Komodo Dragon Indonesia takes up 1,862,440 sq. km. of land area About three times the size of Texas Tropical Rainforest Biome Tropical, hot, humid Located north of Australia and just south of China climate. Two season’s: dry and rainy. No winter. Mostly coastal lowlands Larger islands have interior mountains The lowest elevation point is at 0 m in the Indian Ocean The highest elevation point is Puncak Jaya at 5,030 m Water Consists of 17,508 islands, but is recognized by its five major islands: Java, Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, and Irian Jaya These islands are surrounded by the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean Water area: 93,000 sq km Population Stats Total population: Growth of total population from 1970-1997 Age Structure 0-14: 28.8% 15-64: 65.8% 65 and up: 5.4% Life expectancy: Infant Mortality 69.87 years 34.39 deaths per 1,000 live births Illiteracy Rate (Percent of age 15 and above) Birth Rate: 20.34 births/1,000 population 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 Death Rate: 6.25 deaths/1,000 population 14.5% 13.85% 13.19% 12.66% 12.13% Population Control Policy Family planning is the form of population control that the Republic of Indonesia is practicing. HEALTH CONCERNS IN INDONESIA • Hunger and malnutrition remain the most devastating problems facing the Indonesians, especially for the poor. • Despite general improvements in food availability, health and social services, hunger and malnutrition exist in some form in almost every district in Indonesia. 1. Indonesia has a republican government with 30 provinces and one capital, which is Jakarta. Indonesia gained its independence on August 17, 1944, but was not recognized until December 27, 1949 by the Netherlands. 2. Indonesia is ruled by a chief-of-state: President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono, he has been the nation’s president since October 20, 2004. The Vice President is Muhammad Yusuf Kalla. The president is both the chief-of-state and the head of the government. The legislature is made up of the house of Representatives or with 550 seats; members elected to serve five-year term. The judicial branch is made up of the supreme Court justices appointed by the president from a list of candidates approved by the legislature, and a separate Constitutional Court was invested by the president on 16 August 2003 Indonesia’s Economy GDP: $172.9 billion Although agriculture’s importance has declined, it remains critical to the overall health of the Indonesian economy. Annual growth rate:3.7%. Per capita income:$796. In 2000, for example, agriculture still absorbed 45.1 percent of the Indonesian labor force. Indonesian rupiah (IDR) 1 USD = 9,704.7 IDRs Even more importantly, agriculture provided a cushion against the effects of the Asian economic crisis. Agriculture depends less on the formal financial system than other sectors and was therefore less affected by the collapse of Indonesian banks. GDP (2002): $172.9 billion Annual growth rate (2002):3.7%. Per capita income (2002):$796. Major Industries: Food Processing, Motor Vehicles, Consumer Durables. Indonesia, a vast nation, that has struggled to overcome the Asian financial crisis, and still grapples with high unemployment, a fragile banking sector, endemic corruption, inadequate infrastructure, a poor investment climate, and unequal resource distribution among regions. Indonesia became a net oil importer in 2004 because of declining production and lack of new exploration investment. The cost of subsidizing domestic fuel placed increasing strain on the budget in 2005, and combined with indecisive monetary policy, contributed to a run on the currency in August, prompting the government to enact a 126% average fuel price hike in October. Indonesia is the fifth most • rice populated country in the world • cassava and is a major producer of (tapioca) agricultural products. • peanuts The islands of Java and Bali • rubber account for only 7 percent of • cocoa Indonesia’s total land area but 60 • coffee percent of the population. • palm oil Agriculture is very intensive on • copra these islands, with up to three crop rotations per year. Off Java, • poultry soils are less fertile, and • beef agriculture is less intensive. • pork • eggs Petroleum tin natural gas nickel timber bauxite copper fertile soils coal gold silver Energy Sources and Consumption Total Energy Consumption: 4.45 quadrillion Btu (1.0% of world total energy consumption) Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions: 299.8 million metric tons (1.2% of world total carbon dioxide emissions) Per Capita Energy Consumption: 20.5 million Btu (compared to U.S. value of Indonesia consumes a little over 339.1 million Btu) half of the oil they produce City of Yogyakarta on the island of Java Communication - 10 million main phone lines - 30 million cellular - 678 AM, 43 FM, 82 shortwave radio stations -54 Local TV stations - 18 million internet users Travel - 668 airports (about 25% paved) - 23 Heliports - About 4,000 miles of railways - About 230,000 miles of road In some areas, such Deforestation as Tanjung Pasir village, locals can no longer deepen their Water Shortages wells because even though they get water, it is acidic in taste. Air Pollution in Urban Areas It is extremely hard for the Indonesian people, in most cities, Water Pollution From Industrial Wastes to obtain even a few buckets of water for cooking, washing, and drinking. Smoke and Haze From Forest Fires Political Issues- Child Labor Children work long hours for minimal pay (35-60 hours per week for $4.53 per week in U.S. dollars) Conditions are normally hot and tiring, and employers are commonly “vicious.” Industries employing children are typically rattan/wood furnishings and garment manufacturing, as well as food, mining, commercial fishing, etc. Infrequent labor inspections allow employers to easily and cheaply employ children. Children are typically told not to show up on inspection days. Political Issues – Boundary Disputes Sections of the boundary between East Timor and Indonesia remain unresolved. Many East Timor citizens live in Indonesia but refuse to become Indonesia’s citizens. Ownership of the Celebes Sea remains under dispute between Indonesia and Malaysia due to the location and richness of the waters there. The water is rich in hydrocarbons and the Ambalat oil block is located in this region. State of Peace – U.S. relations Indonesia and the U.S. have a peaceful relationship with most friction coming from workers rights and military support. Indonesia has improved its work system by U.S. standards since 1998, allowing trade unions to form, but the U.S. still argues that workers need more protection and more clearly-stated rights. The U.S. cut off funds for Indonesian military training after violent demonstrations between Indonesia and East Timor and after Indonesia failed to produce information regarding the ambush murder of two U.S. teachers in Papua.