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PIES AND PASTRIES

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					                        P I E S A N D PA S T R I E S
Pies and pasties all require one very basic element each, the pastry. Pastry itself can vary to suit
the different products and individual tastes but, however, some basic pastry recipes are given
here. Experimentation by slight variation of the various ingredients may create a product that
has a more „preferred‟ taste or perhaps be more suitable to a particular product or even locality
and also the tastes of that locality.

Rough puff pastry is not perhaps used very widely with meat products but as there is some use of
it, some mention must be made, and a recipe is given. In order to produce a „good‟ rough puff
pastry though it does require some considerable time and certainly a fair amount of effort (unless
a pastry rolling machine is close at hand). Although time and effort are to be expected from
workers in the meat industry the cost of that time and effort must be considered against the
potential gains that are available for the time/effort outlay. A more acceptable method nowadays
(except where the larger scale production of products using rough puff pastry is contemplated) is
to „buy in‟ readymade rough puff pastry or puff pastry (sometimes called flaky pastry), probably
in frozen blocks. Rough puff pastry and flaky pastry are not the same product but to a limited
extent, flaky pastry can be used in place of rough puff pastry but rarely can rough puff pastry be
used in place of flaky pastry.

In a similar vein, suet crust pastry is not a product widely used in meat products (steak and
kidney puddings perhaps being the main item that does use it) but again a basic recipe is given in
case it may be needed by someone.


Short Crust Pastry.
      4 kg             Plain flour
     1¾ kg             Lard or margarine (butter may be preferred but for commercial purposes
                       lard or margarine are usually used)
       20g             Salt (This is a commodity which is currently under severe scrutiny on
                       health grounds and if an acceptable taste is achieved by using less, do so
                       but do NOT compromise taste for absolutely no reason).
   Water               For this amount of pastry about 300ml to 400ml should be quite adequate
                       but It may be found with some pastries that different batches of pastry
                       (and perhaps even flours) do require slightly different amounts of water to
                       achieve an accepted consistency so do add the water gradually and also
                       have more water available in case more may be needed to be added should
                       it be required.


                                                 1
Method
Put the flour and salt into a bowl (in the case of modern flours, sifting of the flour, although
recommended by many recipes is now rarely necessary) add the fat (which may be put in as
slices or small chunks) and rub the fat into the flour until the mixture begins to crumble into a
breadcrumb like appearance. (One method seen, but not tried by the author, is to have the lard in
a frozen state and then to shred it for adding to the flour. It is claimed that this method enables a
more even mixing.) Add the water gradually and continue mixing until the pastry forms a fairly
firm mass. Empty onto a floured surface and knead to complete the mix but don‟t over knead.
Use as required in the recipe. An increase in the quantity of fat makes a „shorter‟ pastry and
reductions in the amounts of fat makes a pastry, which is less „short‟. The pastry once made may
be either used immediately, or be placed into a chiller for a short time prior to use, thus making it
slightly more firm to handle.

To make a cheese pastry, 250g of grated cheese should be added to each 1kg of flour used. For
best results a fairly mature type of cheese is preferred. This is added after the fat has been
rubbed into the flour but before the water is added. Cheese pastries can be used to make Cheese
and Onion pasties which are similar to Cornish pasties but obviously having a cheese and onion
filling. Products such as this appears to have an even stronger regional preference so no recipe
is given here but this kind of recipe is quite easy to develop to suit the „local‟ demand.


H O T WA T E R P A S T R Y
(This type of pastry is often preferred for use in making pork pies and by some people for
making steak and kidney pies, both of which may be required to hold a „gravy‟ or liquor once
baked.
3½ kg                  Plain flour
1.25 kg                Lard (melted)
 20g                   Salt (do remember the point of scrutiny of salt levels for health reasons)
  1.4ltr               of near boiling water.
Due to the temperatures of the water and the hot fat DO TAKE EXTREME CARE when
producing this pastry.
Put the flour and the salt together in a bowl making a „well‟ in the centre of the mix. Melt the
lard until it is quite hot but take care with this as hot fat can cause more „burn‟ to skin than
boiling water since it does achieve a higher temperature and will stick to the skin. Boil the
water. (Some recipes suggest mixing the lard with the water and bringing it all to the boil. In
theory this may sound ideal but when water containing fat reaches the boiling temperature of the
water, the mixture may „spit‟ tremendously and serious injury can result). Add the melted lard
and most of the boiling water into the flour/salt mix and beat well with a wooden spoon (if a


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mixing machine isn‟t being used) until the mixture clings together in a ball and leaves the sides
of the bowl cleanly. Do not attempt to mix this mixture by hand, very hot fat has been used
and the mix being prepared may cause injuries). If the mixture is still „dry‟, then add the
remainder of the water. The reason for this is that additional water may be added but water
cannot be taken out once added. This is another good reason for not putting the water with the fat
to heat up since all of the fat should be used but not necessarily all of the water. Put the finished
product onto a floured surface and leave to cool before using in the recipe. It can help to chill
the product down prior to use as this makes it more workable.
.
S U E T C R U S T PA S T RY
    3.0 kg      Plain flour & 50g baking powder (or alternatively use 3.0kg self-raising flour)
       25g       Salt
    1.25 kg      Shredded beef suet
       2 ltr.    Cold water

Method
Mix together the flour, baking powder and salt in a bowl, stir in the suet and then bind with the
water to form a soft mix. Turn out onto a floured surface and knead only lightly prior to use.
This mix can be used in making steak and kidney puddings (or indeed can be used for some meat
pies although it is less popular than the first two pastries). Do note that the salt level in this recipe
is quite high and in view of modern demands may need to be reduced.

Rough Puff Pastry.
     3.0 kg             Plain flour
    0.75 kg             Lard
     1.00kg             Margarine
       20g              Salt
       1.5ltr           Cold water

Method
(The mix of lard and margarine can be varied, some recipes suggesting all margarine, other
recipes suggesting the majority of margarine and less lard. The mix has to be developed to
suit the product that sells best). Some recipes advise the addition of some lemon juice to make
this pastry but that can usually be regarded as an „optional item‟.
Mix the flour and the salt and then add the fats that have been cut up into small pieces and stir
into the mix but DO NOT rub it in as is done with the other pastries. Add enough water to make
it into a stiff dough mix and then turn the mix out on to a floured rolling board. Roll some of the


                                                   3
mix (enough for one rolling) out into a narrow strip and then fold the strip into three, in doing so
turning the „block‟ of rolled pastry through one quarter so that the open ends are facing you.
Roll out the pastry again into a strip and fold again then turn to make the open ends face you
again. This action needs to be done three or four times to complete the process. The finished
rolled pastry should then be placed into the chiller to rest for about 30 or 40 minutes before its
final use.


                                       PORK PIES

In making pies, ideally a pie forming machine is needed for any large quantity production.
Simple, hand operated machines are available with the „blocking‟ head heated either by gas or
electricity. However, some pies can be made without the aid of such machines, the „hand raised‟
pork pie being in itself quite a popular selling pie. In making a small hand raised pie, while not
absolutely essential it is again made easier if a pie forming tin (or ring) is used and if a wooden
„block‟ can be made up for use with the tin or „ring‟. This kind of block needs to be about 3
times the height of the pie to be made (which is the depth of the tin) and about 10 or 15mm less
than the diameter of the tin being used (to enable a thickness of pastry at the sides). If the block
is made with a „ring‟ turned in on one end it does make it more obvious which way up it is to be
used! The ring end is not where the pastry is put on it! The block needs to be made of a hard
wood (to enable it to maintain a good standard of hygiene) and be well smoothed down in order
to prevent any pieces of wood getting into the pies. As a rough guide when getting material ready
it can be useful to remember that a small pie e.g. a 227g (8oz) pie will contain about 114g (4oz)
of pastry and 114g (4oz) of meat (here giving imperial weights as well as metric weight for a
traditional British product). The pastry (usually hot water pastry) is rolled out, fairly thick (the
thickness will become easier to determine for the person making them as they progress) and then
may be laid over the well-floured forming block. Form the pastry to the block until it is of a
thickness that permits the tin to be put over it. Turn over the tin, with the block and pastry still in
it and carefully remove the block. The tins then have a pastry cavity to hold the meat. After
filling the cavity with meat the edges of the pastry around the top of the pie are wetted with
water and a pastry lid can be placed on top. Using either a „crimping tool‟ (or even a normal
dining fork) crimp the pastry lid to the rest of the pie before trimming off any surplus pastry from
around the edges. Large pies are difficult to make without using a block and „pie tin‟ but small
pies can also be made as follows without a tin. Prepare the hot water pastry as usual and allow
starting to chill. Roll an approximate amount [let‟s say 114g (4oz) of pastry for a 227g (8oz pie)]
into a fairly even „ball‟. Chill the pastry balls for a time; about an hour is usually enough to get
the firmness needed. Take the „ball‟ and put the two thumbs into the centre of the ball and form
a „cup‟, turning frequently to ensure that the sides have a reasonably even thickness (similarly to


                                                  4
how a potter can be seen doing with clay - although the potter has a moving turntable to help the
work). Make sure that the sides are tall enough to take the meat that will be used and place the
meat into the cup. Take a small piece of rolled out pastry to use as a lid and, after wetting the
insides of the top of the pie with water, using fingers and thumbs crimp the edges before
trimming off any surplus pastry from around the top. Some people making small hand raised
pork pies don‟t use a separate lid but instead, after filling the pie, bring the wetted pastry edges
together to seal. In the opinion of the author, which is after all only one opinion, the use of a
separate lid does give a better finished appearance. Once lidded, the pastry top of the pie can be
brushed with some beaten egg mix to enable the top of the pie when baked to have a nice „golden
brown‟ colour. In the case of pork pies it is usual to have a lightly seasoned „meat jelly‟‟ ready
which can be poured into the pie through a small hole broken through the top of the piecrust after
baking. The jelly can be made using pork bones and pig trotters, boiled in water until the rind is
quite soft on the trotters. Once the jelly has been strained away from the bones/trotters it should
be re-boiled with the addition of perhaps a very slight seasoning of salt & pepper. Meat jelly it
must be remembered though can be an ideal growth medium for bacteria and so strictest
standards of hygiene must be maintained. The meat jelly MUST be boiled before use (and then
be permitted to cool a little before putting in the pie) and all implements used must be as near
sterile as possible.

                          Pork Pie suggested Meat Recipe

The filling for a pork pie has various devotees. Some prefer the meat to be cured (and therefore
having a pinkish colour when cooked) while other insist that the meats used should never be
cured. Some people making pork pies make both kinds to try and satisfy both markets but
usually it is preferable to settle on one or the other and seek to gain a reputation for the product
that you make really well. If the cured type is chosen then the meat needs to be cured prior to
cooking and this may be done either by the use of a „curing mix‟ being spread on the meat
(usually after the first mincing) or by cutting the meat into small pieces and keeping it in a brine
for a short time, usually overnight is enough time but it does depend on how small the pieces of
pork are cut (to enable penetration of the brine). The major variation that this causes is in the
quantity of salt to be used in the seasoning (since the brine or the curing mix will already have
incorporated some salt). Some recipes may be found to include the addition of some cereal or
binder and while this may aid the margin of profit that can be achieved, do try the quality of the
end product before attempting such changes. As with sausage recipes it will be found that there
are many variations on the possible seasonings that can be used.




                                                 5
Meat Ingredients:
  3kg                 Pork shoulder meat (70 – 75% Visual lean [V.L.])
  3kg                 Pork belly meat (60%V.L)
1½ kg                 Pork back fat

(With the modern trend in demands to reduce the fat contents of foods, a variation may be made
where the pork back fat is replaced with a further 1½ kg of pork belly but do try the taste first
since it may be found that the change may be one sacrifice too many).

Where curing mix or brine is used:                          Where no curing mix is used
(presuming the meat to have been brine cured)
250g Salt                                                           500g Salt
250g ground White Pepper                                            250g ground White Pepper
75g ground Mace                                                     75g ground Mace
75g ground Sage                                                     75g ground Sage
75g ground Cloves                                                   75g ground Cloves
50g Ground Cayenne                                                  50g ground Cayenne
50g ground Coriander                                                50g Ground Coriander
(It must be remembered that with the curing                   (With no curing mix the meat mix
will the meat mix will have a pink colour when                 have a gray colour when cooked),
cooked).

Method.
Mince the pork shoulder on a fine plate (about 5mm) and the pork belly (and back fat if used) on
a coarser plate (say 10mm). If the meat is to have cure added, spread the meat out and cover
with the cure mix and mix in well. For the meat that has a cure, leave the meat to cure at
least overnight but if the meat is not to be cured then after the various meats have been minced
for the first time the process continues as follows: Mix in well all of the seasonings and then
mince again on a coarse plate (again a 10mm plate) when it will be ready for filling into the pies.
Some people have been known to include some forms of binders such as rusk as an extender
(profit extender?) but if a reputation for quality is sought it may be more advantageous to sell a
really „meaty‟ pie. For another slight change or variation, a „Gala‟ pie would include whole
boiled eggs being layered into the meat mixture before sealing on the lid and baking. Large scale
manufacture of this kind of product can involve further processes to make a „longer‟ Gala pie in
which the egg is pre-formed and laid, almost like a sausage, along the length of the pie. For
small scale production standard boiled eggs in the pie are normally quite acceptable.




                                                 6
                            Steak & Kidney Pies,
                         Steak & Kidney Puddings,
                 Minced beef (and Minced Beef & Onion Pies)

Steak & Kidney pies and Minced Beef Pies (sometimes with extra onion added to make it
conform to a minced beef & onion pie but they are basically the same product) both follow
similar procedures, the main difference being in the fillings used. Again, for the purposes of
production it is easier to have a machine to „block‟ out a base and also to crimp on the lid.
However, the pies can again be made without a machine by using a simple pre-formed
aluminium disposable pie tin. The pastry being rolled out and fitted into the tin before the filling
is done. The top of the pie again is wetted with water and, after filling, a lid applied and crimped
to fasten to the pie base before removing any surplus pastry. This is followed by egg washing
with a beaten egg or beaten egg and milk mix on the top of the finished pie for baking. It is
suggested that a short crust pastry be used for this product (but as mentioned, some people
preferring a hot water pastry while others use the traditional cold water pastry) but it is in fact
fairly common for puff pastry to be used for the lid, particularly where the pie is produced in a
dish and the „baked lid‟ is placed on top for serving. The cooking process is quite similar for
both the steak & kidney and the beef and onion mixes. A minced beef pie can be made by using
the similar ingredients but by reducing the onion from 2kg to ½kg if required
Ingredients: (Steak & Kidney Pies)                       Ingredients: (Minced Beef & Onion Pies)

4kg        Lean diced beef (about 10 to 15mm dice)       4kg       Lean beef minced through a 5mm plate
1kg        Beef kidney, cored, trimmed and diced         2 kg      Onion (diced).
           (again a fairly small dice)                   2 ½ ltr   Water
½kg        Diced onion                                   100g      Salt;
3 litres   Water .                                        30g      White pepper;
100g       Salt;                                          20g      Ground sage
30g        White pepper;                                  10g      Cayenne
20g        Ground sage
10g        Cayenne

                                STEAK & KIDNEY PIES

Melt some fat in a pan and lightly fry the onion until it is becoming soft and „clear‟ in
appearance. Strain the onion of most of the fat and place the beef, kidney, onion and water in a
pan with the seasoning and bring to the boil then allow to simmer for 30 to 40 minutes. If after
this time the gravy isn‟t thick enough, add a small quantity of Cornflour mixed with caramel (to
colour) and a little cold water to provide a thickener for the gravy. Remove the mix from the
heat and allow it to cool before filling into the pie shells that are then covered with a pastry lid
which may be crimped to seal. The completed pies, after being brushed with an egg mixture

                                                     7
should be baked at 190°C for about 30 to 40 minutes (when the tops of the pies should be a
golden brown colour.

                         MINCED BEEF & ONION PIES
Melt some fat in a pan and lightly fry the onion until it is becoming soft and „clear‟ in
appearance. Strain the onion of most of the fat and place the beef, onion and water in a pan with
the seasoning and bring to the boil then allow the mix to simmer for 30 to 40 minutes. Again if
the gravy isn‟t thick enough, a small quantity of Cornflour may be added mixed with caramel (to
colour) and a little cold water to provide a thickener for the gravy once it has boiled again.
Remove the mix from the heat and allow it to cool before filling into the pie shells that are then
covered with a pastry lid which may be crimped to seal. The completed pies, after brushing with
a beaten egg mix should be baked at 190°C for about 30 to 40 minutes (when the tops of the pies
should be a golden brown colour. Other variations on this kind of pie may include steak &
mushroom and even a beef & vegetable pie but if a larger range of products are needed for
the business a simple questionnaire for customers (obviously with some suggestions in it) enable
the products made to match the demands of the customers in the area. The development of the
recipe can be a useful project for the trader to test out their skills to match the needs of the
business. Whatever is done though, DO write down the recipe for comparison later.


                         STEAK & KIDNEY PUDDINGS
With this product the suet crust pastry is required. The meat mix is prepared as for the Steak &
Kidney Pies. Once again, ideally a small machine is used to „block out‟ the pastry for the
pudding. However, once again, the pastry can be rolled out and then be formed on the inside of a
small pre-formed disposable aluminium pudding dish prior to filling (but although it can be done
for this item it does become far less commercial to do so as the shape of the pudding dishes can
take a few minutes to get a good „form‟ of pastry). It may also be found to be slightly more
difficult as suet crust pastry can be far less forgiving when trying to form or mould it. Fill the
base and after wetting the edges a lid can be applied and be crimped to hold it in place. Once
again, ideally the finished product will be cooked in a steam oven but in the absence of this piece
of equipment they may be placed onto the base of a large pan with water about halfway to two
thirds of the way up the pudding container. The pan is put on the heat and the water brought to
the boil and then the pan is covered and the lid placed on the pan while it simmers for at least 30
minutes. Remove from the heat and allow the puddings to cool before refrigerating. The
finished puddings may be „cooked‟ off by the customer following a similar process to that for the
cooking method shown here. It is advisable to provide some cooking advice for the customer on
selling the puddings.


                                                8
                                       Cornish Pasties
Ingredients:

5kg            lean lamb                                      200g           salt
(beef may be used as an alternative)                          60g            white pepper
5kg            potatoes                                       25g            Coriander
1kg            onions                                         25g            Sage
1kg            carrots


Method

The meat may be either minced through a coarse plate or diced quite small. Preferences for
either method appear to vary with each person who makes these products. Try both ways and
choose the one that you prefer. Cook the meat for about 20 minutes simmering gently. Lightly
pre-cook the vegetables (do not fully cook them or they will „mash‟ during the further
processing) and then dice the vegetables or mince through a 10mm plate. Again the two ways,
mince or dice, do appear to depend on the individual preference. In some cases the vegetables
have been known to have been sliced thinly prior to light cooking after which they are strained of
water and mixed with the meat and seasoning. In some Cornish pasties recipes some swede has
been known to be used as a replacement for some of the potato to give a slightly different taste
and texture. Again, try the different ways to find a product that suits your own (or your
customers) taste. Mix the seasoning well with the meat/vegetable mixture and set aside. Again,
personal preference appears to indicate to some people that a short crust pastry should be use
while others prefer a rough puff pastry. The authors‟ preference is for short crust pastry.
Whichever pastry is used though, roll out the pastry and cut into circles (usually about 6” (15cm)
in diameter) but the size may vary depending on the size of Cornish pasty wanted. Place some of
the filling on one half of the pastry and after wetting the edges of the circle well with water, fold
the pastry over to make the seal with the other edge of the circle and then crimp the edges
together to hold the seal. Brush a beaten egg, or egg and milk mixture over the finished pasty‟s
and bake at 180°C for 30 minutes or until the crust is a golden brown.

Once again further varieties can be developed within the general framework of this product and
may include items such as steak pasties, cheese & Onion Pasties etc. The customer preference
must dictate the range and types of product best suited to the particular business.




                                                 9
                                        Sausage Rolls

Ingredients & Method:

Usually a simple Pork Sausage (but other types of sausage or sausage meat may be used if
required. Indeed it may often be found that a different flavoured sausage meat can make a
serious difference to the finished product). Once again there may be a preference for either short
crust or rough puff pastry and this is a matter of taste, possibly on this occasion falling in favour
of rough puff pastry.

Roll out the pastry and cut lengthwise to give strips about 12cm to 15cm wide. Place either
skinless sausages, or sausage meat rolled out to about 15 to 20mm diameter rolls, lengthwise on
the pastry not quite at the centre of the width of the pastry. Wet the pastry down both external
lengths and then bring the top „flap‟ down over the roll of sausage meat and crimp closed
(usually leaving a short crimped „flap‟. Cut the sausage rolls into the length required (for a
single sausage roll and then brush the top with beaten egg, or egg and milk mixture. Bake at
180°C for about 30 minutes until they are golden brown in colour.




       SAUSAGES, SALAMI AND OTHER MEAT DELIGHTS

Sausages, a name, and a product, that has so many different meanings to so many people.
Depending upon the country, the region within a country and even the local tastes or even
preferences within such a region, a sausage is capable of being a staple food requirement for
many people. The meat content itself can vary so very much, from 100% meat content (less a
fraction perhaps for spices and seasonings) or the cheap and cheerful „banger‟ with perhaps a
questionable meat content which can at best satisfy only the least discriminating of tastes. It may
be strongly spiced, very lightly spiced, mouth-wateringly full of the taste of herbs, be smoked, be
eaten cold or be eaten hot. A sausage may contain the meats only from one animal species or it
may include a mixture of meats from several species. However, a sausage should never be a
repository for old, dark, discoloured meat or meat of either questionable quality or origin. A
good sausage deserves only the best ingredients in it since a good sausage can indeed become
either the basis of a memorable meal or indeed a quality snack in itself or equally, the basis of a
good ongoing business, or a recipe for disaster.

Some meat trade skills may have diminished along with the number of “local butchers‟ shops”
over the past few decades. One of those skills was the manufacture of the „in house sausage‟.
Some retailers have realised this error and do try to regain that ground, along with the reputation

                                                 10
for a local „high quality sausage‟. Many of the small shops that do try to produce their own
sausages will almost certainly have a mincing machine but it is possible that they may be
unlikely to have the benefit of a bowl chopper. Therefore, in the following recipes, where
possible, a method of production without using a bowl chopper has been included for some kinds
of sausages. Once binders have been joined by the meats, fats and seasonings a good mixing by
hand and second mincing of it all can produce in most cases a satisfactory product. While a
bowl chopper is ideally recommended for making many sausages, and is indeed necessary for
some sausages (some Continental sausages and salami‟s in particular require that an emulsion be
created and the only practical way to do this is with the use of a bowl chopper), other general
type sausages can adequately be made using a mincing machine and hand-filling machine (or
even a simple nozzle attachment fitted to the mincing machine).

Bowl choppers themselves can vary in the types of work that they are capable of and in the
recipes that follow the bowl chopper referred to is a simple 3 or 6 blade machine, not a high
powered vacuum bowl chopper as may well be used by the large specialist manufacturer. Where
bowl chopping is included in the following suggested methods, the amount of time in the bowl
chopper has been given in terms of „revolutions‟ of the bowl. This though itself may be
dependent to a large extent on the actual bowl chopper being used and it is advisable to check the
mixture until quite confident that the number of revolutions suggested in this text does bear a
reasonably accurate relation to the mix required and the bowl chopper being used. Obviously,
once the operator is used to the mix being achieved with the bowl chopper, amendments can be
made to the recipe in order that a consistency of mix will be achieved for the all of the sausages
produced, possibly by means of counting the number of bowl chopper revolutions to achieve this
mix.

As mentioned, it is possible to fit a filling nozzle onto a small mincing machine but while this
may well suffice to try and examine the potential of „in house sausage‟ production it could well
appear to be somewhat „penny pinching‟ if the demand for the product is proved. Small hand
operated filling machines‟, either vertical or horizontal cylinder types are quite readily available
and are not costly. If the product is correct and creates a demand then the initial expense can be
well worth the outlay.

Some of the recipes here do include sausages that require smoking and here there may be a little
more of a problem for the small shop. However, the recipes have still been included just in case
the small shopkeeper should at some time decide to expand a little and perhaps include smoking
facilities in their expansion. Some small modern smoke units can be acquired which do not
require a large amount of space but they do need to be situated in an area which can be ventilated
fairly easily. With a number of the sausages that require smoking there is also a slight problem,
though not insurmountable, in that of „cure mixes‟. Saltpetre itself (sodium nitrate) which is


                                                11
often referred to as one of the basic components of curing can now only rarely be obtained
(due to its other use as an ingredient in the making of explosives!), so although a mix using
Sodium nitrite is usually suggested as an alternative this substance is also difficult to obtain
(for similar reasons) so it may probably be easier incorporate instead a proprietary curing mix
as a substitute, always of course ensuring that it does contain some of the similar
ingredients. This message has been repeated on each of the recipes as a reminder for those
who do seek to experiment.

Recipes it must be remembered are merely recorded „suggestions‟ of ingredients and methods of
producing a consistent product. In many cases it is worth experimenting with a recipe in order to
discover they type of product that a particular market demands. Some markets may prefer less
seasoning, others, more seasoning. In most of the following suggested recipes the quantity of
salt has generally been reduced in order to comply with current trends in reducing the Sodium
(mainly in the form of salt) intakes in the diet. Similarly, the amount of fat suggested in some
old recipes is far higher than the quantities suggested here. Reductions have again been made in
order to try and conform to the modern trend of „reduced fat content‟ but do remember that
many meat research bodies in the past have demonstrated a positive relationship between the
mouth watering aroma of cooking meat with a higher fat content. Some reductions then may be
necessary but it should be remembered that while this may satisfy the health conscious it may not
always satisfy the „taste‟ of the customer. It is always best to „try‟ the recipe yourself and, if in
your opinion it requires adjustment, do just that - but do record the details of the adjustment. The
customer in the end count is the person who keeps the business going so that taste MUST be
paramount. Sometimes it can be found that a slight change in „taste‟ can be found to be
favourable and increase demand. While this is true, it must be remembered that the opposite
may also be true, that a change of taste may deter customers. In order to avoid this, any changes
in recipe formulation should be noted by a slight change in name, in order that customers may be
aware. They may be interested in providing feedback information on the changed taste. Any
such feedback should be listened to and acted upon.



Little has been included on sausage casings. These can in themselves be worth a discussion by
themselves as the preference for „natural‟ casings against „collagen‟ or the „synthetic‟ type is fast
becoming legend.

In general, narrow natural casings (from about 15mm upwards to about 28mm) are obtained
from the sheep intestines, varying in diameter where the larger of them may overlap slightly
with the smaller of the pig intestines (which start at about 30mm and go up to about 45mm). The
bung, from both sheep and pigs did use to be traditionally used for the production of liver
sausages and some other cooked sausages and some salami products. Sheep stomachs, notably

                                                 12
the first stomach or Rumen, while not being a true „sausage casing‟ is now often associated with
the container for the production of haggis. Beef casings being larger, where used were
associated with the very large types of cooked sausages with a diameter of up to 70mm. All of
the natural casings are normally obtained in a salted pack where the casings are supplied in
bundles that have been preserved in a coarse salt and need to be well soaked to remove some of
the salt before use.

Of the synthetic casings there are cellulose casings, collagen casings, fibrous casings and some
plastic types of casings where they may be supplied pre-coloured or printed if required so that
they represent the name of the supplier when the products are sold. The range of the various
synthetic casings is large and the manufacturers of these products are only too willing to offer
advice on their usage. Once again, it can be a case of trying both kinds, natural and synthetic
and then making up your own mind but it is worth bearing in mind that most top of the range
quality sausages do tend to stick to using natural casings. That doesn‟t mean that synthetic
casings are wrong, just that they haven‟t been utilised for those products.

Just a few recipes follow merely, as suggestions, but as has been said earlier, this list should not
be taken as anything like a „full listing‟ since many variations may be found, even for the
sausage recipes that are given here, and there are certainly many more types of sausages and
meat items than the ones that have been suggested in the following samples. If a „new product‟ is
made by varying a recipe, either one of these or any other, DO write down the details so that in
years to come people may be able to enjoy the product that you have developed. Secrets may
have some benefits but secret recipes can eventually deny others the pleasure of a successful
product that you may have developed. Once again the change in public awareness of health
aspects must be stressed and do examine the salt levels and the fat levels to see if they can be
adjusted to provide products that are more „acceptable‟ but do not put at risk the reputation of the
product by adjusting the recipe to conform with perhaps only one or two „occasional‟ customers
while denying the preferred product to the majority of your customers.




                                                13
                                     Fresh Sausages
PORK SAUSAGE (1)
(Meat & Binder)                                             (Spices & Seasonings)
3 kg lean pork                                              75g    Salt,
1½ kg Skinned Belly Pork                                    25g    Ground White Pepper,
½ kg Pork Back Fat                                          10g    Ground Mace,
½ kg Rusk                                                   10g    Ground Nutmeg
1 kg Water                                                  10g    Ground Coriander

Method without using Bowl Chopper
Mix the seasoning with the dry Rusk and add the water, mix well and set aside. Mince the lean
meat through a fine mince plate (3mm if possible) and mince the Belly Pork through a coarser
plate (perhaps 10mm). Thoroughly mix the meat with the damp seasoned rusk and mince again
on the coarser plate before filling into hog casings and linking. Leave the linked sausage to „set‟
for a minimum of 2 hours
Method using Bowl Chopper
As above but after mincing all of the meats for the first time on the different plates put the meat
into the bowl chopper and run for 3 revolutions. Add the seasoned binder evenly across the mix
in the bowl chopper and run for a further 4 revolutions. Fill as above


PORK SAUSAGE (2)
(Meat & Binder)                                                     (Spices & Seasonings)
5.5kg Lean Pork                                             100g    Salt
1kg Rindless pork belly                                     25g     Ground White Pepper,
1kg Rusk                                                    20g     Ground Mace,
2 kg Water                                                  10g     Ground Ginger,
                                                            10g     Ground Sage
Method without using Bowl Chopper
Mix the seasoning with the dry Rusk and add the water. Mix well and leave to stand for 10
minutes. Mince the meat first on a 5mm plate and then on a fine plate (about 3mm If possible).
Put the seasoned Rusk with the meat and mix well before mincing again on a fine (3mm) plate
before filling into hog casings before linking. Leave the linked sausage to stand for at least 2
hours.
Method using Bowl Chopper
As above but after mincing all of the meats on the 5mm plates put the meat into the bowl
chopper and run for 3 revolutions. Add the seasoned binder evenly across the mix in the bowl
chopper and run for a further 4 revolutions. Fill as above



                                                14
PORK SAUSAGE (3)
(Meat & Binder)                                                    (Spices & Seasonings)
61/2 kg Lean Pork                                                  75g    Salt,
1 kg Rindless pork belly                                           35g    Ground White Pepper
1½ kg Rusk                                                         10g    Sage
21/2 kg Water                                                      10g    Ground Pimento,
                                                                   10g    Ground Marjoram
Method without using Bowl Chopper
Mix the seasonings with the dry rusk and add the water and mix thoroughly. Leave to stand for
about 10 minutes. Mince the meat on a medium plate (about 5mm) and add the rusk seasoning
mixture and mix well before re-mincing on the same size plate and filling into hog casings and
linking. Leave the linked sausage hanging in the chiller to let them „set‟ for a minimum of 2
hours.
Method using Bowl Chopper
As above but after mincing all of the meats for the first time on the 5mm plates put the meat into
the bowl chopper and run for 3 revolutions. Add the seasoned binder evenly across the mix in the
bowl chopper and run for a further 4 revolutions. Fill as above


TOMATO PORK SAUSAGE
(Meat & Binder)                                                    (Spices & Seasonings)
5 kg    lean pork                                                  100g    salt,
1 kg    rindless belly pork                                        20g     Ground Nutmeg
1 kg    Rusk                                                       20g     Ground Mace,
1½ kg   water                                                      20g     Ground Sage
                                                                   250g    Concentrated tomato puree **
**Note: Some recipes replace the tomato puree with 2 cans of chopped plum tomato but the puree does appear to
give a more noticeable flavour and be a preferable method.


Method without using Bowl Chopper
Mix the seasonings with the dry rusk and add the water and mix thoroughly. Leave to stand for
about 10 minutes. Mince the meat on a medium plate (about 5mm) and add the rusk seasoning
mixture (including tomato puree) and mix well before re-mincing on the same size plate and
filling into hog casings and linking. Leave the linked sausage hanging in the chiller to let them
„set‟ for a minimum of 2 hours.


Method using Bowl Chopper
As above but after mincing all of the meats the first time put the meat into the bowl chopper and
run for 3 revolutions. Add the seasoned binder evenly across the mix in the bowl chopper and
run for a further 4 revolutions. Fill as above.

                                                     15
CUMBERLAND SAUSAGE
(Meat & Binder)                                             (Spices & Seasonings)
4½ kg   Lean Pork                                           100g   Salt
2 kg    Skinned Belly Pork                                  25g    Ground Black pepper
1 kg    Pork Back fat                                       10g    Ground Rosemary
½ kg    Rusk                                                10g    Ground Thyme,
¾ kg    Water                                               10g    Ground Nutmeg
                                                            10g    Dried Ground Sage
                                                             5g    Cayenne Pepper
Method without using Bowl Chopper
This is intended to be a coarse cut, high meat content sausage and doesn‟t always have any rusk
as a binder. However, it is always better with these particular sausages, to at least minimise the
binder and keep the meat content high. Mix the seasoning with the dry rusk and then add the
water. Mix well and put aside for about 10 minutes. Mince the all the pork and fat through a
medium to coarse plate (about 10mm) and add all of the seasonings, mix well before mincing
again on a 10mm plate. Fill into sheep casings. This sausage is laid out in a „ring‟ and is not
(normally) linked. Leave the sausage to set for 2 to 3 hours.
Method using Bowl Chopper
As above but after mincing the all the pork and fat (keeping them separate) through a medium to
coarse plate (about 10mm) put the pork into the bowl chopper and run for 2 revolutions. Add the
seasoned binder evenly across t he mix in the bowl chopper with the minced fat and run for a
further 2 revolutions. Fill as above


LICOLNSHIRE SAUSAGE
(Meat & Binder)                                             (Spices & Seasonings)
4 ½ kg Lean Pork                                            100g Salt,
1kg      Pork belly (rindless)                              90g    Dried Sage,
¾ kg     Rusk                                               30g    Ground White Pepper
1¼ kg   Water

Method without using Bowl Chopper
Mix the seasonings with the dry rusk and add the water and mix thoroughly. Leave to stand for
about 10 minutes. Mince the meat on a medium plate (about 8mm) and add the rusk seasoning
mixture and mix well before re-mincing on the same size plate and filling into hog casings and
linking. Leave the linked sausage hanging in the chiller to let them „set‟ for a minimum of 2
hours.
Method using Bowl Chopper
As above but after mincing the all the meat through a medium plate (about 8mm) put the meat
into the bowl chopper and run for 3 revolutions. Add the seasoned binder evenly across the mix

                                               16
in the bowl chopper and run for 3 revolutions. Fill as above

CHIPOLATA SAUSAGE
(Meat & Binder)                                                    (Spices & Seasonings)
5½ kg Lean Pork                                           200g     Salt,
1¾ kg Pork Back Fat                                       50g      Ground White Pepper,
1 kg   Rusk                                               20g      Ground Coriander
2 kg   Water                                              10g      each of Ground pimento, Nutmeg,
                                                                   & Thyme
                                                          5g       Ground Cayenne
Method without using Bowl Chopper
Mix the seasoning with the dry rusk then add the water, mix well and put aside for about 10
minutes. Mince all of the meat and fat through a fine mince plate (about 3mm if possible), mix
the seasoned binder with the meat and mix well before re-mincing through the same plate. Fill
into fairly narrow sheep casings. Link the filled sausage at about 16 sausages to the lb and leave
to set for about 2 hours.
Method using Bowl Chopper
As above but after mincing the all the pork and fat through a 3mm plate place it into the bowl
chopper and run for 4 revs. add the seasoned binder evenly across the mix in the bowl chopper
and run for a further 3 revolutions. Fill as above


COCKTAIL SAUSAGES
(Meat & Binder)                                                    (Spices & Seasonings)
5½ kg    Lean Pork                                        250g     Salt,
1¾ kg    Skinned Pork Belly                               100g     Ground White Pepper,
1 kg     Pork Back Fat                                    28g      Ground Coriander
1 kg     Lean Beef                                        25g      Ground Mace,
1 kg     Rusk                                             10g      Ground Nutmeg,
2 kg     Water                                            10g      Ground Thyme
                                                          5g       Ground Marjoram
Some recipes suggest that the same ingredients that are given for the chipolata can be used but ideally, the
cocktail sausage needs to carry a little more salt and spice. Equally, some recipes will suggest even greater
quantities of salt and pepper than are shown here so it is worth doing some experiments to see what kind of
market is asking for them. Do remember though the implications in the current climate of health awareness of
the excesses of salt in a product.


Method without using Bowl Chopper
Mix the seasoning with the dry rusk then add the water, mix well and put aside for about 10
minutes. Mince all of the meat through a fine mince plate (about 3mm if possible), mix the
seasoned binder with the meat and mix well before re-mincing through the same plate. Fill into
fairly narrow sheep casings. Link the filled product to create about 32 sausages to the lb (my

                                                     17
apologies for going Imperial on this occasion) and leave to set for about 2 hours.
Method using Bowl Chopper
As above but after mincing the all the pork and fat through a 3mm plate place it into the bowl
chopper and run for 4 revolutions, add the seasoned binder evenly across the mix in the bowl
chopper and run for a further 3 revolutions. Fill as above


BEEF SAUSAGE (1)
(Meat & Binder)                                             (Spices & Seasonings)
4kg   Lean Beef                                     200g    Salt,
1kg   Rindless Pork belly                            75g    Ground White Pepper,
1kg   Rusk                                           50g    Ground Ginger
2kg   Water                                          50g    Ground Mace,
                                                     50g    Ground Nutmeg
                                                      50g   Ground Sage,
                                                      25g   Ground Coriander
Method without using Bowl Chopper
Mix the seasonings with the dry rusk, add the water and mix well then put aside for about 10
minutes. Mince the beef through a 5mm plate and fat through a 10mm plate and mix in the
seasoned rusk. Mix well and re mince through the 10mm plate. Filling can be either into Hog
casings or medium to wide sheep casings.
Method using Bowl Chopper
As above but after mincing the all the beef and fat (keeping them separate) put the beef into the
bowl chopper and run for 2 revolutions. Add the seasoned binder evenly to the mix in the bowl
chopper and run for 2 revs. Add the minced fat and run for a further 2 revolutions. Fill as above


BEEF SAUSAGE (2)
(Meat & Binder)                                             (Spices & Seasonings)
4½       kg Lean Beef                               200g    Salt,
11/2kg   Rindless Pork belly                        150g    Ground White Pepper,
1½ kg    Rusk                                       50g     Ground Nutmeg,
3 kg     Water                                      25g     each of Ground Ginger,
                                                            Ground Mace, Ground Sage &
                                                            Ground Cayenne
Method without using Bowl Chopper
Mix the seasonings with the dry rusk, add the water and mix well then put aside for about 10
minutes. Mince the beef through a 3mm plate and the fat through a 10mm plate and mix in the
seasoned rusk. Mix well and re mince through the 10mm plate. Filling can be either into Hog
casings or medium to wide sheep casings.



                                               18
Method using Bowl Chopper
As above but after mincing the all the beef and fat (keeping them separate) put the beef into the
bowl chopper and run for 3 revolutions. Add the seasoned binder evenly across the mix in the
bowl chopper and run for 2 revolutions. Add the minced fat and run for a further 2 revolutions.
Fill as above



   PRODUCTS REQUIRING SOME COOKING BEFORE SALE


BLACK PUDDING
(Meat & Binder)                                                      (Spices & Seasonings)
7 kg    Fresh Pigs Blood                                      500g   salt,
3½ kg   Pork Flare Fat                                        225g   Ground White Pepper,
750g    Pearl Barley                                          125g   Ground Pimento
600g    Flour                                                 125g   Ground Coriander,
750g    Oatmeal                                               125g   Ground Mustard,
1kg     Onion                                                 35g    Celery Seeds


Method

If using Fresh blood, do make sure that the blood has been „well stirred‟ to ensure that it is free
of any „stringiness‟. If you are using dried blood, reconstitute or mix as the instructions given
with the product being used. Put the blood into a large bowl. Dice the onion and lightly cook in
water, strain and put aside. Cut the flare fat into small diced size pieces and scald and strain. Put
the fat aside. Put the pearl barley, flour, oatmeal, onions, fat and seasonings into the blood and
mix well ensuring a good even mix throughout. Using a wide hog casing and a funnel (inserted
into the end of the casing, fill the mixture into the casing. Tie off into rings of about 1lb using
string and cook at 82°C for about 45 minutes. Do not cook at high temperatures as this may
cause the puddings to burst. The cooked pudding can be tested to see if it is cooked by inserting a
needle into one of the rings. If there is no material oozing out, the puddings are cooked.
Alternatively, use a thermometer and ensure a deep product temperature of at least 72°C. Hang
the cooked puddings and after allowing cooling, then chill overnight. An alternative more
commonly seen on the continent of Europe includes the addition of some cooked, skinned pigs
tongue cut into small pieces being put in the mixture before filling. This does not appear to be as
popular in Mainland U.K. Consider the salt content here in view of current demands and then try
various slight adjustments to produce an acceptable product both to satisfy both taste and public
awareness reasons.

                                                 19
HAGGIS
(Meat & Binder)                                                   (Spices & Seasonings)
4kg  Cooked lamb pluck meat                                100g   Salt
     (Lungs, heart, liver & melt)                          50g    Ground white pepper
1½kg Beef suet                                             25g    Ground Nutmeg
2kg  Oatmeal
750g Diced Onion


Method

Using a lamb pluck, remove windpipe (trachea) and the major bronchial tubes and retain the
heart, liver, melt (spleen) and some of the softer parts of the lungs. Dice all of these into
reasonably large pieces and with the onion, place into water and bring to the boil. Simmer for
about 20 minutes and then strain. Mix the oatmeal into a paste using some meat stock and mix all
of the ingredients together before mincing on a 5mm plate. Fill the mixture into sheep bungs (or
stomach) and sew up any openings. Put the filled haggis into water and bring to the boil and
gently cook allowing about 45 minutes per ½ kg of product. Remove from the boil and cool the
haggis before refrigerating.



         PRODUCTS DEFINITELY NEEDING A BOWL
                     CHOPPER

From here, the mincer continues to be required but with many items it is impractical to try and
produce the products without the aid of a bowl chopper. The texture of the finished product
requires the action that can be achieved by bowl chopping and this texture cannot be simulated
by mincing alone. No method will therefore be shown for „making without a bowl chopper.’

POLONY
(Meat & Binder)                                                   (Spices & Seasonings)
4½kg Lean Pork                                             100g   Salt,
1kg   Pork Back Fat                                        50g    Ground White Pepper,
½ kg Rice Flour                                            20g    Ground Mace,
½ kg Rusk                                                  20g    Ground Coriander,
1kg   Boiling Water                                        10g    Ground Nutmeg
                                                           10g    Ground Cinnamon




                                              20
Method
Scald the rice flour with the boiling water and then put the lean pork into the bowl chopper and
run for 3 revolutions, add the seasoning and run for a further 2 revolutions. Add the scalded rice
flour fat and the dry rusk and run for a further 3 or 4 revolutions. Fill the mixture into beef
runners, tying off at about 500g lengths that are then tied into rings. Place the filled rings into
water at 82°C and cook for 40 minutes. Dip the cooked rings into a polony red dye mixture
which is held at the same temperature and then cool in iced water to start the setting of the
mixture and hang the rings in a chiller to finish the setting overnight.


LIVER SAUSAGE (1) (non-smoked)
(Meat & Binder)                                                     (Spices & Seasonings)
3½kg Trimmed Pigs Liver                                    150g     Salt,
3kg   Pork Back Fat                                         50g     Ground White Pepper,
225g Cornflour                                              35g     Marjoram,
½ kg Onion (Diced)                                          25g     Powdered Garlic
                                                            10g     Ground Pimento,
                                                            10g     Ground Nutmeg,
Method
Dice the liver and scald. Dice all of the fat and place with all of the other ingredients into the
bowl chopper. Run the bowl chopper until the mixture is reduced to a fine paste. Fill the mixture
lightly into large hog casings (or 50mm collagen casings) tying off into rings of about ½ kg or
„sticks‟ of about ½ kg and cook at 82°C for 45 to 50 minutes with a light weight on top of them
in order to keep them below the surface of the water. Remove & place into cold water for initial
chill. Remove from the water and spread out in chiller overnight to complete the chill and set.

HASLET
(Meat & Binder)                                                     (Spices & Seasonings)
3kg    Lean Pork                                            250g    Salt,
1½kg Pork Back Fat                                          50g     Ground Black Pepper,
2kg    Trimmed Pigs Pluck                                   50g     Ground Sage
       (Lungs, heart, & liver)                              50g     Coriander,
2kg    Onions                                               25g     Powdered Garlic
1½kg Water
1kg    Rusk
Pigs Caul Fat

Method
Mix the seasonings with the dry rusk then add the water, mix well and put aside. The pigs‟ pluck

                                                21
must be trimmed of the major cartilaginous tissue of the bronchial vessels. Cut the pluck into
smallish pieces, mixing the various items well though (lungs, heart and liver) and put aside. Skin
and dice the onion and put aside. Dice the pork back fat before scalding and put aside. Place the
meat and seasoned rusk and diced onion into the bowl chopper and run for 3 revolutions. Add the
diced fat and run for a further 3 revolutions. Remove from the bowl chopper and, laying a piece
of caul fat onto a work surface, form some of the mixture into a loaf shape and place onto the
caul fat, wrapping the remainder of the caul fat around it. Place the wrapped „loaves‟ into a
roasting tin and roast in a moderately hot oven 200°C for 1 hour or until the loaves are well
browned on top (in particular) and have an internal temperature reading of over 73°C. Remove
from the oven and allow an initial cool before chilling overnight. Some recipes suggest painting
the outside of the hot finished loaves with a caramel mixture to enhance colour but this should
not be necessary.


       DRIED AND/OR SMOKED MEATS & SAUSAGES
A number of the following recipes require a ‘curing mix’ to be added to the prepared meat prior to further
processing. This is added at least 12 hours and sometimes 24 hours (or more) before in order to achieve the
marinating effects needed on the meat. It will be noticed that in general they require the inclusion of saltpetre
(sodium nitrate) in this mix. However, saltpetre itself cannot easily be obtained, so although a mix using
sodium nitrite is suggested here, in view of this problem it may probably be easier to accept that the use of a
proprietary curing mix will have to be substituted. This should be acceptable, always ensuring of course that
the mix does also contain some of the other, or similar, ingredients.

LUNCHEON MEAT

(Meat & Binder)                                                    (Spices & Seasonings)
1½kg Lean Beef                                              100g Salt,
1½kg Lean Pork                                              20g    Dextrose,
1kg     Beef or Pork fat                                    20g    Ground White Pepper,
¾kg Rusk                                                    10g    each of Ground Nutmeg,
400 g Rice Flour                                                   Ground Mace &
1¼ kg Water                                                        Ground Coriander,
Method
Mix the seasoning with the rice flour and dry rusk, add the water, mix well and put aside. Mince
the beef and pork on a medium to fine plate (about 3mm or 5mm) and mince the fat on a 10mm
plate. Put the pork and beef mince in the bowl chopper and run for 4 revolutions then add the
soaked, seasoned rusk/cornflower mix and run for a further 2 revolutions. Add the minced fat
and run for another 2 revolutions. Take out the mix and fill either into a beef bung or a 100 to
120mm synthetic casing. Cook the filled luncheon meat in water at 83°C for 1¼ hrs If the
luncheon meat is to be smoked, cook for 1¾ hrs if un-smoked. Hot smoke for about 2 hrs


                                                       22
(optionally select the product here, smoked luncheon meat or un-smoked luncheon meat, there
may be a local preference) .


SAVELOYS
(Meat & Binder)                                                        (Spices & Seasonings)
3kg     Lean Beef or Pork                                      250g Salt,
2kg     Lean Pork                                              100g Ground White Pepper,
1kg     Pork Fat                                               10g     each of Ground Mace, Ginger
2kg     Rusk                                                           and Cinnamon
3kg     Water
Method
Mix the seasonings with the dry rusk, add the water and mix well then put aside for 10 minutes.
Mince the meats and the fat on a fine plate (about 3mm) keeping the fat separate from the lean
meat. Put the lean meats into the bowl chopper and run for 3 revolutions, add the seasoned,
soaked rusk and run for 2 more revolutions. Add the minced fat and run for another 3
revolutions. Take out the mix and fill into hog casings and twist-link to allow the product to be
hung from a rod in the smoke chamber. To twist link, taking a sausage length, grip and nip then
twist the sausage to the right. Leave another sausage length and then nip and twist to the left,
laying the linked sausage on the table to create a „loop‟ laid on the table, with care, place a rod
through the loop and lifting both ends of the rod take the hanging sausages to the smoke
chamber. Smoke in a fairly hot smoke for about 30 minutes and then place the smoked sausage
into hot water at 83°C to cook for a further 30 minutes. Remove from the cooker and after
allowing an initial cooling period place into the chiller for 2 hours to chill down.


POTATO SAUSAGE
(Meat & Binder)                                                      (Spices & Seasonings)
2kg     Lean Beef                                            70g     Salt,
1kg     Lean Pork                                            30g     Ground White Pepper,
1kg     Pork Back Fat                                        30g     Ground Mace,
3kg     Boiled, Peeled Potatoes                                      15g     Ground Ginger,
½ kg Onion                                                   10g     Ground Sage
Method
Cube the Pork Back Fat. Mince the Beef, Pork and Potatoes through an 8mm mince plate and
place into the bowl chopper with the seasoning and the cubed back fat. Run the bowl chopper for
4 or 5 revolutions to mix well but do not break the mix down too fine. Fill into hog casings and
then hold in a brine solution for about 4 hours. Twist-link the filled skins to make into sausages
each of about 6 inch in length. Cook gently at about 83°C for 20 minutes and then give a light
smoke of about 1 hour.


                                                23
BOLOGNA
Curing Mix: 225g Salt, 25g Sodium Nitrite (e250), 10g Brown Sugar 20ml water
(Meat & Binder)                                                       (Spices & Seasonings)
4½ kg Beef                                                    60g     Ground White Pepper,
1½ kg Pork Back Fat                                           30g     Ground Nutmeg,
1kg     Plain Flour                                           10g     each of Ground Ginger,
1kg     Cornflour                                                     Mace, Coriander and
½kg Rusk                                                              Marjoram
4kg     Iced Water
Method
Using a coarse plate (10mm or 15mm) mince all of the Beef and mix well with the curing
mixture and leave to cure for 48 hours. Mix the seasonings with the dried cereals and then add
the water ensuring that a good mix is achieved. This should result in a smooth paste. Dice the
Pork Back Fat. Put the cured meat into the bowl chopper spreading the seasonings and the
flour/corn flour/rusk water paste evenly. Run the bowl chopper for about 4 revolutions and then
add the diced Back Fat and run for a further 3 or 4 revolutions. Fill into beef bungs or synthetic
casings then smoke for 3 hours in a heavy smoke. The smoked sausage should then be cooked in
water containing an approved brown dye at a temperature of 80°C for 3 hours. The finished
product needs to have an initial cool before being chilled to 2 to 4°C ready for sale.

LIVER SAUSAGE (2)
(Meat)                                                                 (Spices & Seasonings)
4½ kg Pig Liver                                                225g    Salt,
1kg    Skinless Pork belly                                     30g     Ground White Pepper,
1kg    Bacon Fat                                               15g     Garlic,
½ kg Onion                                                     10g     each of Ground Ginger,
1kg    Pork bones or                                                   and Marjoram,
Boned pig heads                                                5g      ea of Ground Cinnamon &
                                                                       Ground cloves

Method
Place each of the items, Pork belly, Bacon fat and bones into a segmented pan (or alternatively
use cooking nets, each item being held in a separate net.) and cook, barely covering with water.
Cook the bones for 2 hours, the belly for 40 minutes and the bacon fat about 15 minutes. Peel
and dice the onion and fry off in lard and then, along with the raw liver, mince on a fine plate
(about 3mm) and place into the bowl chopper. The Pork Belly and bacon fat are minced through
a coarser plate (about 10mm) and then, along with the seasoning added to the bowl chopper. Run

                                                  24
the bowl chopper for a minimum of 8 revolutions until the entire mass is a fine paste. Fill the
mixture into hog bungs and cook at 75°C for 1½ hrs. Chill the cooked sausage and when cooled,
cold smoke at 45°C for 5 to 6 hours. With this kind of product, the water used in the initial
cooking is sometimes further boiled to reduce and a little may be added when the mixture is
going into the bowl chopper.

ITALIAN TYPE SALAMI
Curing Mix: 125g salt, 20g Sodium nitrite (e250), 30g Brown Sugar, 20ml water


(Meat)                                                              (Spices & Seasonings)
3kg      Lean Beef                                           50g    Ground White Pepper,
5kg      Lean Pork                                           50g    Whole White Peppercorns,
2kg      Pork Back Fat                                       30g    Fresh Garlic
Method
Mince the beef through a 10mm plate along with the garlic, mix well and return to the chiller for
at least three hours. Mince the pork through the 10mm plate and then mince the beef again, this
time through a 3mm plate. Thoroughly mix the meat with the cure mix (the mixing is very
important and it is necessary that it is well mixed) and the seasoning and pack the mixture in
trays in layers about 6” deep. Leave the mix packed in the trays to permit the cure to take effect,
which is usually about 2 days (and the meat will start to take on a brighter red colour). Fill the
mix quite tightly into hog bungs and after filling wrap the outside with good string at 20mm
intervals. Leave the sausages hanging to set for a further 48 hours then cool smoke for 12 hours.
The finished salami should be hung with plenty of breathing space around them and left to
mature for 8 to 10 weeks.

CERVELAT
Curing Mix: 150g salt, 20g Sodium nitrite, 20ml water
(Meat)                                                                   (Spices & Seasonings)
9kg    Lean Beef                                                 55g     Ground White Pepper,
2¾kg Boneless Hand of Pork                                       20g     Coriander, 10g each of
                                                                         Ground Nutmeg, Ground
                                                                         Cardamom &
                                                                         Ground Marjoram
Method
Mince the beef and the pork through a 10mm plate and in order to get a good even mix, spread
all of the mince out on a table and mix in well the cure and the seasoning. Pack the mix into a
storage tray and hold for 48 to 72 hours. Mince again on a 3mm plate and fill into hog casings
and twist link into 12 to 14” links to prepare for smoking. Cool smoke the sausages for 12 hours

                                                    25
at about 50°C and chill with a water spray. Hang the sausage to mature for about 1 week.

FRANKFURTERS
Curing Mix: 200g salt, 25g Sodium nitrite, 30g Brown Sugar, 20ml water
(Meat & Binder)                                                     (Spices & Seasonings)
7 kg Pork                                                    75g Ground White Pepper,
3½ kg Lean Beef                                             15g     Ground Mace,
3½ kg leg of Beef                                           15g     Ground Coriander,
3 kg Cooked pork rind                                       15g     Ground Ginger,
1 kg Farina                                                 15g     Ground Marjoram.
4 kg crushed ice
Method
All of the beef and pork may be minced on a coarse mince plate (10mm) and the curing mixture
added, ensuring a thorough mixing. Leave the cured meat to rest for 24 hours. Place all of the
meats into the bowl chopper and run it for 6 or 7 revolutions. Mix the seasoning with the cereal
and, with the bowl chopper running, add the seasoned cereal. Add the cooked rind and then the
crushed ice and keep the bowl chopper running until all of the water has been taken up. Fill the
mixture into sheep casings and twist link them so that they can be suspended on a rod. Leave the
rods of sausages to dry off for about 1 to 1½ hrs and then smoke to achieve the desired colour.
Cook the smoked sausage in water at 75°C for 20 to 30 minutes then plunge into cold water
before placing into chill.

CHORIZOS
Curing Mix: 150g salt, 15g Sodium nitrite, 30g Brown Sugar. 250ml white vinegar
(Meat)                                                                   (Spices & Seasonings)
3kg    Lean Beef                                                50g      Ground mild Paprika,
3kg    Lean Pork trim                                           25g      Ground Red Pepper,
2¾kg Fat Pork Trim                                              25g      Chilli Powder,
                                                                10g      Cinnamon &
                                                                10g      Fresh Garlic,
Method
Mince the beef through a 5mm plate and the pork through a 10mm plate. Mix both meats
together thoroughly and add the curing mixture (with the vinegar) ensuring that a thorough mix
is achieved. Pack the meat into a tray to hold for the curing period (48 to 72 hours) until the meat
achieves a good deep red colour. After curing, spread out the meat, add the seasoning and mix
again quite thoroughly before filling into hog casings, twist linking into sausages of about 6 to 8”
in length. The linked sausages are smoked for about 6 hours at a medium temperature of about
65 to 70°C. Hang the smoked sausage with plenty of air around them to mature for about 5 to 7

                                                   26
days. This is just one recipe for Chorizo sausages but there are many, many more. Some of the
recipes relate the sausage to various individual countries, such as Portuguese, Spanish and
Mexican etc. It can be quite interesting to try some of the different recipes and to taste the
difference!

CACCIATORI SAUSAGES (small salami)
Curing Mix: 75g salt, 15g Sodium nitrite, 20g Dextrose, 20ml water.
(Meat)                                                                    (Spices & Seasonings)
3kg    Pork leg                                                    75g    Milk Powder
1½kg Lean Beef (Chuck)                                             20g    Coriander Seeds
¾kg Pork back fat                                                  10g    each of Black Pepper, White
                                                                          Pepper, Mace & Garlic
Method
Make sure that all of the meat and fat is well chilled, probably as low as –4°C before mincing.
Mince on a coarse plate, about 10 or 12mm, keeping the meat separate from the fat. Mince the
fat and the meat again but through a 4mm plate, still keeping them separate. Mix the starter
culture with the water and then mix all of it with the meat and then refrigerate for 8 hours. Mix
the rest of the seasonings with the fat and then mix the fat in with the meat ensuring a thorough
mix is achieved. Fill into beef runners or alternatively 45mm collagen casings and twist link at
about 15cm lengths to put onto a smoking rod and in doing so it may help later to incorporate
a continuous length of string in the linking to connect all of the sausages. Smoke for about 12
hours at 80°C and then remove and leave to dry at ambient of about 50 to 60°C. The sausages
may develop a fine white mould during their ageing which is quite normal. A weight loss of
some 30% will occur before they are fully ready.

THURINGERS (1)
Curing mix:      150g Sodium nitrite, 50g Dextrose, 25ml vinegar
(Meat)                                                                    (Spices & Seasonings)
2.0kg Beef chuck                                                   50 g   Salt
1.5kg Beef plate meat                                              20g    Black pepper
1.5kg Pork shoulder                                                5g     each of Ground Ginger,
50ml water                                                                whole mustard seed and
                                                                          Ground Nutmeg
Method
Coarse mince the beef (on a 10 or 15mm plate). Mix the curing mix with the beef and refrigerate
for at least 2 hours. Mince the beef with the pork through a 3 or 4mm plate and mix the rest of
the ingredients (along with the water) into the minced meats and refrigerate again for a further 2
hours. Fill the mix into hog casings and link the filled sausage to put it onto a smoking rod.

                                                    27
Allow the filled sausage to come to room temperature. Place a bowl of water in the smoke
chamber and pre-heat the smoker to 38°C. Place the rods of sausages into the smoker and take
the temperature up to 70°C and maintain at this until an internal temperature of the sausage of at
least 65°C is achieved and then maintain this for a further 30 minutes. Remove the sausages from
the smoker and allow the temperature to reduce to room temperature before storing in the chiller.

FAGGOTS (SAVOURY DUCKS)
(Meat & Binder)                                                                 (Spices & Seasonings)
3kg    Beef trim (60%V.L.)                                             200g     Salt,
3kg    Pork trim (60%V.L.)                                             35g      Ground White Pepper,
1½kg Rusk                                                              35g      Ground Ginger,
1kg    Onion chopped                                                   35g      Ground Sage
Pigs Caul Fat (if available                                            30g      Ground Coriander
About 2kg Stock                                                        20g      Ground Nutmeg
The stock can be from the meat stock left from the cooking process or from stock generated in the making of
brawn. If it is stock left from making brawn, adjust the seasoning to compensate after carrying out a taste test).
Method
Place the meats and the diced onion in a large pan and cover well with water and stock. Bring to
the boil and simmer for 1½ to 2½ hrs. Strain off the liquor and reserve. Mince all of the meats
through a 5mm plate and mix some of the liquor with the rusk to produce a good mix which is
not too wet. Mix all of the minced meat well with the soaked rusk. If the bowl chopper is used
care should be taken not to „over mix‟ and make the mixture too fine. Take the mixed product
and form into about 3oz balls. Each of the balls should be wrapped with a small portion of caul
and placed fairly tightly into a roasting dish. If caul fat cannot be obtained then the formed balls
will just be packed into the roasting tin. Add a little of the liquor over the top of the finished
faggots in the roasting tin to minimise the risks of „burning on‟ and bake in a fairly hot oven,
about 180 to 200°C for 30minutes or until a good golden brown colour is achieved on the tops of
the product.

BRAWN
(Meat & Binder)                                                        (Spices & Seasonings)
3     Pigs Heads (split)                                               100g Salt,
12    Pigs Trotters                                                    30g    each Ground White Pepper
3kg   Ox Cheek                                                                Ground Nutmeg, Ground
2kg   Pork rind (de-fatted)                                                   Cloves & Ground Sage
                                                                  10 bay leaves (tied in a small muslin bag).
Method
Remove the brains and the eyeballs from the head. Using a knife split the trotters into halves put

                                                         28
all of the Meat ingredients into standard brine and cure for 2 days. Remove the meat from the
brine, rinse well under cold water and place in a large pan and cover with cold water. Add the
seasonings. Bring to the boil and simmer for about 4 hrs ensuring while it is doing so that the
water level doesn‟t fall too low. As soon as it is possible to strain the liquor off do so, keeping
the liquor for use later. Remove the meat from the bones but discard any hard gristle or large
pieces of fat. Remove and discard the muslin bag containing the bay leaves. Using a coarse
mince plate (about 10mm) mince the meats (or if preferred, cut into small pieces by hand) and
place into a pan for later use. Re-boil the liquor to reduce by about ½ and add the meat to the
liquor and again take the temperature up to boil. Taste and, if needed, adjust seasoning
(particularly salt) and pour the mixture into a large container to cool and set. The finished
product should empty out quite easily for slicing.

POTTED MEATS
(Meat & Binder)                                                      (Spices & Seasonings)
3kg   Beef shin (or leg of beef)                              75g    Salt,
1kg   pig Head meat                                           30g    each of Ground White
1kg   Pork rinds                                                     Pepper, Coriander and Mace
                                                              15g    Ground Marjoram
Method
As with the Brawns, it is better if the meat items can be cured in a standard brine for a short time.
Remove the meats from the brine and rinse well under cold water. Place in a large pan and cover
well with cold water, add the seasoning and bring to the boil. Simmer the meat for about 4 hours
and then remove from the heat, strain off the liquor and then re-boil the liquor to reduce by about
1/3rd. Mince all of the meat through a fine plate (about 3mm) and put back into a pan, adding
some of the reduced liquor and bring back to the boil. Decant the mixture into small containers
and leave it to cool before refrigerating.

PATE
Pate can in fact be many different things to many people and the range of pates that can be
produced can be quite enormous. That pate is both a popular and enjoyable meat product goes
without saying. However, some pates are made with liver; some are not made with liver; some
are made with game; some are made with fish. It would not be sensible to try and give a full
range of recipes here just as it would not be sensible not to give at least one recipe as a
suggestion. Certainly the one given here can work quite well but as with many of the recipes that
have been given already, do be ready to experiment and adapt the recipe, remembering each time
to write down what the recipe actually was. If possible include a few comments noting the
reaction of anyone who has tested it to both the taste and the texture, remembering that some
people prefer a coarse pate while others will only accept a smooth pate. The suggested recipe

                                                 29
here is for a chicken and bacon pate and, as one of the final processes is carried out in a blender,
the degree of coarseness or fineness can to some extent be left to the individual taste. Usually,
for a shop, the amount of pate made at any one time is quite small so the quantities here reflect
that point and, in blending, for a shop the use of a domestic type of blender may be adequate but
for commercial purposes of course a larger and more robust machine would need to be used.
(Meat & Binder)                                                  (Spices & Seasonings)
1.0kg Chicken livers                                    10       gloves of garlic finely chopped
500g finely chopped onion                               20g      Salt
250g streaky bacon                                      20g      Marjoram
20ml red wine (optional)                                15g      Black Pepper
                                                        15g      Ground Nutmeg
Method
In a large pan, slowly at first, cook the bacon over a low heat and, without adding any extra fat,
gradually increase the heat and cook until the bacon is crisp then remove it, drain off any residual
fat and crumble the bacon, setting it aside while reserving all of the dripping. Add the chicken
livers, chopped onion and chopped garlic to the some of the reserved dripping in the pan (still
retaining some of the dripping for later) and cook over a medium heat, stirring constantly for
about 5 minutes or until the chicken livers lose their red colour and become a grey/brown colour.
Cool slightly and then add the crumbled bacon and the seasonings and half of the wine (if used).
Blend the mixture to achieve the consistency required and then return to a pan to take the
temperature of the product back up to above 75°C. If the mixture is very thick, add some more of
the wine before pouring or spooning into an appropriate container that has had the remains of the
dripping „washed‟ all over the inside. Refrigerate overnight and then turn the container over to
release the moulded pate onto a dish. The layer of dripping on the inside of the container should
ease the release of the finished pate but if there is a problem, place the container in a slightly
larger container of hot water to soften the dripping before emptying it out.

THURINGERS (2) [Summer Sticks]
Curing mix:     50g Sodium nitrite, 90g Dextrose, 15g Lactacel
(Meat)                                                                  (Spices & Seasonings)
3kg    Lean beef (85 90%VL)                                      125g   salt ; 90g sugar
1.5kg Beef flanks or beef trim                                   90g    Sugar
                                                                 20g    Ground White Pepper
                                                                 10g    ea., mustard powder; Paprika;
                                                                        Ground Caraway Seeds;
                                                                        Ground Nutmeg and
                                                                        Monosodium Glutamate


                                                   30
Method
Coarse mince the meat (10 or 15mm plate) mix all of the seasonings with the curing mix and mix
well with the beef then refrigerate for at least 2 hours. Mince the mixed minced meat, seasonings
and cure through a finer plate (3 or 4mm) and fill into sheep casings (or 15 to 19mm collagen
casings and link the filled Casings onto a smoking rod. Place the linked sausages into a pre
heated smoker and maintain heat until a core temperature of the sausage reaches 72°C and
continue smoking for a further 30 minutes. Remove and hang the linked sausage to cool to
room temperature before placing in the chiller.

SPICY GARLIC BEEF STICKS
Curing mix:     30g Sodium nitrite, 100g Dextrose, 15g Lactacel
(Meat)                                                            (Spices & Seasonings)
3kg    Lean beef (85 90%VL)                             25g       Salt
1.5kg Beef flanks or trim                               20g       Ground White Pepper
                                                        35g       Paprika
                                                        15g       Mustard powder
                                                        15g       Garlic
                                                        10g       Ginger
Method
Coarse mince the meat (10 or 15mm plate) mix all of the seasonings and curing mix with the
beef and refrigerate for at least 2 hours. Mince the mixed minced meat, seasonings and cure
through a finer plate (3 or 4mm) and fill into sheep casings (or 15 to 19mm collagen casings and
link the filled Casings onto a smoking rod. Place the linked sausages into a pre heated smoker
and maintain heat until a core temperature of the sausage reaches 72°C and continue smoking
for a further 30 minutes. Remove and hang the linked sausage to cool to room temperature
before placing in the chiller.

MORTADELLA
Curing Mix:    125g Salt, 20g Sodium nitrite, 30g Brown Sugar 20ml water
 (Meat)                                                           (Spices & Seasonings
4kg    lean pork                                        40g       Sugar
4kg    lean beef                                        30g       Ground White Pepper
1kg    Pork back fat (1)                                30g       Whole White Peppercorns
1kg    Diced pork back fat (2)                          20g       each of Garlic, Ground Coriander &
                                                                  Ground Marjoram
                                                        15g       Ground Cloves


                                                   31
Method
The beef, pork and pork back fat (1) are all minced through a 5mm mince plate and, while being
kept separate, approximate parts of the cure mixture are added to each of the items that are then
mixed well and trayed up separately to cure for about 48 hours. Scald the white peppercorns and
leave to soak for about 1½ hrs. Put the cured beef in the bowl chopper and run for about 5 or 6
revolutions then add the cured pork and cured fat and after adding the seasoning (and
peppercorns) continue the bowl chopper for a further 5 or 6 revolutions. Add the diced pork back
fat (2) and run for 2 or 3 revolutions to mix well. Fill into hog bungs or synthetic casings and tie
off. The filled sausage should be tied with string to create a criss-cross pattern (it is possible to
use a small size meat netting for this purpose, but that is not traditional!). Let the filled, tied
sausage set for 5 or 6 hours before smoking. The rested mortadella should be smoked at first for
about 10 to 12 hours at a temperature of 50°C and then the temperature needs to rise to about 70
to 72°C for a further 12 hours when the internal temperature should have reached at least 65°C.
It is preferable, whenever possible to leave the smoked mortadella to cool in the smoke house
after it has been turned off for a further 5 or 6 hours when it may be removed to a chiller.



                         Other ‘Non-Sausage’ Products
TERRINES

(Meat & Binder)                                       (Spices & Seasonings)
2kg   Skinless Streaky Bacon                          25g    Salt,
2kg   Pork Tenderloin                                 20g    Ground Thyme,
2kg   Pigs Tongues                                    20g    Ground Black Pepper,
      (Cooked / skinned)                              20g    Ground Coriander,
1kg   Skinned Belly Pork                              10g    Ground Marjoram
1kg   Pig Liver
1kg   Chopped Onion
¾ kg Chopped Mushrooms
½ kg Farina
Method

Spread the streaky bacon and stretch before then carefully laying across the bottom and sides of a
terrine or loaf tin, leaving some of the bacon hanging well over the sides. Butterfly the pork
tenderloin lengthwise and lay it between greaseproof paper and gently flatten with a butchers
mallet (or fat basher) and put aside. Slice the tongues lengthways into about 1cm thick slices.
Mince the pork belly and liver and put aside. Gently fry the onion and mushrooms in butter for
about 5 minutes then add the minced meat, liver, farina and seasoning and mix well. Take some

                                                 32
of the minced mixture and make an even layer in the terrine, add a layer of pork tenderloin, a
layer of the mince mixture, a layer of pigs tongue, a layer of mince mixture and carry on until the
terrine is full. Bring the ends of the streaky bacon back over the top of the filled container so
that the complete top is covered with the streaky bacon and then cover the terrine with foil and
stand in a roasting tin which contains about 1” of water and bake for 2½ hours at 160°C.
Remove from the oven and place a weight on top of the terrine while it cools. Once the terrine
has fully cooled down, remove the weight and the foil, invert and empty out onto an appropriate
tray. This type of product may prove to be very popular but it may also have a limited demand so
it may be advisable to adjust some of the recipe to produce smaller quantities to begin with.




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