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Efficiency in the Energy Industry of China

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					Efficiency in the Energy
Industry of China
By Shereen McCurter
Proposed Position
   The position will be argued for the coal
    industry to be decreased in China, and
    sources should be replaced with the most
    efficient combination of other renewable
    and non-renewable sources of energy. The
    types of energy most efficient for the
    Chinese energy industry may not be the
    same for any other country in the world.
    This is all while keeping in mind the
    Chinese governments ultimate goal of
    being self-sufficient.
      The Types of Energy
           Discussed
   Nuclear
   Hydroelectric
   Solar and Photovoltaic
   Wind
   Natural gas
   Coal
             Background

   Rural vs. Urban Sector in China
   Third world country stance
   Resources to allocate
   Energy-intensive products
   Going from a strong exporter to a
    dependent importer.
                                    Coal


   76% of China’s energy industry

   2nd largest consumer of coal behind
    the U.S.
       “the United States is continually criticized for the fact that its demand for oil
       accounts for almost one-quarter of world oil consumption, the burning of coal in
       China by industry, households, and other uses makes up a reported 27 percent of
       world wide consumption.” (Ebel 2005).
      Disadvantages of Coal

   Pollution
    -16 of the 20 most polluted cities
    -Unwashed, high-sulfur coal that spews tons of
     sulfur dioxide into the atmosphere.
    -China is years behind adopting cleaner ways of
     burning coal that are available.
    -Production of greenhouse gases.
    -Emissions produce smog and acid rain.
     Disadvantages of Coal

   High death rate among miners.
   Low chance of being self-sufficient.
   Lack of competitiveness in the market.
   Quantity takes precedence over
    quality.
   Operators of the coal industry do not
    bare the full costs of inefficiencies.
        Advantages of Coal

   It is inexpensive for China, because they
    use the lowest quality coal available.
   There current supply system simply works
    for them.
   The cost allows China to continue their fast
    paced growth.
   On the contrary they contribute to some of
    the toughest pollution standards.
           Nuclear Power

   There is an unclear path with regards
    to nuclear power in China.
   They currently own many different
    types of reactors from an assortment
    of countries.
   Sustainability vs. uncertainty for the
    future.
Disadvantages of Nuclear
        Power
   Little chance of being independent.
   Nuclear reactors use either uranium-
    235 or plutonium-239 as their fuel,
    both of which must be mined like
    many other ores.
   Plant construction is expensive.
   The radioactive waste.
    Advantages of Nuclear
           Power
   Once the plant is constructed, the
    electricity generated is inexpensive.
   It emits zero greenhouse gasesafter
    facility is manufactured.
   Nuclear power generates the most
    electricity when considering power in,
    power out.
Disadvantages of Natural
          Gas
   China is not well endowed with this type of
    fossil fuel. This is a large problem to China,
    because this source of energy is the most
    efficient and cleanest way to provide residential
    and commercial energy.
   Transportation costs are high.
   The type of natural gas that China is supplied
    with is coal-bed methane and this type of
    natural gas is usually more costly and less
    opportune to recover than the resources in
    hydrocarbon fields.
     Advantages of Natural
             Gas
   Lowest emissions, of all the fossil
    fuels, natural gas is one of the
    cleanest-burning fuels.

   High efficiency

   Low energy-intensive product
     Alternative Sources of
            Energy
   Solar, Wind and Hydroelectric
   China is expected to be one of the
    largest consumers of renewable
    energy in the future.
   Low cost to the environment.
   Low negative externalities imposed
    upon the country.
     Alternative Sources of
            Energy
   Omitting half of the fossil fuel usage
    and replacing that demand with
    renewable energy could continue
    China’s strong growth.

   The current infrastructure is the
    problem.
    Disadvantages of Wind

   Is better to use as a secondary source
    of energy.
   Dependency of the wind as the output
    factor.
   Currently the most advanced wind
    power technology can only store
    electricity for a maximum of 108 days
    on average.
      Advantages of Wind

   Wind power is one of the most
    advanced types of renewable energy
    behind hydroelectric.
   Sustainability, low amount of fuel
    required and very low maintenance.
   Low environmental impact.
    Disadvantages of Solar
    Power and Photovoltaic
   Expensive, inefficient, fragile.
   High build cost.
   High manufacturing emissions.
   Low output, better to use for small
    tasks.
   Demand is highest when supply is
    lowest.
     Advantages of Solar
    Power and Photovoltaic
   Potential to provide global energy in
    maybe as little as 10 years.

   Complete Self-sufficiency.

   Zero operational emissions.
       Disadvantages of
      Hydroelectric Power
   Should be a secondary source of
    energy.
   Must be restricted to areas containing
    high volumes of water.
    Can lead to the depletion of the
    surrounding soil, if too many dams are
    put in a small area.
        Advantages of
      Hydroelectric Power
   Constant generation of energy.
   Low emissions.
   Reliable source of energy.
   Low maintenance.
   A dam will provide energy for a very
    large time period.
The Perfect Allocation for
         China
   Where energy conservation is maximized
    and self-sustainability is achieved.
   In the case of comparing the environment
    with a marginal cost-benefit analysis it must
    be stated that the costs to the environment
    are always going to outweigh the benefits.
    Perhaps a more appropriate demonstration
    of this type would minimize the costs
    relative to the externalities being induced by
    the energy industry.
The Perfect Allocation for
         China
   The obstacle that China and the world
    most jump over is that this
    dependence upon renewable
    resources in underdeveloped and seen
    as a future plan rather than a current
    one.
The Perfect Allocation for
         China
   Coal 10%
   Hydroelectric
   Solar
   Wind
   Nuclear Power
   Natural Gas
      Why this Allocation of
     Resources would not be
       Beneficial to China?
   The transition from fossil fuels to
    renewable energy is difficult to achieve
    given the current infrastructure.
   The current energy allocation is
    present, because of the supply
    available to China.
      Why this Allocation of
     Resources would not be
       Beneficial to China?
   Most Renewable energy is far away
    from being able to provide energy as a
    primary source.

   Renewable energy is a large problem
    due to storage and transmission being
    low.
              Conclusion

   Research and development is where
    the money should be spent in China’s
    energy industry.
   The research done on each source
    suggests that the strongest types of
    energy that China can maintain and
    improve are hydroelectric, solar, wind,
    and nuclear generated power.

				
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posted:7/20/2011
language:English
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