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					Doc. No.: CDRL A013-01: Ver. 2.0




                                   10 July 1998

                        Contract Number: GS-35F-4461G

                      Delivery Order: DABT 60-97-F-0482

                                    Prepared for:
                        Deputy Chief of Staff for Training
         Headquarters, United States Army Training and Doctrine Command
                              Fort Monroe, VA 23651

                                  Prepared by:
                           ATFA IWG, supported by
                  Science Applications International Corporation
                        22 Enterprise Parkway, Suite 200
                              Hampton, VA 23666
Doc. No.: CDRL A013-01: Ver. 2.0                                                                                                     10 July 1998

                                                       Table of Contents
Section                                                                                                                                              Page
1.0   SCOPE ............................................................................................................................................... 1

      1.1. IDENTIFICATION .................................................................................................................. 1

      1.2. PURPOSE ................................................................................................................................. 1

      1.3. DOCUMENT OVERVIEW ..................................................................................................... 2

2.0   REFERENCED DOCUMENTS ...................................................................................................... 2

3.0   CURRENT SYSTEM ....................................................................................................................... 3

      3.1. BACKGROUND OBJECTIVES AND SCOPE ..................................................................... 3

      3.2. OPERATIONAL POLICY AND CONSTRAINTS ............................................................... 3

      3.3. DESCRIPTION OF CURRENT ARCHITECTURE ............................................................ 3

      3.4. INVOLVED USERS ................................................................................................................. 4

      3.5. SUPPORT CONCEPT ............................................................................................................. 4

4.0   JUSTIFICATION FOR ATFA ........................................................................................................ 4

      4.1. JUSTIFICATION FOR CHANGE ......................................................................................... 4

      4.2. DESCRIPTION OF CHANGES ............................................................................................. 5

      4.3. PRIORITIES AMONG THE CHANGES .............................................................................. 6

      4.4. CHANGES CONSIDERED BUT NOT INCLUDED ............................................................ 6

      4.5. ASSUMPTIONS AND CONSTRAINTS OF THE AT XXI PROGRAM ............................ 6

5.0   CONCEPT FOR THE AT XXI ARCHITECTURE ...................................................................... 7

      5.1. BACKGROUND, OBJECTIVES, AND SCOPE ................................................................... 7

      5.2. OPERATIONAL POLICIES AND CONSTRAINTS............................................................ 8

      5.3. DESCRIPTION OF ARCHITECTURE ................................................................................. 8

      5.4. USERS/AFFECTED PERSONNEL ........................................................................................ 9

      5.5. SUPPORT CONCEPT ............................................................................................................. 9

6.0   OPERATIONAL SCENARIOS ...................................................................................................... 9

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7.0       SUMMARY OF IMPACTS ............................................................................................................. 9

          7.1. OPERATIONAL IMPACTS ................................................................................................... 9

          7.2. ORGANIZATIONAL IMPACTS ......................................................................................... 10

          7.3. IMPACTS DURING DEVELOPMENT............................................................................... 10

8.0       ANALYSIS OF NEW ARCHITECTURE .................................................................................... 11

          8.1. SUMMARY OF IMPROVEMENTS .................................................................................... 11

          8.2. SUMMARY OF CHALLENGES .......................................................................................... 11

          8.3. ALTERATIONS AND TRADE-OFFS CONSIDERED ...................................................... 11

9.0       NOTES............................................................................................................................................. 11

                                                              List of Figures
Figure                                                                                                                                                 Page
1-1. AT XXI CAMPAIGN PLAN ARCHITECTURAL “UMBRELLA” ............................................... 1


                                                          List of Appendices
Appendix                                                                                                                                               Page

B - IDEF0 ACTIVITY MATRIX ............................................................................................................ B-1

C - ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS .......................................................................................... C-1

D - REFERENCES ................................................................................................................................... D-1

      Doc. No.: CDRL A013-01: Ver. 2.0                                                                                                              10 July 1998

      1.0 Scope.

          1.1. Identification. This document describes the Operational Concept Description
               (OCD) for the Army Training (AT) XXI Functional Architecture (ATFA).

          1.2. Purpose. Figure 1-1. illustrates the AT XXI Architecture. The purpose of the
               AT XXI Architecture is to provide top-down, high-level guidance for the AT
               XXI System of Systems down to specific AT XXI component and
               subcomponent system design.

                                                                                  A T X X I C am p a ig n P la n
    • Guides long range strategy                                            G u id in g               P r o g ra m           P r o g ra m       C o m po n en t
                                                 A ssu m p t ion s
    • Describes systems                                                    P r i n ci p l e s        S tr u ct u re     M a n a g em en t       D es c ri p t i o n s

    • Describes system relationships

•   Details functional requirem ents                                          F un c ti on a l A rc hi te ct ur e

•   Details functional relationships               C o n d u ct
                                                                        D es i g n          D ev e l o p      I m p l e-        E v a l ua te   M an ag e
                                                   T r ain in g                                               m en t
•   Develops Arm y Training M odel                 A na l y s i s
                                                                       T r ain in g         T r ain in g
                                                                                                              T r ain in g
                                                                                                                                T r ain in g    T r ain in g

•   Identifies data elements

                                                                               T ec h n ic al A rch i te ct ure
•   Specifies technical requirem ents                                                                M o d e l i ng           H u m an -
                                                  P r o c es s i n g       T r a n s fe r
•   Specifies system & data interfaces            S ta n da rd s          S ta n da rd s
                                                                                                      & D at a
                                                                                                     E xc h an ge
                                                                                                                             C o m pu t er
                                                                                                                             I n te r fa c e
                                                                                                                                                   S e cu r i ty

•   Specifies standardization requirem ents                                                          S ta n da rd s

•   Describes migration strategy

• IAW functional & technical architecture                           C o m p o n e n t/ S u b c o m p o n e n t A r c h i te c tu r e

• Detailed system functions
• System architecture & data structur e

                       Figure 1-1. AT XXI Campaign Plan Architectural “Umbrella”

                1.2.1. The ATFA flows directly from the AT XXI Campaign Plan, reflects the
                       Campaign Plan both in content and functionality, and defines the upper
                       level functionalities of AT XXI.

                1.2.2. The ATFA represents the actual training processes and activities that
                       take place to “Train the Force.”

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         1.2.3. The training functional architecture covers all of Army training to
                include: identification of need for training; creating, implementing, and
                evaluating training; and management or the creation and implementation

         1.2.4. The purpose of the ATFA is to provide the functional framework for the
                supporting technical and systems architectures on which all future AT
                XXI automated training systems will be built.

    1.3. Document Overview.

         Section 1, discusses the scope of the document and includes an overview of
         Army Training XXI and the relationships between the AT XXI Campaign Plan,
         Functional Architecture, and Technical Architecture.

         Section 2, refers to Appendix D for a listing of Army Field Manuals, Army
         Regulations, other Department of the Army documents, Department of Defense
         publications, TRADOC documents, and other documents used to develop this
         document and concept.

         Section 3, describes the current system, provides background, goals and
         objectives, and outlines the community of users for the current system.

         Section 4, discusses the need for a changed system, describes the changes, the
         assumptions, and the constraints that were used to develop the new system.

         Section 5, lays out the concept for the AT XXI Architecture. It develops the
         background, objectives, and scope of the new architecture. It discusses the
         operational policies and constraints considered when developing the
         architecture. It briefly describes the architecture and refers to the community of

         Section 6, refers to Appendix A to illustrate the operational scenario to which
         this new system will be applied.

         Section 7, summarizes the operational and organizational impacts of the new

         Section 8, compares the improvements and challenges that the new system
         brings to the Army.

         Section 9, tailored out of the document.

2.0 Referenced Documents. For a complete list of References, see Appendix D.

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3.0 Current System.

    3.1. Background Objectives and Scope. Prior to 1993, there was no central
         management tool to guide training system development. Most automated
         training systems were stove-piped, which in turn, led to process duplication and
         nonstandard databases. Integration efforts, if made at all, were difficult
         because of the inability of training systems to share information. In 1993, the
         Army Training Model (ATM) was created to identify and help solve
         weaknesses in the training system development arena.

    3.2. Operational Policy and Constraints.

         3.2.1. The ATM was developed IAW AR 25-9, Army Data Management and
                Standards Program, dated 25 Sep 89 (superseded by AR 25-1, Apr 97).
                The data management program was to:

                 Ensure that the mission-essential data requirements of commanders
                and decision makers were identified, documented, and supported.

                 Exploit data as a shared resource to improve mission effectiveness
                and efficiency over the spectrum of conflict: peace, transition to
                conflict, and conflict.

                 Set the standards for accuracy, security, and synchronization of data
                in Army databases and information systems.

                 Develop an understanding of data storage and access requirements
                that would be useful in developing standard Army information systems
                and databases.

         3.2.2. The ATM was based on information classes specified in DA PAM 25-1,
                Army Information Architecture; [(390) Manage Institutional and Unit
                Training for Active and Reserve Components, (400) Develop Individual
                and Unit Proficiency for Active and Reserve Components and (410)
                Manage Training Support]. The ATM was incorporated into the Army
                Model and standard data for AT was initiated and collected in the Army
                Data Dictionary.

    3.3. Description of Current Architecture.

         3.3.1. The ATM:

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                 Used the IDEF modeling methodology to identify the processes that
                make up the training domain (IDEF0 process model) and the information
                requirements generated by those processes (IDEF1X data model).

                 Grouped training processes into three primary areas: institutional
                training, unit training, and training support.

                 Provided a framework to compare the processes and information
                used by the various training systems.

                 Identified problems associated with training systems, i.e.,
                duplication, gaps, and inconsistencies.

          3.3.2. The Objective Functional Architecture (OFA):

                 Is a follow-on effort to help system developers fix the problems
                identified by the ATM.

                 Analyzes existing and planned system capabilities against the ATM

                 Provides concept for systems migration/consolidation over 5-year

    3.4. Involved Users. The list of users included below is intended to indicate the
         current primary readers and users of the ATFA document:

          Training Developers
          Training Development Managers
          Training Managers
          Component Program Managers
          Component Developers
          Training Policy Writers
          Training Resource Managers

    3.5. Support Concept. This paragraph tailored out.

4.0 Justification for ATFA.

    4.1   Justification for change.

          4.1.1 Several changes affected the Army data standardization program in

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                  The DOD 8320 series replaced most of the guidance in AR 25-9.

                The Army Data Dictionary System was shut down and Army
               metadata was moved to the Defense Data Dictionary System.

                The DA Data Management staff was moved to support the DOD

               Those changes required major adjustments in Army data management
               and ultimately stopped the standardization of Army data for a period of

         4.1.2 Training systems, as currently configured, must be modified to capture
               the full power of information technology with doctrine and structure to
               produce an Army of the 21st century that will have unprecedented battle
               capabilities. The AT XXI Campaign Plan purpose is to prescribe an
               Army training approach that supports this. Developed after the ATM, it
               represents a significant shift in the management, execution, and support
               of the Army Training Strategy.

         4.1.3 The ATM is a valuable foundation for training system integration.
               Further development of a complete architecture is now required to
               ensure interoperability between future systems, leverage
               emerging/enabling technologies, and/or maximize the use of
               Government Off-The-Shelf (GOTS) and Commercial Off-The-Shelf
               (COTS). AT XXI relies heavily on recent innovations in training
               development and delivery technologies. The ATM was created during a
               time these technologies were unavailable or in their infancy. As a result,
               while many core processes and data requirements in the training domain
               are the same, there are overall, significant changes to both, further
               demanding a more comprehensive training architecture.

    4.2. Description of changes. The AT XXI architecture will support an open
         environment capable of continuous improvement through the infusion of
         emerging technologies and functional requirements. To support this, the ATFA
         describes an objective training system consisting of six major processes:

            Conduct Training Analysis
            Design Training
            Develop Training
            Implement Training
            Evaluate Training
            Manage Training Development/Support

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         The six functional activities include the activities detailed or implied in both
         the ATM and OFA, and adds activities of synthetic environment training. In
         some cases, activities of the ATM and OFA, are rolled up into a higher order
         functional activity.

    4.3. Priorities among the changes. TBD

    4.4. Changes considered but not included. This paragraph tailored out.

    4.5. Assumptions and constraints of the AT XXI program.

         4.5.1. Global commitments. The Army will continue to experience frequent
                global commitments that span the warfighting spectrum from stability
                and support operations (SASO) [formerly MOOTW, for Military
                Operations Other Than War] to conventional combat. The missions will
                require short-notice planning and deployments as well as scheduled and
                rehearsed actions. Both the variety of operations that the Army will
                execute and the short-notice character of employment require quality,
                distributed, just-in-time training for a broad range of units and soldier

         4.5.2. Resources. The foreseeable future will remain an era of constrained
                resources. The effects of resource constraints will be felt in the
                availability of dollars, training force structure, and training time. The
                Army will, however, provide adequate resources to design, develop,
                acquire, and field the components and subcomponents of AT XXI as
                defined within this document.

         4.5.3. OPTEMPO/PERSTEMPO. Reduced force structure, combined with
                numerous global commitments, indicate a continued high Operational
                Tempo /Personnel Tempo (OPTEMPO/PERSTEMPO) for units and
                soldiers. The Army must reduce exponentially the ratio of training
                preparation time to training execution time.

         4.5.4. Pace of technology development. The pace of technology change is
                increasing, particularly in information technologies. As a result,
                technology life spans are shorter, warfighting technologies are more
                complex, and both new equipment and sustainment training must be
                more frequent. As technologies are introduced, tactics, techniques, and
                procedures, as well as equipment and structure will change. Training
                updates are required to support those changes. Training support
                technologies are also evolving; thereby enabling improved training

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         4.5.5. Demographics and Soldierization. According to the US Army
                Recruiting Command (USAREC) Youth Attitude Tracking Survey,
                1996, current demographic trends will continue well into the 21st century
                that may alter the challenge to train and socialize soldiers. The
                Generation X population (born after 1964) is more self-oriented and less
                motivated by a desire to serve their country. Soldierization - meaning
                the process of internalizing Army values, ethics and attitudes - will be an
                important challenge to the Army. AT XXI will be an important factor in
                socializing young men and women whose value system may diverge
                considerably from the Army ethos. On the plus side, Generation X men
                and women seek adventure, fun, and physical risk - areas that are very
                compatible with Army training. Also, they easily accept the authority of
                the President, are comfortable with the use of computers and information
                technology, and believe they must work and study hard to achieve

5.0 Concept for the AT XXI Architecture.

    5.1. Background, objectives, and scope.

         5.1.1. Background. The AT XXI mission is to design, develop, acquire and
                field a comprehensive training system of collective, individual
                (institutional and in units), and systems training capabilities to support
                the Force XXI Army and is prepared to support training needs that
                emerge from Army After Next (AAN). To support this mission, the AT
                XXI Campaign Plan prescribes an Army Training approach that results
                in the same fully integrated effort that is applied to the Force XXI effort
                of improving military operations in the 21st century. The ATFA is
                derived from the AT XXI Campaign Plan.

         5.1.2. Objectives. The AT XXI Functional Architecture:

                Codifies the integration of all training and training development
               processes/functions into one comprehensive Army training system
               description. Data and information will be created one time and used
               many times.

                Supports the development of the AT “system of systems” technical
               architecture as well as support systems architecture.

         5.1.3. Scope. The ATFA is a means to prescribe and to ultimately design and
                develop a shared training infrastructure and to provide for cost effective
                and efficient development of the AT XXI component automated
                systems. The architecture and models represent the actual training

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               processes, activities, and events that take place to successfully train
               soldiers and units to perform their missions and supporting tasks. More
               specifically, the ATFA:

                Describes the “To Be”/Objective-State functional requirements for
               executing all Army training, from analysis through evaluation and

                Identifies and details these functional requirements, the component
               systems, and the links between these systems and training functional
               processes and activities.

                Represents the actual training processes, activities, and events that
               take place to successfully train soldiers and units to perform their
               missions and supporting tasks.

                Describes the development of functional interoperability
               requirements and support of AT XXI components.

                Provides a cohesive, comprehensive, top-down framework on which
               future training systems will be built.

                Is prescriptive for all future AT XXI components and supporting
               automated systems.

    5.2. Operational Policies and Constraints.

         5.2.1. The ATFA flows directly from the AT XXI Campaign Plan, reflects the
                Campaign Plan both in content and functionality, and defines the upper
                level functionalities of AT XXI. The AT XXI team used training
                functional experts and references (e.g. FM 25-100, FM 25-101,
                TRADOC 350-70, TC 25-30) to build the ATFA. Functional experts
                provided input in identifying functional activities and relationships of
                these activities and products to components.

         5.2.2. The ATFA is an analytical decomposition of the functional processes
                and activities. It uses the DOD Enterprise Model terminology, where
                appropriate, or the functionality as identified as a supporting enterprise
                model function.

    5.3. Description of Architecture. The ATFA identifies six training functional
         processes (analyze, design, develop, implement, evaluate, and manage training
         support) and five external functional processes (perform requirements
         determination, develop doctrine, develop Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures
         (TTPs), develop technical manuals/bulletins, and establish training

Doc. No.: CDRL A013-01: Ver. 2.0                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     10 July 1998

                                                                      development/training policy) that combine to form the high-level training
                                                                      functional architecture for AT XXI. The training functional and external
                                                                      functional processes support the overall top-level training process of “Train the
                                                                      Force” (A0). This process conducts and manages the activities designed to
                                                                      prepare units, individuals, and teams for unit readiness and job and duty
                                                                      performance. The top-level functional architecture process defined by the
                                                                      development team is depicted in Figure 5-1, with the definition for the Army
                                                                      Training XXI Functional Architecture.

                 Army Training XXI
           Functional Architecture Review
   • Guides long range strategy                            AT XXI Campaign Plan
   • Describes systems                                  Guiding      Program      Program          Component
   • Describes system                                  Principles    Structure   Management        Descriptions


  • Details functional requirements
  • Details functional relationships                     Functional Architecture                                   We
  • Develops Army Training Model
  • Identifies data elements
                                                                                                   Training        are
  • Specifies technical requirements
  • Specifies system & data                              Technical Architecture
  • Specifies standardization          Processing       Transfer
                                                                      & Data
                                                                                      Computer      Security
                                       Standards       Standards     Exchange
  requirements                                                       Standards

  • Describes migration strategy

  • IAW functional & technical
  • Detailed system functions
                                                   Component/Subcomponent Architecture
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    H o w -to -Fi g h t d o c tr i n e
  • System architecture & data
                                                                                                                                 M a j or sy s t e m
                                                                                                                            s t r a t e g ie s e . g. M & S
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        H o w - t o - T r a in d o c t r i n e
                                                                                                                            M a st e r P la n , C 2 , e t c .

                                                                                                                                                                                       A T X X I C a m p a ign P la n

                                                                                                                                                                                   Guiding            Pr ogr am           Pr ogr am           C om pone nt
                                                                                                                                                         A s sum pt ion s
                                                                                                                                                                                 Pr inc ip le s      St ruc tur e       M ana ge m ent       D e sc ript io ns

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 I n p u t fr o m
                                                                                                                             A r m y t r a in i n g                                                                                                                  m aj or
                                                                                                                                p o li c i e s a n d                                                                                                             p r o p o n e n ts
                                                                                                                                pro ced ures

                                                                                                                                                                                    A T F un c tio na l A rc hit e c tu re

                                                                                                                                                                C onduc t      D e sign       D e ve lop                   Ev a luat e      M ana ge
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Im ple-
                                                                                                                                                                Tr aining                                     m e nt                        Tr aining
                                                                                                                                                                               Tr aining      Tr aining                    Tr aining
                                                                                                                                                                A na ly s is                                Tr aining                    D e ve lo pm e nt/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Su p po rt


                                                                                                                         Figure 5-1. Functional Architecture Process Graphic Description

                5.4. Users/Affected Personnel. Same as paragraph 3.4.

                5.5. Support Concept. This paragraph tailored out.

6.0 Operational Scenarios. See Appendix A.

7.0 Summary of Impacts.

                7.1                                                   Operational Impacts. This paragraph describes anticipated operational impacts
                                                                      on the user, acquirer, developer, and support activities.

                                                                       AT Automated Information System developers will be required to use the
                                                                      complete AT XXI Architecture as basis for future development. Although
                                                                      there are regulations in place requiring standardization and open system

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         compliance, a comprehensive architecture is required to ensure that all AT
         Automated Information System (AIS) development is fully standardized,
         integrated, and interoperable. This effort will require stringent adherence to the
         AT XXI Architecture.

          Organizations proposing new AT initiatives will be required to submit
         requirements to update the AT XXI Architecture. The AT XXI Architecture is
         a living document that must be kept current, but must also be configuration
         controlled centrally to ensure continuous synchronization.

          Senior leadership is required to support AT XXI Architecture so that
         planning and directing improvements for AT missions and functions are
         viewed from an AT-wide perspective. From this, performance measures are
         established based on process and outcome goals and linked into a unified AT-
         wide functional structure. These performance measures are mechanisms for
         evaluating functional goals and objectives.

          The organization responsible for maintaining the AT XXI Architecture is
         required to ensure the document is updated and used by AT Senior leadership,
         AIS developers and other AT organizations. Organization must also ensure
         compliance with DOD Directive 8320.1 and continue to migrate legacy data to
         the DOD Enterprise Model. Significant analysis and coordination is required
         to interpret how new initiatives affect the architecture and that that information
         is disseminated and understood by each user of the architecture.

    7.2. Organizational Impacts. The ATFA will primarily impact on Army Training
         Functional Proponents and automated system developers. The establishment of
         the AT XXI Architecture, to include the ATFA, requires those organizations to:

          Plan, design, and develop new systems or modifications to systems in
         accordance with the AT XXI Architecture.

          Design and describe systems functional requirements IAW the Activity
         Model associated with the ATFA.

          Develop proponent system Activity and Data Models using the ATFA
         Activity Model as a baseline.

          Propose, through the ATFA Configuration Control Board, required changes
         and updates to the ATFA.

    7.3. Impacts During Development. This paragraph tailored out of the document.

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8.0 Analysis of New Architecture. The new ATFA supports an AT XXI system of
    systems that has the following characteristics.

    8.1. Summary of improvements:

             Better trained civilians, soldiers, leaders and units

             Timely updates to training products

             Fully integrated training strategy

             Training on demand

             More comprehensive and responsive training assessment/feedback

             System interoperability and synchronization

    8.2. Summary of challenges:

             Requirement for soldiers with increased automation skills

           Potential for information overload and its corresponding challenges of
          information processing and filtering

             Reliance on distributed architecture that must be accessed world-wide

           Requirement for a communication infrastructure to support increased loads
          and traffic at home station and while deployed

           Integrated implementation within a complex and evolving System of

    8.3. Alterations and Trade-offs Considered. This paragraph was tailored out.

9.0 Notes. This section was tailored out.

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                                      Appendix A

         ATFA XXI Functional Architecture Operational Scenario

Background: The Army Training (AT) XXI Functional Architecture (ATFA) provides
an operating framework for the training community. It prescribes the training functions
required to identify training needs; create, implement, and evaluate training; and manage
the creation and implementation process. ATFA leverages information-age technology to
advance our training capabilities throughout the transition period to Force XXI and
eventually, Army After Next (AAN). The following scenario provides an “operational”
description of the AT process and is traced to the ATFA Activity Model (IDEF0)
description in Appendix B. The scenario briefly describes the training functions and
related activities inherent to developing a complete training program for a fictitious
system. It is illustrative of the processes that would be applied in other instances where
changes to training are required.

Scenario: The Army identified a deficiency in its ability to meet requirements for a
rapidly deployable armor system for contingency operations. The Army will procure a
new armored system to enhance rapid deployment force lethality, mobility, and
survivability capabilities. The Composite-Armor Tank, or CAT, is a lightweight, state of
the art armored system that incorporates the latest battlefield Command, Control,
Communications, Computers, and Intelligence (C4I) systems and a fully embedded
training capability.

       Long before the system is fielded a series of actions take place to ensure the CAT
is produced as a total system package. The total system package includes all training
products and training related activities needed to train leaders, operators, and maintainers.

        Requirements documentation for the CAT is a coordinated effort between the
training, combat, and materiel developers. The process synchronizes system-training
requirements between the initial System Training Plan (STRAP), the Operational
Requirements Document (ORD), Basis of Issue Plan (BOIP), and the New Equipment
Training Plan (NETP).

        A thorough Needs Analysis (A1.1) is conducted by Subject Matter Experts,
Trainers, and Training Developers. They look at existing and similar training, identify
new training development and training requirements for unit training, and for all
individual training requirements (Military Occupational Specialties (MOSs), officer
branches, Additional Skill Identifier (ASI), etc.) that are affected by this new system.
This analysis identifies doctrine, organizational structure, and equipment/system changes
associated with this new equipment. The Job Aids (A2.5) requirements are identified and
built into the CAT by the contractor.

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        Analysis of the CAT found that not only is there a different configuration of driver
and gunner controls but also there are only three tanks in each platoon. The need to
provide a readily deployable armored capability has caused the Army to reduce the
number of vehicles, personnel, and support requirements as compared to the normal
heavy armor unit. There will be a new set of collective and individual tasks. Because of
the different configuration of the controls, the Training Aids, Devices, Simulators, and
Simulations (TADSS) developers will have to look at new TADSS requirements.

        Embedded training for the system provides the capability to conduct gunnery and
force-on-force training in the synthetic environment (SE). Electronic Technical Manuals
(ETM) for operators and maintainers are included as part of the system’s embedded
capability. Additional training products include Tactical Engagement Simulations (TES)
systems for live force-on-force training at homestation, the Combat Training Centers
(CTC), and deployed training sites. Self-development training may consist of self-paced
instructional media on CD-ROM on all system particulars.

         A systems training strategy is detailed to establish exactly how the CAT would be
trained. This strategy includes such things as identification of embedded training
requirements, courses affected, instructor and key personnel training (IKTP), simulations
(live, virtual, and constructive), and simulator for force-on-force unit, maintenance, and
operator training. The need for live training at CTC’s and deployed training sites was
also identified. The systems training strategy is created in concert with the Combined
Arms Training Strategies (A2.1) and developed as part of the total system package. They
will result in Training Development and Training requirements, Long Range Training
Strategies for both Units and Individuals, Short Range Training Strategies, training
product requirements, training design data information, and an update to the target
audience description. The process for developing the CATS will be controlled by the
Project Management Plan, TOE/TDA data, resource allocations, various references,
command guidance, and doctrine.

       The PM for the system must develop a New Equipment Training program. This
program will look at many of the same things as a unit plan but focus on specifics for that
piece of equipment. This program must include analysis, design, development,
implementation, evaluation, and management functions.

                                         Scene 1.

       During this scene of the scenario the Directorate of Doctrine and Training at the
Armor Center & School must use the Needs Analysis and CATS outputs to continue the
Training Analysis (A1), Design (A2), and Develop (A3) the collective and individual
CAT training for implementation.

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       A Training Developer is tasked to manage the TD work. The Training Developer
assigned has been trained in the Systems Approach to Training (SAT) and has an in-depth
knowledge of TRADOC Regulation 350-70.

Manage Training Development. (A6)

        The TD manager establishes a full-time team consisting of himself (the training
developer) and two Subject Matter Experts (SME) on the 19 series Career Management
Field (CMF). Also identified is the need for an evaluator and an audiovisual information
specialist. The evaluator works independently and evaluates the conduct of the training
development process as well as the finished products. Other individuals with required
skills or knowledge are to be added to the team as required.

        The team identifies specifically what activities must be accomplished,
creates/updates project management plans (A6.1) and the Training Development Plan
(A6.1.2) in the TD workload automation system. These plans identify the complete team,
prioritize the training development workload, establishes development milestones,
identifies travel requirements, and estimates project budget requirements. He submits his
Command Operating Budget (COB) requirements and develops and submits input for the
Program Objective Memorandum (POM) to support this tasking. The TRADOC Status
Report data is provided as an output of the workload system. The support to design and
develop Audio Visual products is determined to best be provided by contractor personnel.

Conduct Training Analysis. (A1)

        The Directorate of Doctrine and Training at the Armor Center & School, conducts
a Training Mission Analysis (A1.2) that looks at Unit and Organizational functional
structure (A1.2.1) and identifies mission lists (A1.2.2), collective training tasks (A1.2.3),
and individual supporting tasks (A1.2.5). The detailed analysis of functions, missions,
and tasks is critical to successful development of a coherent training program that is both
effective and efficient.

         The Training Analysis for the CAT identifies requirements for individual training
at the institution and for self-development, new equipment training, and unit sustainment
training. The Training Analysis further identifies the requirement for training aids,
devices, simulations, and simulators, or TADSS, and an embedded training capability.

       The Directorate of Doctrine and Training at the Armor Center & School must also
conduct analysis of the collective tasks (A1.3) associated with the CAT system and the
organizational changes associated with the decision to have three tanks in each platoon.
Collective Task Analysis (A1.3) identifies the collective task performance specifications.
Job Analysis (A1.4) prepares a Collective-to-Individual Task Matrix.

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Design Training. (A2)

      The Directorate of Doctrine and Training at the Armor Center & School must
design the course for CAT crewmen, MOS 19X (A2.3.1).

       The Training Developer knows he must use create the MOS 19X critical task list;
conduct a task analysis; revise the CATS long- and short-range training strategies; design
and develop the course; using the Training Requirements Analysis System (TRAS)

        This will require the Directorate of Doctrine and Training to Manage a Training
Contract (A6.2). They will need to prepare a Request for Proposal (A6.2.1), including a
Statement of Work (A6.2.2). Once the contract is awarded, a delivery order (A6.2.3)
must be written, Acquisition Requirements Package (ARP) submitted (6.2.4), comments
on the product provided (A6.2.5), Quality Acceptance Reports (QARs) issued (A6.2.6),
and approval for the product (A6.2.7) given.

         The team conducts a job analysis to create the critical task list. The two SMEs are
trained in writing task titles and instructed in the process of building a total task
inventory. The inventory is arranged for the Army Research Institute to collect task
performance data through the Occupational Data, Analysis, Requirements & Structure
(ODARS) program, conduct a critical task selection board, and obtain approval for the
task list from the commandant.

        The team next selects and trains additional SMEs to conduct the individual task
analysis of each identified MOS 19X critical task. The SMEs enter the analysis data of
each identified MOS 19X critical task into a database and staff them with other SMEs.
The Training Developer ensures that each task analysis is complete and contains accurate
and current information.

       Upon completion and approval of the task analysis data, the team develops the
CATS (A2.1) long-range training strategy, short-range training strategy, and self-
development training strategy. These will be used to update Part 3 of the Career
Development Model.

        The team will then design the Individual Training (A2.3) program. They set up
and manage procedures so SMEs can write learning objectives and lesson/course outline
in Automated Systems Approach to Training (ASAT). The team ensures sequential and
progressive training using a mix of resident and non-resident training that provides the
most efficient and effective training course. The team will consider and design Computer
Based Instruction as appropriate. The team writes the test blueprint and assembles the
tests. They then prepare the mandatory training sequence and course map. The design
process will provide inputs to TRAS, which leads to Design and Program of Instruction
(POI) approval. He will use the individual short-range training strategy and task analysis
to create a training course blueprint. The blueprint will include the course structure,

Doc. No.: CDRL A013-01: Ver. 2.0                                               10 July 1998

lessons, lesson outlines, graduation criteria and tests, student assignment requirements,
training length, training course resource requirements, media requirements, Course
Administrative Data, POI, and target audience description update.

        Because the CAT has a significantly different layout of driver and gunner
controls, the team will need to design TADSS (A2.4) for use in training these personnel
on their new system. Graphic training aids, training devices, simulators and simulations
will each be considered and designed for the system, if needed. Job Aids (A2.5) and
Presentation Media products (A2.6) will be evaluated and designed as needed to meet the
training requirements of the new system.

         Collective Training is designed (A2.2). Drills (A2.2.1) are designed to meet the
collective task performance specifications determined in task analysis. Exercises
(A2.2.2) are designed to account for the capabilities of the new organization and to
incorporate the new organization into existing exercise scenarios. Exercises will develop
proficiency and crew teamwork in performing the task to established standards. It also
provides practice for performing supporting individual critical tasks. Exercise design will
result in an outline for the exercise and the estimated resources required to implement the
exercise. The outline includes such things as the training objective, exercise structure,
mandatory training sequence, and details concerning how to determine if the unit can
perform the exercise to the task standard.

Develop Training. (A3)

         Once the team obtains approval for the course design, they verify that the POI
lesson data is correctly compiled. Subsequently, using the Training Requirements
Analysis System (TRAS) process, the team works on developing individual training
materials (A3.2) such as lesson plans and nonresident training products such as
Interactive Multimedia Instruction (IMI). As the lessons are produced they use target
audience samples to validate (A3.6) them prior to initiating reproduction. If a TADSS
(A3.3), Job Aid (A3.4), or Presentation Medium (A3.5) product is required the team must
coordinate, outline, script, prototype, edit, and produce the product. The team assembles
the final course as a Total Army Training System (TATS) training support package (TSP)
developing the various parts such as the Course Management Plan. They also input the
courseware into Army Doctrine and Training Digital Library (ADTDL) for access by
individual soldiers and schoolhouses.

        While developing the various aspects of collective training (A3.1), the training
developer again must consider Live, Virtual, and Constructive aspects of training. Drills
and exercises are developed for multiple environments. The results of these developments
are assembled into a comprehensive Collective Training Support Package (A3.1.4).
ARTEPS, MTPs, and TTPs are developed to provide the tools needed by units to develop
the training products they need to attain and maintain operational readiness.

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        Throughout the training development process there will be evaluation of the
training development process and management (A5.1). This feedback will assist in
refinement of training products, ensure adherence to priorities and schedules, and help
coordinate the various activities and programs associated with the CAT.

Manage Individual Training. (A4.5)

         After course design approval is obtained, the team then uses the TRAS process to
systematically manage and facilitate timely development and implementation of training
by documenting the plans and supporting requirements. It integrates the training
development and implementation process with external resource acquisition systems (e.g.
personnel, construction, training equipment, new systems, ammunition, and resource
management) which provide support for the training to be developed. This process is
supported by three documents. They are the Individual Training Plan (ITP), Course
Administrative Data (CAD), and Program of Instruction (POI). Control is applied by
allocation of resources, training plans, individual training schedules, and ARPRINT
documents. Outputs include training development feedback; student records, training
development workload management documents, and reports on training
deficiencies/readiness impacts.

                                         Scene 2.

        Thus far in the scenario the activities have occurred in the combat developments
and training developments arenas. Scene 2 focuses on the implementation, evaluation,
and management of individual training.

Implement Resident Training. (A4.2.1)

         Once the 19X courses are approved, a course management plan is applied which
provides the course manager and instructors the information required to conduct the
training. Resources are allocated such as equipment, ranges, classrooms, instructors,
dollars and ammunition. Students are programmed through the Office of the Deputy
Chief of Staff for Personnel (ODCSPER) scheduling process. Initial Entry students are
trained in resident and awarded the 19X MOS while other soldiers are converted to 19X
through non-resident programs, On-the-Job Training (OJT) programs, or completion of
appropriate leader development courses.

Evaluate Training. (A5)

       During the evaluation of the implementation of individual training (A5.2) we
must look at every aspect of the program including resident, non-resident, formal OJT,
accreditation of training sites, and feedback provided by student testing. Input is

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provided by analysis of student test results, student surveys, instructor surveys, and
review of course materials. We must also collect and analyze evaluation data (A5.6) to
determine if we have met course goals and field expectations. Training Effectiveness
Analysis Findings/Observations will be used to provide feedback to training developers to
enable revisions to the course and training materials design.

                                          Scene 3.

        This scene discusses the activities, inputs, outputs, and controls used to develop,
implement, evaluate and manage training in units. The initial focus will be collective

        2nd Bn (LT) (ABN) 22nd Armor is scheduled to undergo New Equipment Training
(NET) (A4.3) on the CAT in a few short weeks. Subsequent to NET the battalion must
prepare for their first Field Training Exercise (FTX) using the CAT. The S3 starts from
scratch as he prepares for the FTX and publishes the training plans that are due out in 6
weeks. The S3 knows he must start at the beginning of the training management cycle
following each step in sequence.

Conduct Training Analysis. (A1)

       Analyze Wartime Mission. (A4.1.1.1) 2-33 AR has a priority 1 mission to
deploy in support of regional contingencies as part of its parent division. The S3 verifies
mission requirements by accessing and reading his higher Headquarters (HQ) mission.

        Establish Mission Essential Task List (METL). (A4.1.1.2) Automated systems
allow him to review current MTPs/STPs, CATS and MTOE task and mission information
as it applies to an airborne armor battalion. Because the battalion employs the new CAT,
the S3 must download his MTOE for review.

        Using the same automation systems he obtains the battalion’s official mission and
the Division’s and Brigade’s approved METL. These materials, combined with the
commander’s guidance, allow the S3 to prepare a straw man METL. After coordinating
with subordinate commanders, the Division G-3, and Brigade S3, he obtains the
commander’s signature and submits the Battalion METL to Division HQ for approval.
He will also establish training objectives (A4.1.1.5) and select Battle Tasks (A41.1.3) for
the Battalion. All this is done electronically through shared databases on the battalion
and brigade terminals.

        Prepare Training Assessment. (A4.1.4) The training assessment compares the
battalion’s current level of training proficiency with the desired level of warfighting
proficiency. The S3 uses automated systems to download the battalion ARTEP. He also
accesses the ADTDL for other publications such as FM 25-100 “Training the Force” and

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FM 25-101 “Battle Focused Training.” He examines the latest Commander’s Training
Assessment which rates current proficiency on each METL task under the seven
battlefield functional areas.

       Coordinating with the line and staff leadership, the Battalion Commander updates
the Commander’s Training Assessment based on the new METL, available training
evaluations, and the personal observations of unit leaders. This process allows the
commander to develop his training vision, goals, and priorities, which promulgates as the
Commander’s Guidance. While face-to-face coordination occurs throughout the process,
assessment documentation is shared electronically.

         Conduct Organizational Assessment. (A4.1.4.3) Using the command
assessment program established earlier by the battalion commander, Major Wiprud
gathers all the related reports, results, feedback, scores, evaluations, and related data to
assist in the commander’s organizational assessment. This will assess the battalion’s
overall go-to-war readiness in every area, not just training. These assessment results will
be used to update the unit files in an automated system that will then be available for
input to other automated systems

        Prepare Training Plans. (A4.1.2) Training plans are Long-Range (A4.1.2.1),
Short-Range (A4.1.2.2), and Near-Term (A4.1.2.3). The commander receives Division’s
Command Training Guidance (CTG) on 1 April. The S3 accesses the training module on
the automated system where the unit’s training plans are created and edited. He must
publish the battalion’s annual planning calendar by 1 June. Meanwhile, the battalion’s 4th
quarter training calendar is due by 1 June (with a 12+-month horizon starting with the
new FY on 1 Oct). Additionally the monthly training schedule for July, which includes
the FTX, is due two weeks later. Most urgent is the need to publish the May training
schedule including the CAT NET.

        Long-Range. (A4.1.2.1) The S3 uses the CTG and pre-planned key training
events to create the new annual training calendar. He reviews the planned events and the
supporting TSPs. Based on the Commander’s Training Assessment and strategy
improvement comments, he tailors the training strategy and execution matrix for each
event to emphasize the METL tasks.

Coordinating with the battalion and brigade staffs he chooses dates for battalion training that do not conflict
with other key calendar events. When the proposed annual training calendar meets the requirements of the
CTG and the commander; meets fiscal constraints; and is completely coordinated, he is ready to publish.
He includes the approved METL and established training objectives for each mission-essential task. He
also identifies long-lead time resources and long-term coordination requirements for Major Training
Area (MTA) rotations.

       Short-Range. (A4.1.2.2) For the 4th quarter training calendar, the S3 studies the
Division CTG and the battalion training calendar for this year. He refines and expands
the annual calendar and identifies, allocates, and coordinates short lead-time resources
such as local training facilities. He pays particular attention to Joint Readiness Training

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Center (JRTC) lessons as he develops training objectives and tasks for the July FTX. He
will allocate the Combined Arms Tactical Trainer and other scarce training resources and
cross-references each event with specific training objectives after coordinating with all
supporting agencies.

        METL tasks (and Battle Tasks) not adequately covered become the focus of
battalion-directed training. The S3 selects, or modifies, the TSP that best supports the
desired training scenarios. The TSP OPLAN/OPORD provides details on resources,
sequences and duration of training.

        The process provides Short-Range planning guidance as a foundation for Near-
Term planning. It includes updating training assessments of short-range training
proficiency, refining training requirements and strategies, planning for training events,
planning for evaluations and after action reviews (AARs) (A4.4.1), arranging for
resources, coordinating plans, publishing short-range training guidance and calendars,
developing training and materials, and presenting training briefings.

        Near-Term. (A4.1.2.3) For the May training schedule, the S3 holds training
meetings with the staff and units being trained. Specific emphasis is placed on NET for
the CAT. He verifies TADSS availability and allocates training resources to specific
trainers. He ensures all necessary training materials are properly prepared and in
sufficient quantity to conduct the training. He ensures prerequisite training is conducted
and that appropriate rehearsals are scheduled and conducted. He ensures appropriate
AARs are included in training and that lessons learned from other units are studied before
training and new ones are captured when the event ends.

         Prepare for Training. (A4.1.2.4) This activity includes rehearsal, gathering of
training materials and aids, movement of personnel and equipment, set-up of training
sites, conducting pre-execution checks, and other activities necessary to be prepared to
execute training.

       Execute Unit Training. (A4.1.3) Properly presented and practiced training is
accurate, well structured, efficient, realistic, safe, and effective. The training may be
presented in a Live, Virtual, or Constructive environment, or a combination of them. The
desired output is a trained and effective unit.

        Preparing to conduct unit training (A4.1.3.1) includes such activities as risk
assessments, troop leading procedures, and pre-combat checks. It also includes ensuring
the facilities are usable, equipment is available and operational, and participants are ready
to begin training.

       Conducting unit training (A4.1.3.2) includes rehearsing, presenting the training,
performing the task, evaluating task performance, conducting AARs, and retraining.

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        Conducting post-operation checks (A4.1.3.3) includes accounting for soldiers,
cleaning up the training area, maintaining equipment, turn-in of equipment and supplies,
inspections, and recording evaluations and assessments.

        Evaluate Conduct of Training. (A4.1.4.1) Informal evaluation and feedback by
trainers and senior leaders is continuous. Formal evaluations are included in training
plans. Evaluation documentation can range from annotated Training and Evaluation
Outline (T&EO) to CTC take-home packages. Simple, codified methods for capturing
and disseminating the results of formal evaluations as well as lessons learned using
standard Center for Army Lessons Learned (CALL) formats are used during the

        Conduct an AAR. (A4.4) MAJ Widrup must also facilitate (A4.4.2) and execute
(A4.4.3) in the AAR to evaluate the effectiveness of the training and to apply findings
(A4.4.4) to provide input to such things as the Quarterly Training Report and Unit Status

                                             Scene 4.

       In this scene the focus is on the implementation, evaluation, and management of
individual training in the unit.

        SSG Ranger, recently promoted and assigned to 1-60 Armor is assigned MOS
19X duties. Since this will require new skills and SSG Ranger is not scheduled for
additional formal leader development training in the near future he is self-motivated to
learn the skills needed for this assignment (A4.5.2). For self-development he uses his
personal computer to access the ADTDL Internet address to search for 19X instructional
material. He downloads interactive courseware and reference material to conduct his own
self-paced, self-development instruction. SSG Ranger completes the self-paced
instruction and performs the course self-evaluation to determine whether he is prepared to
begin hands-on performance at his assignment.

        Implement Individual Training in Unit. (A4.2.4) Now that SSG Ranger feels
competent in his own skills in the 19X MOS he turns to training the soldiers in his unit on
their individual skills. Working with the unit training officer, SSG Ranger reviews the
Unit METL and CATS to determine the individual supporting tasks that apply to his
soldiers. He will look at the unit training assessment and the individual training records
to determine which tasks need to be trained. He will review the Unit training plans to
determine when to best incorporate his soldiers needs for training and schedule the
training in the unit training schedule. He will access the automated systems, including
the ADTDL to gather the training materials he needs to plan and conduct training. Once
he has prepared his presentation of training SSG Ranger will execute the training and
assess not only the level of training attained by his soldiers but also the effectiveness of
his presentation.

                    Doc. No.: CDRL A013-01: Ver. 2.0                                                                             10 July 1998

                                                                      Appendix B

                                                           IDEF0 Activity Matrix

                    The complete IDEF0 BPWin model version 1.0 will be available on or about
                    20 April 1998 on the TRADOC AT XXI Web Page.

                                                                      A0 TRAIN THE FORCE
                                                                                                                                                   As of: 6-5-98

   A1 CONDUCT TRAINING ANALYSIS                           A2 DESIGN TRAINING                                                 A3 DEVELOP TRAINING

A11 Conduct Needs Analysis              A21 Develop CATS                A25 Design a Job Aid               A31 Develop Collective        A34 Develop a Job Aid
• A111 Clarify Performance Deficiency   • A211 Dev Future Tng Plans     • A251 Identify Job Aid            Training                      • A341 Produce/Revise the
• A112 ID Solutions to Perf Def         • A212 Develop STRAC               Requirement                     • A311 Develop an Exercise      Job Aid
• A113 Provide Non-Tng                    Ammunition Tables             • A252 Establish Objective         • A312 Develop a Drill        • A342 Prepare the Camera
  Recommendations                                                          Purpose                         • A313 Develop Mission Tng      Ready Copy (CRC)
• A114 Provide Tng Solutions            A22 Design Collective           • A253 Study Analysis Data            Plan
• A115 ID Reqt to Improve Tng           Training                        • A254 Revise Target               • A314 Develop Coll Tng       A35 Develop Presentation
  Efficiency& Effectiveness             • A221 Design a Drill              Audience Description               TSP                        Medium (PM)
• A116 Establish Tng Dev Reqts          • A222 Design an Exercise       • A255 Outline Job Aid                                           • A351 Develop Audiovisual
                                        • A223 Prepare a T&EO           • A256 Approve Job Aid             A32 Develop Individual          Product
A12 Conduct Mission Analysis            • A224 Design a Mission Tng        Design                          Training                      • A352 Develop Computer
• A121 ID Structure & Functions            Plan                                                            • A321 Develop Individual        -Based Instruction Product
• A122 Provide Mission List for         • A225 Design a Collective      A26 Design Presentation Medium       Course                      • A353 Develop Simulation
  TOE/TDA Type Unit                        Tng Support Pkge (TSP)       • A261 Establish PM Purpose        • A322 Compile Student            Product
• A123 Compile Collective Task List     • A226 Obtain Approval for      • A262 Determine                      Tests
• A124 Approve Critical Collective         Collective Tng Design          Feasibility of COTS/Others       • A323 Produce Adjunctive     A36 Validate a Tng Product
  Task List                                                             • A263 Design AV Product              Material                   /Job Aid
• A125 Identify Individual Supporting   A23 Design Individual           • A264 Design CBI Product                                        • A361 Validate Collective
  Tasks                                 Training                        • A265 Design Simulation Product   A33 Develop TADSS                Training Product
                                        • A231 Design Indiv Tng         • A266 Approve PM Design           • A331 Manage TADSS/AMT       • A362 Validate Individual
A13 Conduct Collective Task Analysis      Course                                                             Acquisition                    Training Product
• A131 Prepare for Collective Task      • A232 Establish Training                                          • A332 Maintain TADSS/        • A363 Obtain Tng Product
  Analysis                                 Sequence                                                          AMT Databases                  Approval for Repro,
• A132 ID Collective Task               • A233 Provide TRAS Info                                           • A333 Manage TADSS/AMT          Distribution &
  Performance Specifications            • A234 Obtain Design &                                               Test & Evaluation              Implementation
• A133 Obtain Approval                     POI Approval                                                    • A334 Manage In-House TSC
                                                                                                              Fab of TADSS/GTAs
A14 Conduct Job Analysis                A24 Design a TADSS                                                 • A335 Produce a TADSS
• A141 Compile Total Indiv Task         • A241 Prepare TADSS
   Inventory                              Materiel Reqts Doc (MRD)
• A142 Analyze Indiv Task Perf Data     • A242 Input AMT Reqts to
• A143 Conduct Task Select Board          System MRDs
• A144 Approval for Job-Specific        • A243 Identify In-House
  Individual Tasks                         TSC Fabricated TADSS
• A145 Prepare Collect-to-Indiv Task       Reqts
  Matrix                                • A244 Establish GTA Reqts
                                        • A245 Process Program
A15 Conduct Indiv Task Analysis            Documentation
• A151 Prep for Indiv Task Analysis
• A152 ID Indiv Task Perf Specs
• A153 Prepare Indiv Task-to-Skill
  Knowledge Matrix
• A154 Complete/Update
  Indiv/Collective Task Matrix
• A155 Approve Indiv Task Analysis
• A156 Assign Indiv Task #

                 Doc. No.: CDRL A013-01: Ver. 2.0                                                                               10 July 1998

                                                                                 A0 TRAIN THE FORCE                                                   As of: 6-5-98

              A4 IMPLEMENT TRAINING                                               A5 EVALUATE TRAINING                           A6 MANAGE TRAINING DEV/SPT

A41 Implement Unit            A43 Implement NET/ DET                  A51 Evaluate TD                A54 Evaluate Fielded            A61 Oversee Training
Training                      • A431 Manage NET/ DET                  • A511 Evaluate                TADSS/AMT                       Development
• A411 Develop Mission-         Team Manpower Reqts                     Training Development         • A541 Evaluate the             • A611 Determine TD Reqt
  Reqts                       • A432 Manage                             Processes                      Effectiveness of                by Proponent
• A412 Plan Unit Training       Implementation of                     • A512 Evaluate                  Fielded TADSS                 • A612 Plan Training
• A413 Execute Unit             NET/ DET in Support of                  Training Development         • A542 Evaluate the               Development
  Training                      AMT                                     Management                     Effectiveness of              • A613 Prioritize Tng Dev
• A414 Assess Unit                                                                                     System TSPs                     Workload
  Training                    A44 Conduct an AAR                      A52 Evaluate                                                   • A614 Schedule Tng Dev
                              • A441 Develop AAR Plan                 Implementation of              A55 Conduct Studies               Resources
A42 Implement Individual      • A442 Facilitate AAR                   Indiv Tng                      & Analysis                      • A615 Prepare Tng Dev
Training                      • A443 Execute AAR                      • A521 Evaluate                • A551 Manage                     Reports
• A421 Implement Resident     • A444 Apply AAR                           Resident Training             TADSS/ AMT Studies            • A616 Determine Work Accomp
  Training                      Findings                              • A522 Evaluate Non-             & Analysis                      w/ Resources
• A422 Implement Non-                                                   Resident Training            • A552 Conduct                  • A617 Report Effect on Unit
  Resident Training           A45 Manage Individual                   • A523 Conduct                   TADSS/ AMT Cost
• A423 Implement Formal       Training                                   Accreditation                 Analyses                      A62 Manage Training Contracts
  OJT Tng                     • A451 Manage Directed                  • A524 Evaluate OJT            • A553 Conduct a                • A621 Prepare an RFP
• A424 Implement Indiv          Training                                Training                       TEA                           • A622 Write a SOW
  Tng in Unit                 • A452 Manage Self-                     • A525 Evaluate                                                • A623 Write a Delivery Order
• A425 Administer               Motivated Training                       Student Testing Process     A56 Collect &                   • A624 Submit an ARP
  Criterion-Referenced Test                                                                          Analyze Eval Data               • A625 Provide Comments on
• A426 Counsel                                                        A53 Evaluate                   • A561 Prepare Tng                Contractor Product
  Subordinates                                                        Implementation of                Eval Surveys                  • A626 Issue QARs
                                                                      Unit Tng                       • A562 Administer               • A627 Approve Contractor
                                                                      • A531 Evaluate                  Surveys                         Product
                                                                        Collective Tng               • A563 Analyze Tng
                                                                        Products                       Eval Data                     A63 Manage Training Assets
                                                                      • A532 Evaluate Unit           • A564 Prepare Tng              • A631 Manage TD/
                                                                        Training Management            Eval Reports & Data             Tng Personnel
                                                                                                       Display                       • A632 Manage TD/ Tng
                                                     ABBREVIATIONS                                                                   • A633 Manage TD/
 AAR – After Action Review                ID--Identify                             STRAC--Standards in Training Commission             Tng Facilities
 Accomp--Accomplished                     Indiv--Individual                        TADSS – Training Aids, Devices, Simulators        • A634 Manage TD/
 AMT – Army Modernization Training        NET – New Equipment Training                       and Simulations                           Tng Real Estate
 ARP – Acquisition Requirements Package   OJT – On Job Training                    TD – Training Development
 AV--Audiovisual                          Perf--Performance                        TDA--Table of Distribution & Allowances           A64 Manage TADSS/AMT
 CBI--Computer-Based Instruction          PM--Presentation Medium                  TEA – Training Effectiveness Analysis             Programs
 Coll--Collective                         POI--Program of Instruction              TMA – TRADOC Mission Area                         • A641 Manage TMA Tng
 COTS--Commercial Off-the-Shelf           QAR – Quality Acceptance Report          Tng--Training                                       Requirements
 Def--Deficiency                          RDA – Research Develop & Acquisition     TOE--Table of Organization & Equipment            • A642 Manage TMA
 DET – Displaced Equipment Training       RFP – Request for Proposal               TRAS--Training Requirement Analysis System        • A643 Provide RDA
 Dev--Develop                             Repro--Reproduction                      TSC--Training Support Center                        Support for Tng
 Eval--Evaluation                         Reqts--Requirements                      TSP – Training Support Package
 Fab--Fabricate                           SOW – Statement of work                  T&EO--Training & Evaluation Outline
 GTA--Graphic Training Aid                Specs--Specifications                    #--Number

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                                   Appendix C

                       Acronyms and Abbreviations

AAN                        Army After Next
AAR                        After Action Report
AAR                        After-Action Review
AC                         Active Component
ACCP                       Army Correspondence Course Program
ACES                       Army Continuing Education System
ACTD                       Advanced Concept Technology Demonstration
ACTEDS                     Army Civilian Training, Education, and Development
ADAM                       Army-wide Devices Automated Management
ADL                        Army Distance Learning
ADLP                       Army Distance Learning Plan
ADO                        Army Digitization Office
ADS                        Advanced Distributed Simulations
ADTDL                      Army Doctrine and Training Digital Library
ADTLP                      Armywide Doctrinal Training Literature Program
AEC                        Army Education Center
AIMS-R                     Automated Instructional Management System- Redesign
AIS                        Automated Information System
AIT                        Advanced Individual Training
AITS                       Advanced Information Technology Service
AKN                        Army Knowledge Network
ALC                        Army Learning Center
ALRTP                      Army Long Range Training Program
ALSP                       Aggregate Level Simulation Protocol
AMC                        Army Materiel Command
AMT                        Army Modernization Training
ANCOC                      Advanced NCO Course
AOC                        Area of Concentration
AOE                        Army of Excellence
API                        Application Program Interface
AR                         Army Regulation
ARCIS                      Army Command Information System
ARCOM                      US Army Reserve Command
ARNG                       Army National Guard
ARP                        Acquisition Requirements Package
ARPRINT                    Army Program for Individual Training
ARTEP                      Army Training and Evaluation Program

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ASAT                       Automated Systems Approach to Training
ASD/C3I                    Assistant Secretary of Defense for C3I
ASI                        Additional Skill Identifier
AT XXI                     Army Training XXI
ATA                        Army Technical Architecture
ATACC                      Army Training Area Carrying Capacity
ATD                        Advanced Technology Demonstration
ATDL                       Army Training Digital Library
ATFA                       Army Training XXI Functional Architecture
ATIMP                      Army Training Information Management Program
ATIMS                      Army Training Inventory Management System
ATM                        Army Training Model
ATM                        Asynchronous Transfer Mode
ATRRS                      Army Training Requirements and Resources System
ATSC                       US Army Training Support Center
AWE                        Advanced Warfighting Experiment
BCTP                       Battle Command Training Program
BIT                        Built-in Test
BLTM                       Battalion Level Training Model
BN                         Battalion
BNCOC                      Basic NCO Course
BOS                        Battlefield Operating System
BPC                        Battle Projection Center
C4ISR                      Command, Control, Communications, Computers,
                              Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance
CA                         Combined Arms
CAC                        Combined Arms Center
CAD                        Course Administrative Data
CAI                        Computer-Assisted Instruction
CALFEX                     Combined Arms Live Fire Exercise
CALL                       Center for Army Lessons Learned
CAR                        Chief, Army Reserve
CAS3                       Combined Arms Staff Service School
CASCOM                     Combined Arms Support Command
CAT                        Composite-Armor Tank
CATS                       Combined Arms Training Strategies
CATT                       Combined Arms Tactical Trainer
CBI                        Computer Based Instruction
CBT                        Computer Based Training
CCB                        Configuration Control Board
CCTT                       Close Combat Tactical Trainer
CD                         Concept Definition
CFX                        Command Field Exercise
CG                         Commanding General
CGSC                       Command and General Staff College

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CJCS                       Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff
Clrm XXI                   Classroom XXI
CMF                        Career Management Field
CMH                        US Army Center for Military History
CMI                        Computer Managed Instruction
CMTC                       Combat Maneuver Training Center
CNGB                       Chief, National Guard Bureau
CO                         Commanding Officer
COB                        Command Operating Budget
CoC                        Council of Colonels
COE                        Common Operating Environment
COMPASS                    Common Operational Modeling, Planning, and Simulation
CONOPS                     Concept of Operations
COP                        Common Operational Picture
COTS                       Commercial Off-The-Shelf
CPX                        Command Post Exercise
CS                         Combat Support
CSA                        Chief of Staff, Army
CSM                        Command Sergeant Major
CSS                        Combat Service Support
CTC                        Combat Training Center
CTC-IS                     Combat Training CenterInstrumentation System
CTCP                       Combat Trains Command Post
CTD                        Collaborative Training Development
CTG                        Command Training Guidance
CTT                        Common Task Test
CTX                        Combined Training Exercise
CUITN                      Campus Unit Information Transfer Net
CW3                        Chief Warrant Officer 3
DA                         Department of the Army
DAC                        Department of the Army Civilian
DAMO-TR                    Office Symbol for DCSOPSTraining
DAVIPDP                    DA Visual Information Production & Distribution
DCSIM                      Deputy Chief of Staff, Information Management (HQ,
DCSOPS                     Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations and Plans (HQDA)
DCSRM                      Deputy Chief of Staff, Resource Management
DCST                       Deputy Chief of Staff, Training (HQ, TRADOC)
DCSTW                     Deputy Chief of StaffWest (Ft Leavenworth)
DEPEX                      Deployment Exercise
DET                        Displaced Equipment Training
DII                        Defense Information Infrastructure
DIS                        Distributed Interactive Simulation

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DISA                       Defense Information Systems Agency
DISCOM                     Division Support Command
DISN                       Defense Information Systems Network
DL                         Distance Learning
DLN                        Distance Learning Network (National Guard)
DLS                        Digital Library System
DMSO                       Defense Modeling and Simulation Office
DOD                        Department of Defense
DOG                        Deployable Operations Group
DSI                        Defense Simulation Internet
DSU                        Digital Switching Unit
DTG                        Date-Time Group
DTAC                       Digital Training Access Center
DTIC                       Defense Technical Information Center
DTLOMS                     Doctrine, Training, Leader development, Organization,
                              Materiel, and Soldier
EDRE                       Emergency Deployment Readiness Exercise
EMIC                       Electronic Multi-media Information Capability
ETP                        Electronic Training Platform
FA                         Functional Architecture
FAA                        Functional Area Assessment
FC                         Field Circular
FCX                        Fire Coordination Exercise
FDDI                       Fiber Distributed Data Interface
FEBA                       Forward Edge of the Battle Area
FLOT                       Forward Line of Own Troops
FM                         Field Manual
FORSCOM                    US Army Forces Command
FTP                        File Transfer Protocol
FTX                        Field Training Exercise
FUE                        First Unit Equipment
FY                         Fiscal Year
FXXI                       Force XXI
GCCS                       Global Command and Control System
GIAC                       Graphical Input Aggregate Control
GOSC                       General Officer Steering Committee
GOTS                       Government Off-The-Shelf
GS                         Government Service (employee)
GTA                        Graphic Training Aid
HLA                        High Level Architecture
HQ                         Headquarters
HQDA                       Headquarters, Department of the Army
HSM                        Hierarchical Storage Management
HTTP                       Hyper-Text Transfer Protocol
IAW                        In Accordance With

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ICT                        Integrated Concept Team
ICW                        Interactive Courseware
ICW                        In Coordination With
IM                         Information Management
IMI                        Interactive Multi-media Instruction
Info                       Information
IOC                        Initial Operational Capability
ISDN                       Integrated Services Data Network
ISR                        Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance
IT                         Information Technology
ITEM                       Interactive Training Event Menu
ITEP                       Individual Training Evaluation Program
ITM                        Information Technology Management
ITMRA                      Information Technology Management Reform Act of 1996
ITP                        Individual Training Plan
JBC                        Joint C4ISR Battle Center
JMETL                      Joint Mission-Essential Task List
JMRR                       Joint Monthly Readiness Review
JRTC                       Joint Readiness Training Center
JTA                        Joint Technical Architecture
JTA-A                      Joint Technical ArchitectureArmy
JTIS                       Joint Training Instrumentation System
JTASC                      Joint Training, Analysis, and Simulation Center
JTC                        Joint Training Confederation
KEI                        Key Enabling Investment
LAN                        Local Area Network
LDRC                       Leader Decision Reaction Course
LIC                        Language Identifier Code
LOTS                       Logistics Over The Shore
M&S                        Modeling & Simulation
MACOM                      Major Command
MAP                        Modern Aids to Planning
MAPP                       Modern Aids to Planning Program
MCA                        Military Construction, Army
MDMP                       Military Decision Making Process
Mech                       Mechanized
METL                       Mission-Essential Task List
METT-T                     Mission, Enemy, Terrain (and weather), Troops, and Time
Mgmt                       Management
MNS                        Mission Needs Statement
ModSAF                     Modular Semi-Automated Forces
MOOTW                      Military Operations Other Than War (new term is SASO)
MOS                        Military Occupational Specialty
MPEG-1                     MPEG intraframe/interframe video compression standard
                               for CD-ROM

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MRCI                       Modular Reconfigurable C4I Interface
MSRR                       Modeling and Simulation Resource Repository
MTOE                       Modified Table of Organization & Equipment
MTP                        Mission Training Plan
NCO                        Non-Commissioned Officer
MTA                        Major Training Area
NCOES                      NCO Educational System
NET                        New Equipment Training
NG                         National Guard
NGB                        National Guard Bureau
NLT                        Not Later Than
NSC                        National Simulation Center
NTC                        National Training Center
OAC                        Officer Advanced Course
OCAR                       Office of the Chief, Army Reserve
OCD                        Operational Concept Description
ODCSPER                    Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Personnel
ODARS                      Occupational Data, Analysis, Requirements and Structure
OES                        Officer Educational System
OFA                        Objective Functional Architecture
OJT                        On-the-Job Training
OMA                        Operations and Maintenance, Army
OMAR                       Operations and Maintenance, Army Reserve
OMNG                       Operations and Maintenance, National Guard
OMS/MP                     Operation Mode Summary/ Mission Profile
OOTW                       Operations Other Than War (new term is SASO)
OPLAN                      Operations Plan
OPORD                      Operations Order
OPTEMPO                    Operating Tempo
ORD                        Operational Requirements Document
Pam                        Pamphlet
PC                         Personal Computer
PERSCOM                    US Total Army Personnel Command
PERSTEMPO                  Personnel (operating) Tempo
PFTEA                      Post-Fielding Training Effectiveness Analysis
PM                         Project/program Manager
POI                        Program Of Instruction
POIMM                      Program Of Instruction Management Module
POM                        Program Objective Memorandum
QAR                        Quality Acceptance Report
RAID                       Redundant Arrays of Inexpensive Disks
RAM                        Random Access Memory
RC                         Reserve Components
RC3                        Reserve Component Course Configuration

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RCTI                       Reserve Component Training Institution
RDA                        Research, Development & Acquisition
RECBASS                    Reception Battalion Automated Support System
Reg                        Regulation
RFMIS                      Range Facility Management Information System
RFP                        Request for Proposal
RTI                        Run Time Infrastructure
S3                         Operations, training, plans & exercises staff officer at
                              Battalion & brigade
SAF                        Semi-Automated Forces
SASO                       Stability and Support Operations (formerly OOTW)
SAT                        Systems Approach to Training
SATS                       Standard Army Training System
SE                         Synthetic Environment
SEN                        Satellite Education Network
S&FTP                      Staff & Faculty Training Program
SI                         Skill Identifier
SHADE                      Shared Data Environment
SIDPERS                    Standard Installation/ Division Personnel Reporting
SMDR                       Structure Manning Decision Review
SME                        Subject Matter Expert
SMTP                       Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
SOE                        Standard Operating Environment
SOP                        Standing Operating Procedure
SORTS                      Status of Resources and Training System
SOW                        Statement of Work
SQI                        Skill Qualification Indicator
SSG                        Staff Sergeant (E6)
STAARS                     Standard Army After-action Review System
STOW                       Synthetic Theater of War
STP                        Soldier Training Publication
STRAC                      Standards in Training Commission
STRAP                      System Training Plan
STX                        Situational Training Exercise
T&EO                       Training and Evaluation Outline
TA                         Technical Architecture
TADSS                      Training Aids, Devices, Simulators, and Simulations
TAFIM                      Technical Architecture for Information Management
TAMIS                      Training Ammunition Management Information System
TASC                       Training and Audiovisual Support Center
TASS                       Total Army School System
TATS                       Total Army Training System
TATSS                      TRADOC Automated Training Scheduling System
TATSC                     TATS Course or Courseware

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T&E                        Test & Evaluation
TBD                        To Be Determined
TBP                        To Be Published
TD                         Training Development
TDA                        Table of Distribution & Allowances
TDAA                       Training Development & Analysis Activity
TDFR                       Training Device Fabrication Requirement
TEA                        Training Evaluation Analysis
TEMO                       Training Exercises and Military Operations
TES                        Tactical Engagement Simulation
TEXMIS                     Training Module (TRAMOD) Executive Management
                              Information System
TF                         Task Force
TFS                        Training Feedback System
TMM                        Training Mix Model
TNET                       US Army Teletraining Network
TOMA                       Training Operations Management Activity
TRADOC                     US Army Training and Doctrine Command
TRAMOD                     Training Module
TRAS                       Training Requirement Analysis System
TRAVISS                    Training & Visual Information Support System
TREDS-R                    TRADOC Educational Data SystemRedesign
TRUSS                      Trainer’s Unit Support System
TSR                        Training Support Requirements
TSP                        Training Support Package
TTP                        Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures
UCOFT                      Unit Conduct Of Fire Trainer
ULLS                       Unit-Level Logistics System
USAR                       US Army Reserve
USAREC                     US Army Recruiting Command
USR                        Unit Status Report
VTC                        Video Teleconference
VTT                        Video Tele-Training
WAN                        Wide Area Network
WFLA                       Warfighter Lens Analysis
WarMod XXI                 Axis for modernization systems training
WarNET                     Earlier name for WarMod
WF XXI                     Warfighter XXI
WIMSS                      WarMod XXI Information & Management Support
WOES                       Warrant Officer Educational System
WWW                        Worldwide Web

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                                   Appendix D


Army Field Manuals:
FM 25-100, “Training the Force,” 15 November 1988
FM 25-101, “Battle Focused Training,” 30 September 1990
FM 100-1, “The Army,” June 1994
FM 100-5 “Operations,” June 1994

Army Regulations:
AR 5-11 Management of Army Models and Simulations (Draft), March 1995
AR 350-38 Training Device Policies and Management, 15 October 1993
AR350-1 (Draft) Army Training
AR 350-39 STRAC Policies
AR 350-41 Training in Units, 19 March 1993
AR 350-50 Combat Training Center Program, 24 May 1995

Other Department of the Army Documents:
Army Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS) Master Plan, 26 September 1994
Army Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS) Modernization Plan, 3 March 1994
Army Enterprise Implementation Plan, 8 August 1994
Army Enterprise Strategy Implementation Plan (Version 3.6), 8 April 1994
Army Enterprise Strategy Vision, 20 July 1993
Army Enterprise Vision, 21 July 1993
Army Focus, September 1994
Army FY98-12 RDA Plan
Army Installation Management Action Plan, February 1994
Army Model and Simulation Master Plan, (Draft) July 1997
Army Modernization Plan, 1995
Army Plan, FY 1996-2011, 20 November 1993 (U)[SECRET]
Army Plan, FY1998-2013, 18 August 1995 [MACOM/ACC Draft] (U)[SECRET
Army Posture Statement, February 1995
Army Science and Technology Master Plan, December 1994
Army Training Information Management Program Plan, July 1995
Combat Training Center (CTC) Master Plan, 1 June 1993
CTCs, The 21st Century Schools for the Application of Military Art and Science,
      May 1995
DA Pam 5-11 Verification, Validation, and Accreditation of Army Models and
      Simulations, 15 October 1993
DA Pam 11-XXX, Army Universal Task List, 14 March 1997
DA Pam 350-58, Leader Development for American Army, October 1994
DAMO-TRZ Message dated 05 June 1995, Subject: Training Aids, Devices, Simulators

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        and Simulations (TADDS)
DAMO-ZA Message dated 09 June 1996, Subject: Warfighter XXI (WF XXI)
Embedded Training Action Plan, July 1996
Envisioning Future Warfare, 1995
Force XXI, 15 January 1995
Force XXI Campaign Plan, 9 September 1994
Force XXI Experimental Force Prime Directive, 14 February 1995
Force XXI Integration Plan, 29 August 1994
FY95-00 Department of the Army master Priority List (DAMPL) (U)[SECRET]
Installations: A Strategy for the 21st Century, 1993
Integrated Training Area Management Strategy, 17 August 1995
Joint Technical Architecture Version 5.0, 11 September 1997
Training Developers’ Procedural Guide, Identifying Requirements for System Devices,
        Volume I & II, September 1993
Training Exercises and Military Operations (TEMO) Domain Management Plan (Draft),
        17 June 1997
Training with Simulations, 21 November 1994
USAREC Report, “A Yankelovich MONITOR Perspective on Generation X:
        Implications for Recruiting America’s Army in the 21st Century Market,”
        Yankelovich Partners Inc., 1996
USAREC Report, “Youth Attitude Tracking Survey, 1996”
USAREC-sponsored report by Teenage Research Unlimited, “Recruiting for America’s
        Army, Wave/Spring 96”
Vice Chief of Staff Army Memo, Subject: Embedded Training, 3 March 1987

Department of Defense Publications:
Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Instruction 8510.01 (Draft) Joint Modeling and
      Simulation Management, December 1993
Department of Defense Enterprise Model, April 1994
Defense Science and Technology Strategy, September 1994
Defense Technology Plan, September 1994
DOD Directive 5000.59 Department of Defense Modeling and Simulation (M&S)
      Management, 4 January 1994
DOD Directive 8320.1 Department of Defense Data Administration, 26 September 1991
DOD Guide for Managing Information Technology as an Investment and Measuring
      Performance, Version 1.0, 10 February 1997
DOD Information Technology Management (ITM) Strategic Plan, Version 1.0,
      March 1997
DOD Manual 8320.1-M-x Department of Defense Data Model Development, Approval,
      and Maintenance Procedures (Draft), May 1993
DOD Manual 8320.1-M-1 Data Element Standardization Procedures, January 1993
DOD Modeling & Simulation Master Plan, October 1995

TRADOC Documents:
TRADOC Army Digitization Master Plan (Draft), 1 December 1995

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TRADOC OPORD 1-95, (WARFIGHTER XXI), 23 October 1995
TRADOC Pam 350-18
TRADOC Pam 525-5, “A Concept for the Evolution of Full - Dimensional Operation for
    the Strategic Army of the Early 21st Century,” 1 August 1994
TRADOC Pam 525-5, “Force XXI Operations,” 1 August 1994
TRADOC Pam 525-66, “Operational Capability Requirements,” 1 December 1994
TRADOC Pam 525-200-series, “US Battle Dynamic Concepts”
TRADOC Reg 5-11, M & S Management
TRADOC Reg 7-12, Systems Management
TRADOC Reg 350-35, “The Combined Arms Training Strategy, 14 May 1993
TRADOC Reg 350-70, “Training Development Management, Resources, and Products,”
    24 September 1995
TRADOC Reg 351-10, “Institutional Leader, Training & Education,” 1 May 1997
TRADOC STOW Action Plan, 30 June 1995
TRADOC STOW Campaign Plan, 9 May 1995 [Draft]
TRADOC Tactical Engagement Simulation Master Plan, 1 October 1994

Annual Report to the President and the Congress, February 1995
AVSA Symposium, Training the 21st Century Army, ALPHA, 10-12 February 1997
CJCSI 8510.01, Joint Modeling and Simulation Management (Draft), 12 October 1994
Envisioning Future Warfare, 1995
Family of Simulations (FAMSIM) Master Plan (Draft), May 1994
FY95 Army Science and Technology Master Plan, December 1994
Marine Corps Modeling and Simulation Master Plan, 20 July 1994
National Security Strategy of Engagement and Enlargement, July 1994


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