Question Bank of Health Assessment by tmf81158

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									   Needs Assessment: Collecting
information, making decisions, and
      accomplishing results

              Ryan Watkins, Ph.D.
              George Washington University

              Maurya West Meiers
              WBI Evaluation Group


               Presentation to the
               Knowledge and Learning Board
               Dec. 11, 2007
    Needs Assessments Help Us…
       Collect useful information that can inform our
        decisions
       Link the results we want to accomplish to our
        decisions about “what to do”
       Consider our alternatives and options
       Verify that our activities will lead to desired results
       Create consistency in decision making by
        implementing systematic processes

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    Needs Assessments Help Us Avoid…

       “What we really need is training on XYZ.”
       “But that is the way we have always done it
        here.”
       Training that isn’t aligned with World Bank
        priorities
       Solutions in search of problems

       Answers that are simple, straightforward,
        acceptable, understandable… and yet wrong
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    Why Needs Assessment
       Provides a systematic process to guide
        decisions.

       Provides justification for decisions before
        they are made.

       It is scalable for any size project, time frame,
        or budget.

       Offers a replicable model that can be applied
        by novices or experts.

       Provides a systemic perspective for decision
        makers.

       Allows for interdisciplinary solutions for
4       complex problems.
    Many Needs Assessments

       Disciplines
        –   Medical (Health) Needs Assessments
        –   Community Needs Assessments
        –   Organizational Needs Assessments
        –   Individual-Decision Needs
            Assessments




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    Three Types of Organizational Needs
    Assessments
       Strategic Needs Assessment
        –   Focus on needs of those external to the organizational (e.g.,
            clients, communities, countries)
        –   Alignment of societal goals with organizational objectives

       Tactical Needs Assessments
        –   Focus on organizational performance and contributions
        –   Alignment of organizational objectives with programs and projects

       Operational Needs Assessments
        –   Focus on individual or team performance
        –   Alignment of program and projects with individual or team
            performance objectives
        –   Guide the development of pragmatic learning plans
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     Needs Assessments and Results Chains
           Current               Desired
           Results               Results
    The Results We            The Results We Should
    Are Accomplishing         Be Accomplishing

           Impacts      Gap     Impacts       Strategic Needs Assessment


               Outcomes       Gap    Outcomes       Tactical Needs Assessment


                        Outputs     Gap      Outputs    Operational Needs Assessment


                              Activities   Gap    Activities

                                    Inputs       Gap    Inputs

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    Needs Assessments and Results
    Chains
        Impacts   Plan                        Performance Expectations
                                                     (Societal)

                                              Performance Expectations
      Measure Outcomes   Plan                       (Organization)


                                              Performance Expectations
           Measure Outputs      Plan             (Individual or Team)


                  Measure Activities   Plan          Developing
                                                    Learning Plans


                         Measure   Inputs             Calendar of
                                                    Learning Events
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    No more starting with…

        We need to train them on…
        You need to buy the latest release of…
        We need a course on…
        They need a new attitude about…
        We really need do be doing…




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     Aren’t we already doing this?
        Maybe
         –   Example, “My team should go to training X this year
             because they will have to be able to do Y next year.”

        Systematic and consistent needs assessments
         are, nevertheless, better since they…
         –   Systematically align desired results with plans and
             activities
         –   Use performance expectations to guide decisions
         –   Examine training and non-training alternatives
         –   Provide consistent processes from manager to
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             manager
     Where to Begin
     Phases of Needs Assessment
      Pre-Assessment
         –   Planning for success
        Assessment
         –   Collecting data
         –   Turning data into information
             and knowledge
        Post-Assessment
         –   Making decisions

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     Continuum of Assessments
        Not every needs assessment has to be
         complex
        Scope of the assessment should be based on
         the scope of the project

             Small Project
                                     Large Project

             Small needs
             assessment
                                      Large needs
                                      assessment


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     Tools for Collecting Information and
     Making Decisions
        Focus Groups - DACUM         Johari Window
        Focus Groups - Delphi        Concept mapping
        Focus Groups - Nominal       Fault Tree Diagrams
        Focus Groups – Straw Votes   Fishbone Diagrams
        Interviewing                 Multi-attribute Utility Analysis
        Task Analysis                Force Field Analysis
        Cognitive Task Analysis      Risk and Resilience Analysis
        Card Sorts                   Scenarios
        Tabletop analysis            Systematic Document Review
        SWOT + Causal Utility        Performance Observation
        Dual-response surveys        Guided Expert Review



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     Performance System
                       Needs
       WHAT         Assessments                 WHAT

      Current                                  Required
      Results                                   Results



       WHY                HOW                   WHAT

     Analysis     Examples: Program,         Performance
                 Project, Learning Plan,      Objectives
                Learning Activity, Mentor,
                   Recruitment Plan
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     Needs Assessment Series:
     Multi-Method Approach



                      Training Sessions:
                        Principles and
                           Practice

                                             Training Sessions:
                                                  Practical
     Knowledge Base                              Application




                       Consulting Services
15                      & Team Support
     Training Sessions


                         Principles and Practice


     Basics of conducting needs assessment
      Framework for conducting a needs assessment
      Aligning needs assessment with program logic
      Managing the process of needs assessment
      Multiple strategies for using needs assessment to
       accomplish intended results
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     Training Sessions

                             Practical Application

        Focus: Practice with data collection and analytical tools
         for decision-making
         –   SWOT with Causal Utility Analysis
         –   Dual-Response Surveys
         –   JOHARI Window
         –   Task Analysis
         –   Qualitative Data Analysis

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     Support for Implementation


                        Online Knowledge Base

        Materials posted for just-in-time learning
        Readings: tools and techniques
        FAQ and Discussion Boards
        Coming attractions (e.g., sample surveys, question
         database, etc.)


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     Support for Implementation

                      Consulting Services &
                         Team Support

          WBI Evaluation Group team, first stop for
           advice
          Consultant available for advisory services
          With HRSLB, support to teams on learning
           plans
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