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Tobacco Review 1 Pack/2 Packs Day=$______ 3 Things You’d Do w/ $$$$$$ 3 Long / 3 Short Term Effects Chemicals in Tobacco Smoke 3/5 Advertising Techniques 2/3 Quick Facts that Count 1 5 10 20 30 Year Years Years Years Years 1 Pack Row 1… (DuPage) 2 Packs Row 2… (DuPage) 1 Pack Row 3…. (Cook) 2 Packs Row 4… (Cook) Alcohol ALCOHOL NOTEMAKER The Least You Need to Know: A 1. Short term vs. Long term effects… Alcohol is a depressant. It alters 2. What is a ‘standard drink…’ mood, thinking and behavior. The intoxicating ingredient in alcoholic 3. What is BAC? drinks is ethyl alcohol (ETHANOL). 4. What is oxidation? Pure alcohol has no color or taste. 5. How long to oxidize 1 drink? Alcoholic drinks get their color and 6. Sobering Myths… flavor from the ingredients used to make them. 7. Factors influencing absorption… 8. F.A.S. (Fetal Alcohol Syndrome) 9. Factors contributing to alcoholism. Did You Know… 40% of all crimes (violent and non-violent) were committed under the influence of alcohol (Bureau of Justice Statistics, 1998) 40% of convicted rape and sexual assault offenders said that they were drinking at the time of their crime (Greenfield, 2000). According to the U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, 82 percent of 12-17 year-olds do not drink. (2004 National Survey on Drug Use and Health). Alcohol consumption by college students is linked to at least 1,400 student deaths and 500,000 unintentional injuries each year. (Statistic from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Addiction, Alcohol Alert, 58:1-4, 2002.) In 2002, 17,419 people in the United States died in alcohol-related motor vehicle crashes, accounting for 41% of all traffic-related deaths (NHTSA, 2003). Path of Alcohol 1. Mouth: alcohol enters the body. 2. Stomach: some alcohol gets in the bloodstream in the stomach, but most goes on to the small intestine. 3. Small Intestine: alcohol enters the bloodstream through the walls of the small intestine. 4. Heart: pumps alcohol throughout the body. 5. Brain: alcohol reaches the brain. 6. Liver: alcohol is oxidized or REMOVED/FILTERED by the liver at a rate of about 1 drink per hour. Alcohol is converted into water, carbon dioxide and energy. THE EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL and THE ADOLESCENT BRAIN Brain- first area depressed (slowed down): speech, thought, restraint, judgment, inhibition • Then, spinal cord reflexes and respiration which can be fatal. • disturbed sleep patterns, change in REM sleep • black-outs may occur (periods of time that can’t be remembered when sober) Effects on Body Continued Cardiovascular- dilates blood vessels which causes loss of heat *initially increases heart rate, then slows it down Gastrointestinal- toxic effect on stomach lining *irritates ulcers *increases acid and pepsin secretions (digestive fluid) *nauseant Sexual Stimulation- too much alcohol abolishes sexual function Liver- (blood volume circulates through liver every 4 minutes) *cells in liver destroyed *scarring, also called Cirrhosis *fatty liver *can cause death long term “Drunk Goggles Demonstration” Movie clip Blood Alcohol Concentration Blood Alcohol Concentration: measured in percentages *.10 means 10ml of alcohol per 100mL of blood OR 10% of all the blood in your body is comprised of alcohol…..!!!! *maximum BAC is reached within 20-30 minutes Absorption and Metabolism Absorption and metabolism of alcohol: *rapid absorption *stomach absorbs ¼ *rest is absorbed in small intestine *liver breaks down alcohol in about 1 drink an hour Amounts of alcohol: (2/3 ounce of pure ethanol) Same for all below!! *shot of hard liquor (86 proof/ 43% alcohol) *wine- 5 ounces (12% alcohol) *can of beer 12 ounces (4.5% alcohol) Standard Drinks A standard drink contains approximately 10 grams of alcohol. This is equivalent to: 1 bottle, 4 % - 6 % 1 small glass of wine, 10% - 14% 1 shot 30mL , (hard liquor), 37% - 43% Effects of Alcohol Chart Factors Influencing Absorption • Amount/Size of Drinks • Food • Body Size • Drug Interaction (s)? • Gender Gender differences: women tend to be more affected by alcohol than men (< of alcohol metabolizing enzyme) What are the Legal Limits? • You • > Age 21 1 Drink = ^.02 Generalization… Bill (who is 55, has a good job, graduated and drinks in moderation….) has 4 beers over the course of 2 hours what is his BAC…… Factors Contributing Toward Alcoholism Genetics (Family History) 2-7 X Drinking before age fifteen 4X High Tolerance Levels Use a designated driver, or one will be appointed for you ! DUI •Estimated Cost = $9,070 • 2 year revocation license Zero Tolerance • 3 Month/6 Month Suspension MOVIE Sobering Myths Exercise…. Showering… Drinking Coffee…. Only TIME will sober you up Who Suffers Through Your Poor Decisions? Friends, Family, People with Family Themselves Friends and the Most Through Who Suffers and Your Decisions? You! Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Drugs and driving may be a bigger problem than generally recognized. A New England Journal of Medicine report on drivers without alcohol in their The images are of various pupil sizes. A 6mm, 7mm, or 8mm systems who were stopped pupil size could indicate that a person is under the influence of by police for reckless cocaine, crack, meth., hallucinogens, crystal, ecstasy, or driving found that 45% had other stimulant. A 1mm or 2mm marijuana and 25% had pupil size could indicate a person under the influence of heroin, opiates, or other depressant, (see cocaine in their systems. 5 more examples below). Marijuana What is Marijuana? Marijuana is a green, brown, or gray mixture of dried, shredded leaves, stems, seeds, and flowers of the hemp plant. You may hear marijuana called by street names such as pot, herb, weed, grass, More than 200 slang terms Is Marijuana a Gateway Drug? Is Marijuana Addicting I? Yes… Is everyone addicted….No When is someone dependent or addicted to the drug? In 2002, 300,000 people entering drug treatment programs reported marijuana as their primary drug of abuse, showing they need help to stop using the drug. Is Marijuana Addicting II? Addiction: uncontrollable, compulsive drug seeking and use, even in the face of negative health and social consequences. Facts That Count Marijuana use also has the potential to promote cancer of the lungs and other parts of the respiratory tract because it contains irritants and carcinogens. • In fact, marijuana smoke contains 50 to 70 percent more carcinogenic hydrocarbons than does tobacco smoke THC impairs the immune system’s ability to fight off infectious diseases and cancer Depression(19), anxiety(20), and personality disturbances(21) have been associated with marijuana use In 2002, marijuana was the third most commonly abused drug mentioned in drug-related hospital emergency department (ED) visits in the continental United States Marijuana's Effects on the Brain Cerebellum--Body movement coordination Hippocampus--Learning and memory Cerebral cortex, especially cingulate, frontal, and parietal regions--Higher cognitive functions Nucleus accumbens —Reward Basal ganglia--Movement control Effects on the Heart One study has indicated that a user’s risk of heart attack more than quadruples in the first hour after smoking marijuana. The researchers suggest that such an effect might occur from marijuana’s effects on blood pressure and heart rate and reduced oxygen-carrying capacity of blood. Effects on the Lungs….. Someone who smokes marijuana regularly may have many of the same respiratory problems that tobacco smokers have. daily cough and phlegm, symptoms of chronic bronchitis, and more frequent chest colds. Continuing to smoke marijuana can lead to abnormal functioning of lung tissue injured or destroyed by marijuana smoke. amount of tar inhaled by marijuana smokers and the level of carbon monoxide absorbed are three to five times greater than among tobacco smokers. inhaling more deeply and holding the smoke in the lungs. Compare/Contrast Cigarettes Both Marijuana Marijuana Recent Developments Decriminalization in Canada Different than Legalization No prosecution for small amounts Medicinal Marijuana Raich v. Ashcroft State Vs. Federal Government Local Control Controversial Issue Extra Credit 1.Three Reasons For 2. Three Against 3. Paragraph Reaction Should Pregnant Users Be Prosecuted? Should Steroids Be Legal? Should Marijuana be Legal for Medicinal Purposes? Should Needle Exchange Programs be Supported? Is Prozac Overprescribed? Is DARE Effective? Are Anti-media Campaigns Effective? Should Drugs Be Legalized?
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