Form fits Function)
       An organ’s function depends upon how it is put together (structure).
   Human organism – well-organized unit formed by organ systems
Characteristics of Life
   MR. (M)AC GRADER
   Movement            Growth
   Responsiveness      Reproduction
   (Metabolism)        Absorption
   Assimilation        Development
   Circulation         Excretion
                        Respiration
Name That Characteristic




          Reproduction
Name That Characteristic




                 Absorption
Name That Characteristic




     Responsiveness/Homeostasis
Name That Characteristic




      Growth (Development also)
Name That Characteristic




           Respiration
Name That Characteristic


                  (Bowel) Movement
Name That Characteristic




           Movement
Name That Characteristic




           Digestion
Name That Characteristic



                 Circulation
Name That Characteristic



                 Excretion
Name That Characteristic
                           Starch




          Assimilation
Quick Questions
   Turn to your partner and…
       Come up with an example for each of the
        characteristics of life…you may not use the
        examples already given!
Maintenance of Life: Requirements
of Organisms
   Western Family HOP(s)
   Water:
       Metabolism, transport, homeostasis
   Foods:
       Energy, building blocks, regulate
   Heat:
       Energy, Metabolic reactions
   Oxygen:
       Cellular respiration  Energy
   Pressure:
       Breathing, circulation
Maintenance of Life: Homeostasis
   Homeostasis: Maintaining a stable internal
    environment surrounding cells even with change
    in external environment.
       Set point: Desired internal condition
       Normal range: Range of internal condition that still
        allow for homeostasis.
       Homeostatic mechanism: Method by which stable
        internal environment is maintained
       Negative feedback: Homeostatic control mechanism
        brings internal condition back to a set point.
Quick Questions
   Turn to your partner and…
       describe a different way in which our bodies
        maintain homeostasis.
       describe what responsiveness is and why it is
        important to our survival.
       give one reason why water is important to the
        human body.
Levels of Organization




                   Tissue: 4 Basic Types
                   1. Epithelial Tissue
                   2. Connective Tissue
                   3. Muscle Tissue
                   4. Nerve Tissue
Quick Question
   Which is more complex a molecule or an
    organelle? Why?
Organization of the Human Body:
Body Cavities
Cavities within the Head
Organization of the Human Body:
Body Cavities
   Axial Portion
       Head, neck and trunk
       Organs w/n = Viscera or visceral organs
       Two major cavities
           Dorsal and Ventral
Organization of the Human Body:
Body Cavities
   Axial Portion
       Dorsal Cavities
           Cranial cavity
               w/n skull
               Contains brain, cranial cavity, sphenoidal sinus, frontal
                sinus, Orbital cavities, middle ear cavities, nasal cavity, and
                oral cavity.
           Vertebral cavity/canal
               w/n backbone
               Contains spinal cord
Organization of the Human Body:
Body Cavities
   Axial Portion
       Ventral Cavity
           Thoracic cavity
               Diaphragm separates from abdominopelvic
               Split into two regions by Mediastinum
               Contains ribs, lungs, [sternum, heart, esophagus, trachea,
                thymus gland (w/n mediastinum)]
           Abdominopelvic cavity
               Abdominal cavity
               Pelvic cavity (enclosed by hip bones)
               Contains stomach, liver, spleen, gallbladder, kidneys, most
                small and large intestines, bladder and reproductive organs.
Thoracic and Abdominopelvic
Membranes
                  All organ structures have
                   three main layers:
                      Parietal: membrane attached
                       to cavity wall
                           Continuous w/ visceral
                      Cavity: potential space
                       between two membranes.
                           Some contain fluid to aid in
                            motion and decrease friction
                      Visceral: membrane that
                       covers organ
                           Continuous w/ parietal
Thoracic and Abdominopelvic
                 Lungs = Pleura
Membranes
                        Parietal pleura
                        Pleural cavity
                        Visceral pleura
                     Heart = Pericardium
                        Parietal pericardium
                        Pericardial cavity
                        Visceral pericardium
                     Abdominopelvic = Peritoneum
                        Parietal peritoneum
                        Peritoneal cavity
                        Visceral peritoneum
Membranes…
Anatomical Planes
Body Positions
Body Regions
            Epigastric region: “upon the stomach”
            Left and right hypochondriac regions:
             “beneath the ribs”
            Umbilical region: “where the umbilical
             cord was attached”
            Left and right lumbar regions:
             “associated with lumbar region of
             vertebral column”.
            Hypogastric region: “inferior to
             stomach.”
            Left and right iliac regions: “associated
             with iliac bones of the pelvis

				
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