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Soybean Checkoff Research Database

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					              Soybean Checkoff-
       Funded Research Database 
 

Listing of Research Projects Underway on October 1, 2009




         Funded by the Production Committee of the
                  United Soybean Board

              Compiled by Keith Smith and Associates
                          January 2010




                                                           0
Project Objective: To develop a listing of soybean research projects being
funded by the state soybean checkoff boards, regional research programs and
the United Soybean Board.


Executive Summary: Soybean growers are investing in soybean research
projects targeted at both improving production technologies and expanding
soybean use. This report provides a listing of the various production research
projects; soybean composition studies; utilization projects and technology
transfer activities that are funded in part by the soybean checkoff. On October 1,
2009 soybean growers were funding 622 projects with a total investment of $47.1
million.


Table of Contents:
Soybean Checkoff-Funded Research Summary Report                             3

Soybean Research Projects Sorted by Research Area:
 Soybean Production Research:
       Production Management Studies                                         9
        Soils, Soil Fertility and Development of Nutrient Recommendations   13
       Soil Moisture and Water Management                                   14
       Soybean Germplasm and Variety Development                            14
       Soybean Variety Testing and Germplasm Screening                      17
       Gene Discovery, Gene Mapping and Bioengineering Studies              20
       Soybean Disease Research                                             26
        Asian Soybean Rust                                                  27
        Charcoal Rot                                                        29
        Frogeye Leaf Spot                                                   30
        Iron Deficiency Chlorosis                                           30
        Phytophthora Root and Stem Rot                                      31
        Sudden Death Syndrome                                               31
        Soybean Viruses                                                     32
        Other Soybean Diseases                                              33
       Fungicide Studies                                                    33
       Weed Control                                                         34
       Soybean Nematode Research                                            37
       Soybean Aphid Studies                                                40
       Other Soybean Insect Studies                                         41

 Soybean Composition:
     Improving Oil and Protein Quality and Quantity                         43

 Soybean Utilization Research:
      Soy Protein, Soybean Meal and Hulls Studies                           45
      Soy Oil, Soy Foods and Human Health Studies                           47
      Soybean-based Industrial Use Research                                 50

Education and Communication Projects:
       On-farm Research demonstration Projects                              55
       Extension Research and Communication Projects                        55

Other Checkoff Activity Funding                                             58

                                                                                 1
(Table of Contents Continued)

State Soybean Research Projects:
Alabama Soybean Producers                                                                61
Arkansas Soybean Promotion Board                                                         66
Delaware Soybean Board                                                                   75
Georgia Agricultural Commodity Commission for Soybeans                                   77
Illinois Soybean Board                                                                   79
Indiana Soybean Board                                                                   105
Iowa Soybean Board                                                                      109
Kansas Soybean Commission                                                               121
Kentucky Soybean Promotion Board                                                        126
Louisiana Soybean and Grain Research and Promotion Board                                130
Maryland Soybean Board                                                                  138
Michigan Soybean Promotion Committee                                                    144
Minnesota Soybean Research and Promotion Council                                        158
Mississippi Soybean Promotion Board                                                     165
Missouri Soybean Merchandising Council                                                  173
Nebraska Soybean Board                                                                  180
North Carolina Soybean Producers Association                                            184
North Dakota Soybean Council                                                            188
Ohio Soybean Council                                                                    198
Oklahoma Soybean Board                                                                  200
Pennsylvania Soybean Promotion Board                                                    203
South Carolina Soybean Board                                                            205
South Dakota Soybean Research and Promotion Council                                     207
Tennessee Soybean Promotion Board                                                       210
Texas Soybean Board                                                                     220
Virginia Soybean Board                                                                  222
Wisconsin Soybean Marketing Board                                                       224

North Central Soybean Research Program                                                  231
Northeast Region                                                                        240
Southern Soybean Regional Program                                                       241
United Soybean Board                                                                    243

Researchers Involved in Checkoff-Funded Research                                        298




Acknowledgements: A big thanks goes to the State Executives and the United Soybean
Board’s Management Team for supplying information on the various research projects that are
funded by the various soybean checkoff boards. Without their help this report would not have
been possible.

For additional information on the objectives or the current status of individual projects, please
contact the state checkoff board or the researchers involved in the project. Most researchers are
very willing to discuss their project’s results with soybean growers. The researchers realize that
many of these studies would not be possible without funding support from the soybean checkoff.




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Soybean Checkoff-funded Research Database

Project Objective: To develop a listing of soybean research projects being
funded by the state soybean checkoff boards, regional research programs and
the United Soybean Board. Information on the checkoff-funded projects will be
entered on the www.soybeancheckoffresearch.org website and searchable by
research area (key word), funding agency and researcher.


Methods: The contractor contacted state executives to obtain information on
the research projects being funded by the state checkoff board. The first of
October was selected as a uniform date to compare funding levels to past years.
This report summarizes the information supplied by the state executives and the
United Soybean Board’s research managers.


Report Findings: Soybean growers, through the soybean checkoff, are
investing in a balanced program to increase soybean yields, improve composition
and expand market opportunities. On October 1, 2009 soybean checkoff boards
were funding 622 projects with a total investment of in excess of $47.1 million.
This represents a significant increase in the number and total investment in
research projects compared to previous years. Tables 1 and 2 shows the
distribution of funding and funding by checkoff organization.

The values cited in the tables should be viewed as a “snap-shot” of projects
underway on October 1st. Some of these values could be slightly increased for
the entire year since some Boards fund a few projects during the year and after
the October 1st common date. These new projects would not be included in this
report. A more accurate assessment would be to include all projects funded
during a fiscal year; the disadvantage of this approach would be complexity of
dates due to differences in fiscal years. The differences in the two approaches
would be relatively minor and not change the allocation of checkoff funding.

Some reviewers may question the distribution of the funding since many projects
have multi-purpose objectives; meaning the projects could be allocated to more
than one research area. Take for example a project to test a fungicide-
insecticide-herbicide tank mix for controlling fungal diseases, insects and weeds.
The contractor used his best judgment on allocating these projects based on the
major emphasis of the research.

The allocation of projects to research area is improved by using the “searchable”
database on the www.soybeancheckoffresearch.org website. Using several key
words to describe a project helps to sort the projects into research areas that
include similar objectives, even though the objective could be secondary.


                                                                                3
The first two charts provide information on the distribution of soybean checkoff
research funding. The checkoff program funds a balanced soybean research
program; balanced between soybean production projects and utilization projects;
balanced between projects with objectives to increase soybean yields and
protect yields; and balanced between traditional soybean breeding/variety
evaluation programs and new advanced molecular research studies. The
balance of research efforts provides the best opportunity to achieve the
checkoff’s program goals of improving soybean profitability.




About seventy cents of each checkoff dollar funds research to improve soybean
yields and production efficiencies. The remaining thirty cents will be directed
toward expanding soybean use and improving soybean composition. The
funding balance between production and utilization projects, applied studies and
basic research, and projects seeking new cutting-edge information and protecting
past gains, are a positive feature of the soybean checkoff research program.
It is interesting to compare the distribution and funding levels for October 1st 2009
to the previous year. This chart shows that funding levels for basic biotechnology
studies, improving soybean composition and expanding soybean utilization are
significantly increased compared to data for 2008. Tables 1 and 2 provide
additional information on the funding differences over the past few years. Most
of the increased funding in 2009 can be attributed to United Soybean Board’s
increased support for basic studies involving basic genomic research studies and



                                                                                   4
increased support for improving soybean composition and utilization. Funding
trends for several years are reported in these tables.




The distribution of checkoff funds to soybean production that directly impacts
soybean management decisions were maintained in 2009 at about the same
level as 2008. These studies involved both field plot experiments and on-farm
research demonstrations. Soybean boards continued to be supportive of studies
that demonstrate good management practices that improve soybean yields and
profits. Funding for State Extension specialists to publicize results of the
production research projects through field days, workshop presentations, fact
sheets, Websites and in their contacts with individual soybean growers was
increased by Boards.


About sixty percent of the checkoff funding investment in 2009 was divided
between three areas: gene discovery and bioengineering studies; diseases, pest
and stress research; and projects to increase soybean utilization. Many of the
individual projects in these three areas are basic studies designed to identify
soybean genes that function to increase the plant’s resistance to diseases and
pests, reduce environmental stresses, and to use new cutting-edge technologies
to improve yields, modify seed composition and to expand uses for the soybean.
While these basic research studies are expensive; the accomplishments
achieved over the past ten years are impressive. If past accomplishments are an
indication of future advances, the soybean industry should benefit from these
investments in biotechnology.

                                                                             5
Soybean boards continue to fund projects directed at reducing yield losses due
to diseases, nematodes, insects, weeds and environmental stresses. Major
efforts are underway to monitor various soybean diseases, and improve
management recommendations for controlling nematodes, insects and diseases.

The following chart shows the distribution of the checkoff investment in biotic
stress research projects. Soybean cyst nematode accounted for (17%) of the
total funding, followed by Asian soybean rust (13%), insect studies (13%),
sudden death syndrome (12%), general disease research (8%), weed research
(8%) and the other research areas were funded less.




The relatively large percentage of checkoff funds for plant stress research reflects the
various Boards’ priorities and the importance of soybean diseases/pests to soybean
profits.


The funding allocated to diseases, nematodes and insects would have been
even greater if the investment in evaluating germplasm sources for resistance to
soybean diseases and pests, screening germplasm lines and developing elite
soybean germplasm lines and varieties would have been included. A significant
percent of the total funding for soybean germplasm and variety development is
                                                                                      6
used to screen commercial soybean varieties and germplasm lines for resistance
to plant stresses.

It is interesting to compare these data to previous years. In Table 1 it can be
seen that funding for Asian soybean rust, fungicide studies, aphid research and
nematode research were reduced in the 2009 project survey. The lower funding
levels probably represent the reduced soybean grower concerns and the grower
being more confident in the management recommendations that are being
developed and communicated.

Total funding for soybean breeding and variety evaluation was increased in the
2009 research project survey compared to 2008. Looking critically at the funding
for variety development, one new project to develop drought-resistant cultivars
makes up a large portion of the total funding for germplasm and variety
development. In several states, funding the development of new public soybean
varieties is being replaced with greater investment in studies to isolate and
characterize genes that control soybean molecular processes. The increased
allocation of funding to germplasm investigations at the expense of traditional
soybean breeding programs needs to be watched in future reports.

Checkoff funds are continuing to be invested in Extension educational programs
that improve production management recommendations that minimize pest
problems; support state extension’s on-farm research studies, field plot
demonstrations and communication efforts; and create more educational
materials targeted at reducing soybean yield losses to diseases, nematodes,
insects and weeds. This year, we saw an increase in the number of requests
and funding for “other activities” which would include staffing and general support
for research efforts. This area will probably be increased in future years
reflecting reduced federal and state funding for soybean research.

About a fifth of the checkoff investment is being invested in studies to expand
industrial use applications, improve feed uses of soybean meal and increase
food use applications. The list is long for the new proposed uses of soybeans
and soy products that are being studied. Most of the projects are funded by the
United Soybean Board and contain both research and commercialization
objectives. Many of the projects are with companies interested in expanding
their sources for environmentally-friendly ingredients. Checking the listing of
projects, one will find research on adhesives, biofuels, coatings, fibers, lubricants
and specialty chemicals and a wide number of other environmental friendly
“green” use applications. A large number of the checkoff-funded projects are co-
funded by industry, thus leveraging the checkoff investment and providing new
access to the market place.

Improving the composition of soybeans to be more competitive in domestic and
foreign markets has been a major objective of the United Soybean Board for
several years. About twelve percent of the total checkoff investment is being
                                                                                   7
used to improve soybean’s composition. These projects have a simple goal of
modifying soybean’s protein levels, oil composition and/or other improvements
that make the soybean better able to meet the soybean user’s needs. Several
state boards are also providing funds to analyze the soybean varieties produced
in their state in an effort to better inform farmers of the choices they have in
selecting varieties to plant.

Careful review of Table 1 provides additional insight into soybean board
priorities. Investing over $47 million dollars of soybean checkoff funds this year
represents a significant share of the total public dollars spent on soybean
research in this country. Soybean growers should be proud that checkoff funding
is highly leveraged with federal and state funding for needed soybean research.

Often overlooked is the fact that soybean growers through their boards are
helping to set the soybean research agenda. Checkoff boards are setting
soybean research priorities though their allocation of funds to specific project
areas. Focusing the soybean research community on projects that have a real
impact on soybean profits is important to the future growth of the industry.

Another benefit of the soybean checkoff is that nearly 700 researchers are
involved in soybean checkoff-funded research projects. The checkoff funding is
critical in helping to advance professional careers with hopes that many of these
researchers will continue to contribute to the future of soybeans. A listing of the
researchers involved in checkoff research is at the end of this report.


The Soybean Checkoff-funded Database Website: This report is
being placed on a United Soybean Board-linked Internet website
(www.soybeancheckofresearch.org) for all to use.        It is hoped that this
searchable (by soybean research topic, funding board and researcher) website
database will serve the soybean grower, research administrator and those
interested in learning more about the soybean research programs that are being
funded by soybean growers through their checkoff. The website provides for a
method to quickly search for soybean checkoff-funded projects that are
underway.

In Conclusion: Soybean growers are investing in a balanced research
program that will have a major impact on the future of soybeans. The research
projects are highly leveraged with funding from many other sources, which
means the checkoff funds are helping to set the research agenda and assuring
the projects underway are addressing soybean grower concerns. The soybean
checkoff is an investment in the future of the soybean crop with over four
hundred researchers involved in checkoff-funded projects. Soybean growers
should be proud that the checkoff program is investing in projects that will
improve soybean production efficiencies, expand uses and improve soybean
composition, all designed to improve the profitability of the soybean crop.

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Soybean Checkoff Research Database
Distribution of Projects by Research Area

Soybean Production Research
   • Soybean Management Studies (Tillage, Production Systems and
       Evaluating Management Options)
Utilizing farm data for managing zone creation; Amy Winstead and Shannon
Norwood (Alabama Cooperative Extension), Donn Rodekohr, Brenda Ortiz and Joey
Shaw (Agronomy and Soils Department, Auburn University); ($1,500).
(winstat@auburn.edu)

Double crop soybean production system; Scott Monfort (Rice research and
Extension Center, University of Arkansas); ($234,176). (smonfort@uaex.edu)

Early season soybean production system; Larry Purcell (Crops, Soils and
Environmental Sciences, University of Arkansas); ($283,525). (lpurcell@uark.edu)

Economic analysis of soybean production practices; Robert Stark (Southeast
Research and Extension Center, University of Arkansas-Monticello); ($12,900).
(stark@uamont.edu).

Full-season soybean production system; Jeremy Ross (Crops, Soil and Environment
Sciences-Extension, University of Arkansas); ($461,339). (jross@uark.edu)

Soybean planting seed quality assessment and education in Arkansas; Richard
Cartwright, John Rupe, Pengyin Chen, Don Nombek, Jeremy Ross and Larry Purcell
(Departments of Plant Pathology and Crops, Soil and Environmental Sciences,
University of Arkansas); ($158,117). (rcartwri@uark.edu)

Evaluation of agronomic inputs for Georgia soybean production; Jared Whitaker,
(Crop and Soil Science Department, University of Georgia); ($25,000) (jared@uga.edu).

Managing soybeans for high yields; Emerson Nafziger and Stephen Ebelhar
(University of Illinois-Urbana/Champaign); ($15,000). (ednaf@illinois.edu)

Optimizing pest management in soybeans; Alison Robertson, Matthew O’Neal,
Leonor Leandro, and Daren Mueller (Plant Pathology Department) and Palle Pedersen
(Agronomy Department, Iowa State University); ($115,262). (alisonr@iastate.edu)

Soybean production research: Breaking the yield barrier: Palle Pedersen
(Department of Agronomy, Iowa State University); ($150,443). (palle@iastate.edu)

Soybean seed treatment and inoculant evaluation; Palle Pedersen (Agronomy
Department) and Erin Hodgson (Entomology Department, Iowa State University);
($51,141). (palle@iastate.edu)

Development of farm management data systems for Kansas farmers; Bryan
Schurle, Kevin Herbel, Michael Langemeier (Department of Agricultural Economics,

                                                                                   9
Kansas State University); ($15,000). (bschurle@ksu.edu)

Sensing soybean canopy development and crop stress: Understanding the
relationship to grain yield; John H. Grove (Department of Plant and Soil Science,
University of Kentucky); ($21,000). (jgrove@uky.du)

Optimum planting date for soybean; Jim Herbek (Department of Plant and Soil
Sciences, University of Kentucky); ($3,000). (jherbek@uky.edu)

Quantification and mitigation of pesticide application errors on Kentucky soybean
farms; Scott Shearer (Department of Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering,
University of Kentucky); ($31,116). (shearer@bae.uky.edu)

Evaluation of maturity group III, IV and V soybeans for production as double crops
following wheat; Ernie Clawson (Northeast Research Station, Louisiana State
University); ($8,365). (EClawson@agcenter.lsu.edu)

Effect of soybean maturity on nitrogen availability for wheat production; Robert
Kratochvil (Department of Plant Science and Landscape Architecture, University of
Maryland); ($11,050). (rkratch@umd.edu)

Effects of cereal cover crops on full season soybean production; Robert Kratochvil
(Department of Plant Science and Landscape Architecture, University of Maryland);
($3,500). (rkratch@umd.edu)

Impact of Italian rye grass on above and below ground organisms inhabiting
soybean fields; Cerruti Hooks, Sandra Sardanelli, Susan Meyer and Koon-Hui-Wang
(Department of Entomology, University of Maryland); ($15,000). (crrhooks@umd.edu)

Soybean yield contest for Michigan; Mike Staton (Extension Southwest Region) and
Ned Birkey (Michigan State University); (Approved funding level up to $8,000).
(jjhao@msu.edu)

Strip testing at regional sites (STARS); Dave Pratt (Michigan State University);
(Approved funding level up to $6,000). (prattda@msu.edu)

The development of a strategic management strategy for profitable soybean
production in Southeast Michigan; Tom VanWagner (Lenawee Soil Conservation
District), Blain Baker and Tim Stutzman (Cooperators); (Funded at a level not to exceed
$9,300).

Management and environmental effects on yield formation and seed quality in
Minnesota grown soybeans; Seth Naeve (Department of Agronomy and Plant
Genetics, University of Minnesota); ($100,000). (naeve002@umn.edu)

Evaluation of critical shattering time of early-maturity soybeans under early
soybean production system; Lingxiao Zhang, Bernie White and Dan Posten (Delta
Research and Extension Center), Trey Koger (Mississippi Research Support Center),
and Alan Blaine (North Mississippi Research and Extension Center, MAFES, Mississippi
State University); ($5,000). (lzhang@drec.msstate.edu)


                                                                                    10
Maximizing soybean yield potential and profitability: Surpassing this recent
plateau; Trey Koger (Mississippi State University); ($45,000).
(tkoger@drec.msstate.edu)

Mississippi soybean basics: Changes, impacts and implications; John Michael
Riley, John Anderson and Ardian Harri (Department of Agricultural Economics,
Mississippi State University); ($18,720). (info@agecon.msstate.edu)

Soybean management for application of research and technology program:
Collaborative initiative through Mississippi State University and private consulting
sector; Trey Koger, Tom Allen, Brewer Blessitt and Tom Eubank (Delta Research and
Extension Center, MAFES, Mississippi State University); ($121,280).
(tkoger@drec.msstate.edu)

Addressing agronomic and management issues related to soybean production
and soil loam soils; Trey Koger, Tom Allen, Brewer Blessitt and Tom Eubank (Delta
Research and Extension Center, MAFES, Mississippi State University and USDA/ARS);
($23,000). (tkoger@drec.msstate.edu)

Evaluation of plant growth enhancement products for their effects on soybean
yields and quality; Michael Rethwishch (University of Nebraska) ($37,520).
(mrethwisch2@unl.edu)

Incorporating farm programs and risk management strategies for profitable
soybean production; Bradley Lubben (Department of Agricultural Economics,
University of Nebraska) ($51,650). (blubben2@unl.edu)

Optimizing the roll kill / no-till organic soybean production; Chris Reberg-Horton
(Crop Science Department, North Carolina State University); ($14,087).
(chris.reberg-horton@ncsu.edu)

Using GPS to test foliar products on soybeans; James Dunphy (Crop Science
Department, North Carolina State University); ($4,600). (jim_dunphu@ncsu.edu)

Capturing value from real-world soybean production practices; Stephen S. Metzger
(Carrington Research Extension Center, Carrington, N.D.); ($9,500).
(S.Metzger@ndsu.edu)

Do intensive management practices increase net return for soybean producers;
D.K. Lee and Han Kandel (North Dakota State University, Carrington Research
Extension Center); ($9,600)? (Gregory.endres@ndsu.edu)

Impact of tillage system and previous crop on soybean production; Ezra Abele and
Blaine Schatz (Carrington Research Extension Center, Carrington, N.D.); ($4,600).
(ezra.aberle@ndsu.edu)

Plant populations and row spacing effects on natto soybean varieties; Hans
Kandel, Greg Endres and Burtin Johnson (Department of Plant Science, North Dakota
State University); ($9,705). (hans.kandel@ndsu.edu)



                                                                                 11
Soybean planting date and maturity group select; Chad Godsey (Department of
Plant and Soil Sciences, Oklahoma State University); ($15,500).
(chad.godsey@okstate.edu)

Comparison of low-input and high-input soybean production systems in
Oklahoma; Chad Godsey (Department of Plant and Soil Sciences) and John Damicone
(Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, Oklahoma State University); ($9,000).
(chad.godsey@okstate.edu)

Soybean increases soil carbon sequestration better than canola; Roger Koide
(Department of Horticulture, Pennsylvania State University); ($10,000). (rxk12@psu.edu)

Evaluation of planting date and plant population on soybean in relation to soil
spatial variability; P. Wiatrak (Edisto Research and Education Center, Blackville, SC);
($17,752). (pwiatra@clemson.edu)

Development, refining and communicating soybean best management practices to
South Dakota soybean producers; Gregg Carlson, David Clay, Sharon Clay, Larry
Janssen, Peter Sexton and Robert Hall (Plant Science Department, South Dakota State
University, ($140,000); (Gregg_Carlson@sdstate.edu)

Farming Systems Initiative; TBD (South Dakota State University); ($10,000).

Evaluation of optimum plant population; Richard Joost (Plant Sciences Department,
University of Tennessee); ($4,928). (rjoost@utk.edu)

Evaluation of seed additives for yield enhancement in soybeans; Angela McClure
(Plant Sciences Department, University of Tennessee) and Eric Walker (USDA/ARS-
Jackson, TN); ($8,000). (athompson@utk.edu)

Interactions of planting dates, seeding rate, and fungicide and insecticide
treatments on soybean yield and yield components; Angela Thompson (Plant
Sciences Department, University of Tennessee), Alemu Mengistu ( USDA/ARS-West
Tennessee Experiment Station, Jackson, TN) and Eric Walker (Plant Sciences
Department, University of Tennessee); ($9,300). (athompson@utk.edu)

Soybean maturity group and soybean seeding rate combinations for the soybean-
winter wheat double-crop production system to maximize yield and minimize
charcoal rot incidence and severity; Angela McClure (Plant Sciences Department,
University of Tennessee), Eric Walker and Alemu Mengistu (USDA/ARS-Jackson, TN);
($9,500). (athompson@utk.edu)

Agronomic factors involved in soybean production along the Texas Gulf Coast;
James Grichar, Joe Janak and Rick Batchelor (Texas AgriLife Research and Extension
Center, Texas A&M University); ($11,730). (w-grichar@ag.tamu.edu)

Enhancing soybean seed yield by prolonging the photosynthetic longevity of
leaves; Susheng Gan (Horticulture Department, Cornell University); ($29,490).
(sg288@cornell.edu)



                                                                                    12
Agronomic limitations of soybean yield and seed quality in U.S.; Palle Pedersen
(Iowa State University); ($516,388). (palle@iastate.edu)

Development of nematode resistant long-juvenile cultivars to enhance soybean
profitability; Emerson Shipe (Clemson University); ($18,345). (eshipe@clemeson.edu)

Overcoming the barriers to higher soybean yields: A Soybean 2010 Project; Mike
Staton (Extension Southwest Region, Michigan State University); (Approved funding
level up to $12,500). (jjhao@msu.edu)


   • Soil Fertility, Nutritional Requirements & Inoculants
New soybean inoculants for Alabama; Dennis Delaney and Yucheng Feng
(Agronomy and Soils Department, Auburn University); ($8,000). (delandp@auburn.edu)

Effective micronutrient management for higher soybean yields; Tony Vyn and Jim
Camberato (Agronomy Department, Purdue University); ($56,614). (tvyn@purdue.edu)

On-farm re-evaluation of soybean response to lime application in Iowa; Antonio
Mallarino (Agronomy Department, Iowa State University); ($62,417).
(apmallar@iastate.edu)

Relationships between grain yield, potassium removal and recycling, as soil
potassium in corn-soybean rotations; Antonio Mallarino (Agronomy Department, Iowa
State University); ($49,490). (apmallar@iastate.edu)

Correction of potassium deficiency in soybean production in Kansas; David B.
Mengel, Dorivar Ruiz Diaz (Agronomy Department, Kansas State University); ($30,990).
(dmengel@ksu)

Soybean yield response to soil P and K availability: Optimizing fertilizer expenses,
Year 2; John Grove, Lloyd Murdock and Greg Schwab (Department of Plant and Soil
Sciences, University of Kentucky); ($10,000). (jgrove@uky.edu)

Soybean fertilization: Is hidden hunger reducing yield? Greg Schwab (Department
of Plant and Soil Science, University of Kentucky); ($3,000). (gschwab@uky.edu)

Identifying factors affecting soybean productivity from previous broiler
fertilization, including a possible copper nutritional effect; David Ferguson (Murray
State University); ($24,176). (David.ferguson@murraystate.edu)

Calibrating soil tests and fertilization for soybean and grain crops of Louisiana;
Jim Jian Wang, Brenda Tubana, J. Cheston Stevens, Jr., Donald Boquet, Rick Mascagni
and Rodney Henderson (School of Plant, Environment and Soil Sciences, Louisiana
State University); ($20,000). (jjwang@agcenter.lsu.edu)

Foliar manganese recommendations for Michigan soybean on chronically Mn
deficient soils; Kurt Thelen and Tim Boring (Crop and Soil Science Department,
Michigan State University); (Approved funding level up to $18,300). (thelenk3@msu.edu)


                                                                                   13
Nutrient management research for profitable soybean production; Daniel Kaiser
and John Lamb (Department of Soil, Water and Climate, University of Minnesota);
($65,000). (dekaiser@mnu.edu)

Impact of starter fertilizers on growth and yield of March-, April- and May-planted
soybean; Steve Martin, Brewer Blessitt, Trey Koger, Wayne Ebelhar and Tom Eubank
(Delta Research and Extension Center) and Normie Beuhring (North Mississippi
Research and Extension Center, MAFES, Mississippi State University); ($43,875).
(smartin@ext.msstate.edu)

Nitrogen application to irrigated soybeans at planting and during early
reproductive growth; Charles Wortmann (Department of Agronomy and Horticulture,
University of Nebraska) ($18,700). (cwortmann2@unl.edu)

Profitability-oriented site-specific liming for soybean production; Viachestlav
Adamchuk (Biological Systems Engineering, University of Nebraska); ($37,260).
(Vadamchuk2@unl.edu)

Manganese-Roundup interaction; Jim Dunphy and D.L. Osmond (Crop Science
Department, North Carolina State University); ($9,475). (jim_dunphu@ncsu.edu)

Optimizing fertility levels for soybean production; Angela Thompson and Frank Yin
(Plant Sciences Department, University of Tennessee); ($24,500).
(athompson@utk.edu)

Bradyrhizobium inoculation and nodulation: Yield tests for Texas soybean; Jim
Heitholt (Texas A&M University), Calvin Trostle and W. James Grichar (Texas A&M
University-Amarillo, TX); ($7,500). (c-trostle@tamu.edu)

Characterizing soybean yield response to Rhizobial inoculants; Shawn Conley and
Jean-Michel Ane (Department of Agronomy, University of Wisconsin); ($38,394).
(spconley@wisc.edu)


   • Soil Moisture and Water Management Studies
Carbon isotope discrimination analysis as a tool for researchers to improve
soybean drought tolerance; Felix Fritschi, Bill Wiebold, Grover Shannon and David
Sleper (Division of Plant Sciences, University of Missouri); ($0; time extension).
(fritschif@missouri.edu)


   • Soybean Germplasm and Variety Development
Soybean improvement and germplasm enhancement; David Weaver (Agronomy and
Soils Department, Auburn University); ($10,000). (weaverd@auburn.edu)

Breeding soybean cultivars with high yield and multiple pest resistance; Pengyin
Chen, Caroline Gray, Tina Hart, Eddie Gordon, Joe Shafer, Bill Apple, Jonathan McCoy
and Scot Hayes (Crops, Soil and Environment Sciences, University of Arkansas);
($104,485).(pchen@uark.edu)

                                                                                 14
Seeking salt tolerant varieties/lines for Delmarva; William Rhodes and John
Schillinger (Schillinger Genetics, Inc.); ($2,440). (inquiries@schillingerseeds.com)

Identification and utilization of resistance to soybean rust; Brian Diers (University of
Illinois-Urbana/Champaign); ($543,568). (bdiers@illinois.edu)

Breeding non-GMO varieties; Brian Diers (University of Illinois-Urbana/Champaign)
and Stella Kantarzi (Southern Illinois University-Carbondale); ($244,890).
(bdiers@illinois.edu)

Research support for soybean breeding and genetics position at SIUC; Todd
Winters and Brian Klubek (Southern Illinois University-Carbondale); ($147,907).
(tw3a@siu.edu)

Breeding for disease resistance in soybean; Silvia Cianzio (Agronomy Department,
Iowa State University); ($206,987). (scianzio@iastate.edu)

Breeding program for general-use and specialty soybeans in Iowa; Walter Fehr
(Agronomy Department, Iowa State University); ($193,900. (wfehr@iastate.edu)

Soybean breeding and varieties development; Blair Buckley (Red River Research
Station, Louisiana State University); ($25,271). (bbuckley@agcenter.lsu.edu)

Developing soybean resistance to Asian rust pathogen; Svetlana Oard and
Frederick Enright (AgCenter Biotechnology Laboratory, Louisiana State University);
($25,600). (soard@agcenter.lsu.edu)

Development of soybean varieties that produce unique feed meal for chicken and
swine and aqua species; Bill Rhodes, John A. Schillinger, and Harlan Hochstetler
(Schillinger Seeds Inc., Queens town, MD.); ($12,400). (inquiries@schillingerseeds.com)

Seeking salt tolerant soybean varieties/lines for Delmarva fields flooded with
brackish water; Bill Rhodes (Schillinger Seeds Inc., Queenstown, MD.); ($2,440).
(inquiries@schillingerseeds.com)

Using molecular markers to enable and accelerate development; William Rhodes
and John Schillinger (Schillinger Genetics); ($5,000). (inquiries@schillingerseeds.com)

Soybean variety evaluation and development; Bill Kenworthy (Department of Plant
Science and Landscape Architecture, University of Maryland); ($16,850).
(wkenwort@umd.edu)

Specialty soybean breeding and soybean germplasm enhancement for Michigan
environment; Dechun Wang and John Boyse (Crop and Soil Science Department,
Michigan State University); (Approved funding level up to $74,300).
(wngdech@msu.edu)

Expanded variety development and testing for Northern Minnesota; James Orf
(Department of Agronomy and Plant Genetics, University of Minnesota); ($25,000).
(orfxx001@umn.edu)


                                                                                     15
Soybean breeding and genetics support; James Orf (Department of Agronomy and
Plant Genetics, University of Minnesota); ($196,877). (orfxx001@umn.edu)

Traditional and molecular breeding for soybeans resistant to cyst nematode and
other diseases; Nevin Young (Department of Plant Pathology) and James Orf
(Department of Agronomy and Plant Genetics, University of Minnesota); ($50,000).
(neviny@umn.edu)

Delta Center soybean breeding projects; Grover Shannon (Division of Plant Sciences,
University of Missouri); ($305,827). (ShannonG@missouri.edu)

Soybean breeding and genetics research for Nebraska; George Graef and James
Specht (Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, University of Nebraska); ($203,596).
(ggraef1@unl.edu)

Winter nursery support for soybean breeding and genetic research; George Graef
and James Specht (Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, University of Nebraska);
($71,500). (graef1@unl.edu)

Continuation of off-season winter nursery for soybean breeding in North Carolina;
David Smith (Crop Science Department, North Carolina State University); ($13,500).
(wdavid_smith@ncsu.edu)

Soybean cultivars and germplasm adapted to North Carolina growing conditions;
Andrea J. Cardinal (Crop Science Department, North Carolina State University);
($44,985). (Andrea_Cardinal@ncsu.edu)

Drought stress tolerances for the Midsouth and South: Soybean varieties
improvement; Tommy Carter (USDA/ARS-North Carolina State University);
($1,386,000). (tommy_carter@ncsu.edu)

Breeding aphid resistance soybean cultivars; Ted Helms (Department of Plant
Sciences, North Dakota State University); ($15,000). (ted.helms@ndsu.edu)

Breeding of improved general use cultivars and germplasm; Ted Helms
(Department of Plant Sciences, North Dakota State University); ($120,000).
(ted.helms@ndsu.edu)

Breeding of natto and tofu specialty cultivars; Ted Helms (Department of Plant
Sciences, North Dakota State University); ($15,000). (ted.helms@ndsu.edu)

Development of soybean varieties and germplasm; Leah McHale (Ohio Agricultural
Research and Development Center); ($135,650). (mchale.21@osu.edu)

Breeding improved soybean cultivars for South Carolina; Emerson R. Shipe
(Department of Entomology, Soils and Plant Sciences, Clemson University);
($14,200).(eshipe@clemson.edu)

Breeding soybeans for durable resistance to emerging nematode populations;
Vince Pantalone (Plant Sciences Department, University of Tennessee), and Prakash
Arelli (USDA/ARS-Jackson, TN); ($20,000). (prakash.arella@ars.usda.gov)

                                                                                  16
Soybean breeding and genetics; Vince Pantalone (Plant Sciences Department,
University of Tennessee); ($60,000). (vpantalo@utk.edu)


   • Variety Testing and Germplasm Screening
Evaluating soybean plant introductions and breeding lines for resistance to yield
limiting fungal diseases found in Minnesota; James Kurle (Department of Plant
Pathology) and James Orf (Department of Agronomy and Plant Genetics, University of
Minnesota); ($40,000). (kurle001@umn.edu)

Assessment of soybean varieties in Arkansas for sensitivity to chloride injury;
Steven Green and Matt Conatser (Arkansas State University); ($29,700).
(sgreen@astate.edu)

Comprehensive disease screening of soybean varieties in Arkansas; Terry
Kirkpatrick, Richard Cartwright, Scott Monfort (Departments of Plant Pathology and
Crops, Soil and Environmental Sciences, University of Arkansas); ($118,039).
(tkirkpatrick@uard.edu).

Evaluate Selected Group II, III, IV & V soybean varieties for Delaware: Bob
Uniatowski (Plant and Soil Science Department, University of Delaware); ($3,000).
(bobuni@udel.edu)

Soybean variety trial on salt infused soils; Bob Uniatowski (Plant & Soil Science
Department, University of Delaware); ($3,400). (bobuni@udel.edu)

Evaluation of current Georgia soybean cultivars to Metribuzin herbicides; Timothy
Grey (Crop and Soil Sciences Department, University of Georgia); ($10,000).
(tgrey@uga.edu)

Evaluating SCN-resistant varieties for resistance; Terry Niblack (University of Illinois-
Urbana/Champaign), and Jason Bond (Southern Illinois University-Carbondale);
($77,000). (tniblack@illinois.edu)

Evaluation of disease and insect pest resistance for VIPS; T. Slaminko, Roger
Bowen and Houston. Hobbs (University of Illinois-Urbana/Champaign) and Glen
Hartman (USDA/ARS-UIUC); ($75,000). (tnlynch@illinois.edu)

Identifying varieties with resistance to root knot nematode; Jason Bond (Southern
Illinois University-Carbondale); ($19,000). (jbond@siu.edu)

Managed Research Area: Varietal information program for soybeans (VIPS);
Bridget Owen, Linda Kull and Emerson Nafziger (project coordinators, University of
Illinois-Urbana/ Champaign); (The funding is allocated to individual projects).
(bcowenl@illinois.edu)

The Illinois SDS commercial variety testing project; Jason Bond and Cathy Schmidt;
(Southern Illinois University-Carbondale); ($79,000). (jbond@siu.edu)



                                                                                      17
Farmer nominated program through Purdue soybean performance trials; Craig
Beyrouty and Phil DeVillez (Agronomy Department, Purdue University); ($13,000).
(beyrouty@purdue.edu)

Trait and production efficiency enhancement in soybean; Bill Schapaugh, Tim Todd,
Harold Trick, Jim Long, (Agronomy Department, Plant Pathology Department, Southeast
Research Center, Kansas State University); ($276,449). (wts@ksu.edu)

Evaluation of soybean cultivars and fungicides for disease management in
Northeast Louisiana; Boyd Padgett (Macon Ridge Research Station, Louisiana State
University); ($22,556). (bpadgett@agcenter.lsu.edu)

Agronomic evaluation of soybean lines selected for Asian rust resistance; Bill
Rhodes (Schillinger Seeds Inc., Queenstown, MD.); ($6,000).
(inquiries@schillingerseeds.com)

Expanded soybean cyst nematode and other variety testing; James Orf
(Department of Agronomy and Plant Genetics) and Senyu Chen (Southwest Research
and Outreach Center, University of Minnesota); ($45,000). (orfxx001@umn.edu)

Enhancement of Mississippi soybean trials through entry standardization; Bernie
White (Mississippi Research Support Unit, MAFES, Mississippi State University);
($36,000). (bwhite@ra.msstate.edu)

Evaluation of private and public soybean varieties and breeding lines for
resistance to stem canker, frogeye leaf spot, purple leaf and pod stain, and
soybean mosaic virus; Gabe Sciumbato (Delta Research and Extension Center,
MAFES, Mississippi State University); ($49,089). (gabe@drec.msstate.edu)

Screening and characterizing soybean germplasm for drought tolerance; Henry
Nguyen, Bob Sharp, Grover Shannon and David Sleper (Division of Plant Sciences,
University of Missouri); ($64,005). (nguyenhenry@missouri.edu)

Drought tolerant varieties; Jim Dunphy (Crop Science Department, North Carolina
State University); ($7,375). (jim_dunphu@ncsu.edu)

On-farm evaluation of resistant varieties for management of soybean cyst
nematode; Steve Koenning (Crop Science Department, North Carolina State
University); ($9,880). (srkpp@unity.ncsu.edu)

Soybean cultivars resistant to soybean cyst nematode races 2 and 4; Andrea J.
Cardinal (Crop Science Department, North Carolina State University); ($10,625).
(Andrea_Cardinal@ncsu.edu)

Determining soybean variety response to tile drainage in the Red River Valley;
Hans Kandel (Department of Plant Science, North Dakota State University); ($7,868).
(hans.kandel@ndsu.edu)

Screening company cultivars for tolerance to water-saturated soil conditions; Ted
Helms (Department of Plant Sciences, North Dakota State University); ($10,000).
(ted.helms@ndsu.edu)

                                                                                18
Screening soybean varieties for resistance to iron deficiency chlorosis; T. Jay
Goos (Department of Soil Science, North Dakota State University); ($36,032).
(rj.goos@ndsu.edu)

Yield evaluation of company cultivars for SCN; Ted Helms (Department of Plant
Sciences, North Dakota State University); ($10,000). (ted.helms@ndsu.edu)

Yield of cultivars tolerant to iron deficiency chlorosis; Ted Helms (Department of
Plant Sciences, North Dakota State University); ($10,000). (ted.helms@ndsu.edu)

Evaluation of soybean germplasm under Pennsylvania conditions; Greg Roth
(Department of Crop and Soil Science, Pennsylvania State University); ($7,000).
(gwr@psu.edu)

Screening elite soybean breeding lines for resistance to nematodes and foliar
diseases; Emerson R. Shipe and John Mueller (Department of Entomology, Soils and
Plant Sciences, Clemson University); ($6,000). (eshipe@clemson.edu)

Combined evaluation of soybean cultivars for resistance to frogeye leafspot (FLS),
other diseases, sudden death syndrome (SDS), stem canker, and foliar fungicide
efficacy; Newman Melvin, Bob Williams and Blake Brown (Entomology and Plant
Pathology Department, University of Tennessee); ($32,500). (manewman@utk.edu)

Screening of Roundup Ready variety soybeans and breeding lines for charcoal
rot, SCN, and other yield limiting diseases; Alemu Mengistu and Pat Donald
(USDA/ARS/ West Tennessee Experiment Station, Jackson, TN) and Craig Canaday
(Entomology and Plant Pathology Department, University of Tennessee); ($30,000).
(alemu.mengistu@ars.usda.gov)

Evaluation of experimental soybean lines for drought tolerance under greenhouse
conditions; Jim Heitholt (Texas A & M Commerce); ($6,308). (c-trostle@tamu.edu)

Evaluation of stress tolerance of soybean varieties in Wisconsin; Shawn Conley
and Paul Esker (Department of Agronomy, University of Wisconsin); ($21,870).
(spconley@wisc.edu)

Yield response of soybean lines resistant to the soybean aphids and viruses;
Craig Grau (Department of Plant Pathology), David Hogg and Eileen Cullen (Department
of Entomology, University of Wisconsin); ($24,720). (cg6@plantpath.wisc.edu)

Screening for genetic resistance against soybean viruses; John H. Hill and Steve
Whitham (Iowa State University), Craig Grau (University of Wisconsin), Reza Hajimorad
(University of Tennessee) and Brian Diers (University of Illinois); ($130,000).
(johnhill@iastate.edu)

Evaluation of soybean varieties and exotic germplasm for tolerance to drought;
Grover Shannon (University of Missouri); ($26,037). (shannong@missouri.edu)

Screening 18,000 experimental commerce soybean lines and development of
cultivars with tolerance to stink bugs in the Southern USA; Jim Heitholt (Texas A&M
University); ($18,000). (j-heitholt@tamu.edu)

                                                                                  19
Screening germplasm and breeding lines for resistance to Phomopsis seed decay
in soybean; Shuxian Li (USDA/ARS); ($125,500); (Shuxian.Li@ars.usda.edu)


   • Gene Discovery and Bioengineering Studies
Soybean germplasm enhancement using genetic diversity; Pengyin Chen, Caroline
Gray, Tina Hart, Tet Ishibashi, Eddie Gordon, Joe Shafer, Bill Apple, Jonathan McCoy
and Scott Hayes (Crops, Soil and Environment Sciences, University of Arkansas);
($97,098). (pchen@uark.edu)

Combine and integrate new genetic sources of high yield potential, disease
resistance, and composition into elite soybean germplasm; Brian Diers (University
of Illinois-Urbana/Champaign) and Stella Kantartzi (Southern Illinois University-
Carbondale). (bdiers@illinois.edu)

Generation of recombinant inbred SCN lines for the identification of SCN virulence
genes and the development of a molecular virulence assay; Kris Lambert and Terry
Niblack (University Illinois-Urbana/Champaign); ($17,300). (knlamber@illinois.edu

Improve levels of disease resistance by identifying new sources of pathogen
resistance, determining inheritance and genetic relationships of resistance traits,
and developing molecular markers associated with new sources of disease and
pest resistance traits; Glen Hartman (USDA/ARS-UIUC). (ghartman@illinois.edu)

Managed Research Area: Soybean germplasm and breeding research initiative;
Linda Kull and Pete Goldsmith (Project Coordinators, National Soybean Research
Laboratory), Brian Diers, and Ram Singh (University of Illinois-Urbana/Champaign), Glen
Hartman and Randy Nelson (USDA/ARS-UIUC), and Stella Kantartzi (Southern Illinois
University-Carbondale); ($485,000). (lkull@illinois.edu)

Map the locations of genes from soybean plant introductions that can improve
soybean yield and disease resistance; Brian Diers (University of Illinois-Urbana/
Champaign) and Randall Nelson (USDA/ARS-UIUC). (bdiers@illinois.edu)

Revealing the blueprint for soybean seed composition using the “next generation”
sequencing; Lila Vodkin and Brian Cunningham (University of Illinois-Urbana/
Champaign); ($60,000). (l-vodkin@illinois.edu)

Genetic diversity and mapping new genes for resistance to SCN; Khalid Meksem
and Stella Kantartzi (Southern Illinois University-Carbondale); ($45,500).
(meksemk@siu.edu)

Utilize wild perennial Glycine species by wide hybridization technology to
integrate agronomically desirable traits into soybean varieties; Ram Singh
(University of Illinois-Urbana/Champaign) and Randall Nelson (USDA/ARS-UIUC).
(ramsingh@illinois.edu)

Sequencing the Fusarium viguliforme genome; Madan Bhattacharyya and Xiaoqiu
Huang (Iowa State University), Ahmad Fakhoury (Southern Illinois University) and


                                                                                    20
Burton Bluhm (University of Arkansas); ($107,780). (A joint project with the Iowa
Soybean Board).

Genetic dissection of uncharacterized Rps genes; Jianxin Ma (Agronomy
Department, Purdue University); (78,127). (maj@purdue.edu)

Introgression of novel genes conferring resistance to SCN in soybean germplasm
of early maturity groups; Silvia Cianzio (Agronomy Department, Iowa State University)
and Prakash Arelli (USDA-ARS/ West Tennessee Experiment Station); ($168,682).
(scianzio@iastate.edu)

Non-host resistance for engineering disease resistance in soybean; Madan
Bhattacharyya (Plant Pathology Department, Iowa State University); (This project is
jointly funded by the Iowa Soybean Association and the Consortium of Plant
Biotechnology Research); ($30,000). (mbhattac@iastate.edu)

Exploring new resistance resources for treating soybean diseases; John Hill,
Steven Whitham and Thomas Baum (Plant Pathology Department, Iowa State
University) and Michelle Graham and Randy Shoemaker (USDA/ARS-Iowa State);
($200,724). (jhill@iasstate.edu) (A project jointly funded with USB).

Enhancement of soybean through genetic engineering; Harold Trick, William
Schapaugh and Tim Todd (Departments of Plant Pathology and Agronomy, Kansas
State University); ($75,092). (hnt@ksu.edu)

Use of a novel virus based vector in search for resistance to the soybean cyst
nematode and other important soybean pathogens; Said Ghabrial and Donald
Hershman (Plant Pathology Department, University of Kentucky); ($30,563).
(saghab00@email.uky.edu)

Enhancement of soybean somatic embryo development to improve regeneration
and transformation efficiency; Sharyn Perry (University of Kentucky); ($74,284).
(sperry2@uky.edu)

Using molecular markers to enable and accelerate the development of new and
unique soybean varieties, adapted to the Delmarva and Southeast Pennsylvania
for food and feed markets; Bill Rhodes (Schillinger Seeds Inc., Queenstown, MD.);
($5,000). (inquiries@schillingerseeds.com)

Construction of fungal resistant soybean; Gary Stacey, Jinrong Wan, Kristin Bilyeu,
Jim English and Jim Schoelz (Division of Plant Sciences, University of Missouri); ($0;
time extension). (staceyg@missouri.edu)

Defense peptides to protect soybean from rust; Jim English, Gary Stacey and F.
Schmidt; (Division of Plant Sciences, University of Missouri); ($0; time extension).
(staceyg@missouri.edu)

Developing a web server for soybean translational genomics; Dong Xu, Jianlin
Cheng, Henry Nguyen, Gary Stacey (Division of Plant Sciences, University of Missouri);
($0; time extension). (xudong@missouri.edu)


                                                                                   21
Development and deployment of biotechnology for soybean improvement; Henry
Nguyen (Division of Plant Sciences, Mexico Research Center, University of Missouri);
($300,000). (nguyenhenry@missouri.edu)

Development of a high throughput Agrobacterium-mediated transformation
system for soybean (Glycine max); Zhanyuan Zhang and Henry Nguyen (Division of
Plant Sciences, University of Missouri); ($0, time extension). (zhangzh@missouri.edu)

High throughput cloning and functional characterization of molecular switches for
stress tolerance and enhanced seed composition in soybean; Henry Nguyen, Babu
Valliyodan, Son Tran and Gary Stacey (Division of Plant Sciences, University of
Missouri); ($75,825). (nguyenhenry@missouri.edu)

Identification of genes for resistance to multi-soybean nematode species; Henry
Nguyen (Division of Plant Sciences, University of Missouri); ($70,128).
(nguyenhenry@missouri.edu)

Transcriptional profiling of soybean transcription factors; Gary Stacey, Henry
Nguyen and Dong Xu (Division of Plant Sciences, University of Missouri); ($70,876).
(staceyg@missouri.edu)

Translational genomics for drought tolerance in soybean; Henry Nguyen (Division
of Plant Sciences, University of Missouri); ($55,957).
(nguyenhenry@missouri.edu)

Using microgenomics to identify new sources of soybean cyst nematode
resistance in soybeans; Melissa Mitchum, Henry Nguyen, David Sleper and Grover
Shannon (Division of Plant Sciences, University of Missouri); ($73,000).
(goellmeron@mssouri.edu)

Biotechnological development of soybean germplasm with improved industrial
and multi-use functionalities; Edgar Cahoon (University of Nebraska); ($62,580).
(ecahoon2@unl.edu)

Enhancing soybean germplasm through biotechnology; George Graef and Tom
Clemente (Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, University of Nebraska);
($71,860). (clemente1@unl.edu)

Engineering soybean plants for multi-viral resistance; Feng Qu (Ohio Agricultural
Research and Development Center); ($30,000). (qu.28@osu.edu)

Diagnostic DNA system for enhancement of soybean productivity in South
Carolina; Halina Knap and Emerson Shipe (Department of Entomology, Soils and Plant
Sciences, Clemson University); ($4,000). (hskrpsk@clemson.edu)

Genetic resource development: Map and isolate new genes for resistance to
soybean aphid, and develop cost-effective markers; David Clay, Wanlong Li, Paul
Rushton, Jai Rohila, Senthil Subramanian, Xing-You Gu, Jose Gonzales, Marci Green,
Larry Osborne and Catherine Carter (Plant Science Department, South Dakota State
University); ($177,000). (David_Clay@sdstate.edu)


                                                                                  22
Molecular approaches to effective management tools against soybean cyst
nematode (SCN); Vince Pantalone (Plant Sciences Department, University of
Tennessee), Prakash Arelli (USDA/ARS-Jackson, TN), Neal Stewart and Mitra Mazarei
(University of Tennessee); ($25,000). (vpantalo@utk.edu)

Identification of genes/loci for control of soybean cyst nematode; Andrew Bent
(Department of Plant Pathology, University of Wisconsin); ($59,797).
(afb@plantapth.wisc.edu)

Construction of a DNA-based virus induced gene silencing system for functional
genomics of soybean seed development; Leslie L. Domier (USDA-ARS, University of
Illinois) and Said A. Ghabrial (Department of Plant Pathology, University of Kentucky);
($62,560). (ldomier@illinois.edu)

Development of high-throughput DNA-based gene silencing technology for
soybeans; John Hill, Steve Whitman, Leonor Leandro and Thomas Baum (Iowa State
University), Randy Shoemaker (USDA/ARS/Iowa State University), Kerry Pedley
(USDA/ARS/Fort Detrick), Craig Grau (University of Wisconsin) and Dean Malvick
(University of Minnesota); ($125,000). (A project funded jointly with the United Soybean
Board); (johnhill@iastate.edu)

Enhancing disease resistance in soybean through the tools of biotechnology; Tom
Clemente, Jack Morris and Jim Alfano (University of Nebraska) and Gray Stacey and
Jim English (University of Missouri); ($90,000). (tclement1@unl.edu)

Application of biotechnology to the control of soybean cyst nematode: Group 4;
Ben Matthews (USDA/ARS-Beltsville Agricultural Research Center); ($350,000).
(ben.matthews@ars.usda.gov)

A gene for insect resistance from soybean; Wayne Parrott (University of Georgia);
($33,200). (wparrott@uga.edu)

A strategy for responding to the whole genome shotgun sequence of the soybean
genome; Randy Shoemaker (USDA/ARS-Iowa State University); ($729,987).
(rcsshoe@iastate.edu)

A strategy for responding to the whole genome shotgun sequence of the soybean
genome: Annotation; Chris Town (The J. Craig Venter Institute); ($276,350).
(cdtwon@tigr.org)

A SURE database; John Finer (The Ohio State University); ($50,000).
(jfiner.1@osu.edu)

Application of biotechnology to control of the soybean cyst nematode’ subgroup:
Soybean resistance genes; Khalid Maksem (Southern Illinois University-Carbondale);
($301,584). (meksemk@siu.edu)

Application of biotechnology to the control of soybean cyst nematode: Genetic
analysis of soybean cyst nematode; Kris Lambert (University of Illinois); ($150,800).
(knlamber@illinois.edu)


                                                                                     23
Center for Soybean Tissue Culture and Genetic Engineering Soybean for effective
resistance to soybean nematode; Wayne Parrot (University of Georgia); ($370,559).
(wparrott@uga.edu)

Confirmation of quantitative trait, loci and gene-based molecular marker
development for broad septurm resistance to SCN; Henry Nguyen (University of
Missouri-Columbia); ($74,076). (nguyenhenry@missouri.edu)

Construction of proteome and metabolome maps of soybean to improve yield and
value-added traits; Henry Nguyen (University of Missouri-Columbia); ($369,961).
(nguyhenry@missouri.edu)

Coupling high-throughput genetic and phenotypic information                 for   yield
enhancement; Felix Fritschi (University of Missouri); ($151,814).
(fritschif@missouri.edu)

Development of high-throughput DNA-based gene silencing technology for
soybeans; John Hill (Iowa State University); ($125,000). (jhill@iastate.edu) (This is a
jointly-funded project with NCSRP).

Development of low phytate soybeans using genomic tools; Saghai Maroof (Virginia
Tech); ($115,000). (smaroof@vt.edu)

Discovery and characteristics of candidate genes for resistance to soybean cyst
nematode (Heterodera glycines) in soybean; Henry Nguyen (University of Missouri);
($75,484). (nguyenhenry@missouri.edu)

Enhancing disease resistance through the tools of biotechnology; David Wright
(North Central Soybean Research Program); ($40,000). (This project is jointly funded
with the NCSRP). (dwright@iasoybeans.com)

Enhancing soybean yield by manipulating the expression of seed trait-
determining genes; Aardra Kachroo (University of Kentucky); ($130,617).
(apkach2@uky.edu)

Fine mapping, identification of gene candidates and commercialization of yield
enhancing alleles from a Japanese germplasm line; H.R. Boerma (University of
Georgia); ($146,909). (rboerma@arches.uga.edu)

Fiskeby soybeans resistant to a broad spectrum of environmental stresses:
Genetic analysis and application to breeding; Kent Burkey (USDA/ARS-Beltsville
Agricultural Research Center); ($150,000). (Kent.Burkey@ars.usda.gov)

Functional analysis of soybean genes through transposon mutagenesis; Tom
Clemente (University of Nebraska); ($269,961). (tclemente1@unlnotes.unl.edu)

Harnessing soybean innate immunity to reduce yield losses due to fungal
pathogens; Gary Stacey (University of Missouri); ($100,656). (staceyg@missouri.edu)

Host-delivered siRNA for nematode resistance: Identification and evaluation of
fertility and fitness genes; Harold Trick (Kansas State University); ($67,368).

                                                                                    24
(hnt@ksu.edu)

Identification and utilization of exotic germplasm to improve                 soybean
productivity; Randall Nelson (USDA/ARS-University of Illinois); ($519,848).
(rnelson@illinois.edu)

Identification of gene mutations causing alterations in soybean seed composition;
Robert Stupar (University of Minnesota); ($68,342). (stup004@umn.edu)

Identification of genes that regulate soybean oil content: Part II; Carroll Vance
(USDSA/ARS-University of Minnesota); ($80,600). (carroll.vance@ars.udsa.gov)

Identification of molecular genes that regulate soybean oil content through
soybean near-transcript analysis; Carroll Vance (USDA/ARS-University of
Minnesota); ($43,251). (carroll.vance@ars.udsa.gov)

Inheritance of resistance, map locations, and genetic relationships of multiple
sources of resistance to the soybean aphids; Curt Hill (University of Illinois);
($58,500). (curthill@illinis.edu)

Molecular dissection of new soybean aphid resistant genes and SNP markers for
marker assisted breeding; Rouf Mian (USDA/ARS-The Ohio State University);
($145,000). (Rouf.Mian@ARS.USDA.GOV)

Multiple disease resistant soybeans: Gene discovery and transfer of disease
resistance into soybean; Schuyler Korban (University of Illinois-Urbana/Champaign);
($183,827). (Korban@express.cities.uiuc.edu)

Nested association mapping to identify yield QTLs in diverse high yielding elite
soybean lines; Perry Cregan (USDA/ARS-Beltsville Agricultural Research Center);
($280,000). (creganp@ba.ars.usda.gov)

Supplement to the University of Georgia Center for Soybean Tissue Culture
Engineering; Wayne Parrott (University of Georgia); ($121,285). (wparrott@uga.edu)

Tagging Rag1 virulence in the soybean aphid with DNA markers; Curt Hill
(University of Illinois-Urbana/Champaign); ($59,918). (curthill@illinois.edu)

Towards developing rust-resistant soybeans: Identifying genes for rust
resistance; Schuyler Korban (University of Illinois-Urbana/Champaign); ($156,484).
(korban@illinis.edu)

Whole genome analysis of the soybean core germplasm collection and
applications for new gene discovery. Perry Cregan (ARS/USSDA-Beltsville
Agricultural Research Center); ($263,103). (creganp@ba.ars.usda.gov)

Whole genome analysis of the USDA soybean germplasm collection and
applications for new gene discovery; David Hyten (USDA/ARS-Beltsville Agricultural
Center); ($971,160). (david.hyten@ars.esda.gov)



                                                                                   25
   • General Soybean Disease Research
Soybean disease survey; Edward Sikora, John Murphy, Kathy Lawrence and Dennis
Delany (Agronomy and Soils Department, Auburn University); ($6,000).
(sikorej@auburn.edu)

Managed Research Area: Soybean Diseases and Insect Pests; Linda Kull (University
of Illinois-Urban-Champaign) and Jason Bond (Southern Illinois University-Carbondale)
(Project Managers), Keith Ames, Roger Bowen, Carl Bradley, Darin Eastburn, Ron
Estes, Mike Grey, Curt Hill, James Haudenshield, Houston Hobbs, Doug Jones, Terry
Niblack, Wayne Pedersen, Kevin Steffey and David Voegtlin (University of Illinois-
Urbana/Champaign), Ahmad Fakhoury (Southern Illinois University-Carbondale), and
Leslie Domier and Glen Hartman (USDA/ARS-University of Illinois); (The funding is
allocated to projects). (lkull@illinois.edu)

Multiplexing and field validation of quantitative, molecular assays of soy diseases;
James Haudenshield and Curt Hill (University of Illinois-Urbana/Champaign) and Glen
Hartman (USDA/ARS-UIUC); ($35,000). (jsh1@illinois.edu)

Soybean diseases and pests surveys; Jason Bond (Southern Illinois University-
Carbondale), Carl Bradley, Linda Kull and Kevin Steffey (University of Illinois-
Urbana/Champaign), Leslie Domier and Glen Hartman (USDA/ARS-UIUC); ($30,000).
(jbond@siu.edu)

Biology and control of major diseases of soybeans; Raymond Schneider
(Department of Plant Pathology and Crop Pathology, Louisiana State University);
($84,350). (rschnei@lsu.edu)

Improving management of common soilborne diseases of soybeans; Dean Malvick
(Department of Plant Pathology, University of Minnesota); ($29,957).
(dmalick@umn.edu)

Control of soybean diseases; Berlin Nelson (Department of Plant Pathology, North
Dakota State University); ($50,300). (Berlin.nelson@ndsu.edu)

Survey of emerging soybean diseases in North Dakota; Sam Markell and Berlin
Nelson (Department of Plant Pathology, North Dakota State University); ($16,284).
(samuel.markell@ndsu.edu)

Identifying and characterizing resistance to Ohio's major soybean pathogens: Part
III; Anne Dorrance (Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center); ($143,708).
(dorrance.1@osu.edu)

Soybean diseases and insect pests: Monitoring, risk assessment, management
and outreach; Larry Osborne, Kelley Tilmon, Marie Langham and Tom Chase (Plant
Science Department, South Dakota State University); ($200,000).
(Lawrence_Osborne@sdstate.edu)

Interaction between soybean cyst nematode, brown stem rot and sudden death
syndrome; Paul Esker and Ann MacGuidwin (Department of Plant Pathology) and
Shawn Conley (Department of Agronomy, University of Wisconsin); ($42,024).

                                                                                  26
(pde@plantpath.wisc.edu)

Methods to screen soybean lines for resistance to stem diseases; Craig Grau
(Department of Plant Pathology, University of Wisconsin); ($37,400).
(cg6@plantpath.wisc.edu)

Compile estimates of soybean yield suppression due to diseases in the USA
during 2009; Allen Wrather (University of Missouri); ($18,000).
(wratherj@missouri.edu)


   • Asian Soybean Rust
Monitoring soybean sentinel fields throughout Alabama for early detection of
Soybean Rust; Edward Sikora, Dennis Delaney, Mary Delaney, Richard Petcher,
Brandon Dillard, Leonard Kuykendall, Warren Griffith, David Derrick, Eric Schavey and
Rudy Yates (Agronomy and Soils Department, Auburn University); ($26,000).
(sikorej@auburn.edu)

Funding to support the Georgia soybean rust sentinel plot monitoring program
and activities of the University of Georgia’s soybean team; Robert Kemerait, Jr.
(Crop and Soil Sciences Department, University of Georgia-Athens); ($30,000).
(kemerait@uga.edu)

Impact of climate variability and tropical storms on the incidence of Asian
soybean rust in the sentinel plots in Georgia; Gerrit Hoogenboom, Rabio O. Olatinwo
and Joel Paz (Biological & Agricultural Engineering, University of Georgia-Athens) and
Robert Kemerait, Jr. (Crop and Soil Science Department, University of Georgia-Athens);
($5,000). (gerrit@uga.edu)

Illinois soybean rust sentinel plots; Jason Bond (Southern Illinois University-
Carbondale), Carl Bradley (University of Illinois-Urbana/Champaign) and Glen Hartman
(USDA/ARS-UIUC); ($32,000). (jbond@illinois.edu)

Managed Research Area: Management of soybean rust, sentinel plots,
diagnostics, outreach and research; Linda Kull (coordinator, National Soybean
Research Laboratory, University of Illinois-Urbana/Champaign), Jason Bond (Southern
Illinois University-Carbondale), Carl Bradley, Nancy Pataky and Robert Bellum
(University of Illinois-Urbana/Champaign) and Glen Hartman and David Walker
(USDA/ARS-UIUC); (The funding is allocated to projects). (lkull@illinois.edu)

Soybean rust spore traps; Glen Hartman (USDA/ARS-UIUC); ($10,000).
(ghartman@illinois.edu)

Monitoring soybean rust in Indiana; Kiersten Wise (Department of Plant Pathology,
Purdue University); ($15,000). (kawise@purdue.edu)

Final development of a yield loss prediction model for Asian Soybean Rust;
Karatha Kumudini (Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, University of Kentucky),
($15,550). (skumud@email.uky.edy)


                                                                                   27
Developing a new strategy to control soybean rust disease through a proteomics-
based approach; Zhi-Yuan Chen (Department of Plant Pathology and Crop Physiology,
Louisiana State University); ($63,400). (zchen2@lsu.edu)

Rust resistance confirmation and utilization in Michigan soybean improvement;
Dechun Wang and Ray Hammerschmidt (Crop and Soil Science and Plant Pathology
Departments, Michigan State University), Hiraigu Chen (Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural
Science) and Ying Luo (Sanming Institute of Agricultural Science): (Approved funding
level up to $24,000). (wangdech@msu.edu)

A basic monitoring and early warning system for soybean rust in Minnesota;
Dean Malvick and James Kurle (Department of Plant Pathology, University of
Minnesota); ($9,223). (dmalvick@umn.edu)

Soybean rust monitoring; Tom Allen and Trey Kroger (Delta Research and Extension
Center, MAFES, Mississippi State University); ($70.000). (tallen@drec.msstate.edu)

Management and surveillance of Asiatic soybean rust in North Carolina; Steve
Koenning and James Dunphy (Crop Science Department, North Carolina State
University); ($23,250). (srkpp@unity.ncsu.edu)

Soybean rust sentinel plots in North Dakota; Sam Markell (Department of Plant
Pathology, North Dakota); ($9,000). (samuel.markell@ndsu.edu)

Asian soybean rust (ASR): Training of first detectors and triage personnel; Melvin
Newman and Bob Williams (Entomology and Plant Pathology Department, University of
Tennessee); ($4,500). (manewman@utk.edu)

Early detection of Asian rust using realtime PCR; Kurt Lamour (Entomology and
Plant Pathology Department, University of Tennessee); ($28,400). (klamour@utk.edu)

Support of Asian soybean rust sentinel program; Angela McClure and Melvin
Newman (Entomology and Plant Pathology Department, Extension West Region, Milan
Experiment Station, University of Tennessee); ($20,000). (athompson@utk.edu)

Population dynamics and epidemiology of Asian soybean rust in North American
soybean production systems; James J. Marois, David L. Wright and Phil Harmon
(University of Florida); ($200,000). (jmarois@ufl.edu)

Sentinel plots to monitor the spread of soybean rust in the U.S. soybean
production regions; Ed Sikora (Auburn University, Project Leader) Loren Giesler
(University of Nebraska), Don Hershman (University of Kentucky), Anne Dorrance (The
Ohio State University), Carl Bradley (University of Illinois), John Damicone (Oklahoma
State University), Kiersten Wise (Purdue University), X.B. Yang (Iowa State University),
Doug Jardine (Kansas State University), Allen Wrather (University of Missouri), Melvin
Newman (University of Tennessee), Erik Stromberg (VA Polytechnic Institute and State
University), John Mueller (Clemson University), Steve Koenning (North Carolina State
University), Gary Bergstrom (Cornell University), Sam Markell (North Dakota State
University), Lawrence Osborne (South Dakota State University), Norman Dart (West
Virginia Dept. of Ag), Paul Esker (University of Wisconsin), Arv Grybauskas (University
of Maryland), Scott Monfort (University of Arkansas), Scott Isard, (Penn State

                                                                                     28
University), Bob Mulrooney (University of Delaware), Anne Brooks Gould (Rutgers
University), Dean Malvick (University of Minnesota), and Ray Hammerschmidt (Michigan
State University); ($364,000). (lgiesler1@unl.edu) (This project is jointly funded by
NCSRP and USB).

Establishment of soybean rust sentinel plots in Florida; James Marois and David
Wright (North Florida Research & Education Center, University of Florida); ($10,000).
(jmarois@ufl.edu)

Developing soybean resistance to soybean rust using biotechnology; Ben
Matthews (USDA/ARS-Beltsville Agricultural Research Center); ($90,000).
(ben.matthews@ars.usda.goc)

Monitoring aerial transport of Phakopsora packyrhizi spores; Les Szabo (USDA/
ARS-University of Minnesota); ($155,000). (lszabo@umn.edu)


   • Charcoal Rot
Charcoal rot management in Illinois; Ahmad Fakhoury and Jason Bond (Southern
Illinois University-Carbondale); ($31,000). (amfakhou@siu.edu)

Interaction of anthracnose and charcoal rot on green stem incidence; Curt Hill
(University of Illinois-Urbana/Champaign) and Glen Hartman (USDA/ARS-UIUC);
($20,000). (curthill@illinois.edu)

Influence of soils, nutrition and water relations upon charcoal rot disease
processes in Kansas; Christopher R. Little, P.V. Vara Prasad, DeAnn Presley (Plant
Pathology and Agronomy Departments, Kansas State University); ($3,770).
(crlittle@ksu.edu)

Understand charcoal rot disease using a genetics approach; Bin Shuai (Department
of Biological Sciences, Wichita State University); ($28,745). (bin.shuai@wichita.edu)

Charcoal rot cultivar evaluation using adapted and exotic sources of resistance;
John Rupe (University of Arkansas); ($376,533). (jrupe@uark.edu)

Genetics and mapping of charcoal rot resistance; Jeffery Ray (USD/ARS-Stoneville,
MS); ($119,300). jary@ars.udsa.gov)

Managing frogeye leaf spot and charcoal rot in the North Central Region; Jason
Bond and Michael Schmidt (Southern Illinois University), Curtis Hill and Glen Hartman
(USDA/University of Illinois), X.B. Yang and Thomas Harrington (Iowa State University),
Doug Jardine and Charles Little (Kansas State University), Scott Abney (USDA/Purdue
University), A. Mengistu (USDA/ARS Jackson, TN), Dan Phillips (University of Georgia),
Grover Shannon and Allen Wrather (University of Missouri), L. Giesler (University of
Nebraska), Rouf Mian (USDA/The Ohio State University) and Melvin Newman
(University of Tennessee); ($95,000). (jbond@siu.edu)




                                                                                    29
   • Frogeye Leaf Spot
Fungicide resistance monitoring and overwinter survivability of the frogeye leaf
spot pathogen, Cercospora sojina; Carl Bradley (University of Illinois-Urbana/
Champaign); ($29,000). (carlbrad@illinois.edu)

Using race-specific probes to monitor population shifts of the frogeye leaf spot
pathogen; Jason Bond and Ahmad Fahoury (Southern Illinois University-Carbondale);
($28,000). (jbond@siu.edu)

Control, characterization and identification of potential novel resistance of the
late-season soybean disease Cercospora leaf blight and frogeye leaf spot; Steve
Martin, Brewer Blessitt, Trey Kroger, Tom Eubank, Gabe Sciumbato and Tom Allen
(Delta Research and Extension Center, MAFES, Mississippi State University); ($53,475).
(smartin@ext.msstate.edu)

Survey of frogeye leaf spot (FLS) in Virginia, evaluation of resistance of FLS on
soybean lines adapted to Virginia, and use of marker assisted selection (MAS) for
FLS resistance in soybean; Katy M. Rainey (Crop and Soil Environmental Sciences
Department, Virginia Tech); ($30,726). (kmrainey@vt.edu)

Managing frogeye leaf spot and charcoal rot in the North Central Region; Jason
Bond and Michael Schmidt (Southern Illinois University), Curtis Hill and Glen Hartman
(USDA/University of Illinois), X.B. Yang and Thomas Harrington (Iowa State University),
Doug Jardine and Charles Little (Kansas State University), Scott Abney (USDA/Purdue
University), A. Mengistu (USDA/ARS Jackson, TN), Dan Phillips (University of Georgia),
Grover Shannon and Allen Wrather (University of Missouri), L. Giesler University of
Nebraska), Rouf Mian (USDA/The Ohio State University) and Melvin Newman
(University of Tennessee); ($95,000). (jbond@siu.edu)


   • Iron Deficiency Chlorosis
Genetic transformation to investigate genes conferring tolerance to soybean iron
deficiency chlorosis; Robert Stupar and Carroll Vance (Department of Agronomy and
Plant Genetics, University of Minnesota); ($48,000). (stup0004@umn.edu)

Marker assisted selection compared to phenotypic selection for iron deficiency
chlorosis; Ted Helms (Department of Plant Sciences, North Dakota State University);
($21,262). (ted.helms@ndsu.edu)

Iron deficient chlorosis: Getting to the root of the problem; Phil McClean (Project
Leader) and Jay Goos (North Dakota State University), Carroll Vance and Seth Naeve
(University of Minnesota), and Randy Shoemaker and Silvia Cianzio (Iowa State
University); ($146,245). (phillip.mcclean@ndsu.edu)

Iron deficiency chlorosis in soybean: Effect of soil properties and iron fertilizer
application; Dorivar Ruiz Diaz, David Mengel (Department of Agronomy, Kansas State
University); ($33,656). (ruizdiaz@ksu.edu)



                                                                                    30
   • Phytophthora Root and Stem Rot
QTLs for Phytophthora sojae, where are they and what are the mechanisms that
control this resistance? Anne Dorrance (Project Leader) and Steve St. Martin (The
Ohio State University), Rouf Mian (USDA/ARS/OARDC, Wooster, OH), Grover Shannon
and Henry Nguyen (University of Missouri); ($40,000). (dorrance.1@osu.edu)

QTLs for Phytophthora sojae: Where are they and what are the mechanisms that
control this resistance? Anne Dorrance (The Ohio State University); ($241,819).
(dorrance.a@osu.edu)

Identifying factors that influence genetic diversity in endemic Phytophthora sojae
populations; Alison Robertson (Department of Plant Pathology, Iowa State University)
and Anne Dorrance (Department of Plant Pathology, The Ohio State University);
($77,800). (alisonr@iastate.edu)


   • Sudden Death Syndrome
Characterization of the SDS pathogen in Illinois; Jason Bond and Ahmad Fahoury
(Southern Illinois University-Carbondale); ($24,000). (jbond@siu.edu)

Delayed infection of Fusarium virguliforme using fungicide seed treatments, and
its impact on sudden death syndrome and soybean yield; Carl Bradley and Terry
Niblack (University of Illinois-Urbana/Champaign) and Jason Bond (Southern Illinois
University-Carbondale); ($33,000). (carlbrad@illinois.edu)

Identify the mechanism used by Fusarium virguliforme to cause sudden death
syndrome in soybean; Madan Bhattacharyya (Plant Pathology Department, Iowa State
University); ($64,648). (mbhattac@iastate.edu)

Sequencing the Fusarium viguliforme genome; Madan Bhattacharyya (Plant
Pathology Department, Iowa State University); ($106,270). (mbhattac@iastate.edu)

Soybean development and susceptibility to sudden death syndrome; Leonor
Leandro (Department of Plant Pathology, Iowa State University); ($32,878).
 (lleandro@iastate.edu)

Toxins and laccases: Potential pathogenic weapons in soybean sudden death
syndrome; Leonor Leandro (Department of Plant Pathology, Iowa State University);
($50,000). (lleandro@iastate.edu)

Identification of soybean cultivars resistant to Fusarium solani; James Kurle
(Department of Plant Pathology) and James Orf (Department of Agronomy and Plant
Genetics, University of Minnesota); ($40,000). (kurle001@umn.edu)

The sudden death syndrome research alliance; Linda Kull (Project Manager), Brian
Diers, Terry Niblack, Glen Hartman and Steven Clough (University of Illinois), Jason
Bond, Ahmad Fakhoury and Michael Schmidt (Southern Illinois University), Silvia
Cianzio, Leonor Leandro and Madan Bhattacharyya (Iowa State University), Dean

                                                                                 31
Malvick (University of Minnesota) and George Bird (Michigan State University);
($275,698). (lkull@uiuc.edu)

Application of new genetic and genomic resources to the improved control of
soybean sudden death syndrome; Silvia Cianzio (Iowa State University); ($295,870).
(scianzio@iastate.edu)

The soybean sudden death alliance; David Wright (North Central Soybean Research
Program); ($149,856). (dwright@iasoybeans.com) (This project is jointly funded with
NCSRP).


   • Soybean Viruses
Soybean virus-nematode interaction study; John Murphy, Lathy Lawrence and
Edward Sikora (Plant Pathology and Agronomy and Soils Departments, Auburn
University); ($5,000). (murphj@auburn.edu)

Soybean viruses and management; Leslie Domier, Houston Hobbs, Glen Hartman
(USDA/ARS-UIUC); ($10,000). (ldomier@illinois.edu)

Aspects of integrated management for viruses and infection Phomopsis in
soybean; Gary Munkvold, John Hill, Alison Robertson, Matt O’Neal, Palle Pedersen and
Jeff Bradshaw (Seed Science Center, and Plant Pathology, Entomology and Agronomy
Departments, Iowa State University); ($36,855). (munkvold@iastate.edu)

Towards integrated management of bean pod mottle virus and the prediction of
the winter survival of the insect vectors: Bean leaf and Japanese beetles; Forrest
W. Nutter Jr. and Alison Robertson (Plant Pathology) and Erin Hodgson (Entomology
Department, Iowa State University); ($101,219). (fwn@iastate.edu)

Identification of plant viruses infecting soybean in Louisiana; Rodrigo Valverde
(Department of Plant Pathology and Crop Physiology, Louisiana State University);
($3,500). (rvalverde@agcenter.lsu.edu)

Viruses of soybean in Mississippi: A case study; Sead Sababadzovic (Department of
Entomology and Plant Pathology, MAFES, Mississippi State University); ($21,414).
(ssababadzovic@entomology.msstate.edu)

Soybean viruses in North Dakota; Berlin Nelson (Department of Plant Pathology,
North Dakota State University); ($13,620). (berlin.nelson@ndsu.edu)

Identification and development of diagnostic assays for the causal agent of a new
virus disease of soybeans; Reza Hajimorad, Yannis Tzanetakis and Bonnie Ownley
(Entomology and Plant Pathology Department, University of Tennessee); ($20,000).
(mrh@utk.edu)

Distribution of bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) in bean leaf beetles and soybean
varieties in Eastern Virginia; Thomas P. Kuhar (Eastern Shore AREC, Virginia Tech.);
($9,500). (tkukar@vt.edu)


                                                                                 32
   • Other Soybean Diseases
Identification of the factors that cause soybean green bean syndrome; Loannis
Tzanetakis, John Rupe and Scott Monfort (Department of Plant Pathology, University of
Arkansas); ($58,812). (itzaneta@uark.edu)

Herbicides, strobulurin fungicides and implication for Rhizoctonia root rot of
soybeans; Darin Eastburn and Wayne Pedersen (University of Illinois-Urbana/
Champaign); ($30,000). (eastburn@illinois.edu)

Fusarium species infecting soybean roots: Risks and management tools; Gary
Munkvold, Leonor Leandro, Palle Pedersen, Greg Tylka, Silvia Cianzio and Alison
Robertson (Plant Pathology and Agronomy Departments, Iowa State University);
($117,000). (munkvold@iastate.edu)

The soybean green plant problem: An evaluation of possible influencing factors;
B. Roger Leonard (Northeast Research Station, Department of Entomology, Louisiana
State University); ($50,000). (318-435-2157)

Using biological agents to control soybean white mold; Jianjun Hao, Dechun Wang
and Ray Hammerschmidt (Plant Pathology and Crop and Soil Science Departments,
Michigan State University); (Approved funding level up to $20,000). (jjhao@msu.edu)

Advancing knowledge of root and stem diseases of soybean for yield
improvement; Dean Malvick (Department of Plant Pathology, University of Minnesota);
($58,891). dmalvick@umn.edu)

Seeking the cause of bud proliferation syndrome in Mississippi; Sead
Sabanadzovic (Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, MAFES, Mississippi
State University); ($16,500). (ssababadzovic@entomology.msstate.edu)

Bacterial blight (Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea) race analysis in North
Dakota; Sam Markell, Berlin Nelson and Rubella Goswami (Department of Plant
Pathology, North Dakota); ($16,850). (samuel.markell@ndsu.edu)

Reducing the impact of Fusarium root rot on soybean production in the U.S.;
Berlin Nelson (North Dakota State University); ($123,014). (berlin.nelson@ndsu.edu)

Foliar fungicides to study the epidemiology of Cercospora kikuchii; Paul
Esker and Craig Grau (Department of Plant Pathology, University of Wisconsin);
($30,000). (pde@plantpath.wisc.edu

Long term efficacy and viability of Coniothyrium minitians (Contan®WG) for white
mold control in soybean; Shawn Conley (Department of Agronomy) and Paul Esker
(Department of Plant Pathology, University of Wisconsin); ($30,982).
(spconley@wisc.edu)


   • Fungicide Studies


                                                                                  33
Evaluation of fungicides for control of Asian Soybean Rust; Dennis Delaney,
Edward Sikora and Kathy Lawrence (Agronomy and Soils Department, Auburn
University); ($10,000. (delandp@auburn.edu)

Evaluation of fungicide seed treatments on performance of soybean in Illinois,
and the impact of soybean cyst nematode on the efficacy of seed treatments; Carl
Bradley and Terry Niblack (University of Illinois-Urbana/Champaign) and Jason Bond
(Southern Illinois University-Carbondale); ($32,000). (carlbrad@illinois.edu)

Foliar fungicides: Their control of Illinois foliar diseases and their effect on
soybean yield and green stem disorder; Carl Bradley, Roger Bowen, Curt Hill and
Keith Ames (University of Illinois-Urbana/Champaign) and Glen Hartman (USDA/ARS-
UIUC); ($62,000). (carlbrad@illinois.edu)

Fungicide applied research and spraying guidelines; Jason Bond (Southern Illinois
University-Carbondale) and Carl Bradley (University of Illinois-Urbana/Champaign);
($28,000). (jbond@siu.edu)

Optimizing recommendations for foliar-applied chemicals to soybeans; Kiersten
Wise (Department of Plant Pathology) Bill Johnson and Tony Vyn (Agronomy
Department) and Christian Krupke (Entomology Department, Purdue University);
($50,000). (kawise@purdue.edu)

Use of seed and foliar fungicides at two planting dates for soybean production in
Kansas; Barney Gordon, Doug Jardine, Kraig Roozeboom, Stu Duncan (Department of
Agronomy, Department of Plant Pathology, Northeast Area Extension, Kansas State
University); ($8,500). (bgordon@ksu.edu)

Risk analysis of response of soybeans to the fungicide Headline; Arvydas
Grybauskas (Department of Plant Science and Landscape Architecture, University of
Maryland); ($7,000). (arvydas@umd.edu)

Management of seed rot and poor seed quality with insecticides and fungicides
combinations in soybean; Gabe Sciumbato, Don Cook, Jeff Gore, Tom Allen and Trey
Koger (Delta Research and Extension Center) and Angus Catchot (Entomology
Department, MAFES, Mississippi State University); ($45,000). (gabe@drec.msstate.edu)

Yield response of soybeans to foliar and seed treatment fungicides: State-wide
soybean cyst nematode survey; John Damicone (Department of Entomology and
Plant Pathology, Oklahoma State University); ($20,250). (john.damicone@okstate.edu)

Fungicide strategies for control of rust and other diseases of soybean; Pat Phipps
(Plant Pathology, Department, Virginia Tech); ($13,728). (pmphipps@vt.edu)


   • Weed Control Studies
Soybean production tools for Alabama; Dennis Delaney, Edward Sikora, Kathy
Lawrence, Bob Goodman, Rudy Yates, David Derrick, Brandon Dillard, Richard Petcher
and Warren Griffith (Agronomy and Soils Department, Auburn University); ($15,000).
(delandp@auburn.edu)

                                                                                 34
Managing herbicide resistant Palmer amaranth with the Liberty-Link (LL) soybean
system (Ignite-based programs); Eric Prostko (Crop and Soil Sciences Department,
University of Georgia); ($3,500). (eprostko@uga.edu)

Develop weed management systems for Illinois; Bryan Young (Southern Illinois
University-Carbondale), Dean Riechers and Doug Maxwell (University of Illinois-
Urbana/Champaign) and Gordon Roskamp (Western Illinois University); ($85,000).
(bgyoung@sui.edu)

Increase the knowledge base of biology, ecology and genetics of priority weed
species; Aaron Hager and Pat Tranel (University of Illinois-Urbana/Champaign) and
Bryan Young (Southern Illinois University-Carbondale); ($122,000). (hager@illinois.edu)

Investigate crop production elements that impact weed management decision;
Emerson Nafziger (University of Illinois-Urbana/Champaign); ($30,000).
(enaf@illinois.edu)

Development of a rapid test for glyphosate-resistant waterhemp; Pat Tranel and
Aaron Hager (University of Illinois-Urbana Champaign); ($66, 914). (tranel@illinois.edu)

Managed Research Area: Weeds; Bryan Young (Southern Illinois University-
Carbondale) and Aaron Hager (University of Illinois-Urbana/Champaign) (Program Co-
coordinators), Emerson Nafziger, Dean Riechers, and Pat Tranel (Crop Science
Department, University of Illinois-Urbana/Champaign), Adam Davis (USDA/ASR-UIUC),
Bryan Young (Plant and Soil Science Department, Southern Illinois University-
Carbondale), and Gordon Roskamp and Loretta Ortiz-Ribbing (Western Illinois
University-Macomb); (The funding is allocated to projects). (bgyoung@siu.edu)

Deposition efficiency of pesticides application; Roberto Barbosa (Biological and
Agricultural Engineering Department, Louisiana State University); ($12,500).
(rbarosa@lsu.edu)

Soybean weed control research; Donnie Keith Miller (Northeast Research Station,
Louisiana State University); ($32,200). (dmiller@agcenter.lsu.edu)

Soybean weed management systems in Louisiana; Daniel Stephenson (Dean Lee
Research and Extension Center-Alexandria, Louisiana State University); ($40,000).
(DStephenson@agcenter.lsu.edu)

Weed management and biology research; James Griffin (School of Plant,
Environmental, and Soil Sciences, Louisiana State University); ($40,000).
(jgriffin@agcenter.lsu.edu

Management of glyphosate-resistant weeds in soybeans; Ronald Ritter (Department
of Plant Science and Landscape Architecture, University of Maryland); ($3,500).
(rlritter@umd.edu)

Post-emergence, pre-emergence or pre-emergence followed by post-emergence:
Which is better? Ron Ritter (Department of Plant Science and Landscape Architecture,
University of Maryland); ($3,500). (rlritter@umd.edu)


                                                                                     35
Weed management programs utilizing Liberty-Link soybeans; Ron Ritter
(Department of Plant Science and Landscape Architecture, University of Maryland);
($3,500). (rlritter@umd.edu)

Impact of winter annual weed populations on early-season pest in reduced and
no-till soybean; Christy Sprague (Department of Crop and Soil Science) and Chris
DiFonzo (Entomology Department, Michigan State University); (Approved funding level
up to $20,000). (spague@msu.edu)

Long-term management of dandelion in a corn and soybean rotation; Christy
Sprague and Jim Kells (Crop and Soil Science Department, Michigan State University);
(Approved funding level up to $5,400). (spague@msu.edu)

Potential herbicide interactions in double and triple stacked herbicide resistant
soybeans; Don Penner (Crop and Soil Science Department, Michigan State University);
($20,000). (pennerd@msu.edu)

Screening for herbicide resistant weeds in no-till soybean production systems;
Christy Sprague (Crop and Soil Science Department, Michigan State University
Department); (Cost will be reimbursed on a billing basis at a rate of $30.00 per sample
analysis). (spague@msu.edu)

Weed control and yield comparisons in new herbicide resistant soybean varieties;
Christy Sprague (Crop and Soil Science Department, Michigan State University);
(Approved funding level up to $22,000). (spague@msu.edu)

Addressing critical soybean weed control issues in Mississippi; Daniel Poston,
Vijay Nandula, Clifford Koger, Tom Eubank and Brewer Blessitt (Delta Research and
Extension Center, MAFES, Mississippi State University and USDA/ARS); ($77,330).
(dposton@ext.msstate.edu)

Survey of Mississippi Delta for the spread and distribution of glyphosate resistant
and other herbicide resistant weeds; Vijay Nandula and Robin Bond ((Delta Research
and Extension Center, MAFES, Mississippi State University); ($33,136).
(vnandula@drec.msstate.edu)

Management of glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth in soybean production
systems using preemergence and postemergence programs; Michael Marshall
(Edisto Research & Education, Center, Blackville, SC); ($14,459).
(marsha3@lemson.edu)

Integration of new soybean genetics and herbicides to manage challenging weed
species and diminish selection for glyphosate resistance; Michael Moechnig,
Darrell Deneke, Robert Hall, Neal Foster, David Vos and Jill Alms (Plant Science
Department, South Dakota State University); ($11,800).
(Michael_Moechnig@sdstate.edu)

Developing novel herbicide-resistant soybean; Chen Fen, Greg Armel and Vincent
Pantalone (Plant Sciences Department, University of Tennessee); ($25,000).
(fengc@utk.edu)


                                                                                    36
Giant ragweed management in no-till soybeans and confirmation of herbicide
resistant weeds; Thomas Mueller and Larry Steckel (Plant Sciences Department,
University of Tennessee); ($5,000). (tmueller@utk.edu)

Management of glyphosate-resistant weeds; Larry Steckel, Thomas Mueller and
Angela Thompson (Plant Sciences Department, University of Tennessee); ($21,500).
(lsteckel@utk.edu)

Controlling and preventing further spread of Palmer Amaranth; David Holshouser
(Eastern Virginia Agricultural Research and Extension Center, Virginia Tech); ($4,800).
(dholshou@vt.edu)

Reducing glyphosate applications in Roundup Ready and non-roundup ready
soybean; Henry Wilson (Eastern Shore Agricultural Research and Extension Center,
Virginia Tech); ($15,000). (hwilson@vt.edu)

Glyphosate effect on manganese availability and yield loss in glyphosate-resistant
soybeans; Shawn Conley (Department of Agronomy) and Carrie Labowski (Department
of Soil Science, University of Wisconsin); ($13,986). (spconley@wisc.edu)


   • Soybean Nematode Research
Delaware soybean cyst nematode survey; Bob Mulrooney (Plant & Soil Science
Department, University of Delaware); ($3,300). (bobmul@udel.edu)

Can phenylalanine be used to reduce the virulence of SCN and improve the
survival of soybean (Glycine max); Lon Kaufman (University of Illinois-Chicago);
($51,500). (lkaufman@illinois.edu)

Deciphering the interaction between SCN and Fusarium virguliforme; Jason Bond
and Ahmad Fakhoury (Southern Illinois University-Urbana/Champaign); ($27,500).
(jbond@siu.edu)

Integrating strategies to manage SCN; Jason Bond (Southern Illinois University-
Carbondale) and Terry Niblack (University of Illinois-Urbana/Champaign); ($20,500).
(jbond@siu.edu)

Managed Research Area: Soybean cyst nematode (SCN); Terry Niblack
(Coordinator), Brian Diers, Glen Hartman, Kris Lambert (Crop Science Department,
University of Illinois-Urbana/Champaign) and Jason Bond, Khalid Meksem and Michael
Schmidt (Plant and Soil Science Department, Southern Illinois University-Carbondale);
(The funding is allocated to projects). (tniblack@illinois.edu)

Phenotypic variability in SCN populations in Illinois; Jason Bond (Southern Illinois
University-Carbondale) and Terry Niblack (University of Illinois-Urbana/ Champaign);
($31,500). (jbond@siu.edu)

Screening for soybean resistance to SCN with molecular assays; Terry Niblack
(University of Illinois-Urbana/Champaign); ($56,500). (tniblack@Illinois.edu)


                                                                                    37
Assessing nematode control and yield of SCN-resistant soybean varieties in
response to different SCN populations (Hg types); Greg Tylka (Plant Pathology
Department, Iowa State University); ($234,772). (gtykla@iastate.edu)

Can foliar applied products reduce yield loss in soybean caused by soybean cyst
nematode? Don Hershman (Department of Plant Pathology, University of Kentucky);
($9,061). (dhershma@uky.edu)

MSU diagnostic services: Free SCN soil testing/communications; George Bird and
Fred Warner (Crop and Soil Science Department, Michigan State University); (Approved
funding level up to $22,550). (birdg@msu.edu)

Soybean cyst nematode management research and education: George Bird (Project
Leader) and John Davenport (Crop and Soil Science Department, Michigan State
University), Joe Scrimger (BioSystems) and Tom Kendle (Farm Cooperator); (Approved
funding level up to $7,400). (birdg@msu.edu)

Effects of host resistance and fertilizer applications on the soybean cyst
nematode (SCN) and soybean yield; Senyu Chen, Bruce Potter, Jeff Vetsch and Gyles
Randall (Southwest Research and Outreach Center, University of Minnesota);
($100,000). (chenx099@umn.edu)

Development of a rapid genetic field race test for soybean cyst nematode (SCN)
and generation of SCN resistance through gene inactivation; Vincent Kirk
(Department of Biological Sciences), Gary Lawrence and Clarissa Balbalian
(Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology), Trey Koger and Tom Allen (Delta
Research and Extension Center, MAFES, Mississippi State University and USDA/ARS);
($54,850). (vklink@biology.msstate.edu)

Screening soybean varieties evaluation entries for resistance to plant parasitic
nematodes to enhance our soybean production; Gary Lawrence (Entomology and
Plant Pathology Department) and Bernard White (Mississippi Research Support Unit,
MAFES, Mississippi State University); ($17,250).
(glawrrence@entommology.msstate.edu)

Assessing new pest complexes: The potential for winter annual weeds to increase
soybean cyst nematode populations in Nebraska; Mark Bernards (University of
Nebraska); ($47,220). (mbernards2@unl.edu)

Influence of irrigation and crop rotation sequence on SCN populations; Loren
Giesler (Department of Plant Pathology, University of Nebraska); ($32,851).
(lgiesler@unl.edu)

Cover crops for management of soybean cyst nematode; Steve Koenning (Crop
Science Department, North Carolina State University); ($10,000).
(srkpp@unity.ncsu.edu)

Evaluating blends of soybean cyst nematode (SCN) resistant and susceptible
varieties for management of SCN; Steve Koenning (Crop Science Department, North
Carolina State University); ($10,398). (srkpp@unity.ncsu.edu)


                                                                                 38
Evaluation of abamictin as a seed treatment for control of soybean cyst
nematode; Steve Koenning (Crop Science Department, North Carolina State
University); ($15,906). (srkpp@unity.ncsu.edu)

Effect of soil type on soybean cyst nematode; Berlin Nelson (Department of Plant
Pathology, North Dakota State University); ($6,975). (berlin.nelson@ndsu.edu)

Assessment of soybean cyst nematode population in Northeastern Oklahoma and
SCN treatment; Jae-Ho Kim (Rogers State University); ($4,700). (jkim@rsu.edu)

Management of soybean nematodes with resistance and Temik 15G; John Mueller,
J. Varn and J. Croft (Department of Entomology, Soils and Plant Sciences, Clemson
University); ($6,000). (jmllr@clemson.edu)

Detection of soybean cyst, reniform and root-knot nematodes in soil using
multiplex real-time PCR; Ron Sayler and Terry Kirkpatrick (Department of Plant
Pathology, University of Arkansas); ($49,598). (rsayler@uark.edu)

Potential of Pasteuria nishizawae as a biological control agent for SCN in
Tennessee; Pat Donald (USDA/ARS-Jackson, TN) and Craig Canaday (Entomology
and Plant Pathology Department, University of Tennessee); ($24,000).
(pdonald@ars.usda.edu)

Soybean cyst nematode sampling and advisory program; Melvin Newman
(Entomology and Plant Pathology Department, University of Tennessee), Prakash Arelli
and Pat Donald (USDA/ARS/West Tennessee Experiment Station, Jackson, TN);
($22,750). (manewman@utk.edu)

Nematode identification and control strategy evaluation in problem fields in
Virginia’s soybean growing region; David Moore (Middlesex Extension, Virginia
Tech); ($6,320). (dmoore@vt.edu)

Deploying the PI 88788 source of resistance to manage SCN; Ann MacGuidwin
(Department of Plant Pathology, University of Wisconsin); ($21,319).
(aem@plantpath.wisc.edu)

Pest status of root lesion nematode in soybean; Shawn Conley (Department of
Agronomy) and Ann MacGuidwin (Department of Plant Pathology, University of
Wisconsin); ($13,986). (spconley@wisc.edu)

Soybean cyst nematode testing and education; Shawn Conley (Department of
Agronomy) and Paul Esker (Department of Plant Pathology, University of Wisconsin);
($13,026). (spconley@wisc.edu)

Improving management of soybean cyst nematode through Extension
demonstration and outreach; Loren Giesler (University of Nebraska) and Carl Bradley
(University of Illinois) (Co-project leaders), Anne Dorrance (The Ohio State University),
Terry Niblack (University of Illinois), Greg Tylka (Iowa State University), Doug Jardine
(Kansas State University), Ray Hammerschmidt (Michigan State University), Dean
Malvick (University of Minnesota), Laura Sweets (University of Missouri), Sam Markell
(North Dakota State University), Lawrence Osborne (South Dakota State University),

                                                                                      39
Paul Esker (University of Wisconsin), George Bird (Michigan State University), Jamal
Faghihi (Purdue University), and Albert Tenuta (Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food &
Rural Affairs); ($292,000). (lgiesler1@unl.edu)

Application of biotechnology to control of the soybean cyst nematode: SCN
parasitism genes; Thomas Baum (Iowa State University), Eric Davis (North Carolina
State University) and Melissa Goellner Mitchum (University of Missouri); ($272,000).
(tbaum@iastate.edu)

Coordination of regional soybean cyst nematode (SCN) test; Brian Diers (University
of Illinois-Urbana/Champaign); ($57,949). (bdiers@illinois.edu)


   • Soybean Aphid Studies
Interaction of management tactics for soybean aphid, including host plant
resistance, natural enemies and insecticides; Kevin Steffey, Mike Grey and Ron
Estes (University of Illinois-Urbana/Champaign); ($28,579). (ksteffey@illinois.edu)

Refining our ability to forecast population of soybean aphids and field releases of
Binodoxys communis; David Voegtlin, Kevin Steffey, Mike Grey and Ron Estes
(University of Illinois-Urbana/Champaign); ($19,158). (dvoegtli@illinois.edu)

Aphid-crop interactions; W. Allen Miller (Plant Pathology Department), Bryony C.
Bonning, (Entomology Department), and Gustavo MacIntosh (Biochemistry Department,
Iowa State University); ($30,000). (wamiller@iastate.edu)

Extension and research to facilitate the incorporation of soybean aphid resistant
varieties into Iowa crop production; Matthew O’Neal, Erin Hodgson and Aaron
Gassman (Entomology Department, Iowa State University; ($40,091).
(oneal@iastate.edu)

Releasing Binodoxys communis of soybean aphid suppression: Delivering on the
promise; Matthew O’Neal (Entomology Department, Iowa State University); ($33,061).
(oneal@iastate.edu)

Migration patterns for soybean aphid as indexed by capture in an aphid suction
trap; Doug Johnson (Entomology Department, University of Kentucky); ($2,404).
(doug.johnson@uky.edu)

Introgress aphid resistance from exotic germplasm to elite Michigan soybean
germplasm; Dechun Wang (Crop and Soil Science Department) and Christine DiFonzo
(Entomology Department, Michigan State University); (Approved funding level up to
$20,000). (wngdech@msu.edu)

Soybean aphid management: The next step; Christina DiFonzo (Entomology
Department) and Dechun Wang (Crop and Soil Science Department, Michigan State
University); (Approved funding level up to $14,000). (difonzo@msu.edu)

A possible relationship between soybean vascular disease and soybean aphid
populations: A preliminary investigation; Bruce Potter (Southwest Research &

                                                                                    40
Outreach Center), Ian MacRae (Northwest Experiment Station) and Dean Malvick
(Department of Plant Pathology, University of Minnesota); ($7,800). (bpotter@umn.edu)

Soybean aphid research in Minnesota; Dave Ragsdale, George Heimpel and Bruce
Potter (Department of Entomology, University of Minnesota); ($66,200).
(ragsd001@umn.edu)

Biological control and aphid resistance cultivars; Janet Knodel and Deirdre
Prischmann-Voldseth (Department of Entomology, North Dakota State University);
($38,850). (janet.knodel@ndsu.edu)

Integrating plant resistance and natural enemies for soybean aphid control;
Deirdre A. Prischmann-Voldseth and Janet Knodel (Department of Entomology, North
Dakota State University); ($26,100). (Deirdre.Prischmann@ndsu.edu)

Combating Ohio's soybean aphid biotypes; Andy Michel (Ohio Agricultural Research
and Development Center); ($60,852). (michel.18@osu.edu)

Soybean aphid in Pennsylvania: Monitoring and development of new management
tactics; John F. Tooker (Department of Entomology, Pennsylvania State University);
($19,000). (tooker@psu.edu)

Biological control of the soybean aphid in Wisconsin; David Hogg and Daniel Mahr
(Department of Entomology, University of Wisconsin); ($10,553). (dhogg@cals.wics.edu)

Soybean aphid: Management, biocontrol, and host plant resistance; David
Ragsdale (Project Manager) and George Heimpel (University of Minnesota), Matt O’Neal
and Silvia Cianzio (Iowa State University), Chris DiFonzo and Dechun Wang (Michigan
State University), Christian Krupke (Purdue University), Mike Gray, Brian Diers and
David Voegtlin (University of Illinois), Kelley Tilmon (South Dakota State University),
John Reese, Brian McCornack and Bill Schapaugh (Kansas State University), Tom Hunt
and Tiffany Heng-Moss (University of Nebraska Lincoln), Dave Hogg and Eileen Cullen
(University of Wisconsin), Deirdre Prischmann and Janet Knodel (North Dakota State
University), Andy Michel and Rouf Mian (The Ohio State University), and Keith Hopper
and Kim Hoelmer (USDA/ARS/Newark, DE); ($439,778). (rags001@umn.edu)


   •   Other Soybean Insect Studies
Determining the economic threshold for complexes of insect pests that feed on
soybeans; Tim Reed, Warren Griffith, Leonard Kuykendall, Rudy Yates and Richard
Petcher (Alabama Cooperative Extension System and Agronomy and Soils Department,
Auburn University); ($9,250). (reedtim@auburn.edu)

Economic consequences of using insecticidal seed treatments on soybeans; Tim
Reed (Alabama Cooperative Extension System, Auburn University); ($9,550).
(reedtim@auburn.edu)

Dectes stem borer in soybeans; Joanne Whalen (Integrated Pest Management,
University of Delaware); ($3,952). (jwhalen@udel.edu)


                                                                                    41
Developing soybean resistance to the lesser cornstalk borer, stink bugs and
defoliators; John All (Entomology Department, University of Georgia);
($15,000).(jall@uga.edu)

Effect of Japanese beetle (and potentially other defoliators) on modern soybean
production; Kevin Steffey, Mike Grey, Doug Jones and Ron Estes (University of Illinois-
Urbana/Champaign); ($42,272). (ksteffey@illinois.edu)

Impact of Japanese beetle defoliation on soybean yield and survey for natural
enemies of Japanese beetle; Doug Jones, Kevin Steffey, Mike Grey and Ron Estes
(University of Illinois-Urbana/Champaign); ($16,893). (jonesd@illinois.edu)

Development of soybean host plant resistance and other management options for
the soybean stem borer; Lawrent Buschman, C. Michael Smith, Phillip E. Sloderbeck,
William Schapaugh and Harold Trick (Entomology, Agronomy and Plant Pathology
Departments, Southwest Area Extension Office, SW Research/Extension Center, KSU
Extension Offices, Kansas State University); ($26,156). (lbuschma@ksu.edu)

Biology, distribution and management of soybean insect pests; Jeffrey Davis
(Department of Entomology, Louisiana State University); ($52,000).(jeffdavis@lsu.edu)

Evaluating selected insecticide use strategies in Louisiana Soybean; B. Roger
Leonard (Northeast Research Station, Department of Entomology, Louisiana State
University); ($15,500). (318-435-2157)

Assessment of below ground pests of tilled and untilled soybean and potential for
biocontrol; Daniel Gruner (Department of Entomology, University of Maryland);
($14,856). (dsguner@umd.edu)

Survey of brown marmolated stink bug and assess of its potential economic
impact on soybean production in Maryland; Galen Dively (Department of
Entomology, University of Maryland); ($6,042). (galen@umd.edu)

Economic comparison of soybean pest management input programs; Ian MacRae,
Ken Ostlie and Carlyle Holen (Northwest Experiment Station), Bruce Potter (Southwest
Research & Outreach Center) and Fitz Breitenbach (Rochester Regional Extension
Center, University of Minnesota); ($26,312). (imacrae@umn.edu)

Economics of soybean maturity groups’ yield response to insecticides seed
treatments with early planting dates; Normie Buehring and Don Cook (North
Mississippi Research and Extension Center), Steve Martin, Jeff Gore (Delta Research
and Extension Center) and Angus Catchot (Extension Service), Mississippi State
University); ($35,954). (buehring@ra.msstate.edu)

Impact of insect pests on soybean yields at different growth stages; Jeffrey Gore
and Don Cook (Delta Research and Extension Center), Fred Musser (Department of
Entomology and Plant Pathology), Gordon Andrews and Angus Catchot (MSU Extension
Service, Mississippi State University); ($65,000). (jgore@drec.msstate.edu)

Developing an IPM program for stink bug in Nebraska soybeans; Thomas Hunt
(NEREC, University of Nebraska); ($21,541). (thunt2@uln.edu)

                                                                                    42
Optimizing insect management strategies for soybeans in South Carolina; Jeremy
Greene (Department of Entomology, Soils and Plant Sciences, Clemson University);
($12,480. (greene4@clemson.edu)

Development of red banded stink bug economic injury levels; M. O. Way (Texas
AgriLife Research and Extension Center, Beaumont, TX.); ($2,000).
(m-way@tamu.edu)

Soybean insect management program: Assessment of corn earworm, Pyrethroid
resistance, stink bug impact and control, and assessment of insecticide efficacy;
D. Ames Herbert (Tidewater Agricultural Research and Extension Center, Virginia Tech);
($10,480). (herbert@vt.edu)




Soybean Composition
Rust resistance RR2Y soybean varieties that produce superior poultry meal; H.
Rogers Boerma (Center for Applied Genetic Technologies, University of Georgia-
Athens); ($30,000). (rboerma@uga.edu)

Determining the impact of multiple pests on soybean yields and grain
composition; Gustavo MacIntosh (Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology),
Matthew O’Neal (Entomology), Gregory Tylka and Felicitas Avendano (Plant Pathology)
and Palle Pedersen (Agronomy Department, Iowa State University); ($102,347).
(gustavo@iastate.edu)

Exploiting genetic variation in soybean to improve seed composition and yield;
Sue Gibson, Jane Glazebrook, Fumiaki Katagiri (Department Plant Biology) and James
Orf (Department of Agronomy and Plant Genetics, University of Minnesota); ($30,000).
(orfxx001@umn.edu)

Forward genetic screen for soybean varieties with improved oil/protein content;
Seth Naeve and Jim Orf (Department of Agronomy and Plant Genetics, University of
Minnesota); ($48,000). (naeve002@umn.edu)

Genetic dissection of soybean seed protein and oil content; Gary Muehlbauer
(Department of Agronomy and Plant Genetics, University of Minnesota); ($49,978).
(muehl003@umn.edu)

Generating isoflavone-null lines for commercialization and developing sweet
soybean; Oliver Yu (Danforth Center, St. Louis, MO.); ($40,000).
(oyu@daanfortcenter.org)

Genetic engineering to enhance oil traits in soybean; Henry Nguyen, Rajesh Kumar,
David Sleper and Ed Cahoon (Division of Plant Sciences, University of Missouri and
Donald Danforth Plant Science Center); ($71,875). (nguyenhenry@missouri.edu)

Genetic modification of sterol composition in soybean seeds: Henry Nguyen
(Division of Plant Sciences, University of Missouri); (61,012).
(nguyenhenry@missouri.edu)

                                                                                   43
Improving Nebraska’s soybean seed protein and oil content; James Specht
(Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, University of Nebraska); ($46,950).
(specht1@unl.edu)

Molecular-genetic regulation of seed oil accumulation in soybean; Henry Nguyen,
Rajesh Kumar and Grover Shannon (Division of Plant Sciences, University of Missouri);
($74,880). (nguyenhenry@missouri.edu)

Evaluation of diverse soybean germplasm for improvement of protein
composition of soybean seeds; Brian Waters (University of Nebraska); ($41,850).
(bwaters2@unl.edu).

Selecting high oil soybean varieties; Andrea Cardinal and Joseph Burton (Crop
Science Department, North Carolina State University); ($3,000).
(Andrea_Cardinal@ncsu.edu)

Protein and oil data analysis of cultivars in the fee testing program; Ted Helms
(Department of Plant Sciences, North Dakota State University); ($4,680).
(ted.helms@ndsu.edu)

Rust resistant Roundup Ready 2 Yield™ soybean varieties that produce superior
protein meal; H. Roger Boerma (Crop and Soil Sciences, University of Georgia) and
Vince Pantalone (Plant and Soil Science, University of Tennessee); ($50,000).
(rboerma@uga.edu)

Compositional analysis of whole soybean grain by transmission Raman
spectroscopy: A pilot study; Linda Sue Kull (University of Illinois-Urbana/Champaign);
($155,504). (lkull@illinois.edu)

Development of maturity I-IV varieties for the Better Bean Initiative; Walter Fehr
(Iowa State University); ($582,400). (wfehr@iastate.edu)

Development of soybeans with high seed protein, low phytate and enhanced feed
efficiency; Joe Burton (USDA/ARS-North Carolina State University); ($1,420,278).
(joe_burton@ncsu.edu)

Development of USDA/ARS soybeans with mid-oleic, low-linolenic, low saturated
seed oil; Joe Burton (USDA/ARS-North Carolina State University); ($809,422).
(joe_burton@ncsu.edu)

Development of varieties with increased protein concentration; Brian Diers
(University of Illinois); ($24,207). (bdiers@illinois.edu)

Enhancing oil content of soybean; Tom Clemente (University of Nebraska);
($43,700). (tclemente@unl.edu)

Expanding the NIR Consortium; James Orf (University of Minnesota); ($50,000).
(orfxx001@umn.edu)

F.I.R.S.T soybean variety seed tests; Kevin Coey (Agronomic Seed Consulting);
($52,389). (kevincoey@agsci.com)

                                                                                   44
Further development of soybean with higher levels of improved oil and enhanced
fugal resistance; David Hildebrand (University of Kentucky); ($59,910).
(dhid@pop.uky.edu)

Identification and characterization metabolic factors affecting the oil content of
soybean seed; Salvatore Sparace (Clemson University); ($98,314).
(smsprc@clemson.edu)

Impact of low phytic acid cultivars of soy on the environment and product quality;
Rick Barrows (USDA/ARS-Bozeman, MT.); ($85,808). (rick.barrows@ars.usda.gov)

NIR variety data; Charles Hurburgh (Iowa State University); ($31,000).
(tatry@iastate.edu)

Quality traits regional test; George Graef (University of Nebraska); ($76,796).
(ggraef@unimotes.edu)

Rapid development of environmentally stable mid-oleic soybeans; Andrea Cardinal
(North Carolina State University); ($98,718). (Andrea_Cardinal@nscu.edu)

Rust resistance Roundup Ready 2 Yield™ soybean varieties that produce superior
protein meal; Debbie Ellis (Southern Soybean Research Center); ($25,000).
(dellis@kysoy.org)

Technical support for bio-modification and promotion of soybeans with oil and
protein content; Richard Wilson (Oilseeds & Bioacience Consulting); ($21,500).

The contribution of small RNAs toward modulating genes networks for protein
and oil composition in soybean; Lila Vodkin (University of Illinois-Urbana/Champaign);
($193,275). (l-vodkin@illiniis.edu)

USB/AOCS soybean quality traits (SQT) program; Richard Cantrill (American Oil
Chemists Society); ($490,828). (rcantril@socs.org)

USDA/AOCS quality traits (SQT) Program; Richard Cantrill (American Oil Chemist
Society); ($245,414). (cantrill@aocs.org)

Use of genomics to improve soybean meal digestibility and food quality; Saghai
Maroof (Virginia Tech); ($124,000). (msaroof@vt.edu)

Domestic crop survey component of AMMS; Nick Bajjalieh (Integrative Nutrition,
Inc.); ($97,140). (nlb@4ini.com)




Soybean Utilization Research
   • Soy Protein, Soybean Meal and Hulls Studies
Protein, amino acid composition and bioactive peptides (protein fragments) in
meals of high oleic acid soybean lines developed in Arkansas; Navam

                                                                                   45
Hettiararchchy (Food Science Department) and Pengyin Chen (Crops, Soil and
Environment Sciences, University of Arkansas); ($42,053). (nhettiar@uark.edu)

Adipocyte development in neonatal piglets receiving soy infant formula; Sharon M.
Donovan and Paul S. Cooke (University of Illinois-Urbana/Champaign); ($15,000)
(sdonovan@illinopis.edu).

Efficacy of soy protein supplementation in diabetic hemodialysis patients; Ken
Wilund (University of Illinois-Urbana/Champaign); ($13,271). (kwilund@illinois.edu)

Soy-in-aquaculture research program; John Campen (Smith Bucklin, Inc.);
($100,000). (john_campen@sba.com)

The effect of various processing techniques on the nutritional value of soybean
meal fed to weaned pigs; Jonathan Holt (Illinois State University); ($24,000).
(jholtz@ilstu.edu)

Increasing Utilization of soy-derived protein sources in aquaculture feeds; Jesse
Trushenski and Christopher Kohler (Southern Illinois University-Carbondale);
($137,645). (saluski@siu.edu)

Analysis of an antibiotic protein from soybean; Daniel Zurek (Department of Biology,
Pittsburg State University); ($26,461). (dzurek@pittstate.edu)

Nutritional enhancement of soybean carbohydrates and hulls for animal feed
using microbial cultures; Praveen Vadlani, Ron Madl, Dan O’Brien (Department of
Grain Science and Industry, Department of Extension Agricultural Economics NW
Research Extension Center, Kansas State University); ($38,742). (vadlani@ksu.edu)

Premium texturized soybean protein by extrusion processing: Product quality
from different formulations and processing parameters; Sajid Alavi, Enzhi Michael
Cheng (Department of Grain Science and Industry, Kansas State University); ($35,530).
(salavi@ksu.eu)

Characterization of alternative soybean storage practices and their effects on
post-harvest quality; Jason Ward and Jeremiah Davis (Agricultural and Biological
Engineering Department, MAFES, Mississippi State University); ($30,500).
(jward@ext.msstate.edu)

Enhancing the nutritional value of soybean seed meal to meet the amino acid
requirements of livestock; Monty Kerley and Hari Krishnan (Animal Science
Department, University of Missouri); ($0; time extension). (mkerley@missouri.edu)

Microbial digestion of soybean hulls; Monty Kerley (Animal Science Department,
University of Missouri); ($40,000). (mkerley@missouri.edu)

Identification of soybean proteins which are allergenic to young pigs; Monty Kerley
and Hari Krishnan (Animal Science Department, University of Missouri); ($0; time
extension). (mkerley@missouri.edu)



                                                                                  46
Is the soy allergen effect on pigs a myth? Monty Kerley (Animal Science Department,
University of Missouri); ($36,000). (mkerley@missouri.edu)

Optimum level of soybean meal in sow lactation diets; Gary Allee (Animal Science
Department, University of Missouri); ($0; time extension). (AlleeG@missouri.edu)

Evaluation of replacement of fish meal with soybean meal in hybrid striped bass
diets; Tom Losordo and M.J. Turano (North Carolina State University Sea Grant
Program); ($20,044). (tlosordo@unity.ncsu.edu)

Value of soybean residue for cattle feed; Vern Anderson and Breanne Ilse (North
Dakota State University Carrington Research Extension Center, Carrington, N.D.);
($10,000). (vern.anderson@ndsu.edu)

Assessing the nutritional energy value of stacked trait low phytate/low
oligosaccharide soybean in animal feeding applications; Philip Lobo (Direct
Managed); ($100,000). (plobo@smithbucklin.com)

Concept paper: Improvement of soybean protein content via storage in protein
bodies; Diane Bassham (Iowa State University); ($66,687). (basshan@iastate.edu)

Dietary energy utilization of soybean meals originating from varieties having
altered sugar composition fed to broiler chick; William Dozier (Auburn University);
($32,900). (bill.dozier@auburn.edu)

Increasing metabolizable energy in soybean meal; Mian Riaz (Texas Engineering
Experiment Station); ($50,000). (mnriaz@tamu.edu)

Soy-in-aquaculture research; John Campen (Direct Managed); ($917,028).
(john_campen@sba.com)


   • Soy Oil, Soy Foods and Human Health Studies
Effect of diets supplemented with CLA-enriched soybean oil, standard soybean
oil, or marine fish oil on growth, health, feed conversions, survival, body
composition and shelf life of Channel catfish; Rebecca Lochmann (Department of
Aquaculture and Fisheries, University of Arkansas, Pine Bluff, AR); ($21,476).
(rlochmann@uaex.edu)

High-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) soy oil quality; Andrew Proctor (Department of
Food Science, University of Arkansas); ($67,131). (aprockor@uark.edu)

A team approach targeted at identifying anti-obesity and anti-diabetic soybean
ingredients; William Banz, Jeremy Davis and April Strader (Southern Illinois
University-Carbondale), Elaine Krul (Solae), Kola Ajuwon (Purdue University) and Neil
Shay (University of Florida); ($55,000).(banz@siu.edu)




                                                                                  47
Bioactive peptides in human health: Inhibition of fat accumulation in humans
consuming soybean milk with different protein profiles; Elvira de Mejia (University
of Illinois-Urbana/ Champaign); ($15,000). (edemejia@illinois.edu)

Managed Research Area: Soy nutrition and food sciences; Keith R. Cadwallader
(Co-coordinator) (Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of
Illinois-Urbana/Champaign) and William Banz (Co-coordinator) (Animal Science, Food &
Nutrition, Southern Illinois University-Carbondale); (The funding is allocated to projects).
(cadwlldr@illinois.edu)

Perceptual and rheological profiles of high protein soy foods targeted for
alleviation of overweight and obesity; Soo-Y Lee and Youngsoo Lee (University of
Illinois-Urbana/ Champaign); ($18,000). (soolee@illinois.edu)

Soy intake and the risk of glucose intolerance and diabetes; Karen Chapman-
Novakofski (University of Illinois-Urbana/Champaign); ($16,000). (kmc@illinois.edu)

R u a healthy kids? Sharon Petersen (Southern Illinois University-Carbondale);
($261,731).

Start up support for soy and obesity research; Todd Winters and William Banz
(College of Agriculture, University Illinois University-Carbondale); ($85,761).
 (tw3a@siu.edu)

The effect of soy diets on Igf2 gene expression and development of obesity in
rats; Hong Chen (University of Illinois-Urbana/Champaign); ($13,000).
(hongchen@illinois.edu)

Implementation of “traditional” and “designer” oils in aquaculture feeds; Jesse
Trushenski and Christopher Kohler (Southern Illinois University-Carbondale);
($314,839). (saluski@siu.edu)

Development of the soybean-derived peptide Lunasin as a chemoprevention
agent; Keith Davis (University of Louisville/Owensboro Cancer Research Program);
($53,550). (keith.davis@louisville.edu)

Continuous microwave extraction of soy isoflavones; Cristina Sabliov (Biological
and Agricultural Engineering Department, Louisiana State University); ($23,000).
(csabliov@lsu.edu)

Extraction of the anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory protein Bowman-Birk
inhibitor from soybean whey for use in multiple sclerosis, muscle dystrophy, and
inflammatory bowel disease; Jack Losso (Department of Food Science, Louisiana
State University); ($35,000). (jlosso@agcenter.lsu.edu)

Extraction, purification and antioxidant properties of soy isoflavones from
defatted soy flakes; Zhimin Xu (Department of Food Science, Louisiana State
University); ($25,500). (zxu@agcenter.lsu.edu




                                                                                         48
Development of value-added utilization of Maryland-grown soybean varieties in
nutraceutical ingredients and functional foods; Lianglu Yu (Department of Nutrition
and Food Science, University of Maryland); ($24,000). (lyu5@umd.edu)

Value-added application of Delmarva soybean; Y. Martin Lo (Department of Nutrition
and Food Science, University of Maryland); ($9,000). (ymlo@umd.edu)

Cholesterol-lowering property of a naturally-occurring peptide derived from soy:
Ryan Schmidt and Alfredo Galvez (SoyLabs); ($176,000).(ryan.schmidt@soylabs.com)

Does genistein, a soy phytoestrogen, prevent prostate cancer by regulation of the
hedgehog-signaling pathway? Dennis Lubahn (Division of Plant Sciences, University
of Missouri; ($0; time extension). (lubahnd@missouri.edu)

Does soy lunasin prevent prostate cancer by regulation of the hedgehog-signaling
pathway? Dennis Lubahn (Division of Plant Sciences, University of Missouri); ($0; time
extension). (lubahnd@missouri.edu)

The production of the nutraceutical carotenoid zeaxanthin in transgenic seeds;
Monica Schmidt (Danforth Center, St. Louis, MO); ($100,000).
(MSchmidt@danforthcenter.org)

Improving soy food quality for enhancing health; Sam Chang (Department of Cereal
and Food Sciences, North Dakota State University); ($70,000).
(kow.chang@ndsu.edu)

Prevention of colonic inflammation by soybean protein isolate; Joshua D. Lambert
and Ryan J. Elias (Department of Food Science, Pennsylvania State University);
($10,000). (jdl34@psu.edu)

Processing of a natural soluble soy protein ingredient for foods and beverages;
John Coupland (Food Science Department, Pennsylvania State University); ($9,683).
(coupland@psu.edu)

Biobased outreach by health associates organization; Karen Edwards (KCE Public
Affairs Associates); ($45,000). (karen@kcegroup.com)

Development of a standard line of rainbow trout; Ron Hardy (University of Idaho);
($89,500). (rhardy@uidaho.edu)

Evaluation of the potential reproductive and developmental effects of soy
isoflavones; David Bechtel (Cantox US, Inc.); ($50,000). (dbechtel@cantox.edu)

Soy intake and male fertility study; Janice Hilton (Loma Linda University); ($149,132).
(jhilton@llu.edu)

Studies on the replacement of fish meal with soy in salmonid fish species in an
integrated nutritional model framework; Rick Barrows (USDA/ARS-Bozeman, MT.);
($159,905). (rick.barrows@ars.usda.gov)


                                                                                     49
   • Soy-based Industrial Use Research
On farm biodiesel production; Mark Hall, Christian Broadbeck and Daniel Mullenix
(Tenn Valley Research and Extension Center, Auburn University); ($10,000).
(hallmah@auburn.edu)

Arkansas biodiesel research, demonstration and education project; Donald M.
Johnson and G.W. Wardlow (Department of Agricultural and Extension Education,
University of Arkansas); ($28,150). (dmjohnso@uark.edu)

Catalytic conversion of glycerin to dihydroxyacetone; Arvind Varma (Chemical
Engineering Department) and Bernard Tao (Agricultural and Biological Engineering,
Purdue University); ($47,606). (avarma@purdue.edu)

Concrete sealants; Bernard Y. Tao (Agricultural and Biological Engineering) and Jason
Weiss (Civil Engineering, Purdue University); ($72,166). (tao@purdue.edu)

Biodiesel glycerin based hydrogen production for electrical generation from a
hydrogen internal combustion engine; William Ayres (Renewable Solutions, LLC);
($43,000).

Hyperbrached polyols for flexible foams from soybean oil fatty acids; Zoran
Petrovi, Henry Emadipour (Kansas Polymer Research Center, Plastics Engineering
Technology, Pittsburg State University); ($52,000). (bti@pittstate.edu)

Solvent-free bio-based adhesives from soybean oil-based urethane prepolymers;
Ivan Javni, William Shirley (Kansas Polymer Research Center, Department of
Chemistry, Pittsburg State University); ($50,000). (ijavni@pittstate.edu)

Soy oil latex for pressure sensitive adhesives; Xiuzhi Susan Sun, Donghai Wang
(Department of Grain Science and Industry, Department of Bio & Ag Engineering,
Kansas State University); ($48,700). (xss@ksu.edu)

Alpha olefins from soyoil; Ramani Narayan and Dan Graiver (Chemical Engineering
and Material Science, Michigan State University); (Funded at a level up to $10,000).
(narayan@msu.edu)

Moisture activated cure of modified soyoil for sealants, paints and varnishes:
Phase II; Ramani Narayan and Dan Graiver (Chemical Engineering and Material
Science, Michigan State University); (Approved funding level up to $20,000).
(narayan@msu.edu)

OEM technology development 2010 and beyond; Steve Howell (National Biodiesel
Board); (Approved funding up to $100,000). (info@biodiesel.org)

Preparation of soy-based isocyanates from soy meal; Ramani Narayan and Dan
Graiver (Chemical Engineering and Material Science, Michigan State University);
(Approved funding level up to $50,000 and the project will continue with co-funding and
project coordination provided by the United Soybean Board). (narayan@msu.edu)



                                                                                    50
Soyfoam for automotive applications; Alan Argento and W. Kim (Engineering and
Computer Science, University of Michigan-Dearborn); (Carry over funds are being used
fund this year’s effort); (Co-funded by the United Soybean Board).
(aargento@umich.edu)

Use of soymeal as a filler in plastics for automotive applications; Cynthia Flanigan
(Ford Motor Company); (Carry over funds are being used to fund this year’s effort); (Co-
funded by the United Soybean Board). (cflaniz2@ford.com)

Using genomics to increase soybean biodiesel yield; Sue Gibson (Department of
Plant Biology) and James Orf (Department of Agronomy and Plant Genetics, University
of Minnesota); ($20,000). Gibso043@umn.edu)

Development and evaluation of soy protein and epoxidized soy oil ester derived
versatile plastics; Shubhen Kapila, Virgil Flanigan, K. Chandrashekhara, and Paul Nam
(Missouri University of Science & Technology); ($0; time extension). (kapilas@umr.edu)

Continued development of fuels, chemicals and polymers from soybean oil;
Wayne Seames (Chemical Engineering Department, University of North Dakota);
($110,000). (WayneSeames@mail.und.edu)

Development of novel soybean oil-based thiol-urethane coatings; Dean Webster
(Department of Coating and Polymeric Materials, North Dakota State University);
($58,740). (dean.webster@ndsu.edu)

Smart polymer adjuvant-surfactants to improve herbicide activity in soybeans;
Andriy Voronov and Rich Zollinger (North Dakota State University); ($30,000).
(andriy.voronov@ndsu.edu)

Bondaflex Soythane PUR sealant and adhesives; Doug Walker (Bondaflex
Technologies); ($50,000). (walkerd@bondaflex.com)

Chemically enhanced soy proteins for use in laundry products; Alison Hudson
(Surface Chemists of Florida); ($75,000). (alice@surfacechemists.com)

Cold weather operability limits; Doug Whitehead (National Biodiesel Board);
($85,000). (dwhitehead@biodiesel.org)

Continuous calendaring-extrusion route for melt-processing of ribbo-fiber based
nonwovens and films derived from soy proteins; Amod Ogale (Clemson University);
($115,260). (ogale@clemon.edu)

Cost-effective soy protein fiber; Michael Jaffe (New Jersey Institute of Technologies);
($127,746). (jaffe@adm.njit.edu)

Soy foam for automotive applications; Alan Argento (University of Michigan);
($70,117). (aargento@umich.edu)

Develop soy-based plastics for petrochemical market providing vibration
technologies; Mark Warren (Johnson Controls, Inc.); ($120,000).
(mark.a.warren@jci.com)

                                                                                      51
Develop soy-based plastics for petrochemical market; Mark Warren (Johnson
Controls, Inc.); ($150,000). (mark.a.warren@jci.com)

Developing a cost effective environmentally begin technique for soy protein fiber
(SPF) spinning; Jinwan Zhang (Washington State University); ($88,763).
(jwzhang@wsu.edu)

Developing a soybean meal or flour based particulate filler for thermosetting
polymer products; Rujul Mehta (National Composite); ($46,500).
(metha@compositcenter.org)

Developing foamed soy protein-based bioplastic alternatives to polystryrene
foams; Jiwan Zhang (Washington State University); ($78,789). (jzhang@wsu.edu)

Development and commercialization of soy oil polymers for use as roofing and
insulation adhesives; Lance Niemann (Niemann & Associates); ($78,000).
(niemannlab@aol.com)

Development of a high energy density glycerol biobattery; Shelley Minteer (St.
Louis University); ($35,596). (minters@slu.edu)

Development of a soy-based asphalt cement;              Sheldon   Chesky     (BioSpan
Technologies); ($88,000). (shelchesky@sbcglobal.net)

Development of bio-renewable plasticizers and stabilizers in plastic materials;
Dharma Kodali (University of Minnesota); ($145,087). (dkodali@umn.edu)

Development of cost-effective flake-based fiber;         James    Bruening    (Marvin
Technology); ($142,700). jimbruening@carolina.rr.com)

Development of high performance soy-based UV curable coatings; Zhigang Chan
(North Dakota State University); ($98,210). (Zhigang.chen@ndsu.edy)

Development of process finishes and surface modifiers to support the
commercialization of soy fiber; Thomas Theyson (Tens Tech, Inc.); ($70,000).
(tenstech@earthline.net)

Economical engineered soy compositions for partial phenol replacement in PF
wood resins; Darlene Benzick (Prometheus Industries); ($60,500).
(dbenzick@prometheusindustries.com)

Efficient acrolein production from crude glycerin using supercritical water
technology: Phase II- Development and test of continuous reaction system: X.
Philip Ye (University of Tennessee); ($127,110). (xye2@utk.edu)

Enhanced anaerobic biomediation using soy flour, soy concentrate and lecithin;
Bob Borden (North Carolina State University); ($60,000). rcborden@eos.ncsu.edu)

Feedstock characteristics for commercial petrolatum from soybean oil via
metathesis; Del Craig (Elevance Renewable); ($109,500). Del.Craig@Elevance.com)


                                                                                  52
Fuel Quality Compliance; Doug Whitehead (National Biodiesel Board); ($99,980).
(dwhitehead@biodiesel.org)

Glycerol adducts for use as bio-based cross-linkers and wax components: Part 2;
Barry McGraw (Battelle Memorial Institute); ($50,000). (mcgrawb@battelle.org)

Green soy-based urethane-acrylates (SUAs) for thermoset coatings                 and
composites; Zhigang Chen (North Dakota State University); ($85,000).
(zhigang.chen@ndsu.edu)

High soy content half-pound spray polyurethane foam; Neil Nodelman (Biobased
Technologies); ($50,000). (nnodelman@biobased.net)

High soy content, high performance, thermoset polymers; Galen Suppas (University
of Missouri); ($70,941). (suppesg@missouri.edu)

Hybrid emulsions using chemically modified soybean oil; Al Fuchs (Northampton
Community College); ($51,250). (fushs@etctr.com)

Hyperbranched polyols for flexible foam from soybean oil fatty acids; Kenlon
Johannes (Kansas Soybean Commission); ($26,000).(jahannes@kansassoybean.org)

Improved performance for heat resistant soy adhesives; Chares Frihart (Forest
Products Laboratories); ($98,500). (cfrihat@fs.fed.us)

Increasing soy levels in polyurethane foam for automotive use; Asad Ali (Lear
Corporation); ($250,000). (aali@lear.com)

Isocyanate-free packaging foam of high bio-based content; Peter Frenkel (Sealed
Air Corporation; ($150,000). (PeterFrenkel@aol.com)

Low-cost modifications of soybean oil and glycerin to achieve high polyols
reactivity; Barry McGraw (Battelle Memorial Institute); ($100,000).
(mcgrawb@battelle.org)

OEM 2010 engine testing; Doug Whitehead (National Biodiesel Board); ($300,000).
(dwhitehead@biodiesel.org)

Polyol samples for evaluation; Barry McGraw (Battelle Memorial Institute); ($37,500).
(mcgrawb@battelle.org)

Preparation of soy-based aliphatic isocyanates from soy meal; Ken Farminer
(BioPlastic Polymers); ($99,500). (kwfarmin@chartermi.net)

Producing arabitol and/or xylitol from biodiesel glycerol; Lu-Kwang Ju (University of
Akron); ($80,742). (ju@uakron.edu)

Production of fumaric acid and ethanol from soybean meal by Rhizopus oryzas;
Shang-Tian Yang (Ohio State University); ($109,324). (ynag.15@osu.edu)



                                                                                  53
Production of succinate from soybean carbohydrates; George Bennett (William
Marsh Rice University); ($57,376). (gbennett@rice.edu)

Recycling of polyurethanes based on soy polyols; Vahid Sendijarevic (Trey
Polymers); ($79,900). (vsendijarevic@troypolymers.com)

Replacing current petroleum-based polyols with soy-based                     polyols   in
polyurethane gel products; Richard Fox (PolyWorks, LLC.); ($55,000).
(dfox@polyworksscorp.com)

Research and development of polyamines from glycerin; Kaichang Li (Oregon State
University); ($76,700). (kaichang.li@oregonstate.edu)

Securing biodiesel blends in pipelines; Doug Whitehead (National Biodiesel Board);
($100,000). (dwhitehead@biodiesel.org)

Soy acrylic resin for a platform of interior/exterior finishes; John Schierlmann
(Rustoleum Corporation); ($74,500). (jschierlmann@rustoleum.com)

Soy flakes and soy oil in automotive thermoplastic applications; Cynthia Flanigan
(Ford Motor Company); ($124,500). (cflanig2@ford.com)

Soy protein plastics formulation development for enhanced mechanical strength
and reduced water solubility; David Grewell (Iowa State University); ($61,887).
(dgrewell@iastate.edu)

Soy-based alkyd latex traffic paint; Jennifer Hall (Reichold); ($62,500).
(jennifer.hall@reichhold.com)

Soy-based polyols for technologies polyurethane flexible molded foams; Ning Luo
(Biobased Technologies); ($150,000). (nluo@biobased.net)

Soy-based polyols with flame retardant function; Ning Luo (Biobased Technologies);
($100,000). (nluo@biobased.net)

Soy-based resistance polyurethane pultruded composite; K. Chandrashekhara
(Missouri University of Science and Technology); ($ 50,000). (chandra@mst.edu)

Soy-based water-blown pour-in-place insulation foam; Niels Nodelman (Biobased
Technologies); ($70,000). (nnodelman@biobased.net)

Use of glycerin for high value polymeric products; Zoran Petrovic (Kansas Polymer
Center, Pittsburg State University); ($70,000). (zpetrovi@pittstate.edy)

Vinyl esters containing soybean oil and moieties there from; Hilberto Nava
(Reichold Inc.); ($85,000). (hildeberto.nava@reichhold.com)

Water-blown polyurethane spray roofing foam;               Neil   Nodelman     (Biobased
Technologies); ($15,000). (nnodelman@biobased.net)

Waterborne soy latex emulsion; Madhukar Rao (Sherwin Williams); ($90,000).

                                                                                       54
(mkroa@sherwin.com)




Soybean Educational and Communication Projects
   • On-farm Research Demonstration Projects
Soybean research verification program; Jeremy Ross, J.D. Beaty and Trey Reaper
(Department of Crops, Soil and Environmental Sciences, University of Arkansas);
($77,267). (jross@uaex.edu)

Iowa Soybean Association’s On-Farm Network®/On-farm Research;               Tracy
Blackmer (Iowa Soybean Association); ($849,978). tbackmer@iasoybeans.com

Soy MVP: Soybean management verification program-Year 2; Chad Lee, Jim
Herbek, Lloyd Murdock and Greg Schwab (Department of Plant and Soil Sciences,
University of Kentucky); ($81,793). (cdlee@uky.edu)

Louisiana soybean research verification program for 2009; Ronald Levy (Dean Lee
Research Station, Louisiana State University); ($39,700). zhigang.chen@ndsu.edu

Soybean and grain on-farm demonstration program; R. Levy (Dean Lee Research
Station and Louisiana Cooperative Extension Service, Louisiana State University);
($26,150). (REFerguson@agcenter.lsu.edu)

Soybean 2010 on-farm research and demonstration trials; Mike Staton (Extension
Southwest Region), George Silva, Dave Pratt, Phil Kaatz, Dan Rossman, Marilyn
Thelen, Paul Gross, Bruce MacKellar, Dan Rajzer, and Ned Birkey, (Crop and Soil
Science Department, Michigan State University); (Approved funding level up to
$22,000). (jjhao@msu.edu)

Potential yield enhancements; James Dunphy (Crop Science Department, North
Carolina State University); ($6,600). (jim_dunphu@ncsu.edu)

County demonstration projects; James Dunphy (Crop Science Department, North
Carolina State University); ($10,000). (jim_dunphu@ncsu.edu)

Development of an on-farm product evaluation network; Dell Voight, Ronald Hoover
and Gregory Roth (Cooperative Extension, Lebanon County, Pennsylvania State
University); ($21,955). (dgv1@psu.edu)


   • Extension Education and Communication Activities
In-field training of regional extension agronomy agents to enhance soybean insect
management programs in Alabama; Tim Reed, Warren Griffith, Leonard Kuykendall,
Rudy Yates, Richard Petcher, Brandon Dillard, David Derrick, Amy Winstead and Eric
Schavey (Alabama Cooperative Extension System and Agronomy and Soils
Department, Auburn University); ($9,750). (reedtim@auburn.edu)


                                                                               55
Maintenance and expansion of the ACES/Auburn University website for Alabama
crops; Dennis Delaney, Chris Dillard, Dale Monks, Charles Burmesteir and Paul Mask
(Auburn University); ($5,000). (delandp@auburn.edu)

Precision ag and field crops day; Shannon Norwood, Amy Winstead, John Fulton,
Brenda Ortiz, Richard Petcher, Jim Todd, Buck Farrior and Ken Kelley (ACES,
Biosystems Engineering and Agronomy and Soils Departments, Auburn University);
($2,500). (hubersr@auburn.edu)

Improving technology transfer for profitable and sustainable soybean production;
Jeremy Ross, Chris Grimes, Steve Kelley (Cooperative Extension Service, Little Rock,
AR., University of Arkansas); ($28,635).(jross@uaex.edu) .

Soybean real-time weed and disease alerts; Ken Smith, Richard Cartwright, Debby
Monfort and Bob Reynolds; (Departments of Crops, Soil and Environmental Sciences
and Plant Pathology, University of Arkansas); ($9,994). (smithken@uammt.edu)

2010 UGA Soybean Production Guide; Eric Prostko (Crop and Soil Sciences
Department, University of Georgia); ($5,000). (eprostko@uga.edu)

Communicate weed research information; Bryan Young (Southern Illinois University-
Carbondale) and Aaron Hager (University of Illinois-Urbana/Champaign); ($13,000).
(bgyoung@siu.edu)

High impact outreach and education; Douglas Jones and Linda Kull (University of
Illinois-Urbana/Champaign); ($7,098). (jonesd@illinois.edu)

Illinois Center for Soy Foods: Education and outreach programs; Marilyn Nash,
Keith Cadwallader, Barbara Klein, Stacey Krawczyk, and Bridget Owen (University of
Illinois-Urbana/ Champaign); ($90,000).(mnash@illinois.edu)

NSRL Extension Associates; Linda Kull (National Soybean Research Laboratory,
University of Illinois-Urbana/Champaign); ($35,000). (lkull@illinois.edu)

Updating and management of the Illinois soybean rust website; Linda Kull
(University of Illinois-Urbana/Champaign); ($4,000). (lkull@illinois,edu)

Development of a field crop weed identification guide; Daren Mueller, Robert
Hartzler, Kristine Schaefer, Clarke McGrath and Greg Tylka (Plant Pathology
Department, Iowa State University); ($9,987). (dsmueller@iastate.edu)

Extension and applied research programs for Kansas soybean production; Kraig
Roozeboom (Department of Agronomy, Kansas State University); ($4,814).
(kraig@ksu.edu)

Louisiana Soybean and Grain Research Report; Frankie Gould (Louisiana State
University AgCenter Communications); ($4,500). (fgould@agcenter.lsu.edu)

Upgrading thumb area research and education (TARE) technologies (exclusive of
equipment); Dave Pratt (Michigan State University); (Approved funding level up to
$9,000). (prattda@msu.edu)

                                                                                 56
Improving the profitability of soybeans in Southern Minnesota; Fritz Breitenbach,
Lisa Behnken, Ryan Miller, Lizabeth Stahl and David Nicolai (Rochester Regional
Extension Center, University of Minnesota); ($40,000). (breit004@umn.edu)

Northwest Minnesota soybean tech transfer proposal; Charla Hollingsworth, Doug
Holen, Phil Glogoza, Jeff Stachler, Doug Holen, Howard Person, Randy Nelson, Russ
Severson, Ray Bisek, Jim Stordahl, Senyu Chen, Jodi DeJong-Hughes, Seth Naeve,
Mike Christoffers and Robert Koch (Department of Plant Pathology and the Northwest
Research and Outreach Center, University of Minnesota); ($40,000).
(holli030@umn.edu)

Southwest Minnesota soybean tech transfer proposal; Bruce Potter (Southwest
Research & Outreach Center, University of Minnesota); ($40,000). (bpotter@umn.edu)

Internet access to soybean information in Mississippi; Bob Ratliff (Office of
Agricultural Communications, Mississippi State University); ($2,000).
(bobr@ext.msstate.edu)

A fact sheet on using GPS to test foliar products on soybeans; James Dunphy
(Crop Science Department, North Carolina State University); ($1,200).
(jim_dunphu@ncsu.edu)

Populations of Roundup Ready soybeans; James Dunphy and R.W. Heiniger (Crop
Science Department, North Carolina State University); ($8,400).
(jim_dunphu@ncsu.edu)

Soybean variety demonstrations; James Dunphy (Crop Science Department, North
Carolina State University); ($6,000). (jim_dunphu@ncsu.edu)

Support for printing of weed support manual for soybeans; Larry Steckel (Plant
Sciences Department, University of Tennessee); ($3,000). (lsteckel@utk.edu)

Partners in research 2009; Chad Godsey, Jason Warren and Jeff Edwards
(Department of Plant and Soil Sciences), Randy Taylor (Biosystems and Agricultural
Engineering), John Damicone (Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology), George
Driever and Bob Woods (Oklahoma Cooperative Extension, Oklahoma State University);
($7,250). (chad.godsey@okstate.edu)

Support of extension and research integrated pest management efforts; Scott
Stewart (Entomology and Plant Pathology Department, University of Tennessee);
($22,000). (sstewa21@utk.edu)

Support of multi-county on-farm demonstrations of (CST) county standardized
variety and agronomic tests; Bob Williams (Entomology and Plant Pathology
Department, University of Tennessee); ($18,500). (jwilli31@utk.edu)

Evaluating soybean production strategies-2009; David Moore (Middlesex Extension,
Virginia Tech); ($4,000). (damoore@vt.edu)
Soybean production research support; Bob Pitman (Eastern Virginia Agricultural
Research and Extension Center, Virginia Tech); ($5,300). (rpitman@vt.edu)


                                                                               57
Soybean plant health website and extension; Paul Esker and Craig Grau
(Department of Plant Pathology, University of Wisconsin); ($12,500).
(pde@plantpath.wisc.edu)

Virginia soybean research and extension program; David Holshouser (Eastern
Virginia Agricultural Research and Extension Center, Virginia Tech); ($37,000).
(dholshou@vt.edu)

Compendium of Soybean Diseases; Glen Hartman (USDA/ARS/University of Illinois);
($5,000). (ghartman@illinois.edu)

Plant Health Initiative; David Wright (Iowa Soybean Association); ($273,797).
(dwright@iasoybeans.com)

Soybean IPM educational program: On-farms in New York State; Kenneth Wise
and J. Keith Waldron (Cornell Cooperative Extension, Integrated Pest Management,
Cornell University); ($16,148). (klw24@cornell.edu)

A searchable database of soybean checkoff-funded research; Keith Smith (Keith
Smith and Associates); ($18,900). (keith.smith@wildblue.net)




Other Checkoff Research Funding
Increasing adoption of Continuously Operating Reference Station (CORS)
technology in Alabama; Shannon Norwood, Amy Winstead (Alabama Cooperative
Extension Service), John Fulton (Biosystems Engineering Department) and Brenda Ortiz
(Agronomy and Soils Department, Auburn University); ($7,000). (hubersr@auburn.edu)

Support of long-term field research with soybean; Charles Mitchell and Dennis
Delaney (Agronomy and Soils Department, Auburn University) and K. Balkcom
(USDA/ARS-Soil Dynamics Laboratory); ($1,000). (mitche1@aubuen.edu)

Weighing grain buggy for large-scale test; Dennis Delaney, Brenda Ortiz, Rudy
Yates, Brandon Dillard, Warren Griffith, Richard Petcher and Leonard Kuykendall
(Regional Extension, Agronomy and Soils Department, Auburn University); ($5,000).
(delandp@auburn.edu)

Managed research area administration; Keith Cadwallader (University of Illinois-
Urbana/Champaign); ($17,300). (cadwllr@illinois.edu)

Managed research area administration; Linda Kull (University of Illinois-Urbana/
Champaign) and Jason Bond (Southern Illinois University-Carbondale); ($22,000).
(lkull@illinois.edu)

College of Applied Science and Technology, Dean Enhancement Program: ISA
Cast new faculty mentorship program; Rob Rhykerd and Jeffrey Wood (Illinois State
University); ($36,750). (rrhyker@ilstu.edu)



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Startup support for sturgeon caviar research at SIUC; Todd Winters, James Garvey
and Brian Small (Southern Illinois University); ($89,287). (tw3a@siu.edu)

NSRL communication, coordination and facilitating intellectual properties
protection/commercialization; Bridget Owen (National Soybean Research
Laboratory, University of Illinois-Urbana/ Champaign); ($64,782). (bcowen@illinois.edu)

Engaging new researchers to work in soybean utilization; Bernard Tao (Agricultural
and Biological Engineering, Purdue University); ($73,471). (tao@purdue.edu)

Improving the Purdue order-based setback distance model and interactive
website: Phase II; Albert Heber and Teng Teeh Lim (Agricultural and Biological
Engineering Department, Purdue University); ($45,000). (heber@purdue.edu)

Student soybean contest; Bernard Y. Tao (Agricultural and Biological Engineering,
Purdue University); ($197,000); (tao@purdue.edu)

The cost of community services and the impact of development for Indiana
Counties; Lawrence DeBoer (Agricultural Economics, Purdue University); ($23,824).
(ldeboer@purdue.edu)

Environmental Services 2009: Roger Wolf (Iowa Soybean Association): ($567,098).
(rwolf@iasoybeans.com)

Entomology extension and research initiative; Les Lewis (Entomology Department,
Iowa State University); ($162,500). (leslewis@iastate.edu)

Missouri soybean research & economic impact study of direct impacts of the
Missouri soybean industry; Joe Parcell (Value Ag, LLC); ($35,000).
(joe@valueag.com)

Nebraska Research Consortium for Water and Energy in Agriculture; Kenneth
Cassman (Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, University of Nebraska);
($75,000). (kcassman@unl.edu)

Salary for senior plot caretaker; Melvin Newman (Entomology and Plant Pathology
Department, University of Tennessee); ($18,000). (manewman@utk.edu)

Technical support for soybean specialist; Angela Thompson (Plant Sciences
Department, University of Tennessee); ($18,000). (athompson@utk.edu)

World Soybean Research Conference VIII; David Holshouser (Eastern Virginia
Agricultural Research and Extension Center, Virginia Tech); ($3,550).(dholshou@vt.edu)

A controlled environment, integrated approach to fish and plant production in
Alabama; Jesse Chappell (Auburn University); ($50,000). (chappj@auburn.edu)

Nutrient requirement of fish and shrimp; Robin Schoen (National Academy of
Sciences); ($35,000). (rscheon@nas.edu)



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North Central Soybean Research Program administrative expenses; David Wright
(Iowa Soybean Association); ($63,550). (dwright@iasoybeans.com)

Southern Soybean Research Program; Debbie Ellis (Kentucky Soybean Board);
($25,175). (delis@kysoy.org)

Evaluation of global soybean production opportunities; Edgar Ready III (Smith,
Bucklin & Associates, LLC); ($275,000). (Ed_Ready@SBA.com)

Research Coordination; Direct Managed (Smith Bucklin & Associates LLC, ($200,000).




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Soybean Checkoff-funded Research Database
Projects being funded on October 1, 2009

 
Alabama Soybean Producers
Maintenance and expansion of the ACES/Auburn University website for
Alabama crops; Dennis Delaney, Chris Dillard, Dale Monks, Charles Burmesteir and
Paul Mask (Auburn University); ($5,000). (delandp@auburn.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Websites, Soybean Educational Activities

The funding will be used to maintain, expand and update the Agricultural Cooperative
Extension Service/Auburn University website for Alabama row crops. The intent of the
website is to provide Alabama farmers important cropping information and resources in a
timely manner.


New soybean inoculants for Alabama; Dennis Delaney and Yucheng Feng
(Agronomy and Soils Department, Auburn University); ($8,000). (delandp@auburn.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Inoculant Studies, Nitrogen Fixation

Effective infection of soybean root by rhizobia bacteria is critical for nitrogen fixation and
high yields of soybeans with addition of nitrogen fertilizer. Extension recommendations
are to apply commercial inoculants at planting time if fields have not been recently in
soybeans, or if the grower suspects that environment conditions may have harmed the
soil rhizobia population. Several new rhizobia inoculants have been introduced into the
market place in recent years, along with claims that they are more effective than existing
strains or surviving native soil rhizobia. The unknown of whether native rhizobia are
providing needed nitrogen levels for maximizing soybean yields is the reason for this
study.    The project’s specific objective is to evaluate several new commercial
formulations of rhizobia inoculates in Alabama soybean field and compare rhizonbia
stains present in the inoculants and root nodules.


Weighing grain buggy for large-scale test; Dennis Delaney, Brenda Ortiz, Rudy
Yates, Brandon Dillard, Warren Griffith, Richard Petcher and Leonard Kuykendall
(Regional Extension, Agronomy and Soils Department, Auburn University); ($5,000).
(delandp@auburn.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Research Support

The checkoff funding will be combined with funds from other sources to obtain
equipment for accurately measuring soybean yields from large-scale on-farm tests in
Alabama.




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Evaluation of fungicides for control of Asian Soybean Rust; Dennis Delaney,
Edward Sikora and Kathy Lawrence (Agronomy and Soils Department, Auburn
University); ($10,000. (delandp@auburn.edu)

Key Words: ASR-Management, Soybean Fungicide Studies

Asian soybean rust was found in 18 Alabama counties in 2004, 32 in 2005, 26 in 2006
and 40 in 2007. Predictions indicate that yield loss from soybean rust could reach 50%
in the Southeast U.S., but the disease can be managed with fungicides. Fungicide
applications can reduce yield loss, depending on the plant developmental stage, time
when soybean rust is detected, and application method. This project will evaluate how
best to use different timings and combinations of fungicides to control soybean rust.

The specific objective of this research project is to evaluate fungicide applications and
management for control of soybean rust and other foliar diseases at multiple locations in
Alabama. The researchers will evaluate how best to use different timings and fungicide
combinations in a protective spray program to control soybean rust. The data collected
will include disease control, yield, shattering, foreign material, seed moisture and quality.


Soybean production tools for Alabama; Dennis Delaney, Edward Sikora, Kathy
Lawrence, Bob Goodman, Rudy Yates, David Derrick, Brandon Dillard, Richard Petcher
and Warren Griffith (Agronomy and Soils Department, Auburn University); ($15,000).
(delandp@auburn.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Variety Testing, Soybean Desiccant Studies, Weed Control,
Glyphosate Studies

The objectives of this project are to evaluate: 1) Soybean cultivars under producer
practices and growing conditions; 2) Various available desiccants at different rates and
tank-mixes on early-maturity fungicide-sprayed soybeans and late-summer weeds; and
3) The use of late applications (post-bloom) of glyphosate on soybean yield. Many
Alabama soybean growers in order to control late season weeds, apply glyphosate over-
the-top later than recommended. The potential for soybean yield loss under these
conditions has not been clearly documented.


On farm biodiesel production; Mark Hall, Christian Broadbeck and Daniel Mullenix
(Tenn Valley Research and Extension Center, Auburn University); ($10,000).
(hallmah@auburn.edu)

Key Words: Biodiesel Studies, Biodiesel Processing

This project will investigate the farm production of biodiesel. The research group will
optimize the soybean extruder operation to produce a soybean oil that can be converted
into biodiesel.




                                                                                          62
Support of long-term field research with soybean; Charles Mitchell and Dennis
Delaney (Agronomy and Soils Department, Auburn University) and K. Balkcom
(USDA/ARS-Soil Dynamics Laboratory); ($1,000). (mitche1@aubuen.edu)

Key Words: Soil Fertility Studies, Soybean Production Management

The Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station, the Department of Agronomy and Soils,
and the USDA Soil Dynamics Laboratory at Auburn University maintain two of the oldest,
continuous cropping experiments in the United States. The Old Rotation (circa 1896)
and the Cullars Rotation (circa 1911) are on the National Register of Historical Places.
Maintaining these sites has become a challenge. The checkoff funds will be used to
help maintain Alabama’s long-term cropping system and soil fertility experiments and
periodically summarize soil and soybean yield information to update nutrient
recommendations.


Soybean virus-nematode interaction study; John Murphy, Lathy Lawrence and
Edward Sikora (Plant Pathology and Agronomy and Soils Departments, Auburn
University); ($5,000). (murphj@auburn.edu)

Key Words: Bean Pod Mottle Virus (BPMV), Soybean Reniform Nematode

Crop plants are often infected with multiple pathogens and damaged by root feeding
nematodes and herbivorous insects. The combined effects can lead to severe losses in
the yield. This project is a first step to studying the combined effects of multiple
pathogens and pests on the soybean crop in Alabama. Specifically, the objectives are to
determine the effects of bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) infection and reniform nematode
infestation on soybean growth and development, and delaying BPMV infection will
significantly reduce disease severity for reniform-infested plants.


Precision ag and field crops day; Shannon Norwood, Amy Winstead, John Fulton,
Brenda Ortiz, Richard Petcher, Jim Todd, Buck Farrior and Ken Kelley (ACES,
Biosystems Engineering and Agronomy and Soils Departments, Auburn University);
($2,500). (hubersr@auburn.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Educational Activities

The objective of this funding is to help sponsor the bi-annual Precision Ag and Field
Crops field day held in Southwest Alabama.


Increasing adoption of Continuously Operating Reference Station (CORS)
technology in Alabama; Shannon Norwood, Amy Winstead (Alabama Cooperative
Extension Service), John Fulton (Biosystems Engineering Department) and Brenda Ortiz
(Agronomy and Soils Department, Auburn University); ($7,000). (hubersr@auburn.edu)

Key Words: Global Positioning Studies (GPS)



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Interest and adoption of real time kinematic (RTK) technology by Alabama growers has
rapidly increased over the past several years. RTK allow producers to return to the
exact same location over time, providing benefits in production efficiency and yield, time
management, and environmental quality. Traditionally, base stations have been
required for grower to implement RTK-level accuracy for auto-steer systems in their
farming operations. Available options for this technology include fee-based RTK
networks and continuous operating reference stations. The objective of this project is to
increase the availability and adoption of CORS technology in Alabama.


Economic consequences of using insecticidal seed treatments on
soybeans; Tim Reed (Alabama Cooperative Extension System, Auburn University);
($9,550). (reedtim@auburn.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Insect Management, Soybean Seed Treatments,
Soybean Fungicide Studies

Entomologists have been testing soybean seed treatments for the past four years in the
Mid-South. A total of about 100 studies have been conducted in Mississippi, Arkansas,
Louisiana and Tennessee. These studies indicated CruiserMaxx and Gaucho seed
treatments had about a 70-85% probability of an economic return at present soybean
prices. It would appear that insecticide seed treatments helped control small leaf
feeding beetles, thrips, three-cornered alfalfa hopper and white grubs. In some tests
there was a yield increase without observable insects.

In preliminary replicated studies conducted at three experiment stations in 2008,
insecticide-treated soybean seed plus fungicide yielded 1.24 to 1.8 bu/a more than seed
treated with fungicide alone. Sampling of the plots did not indicate the yield differences
were due to reduction of insect populations. This project will expand the study to
determine the effect of insecticide seed treatments on soybean insects and soybean
yield.


Determining the economic threshold for complexes of insect pests that
feed on soybeans; Tim Reed, Warren Griffith, Leonard Kuykendall, Rudy Yates and
Richard Petcher (Alabama Cooperative Extension System and Agronomy and Soils
Department, Auburn University); ($9,250). (reedtim@auburn.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Insect Management

Soybean insect pests can reduce yield and quality. Presently, insect pest treatment
thresholds for soybean are provided for individual species and information is lacking
about the amount of damage that can occur when different densities of different pests
occur simultaneously at different stages of soybean development. Insect pests can
frequently be present as an economically damaging complex in Alabama in August and
earlier in Southern Alabama. Typically, these complexes include both foliage feeders
(worms, beetles and grasshoppers) and pod feeders (soybean pod worms, bean leaf
beetles and stink bugs). Young seeds can be deformed, undersize or aborted, whereas
older seed will be discolored and shriveled. The germination rate will also be reduced.



                                                                                       64
Currently, there is a lack of research based information about the amount of financial
loss that different complexes of insect pest can inflict at different stages of soybean
development. The objective of this study is to determine the yield and seed quality loss
that different complexes of insect pests can produce at different stages of soybean
development in north, central and south Alabama.


In-field training of regional extension agronomy agents to enhance
soybean insect management programs in Alabama; Tim Reed, Warren Griffith,
Leonard Kuykendall, Rudy Yates, Richard Petcher, Brandon Dillard, David Derrick, Amy
Winstead and Eric Schavey (Alabama Cooperative Extension System and Agronomy
and Soils Department, Auburn University); ($9,750). (reedtim@auburn.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Educational Activities, Soybean Insect Management

Soybean acres continue to expand in Alabama. This increase in acreage has resulted in
a corresponding increase in the need for all eight regional agronomy Extension agents to
be able to help soybean producers and consultants make optimal insect management
decisions. This funding will be used to conduct in-field training activities with the
regional Extension agents to help them become more informed about insect
management.


Soybean Disease Survey; Edward Sikora, John Murphy, Kathy Lawrence and
Dennis Delany (Agronomy and Soils Department, Auburn University); ($6,000).
(sikorej@auburn.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Disease Survey, Soybean Nematodes

A state-wide soybean disease survey was conducted in 2008. It included observations
from over forty fields on the incidence and severity of various foliar diseases, plant
viruses and plant-parasitic nematodes. This project will continue the survey efforts.


Monitoring soybean sentinel fields throughout Alabama for early detection
of Soybean Rust; Edward Sikora, Dennis Delaney, Mary Delaney, Richard Petcher,
Brandon Dillard, Leonard Kuykendall, Warren Griffith, David Derrick Eric Schavey and
Rudy Yates (Agronomy and Soils Department, Auburn University); ($26,000).
(sikorej@auburn.edu)

Key Words: ASR-Sentinel Plots

This funding will be used to establish soybean “sentinel” plots throughout Alabama for
early detection of soybean rust and mapping movement of the diseases within the state.
The plots will be scouted and abnormal tissue samples will be evaluated for rust. This is
part of the USDA/ARS/ APHIS rust monitoring program.




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Soybean      improvement        and    germplasm        enhancement;        David   Weaver
(Agronomy and Soils Department, Auburn University); ($10,000).
(weaverd@auburn.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Breeding, Soybean Variety Testing

The objective of this research project is to test advanced soybean lines that are adapted
to Alabama growing conditions. The primary focus of the breeding program is to test
advanced lines in the USDA Uniform Tests at twelve sites in Alabama. They are
currently evaluating about 175 advanced lines in these cooperative tests.


Utilizing farm data for managing zone creation; Amy Winstead and Shannon
Norwood (Alabama Cooperative Extension), Donn Rodekohr, Brenda Ortiz and Joey
Shaw (Agronomy and Soils Department, Auburn University); ($1,500).
(winstat@auburn.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Production Management, Production Management Zones,
Global Positioning Studies (GPS)

Management zones are created within a field to group similar soil and yield properties
and minimize variability. Once established, they are managed according to their unique
properties and inputs are optimized to meet production potentials. Management zones
can be utilized for variable-rate applications including fertilizer, lime, pesticides and
seed. This project will assist growers in identifying available data that can be used to
create production management zones; and to provide resources on how to generate
management zones using agricultural GIS software.



Arkansas Soybean Promotion Board
Early season soybean production system; Larry Purcell (Crops, Soils and
Environmental Sciences, University of Arkansas); ($283,525). (lpurcell@uark.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Production Management, Soybean Educational Activities,
Early Season Soybean Production System

The goals of this proposal are to increase productivity and profitability of early season
soybean production system (ESPS) by evaluating agronomic management (row spacing,
population density, planting dates, maturity group selection and tillage); soil fertility and
plant nutrition; pest management (diseases, insects, and weeds) and irrigation methods
and requirements. The data collected by investigators will be used to develop
production guidelines and recommendations. Information will be disseminated through
University of Arkansas Extension fact sheets, newsletters, appropriate electronic
updates (web-based and electronic mailings), production meetings, Cooperative
Extension agent training, field days, scientific journal articles, and through conferences
in Arkansas as well as regional and national scientific meetings.




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The project involves five principal investigators and seven co-investigators. The goals of
this proposal are to increase productivity and profitability of ESPS by evaluating
agronomic management (row spacing, population density, planting dates, maturity group
selection and tillage), soil fertility and plant nutrition, pest management (diseases ,
insects and weeds), and irrigation methods and requirements that are constraints for
ESPS.


Full-season soybean production system; Jeremy Ross (Crops, Soil and
Environment Sciences-Extension, University of Arkansas); ($461,339). (jross@uark.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Production Systems, Best Management Practices,
Soybean Educational Activities

Most soybeans produced in Arkansas are produced in a full-season soybean production
system (FSSPS) and consist of both dryland (non-irrigated) and irrigated production
systems. FSSPS irrigated fields planted to MG IV and V varieties in late April and May
have very good yield potential (50+ bu/A) statewide but may not always be the most
profitable due to increased irrigation and pest problems (weed and foliar diseases).
FSSPS dryland fields can be profitable, but success with this system is dependent upon
receiving timely rainfall and the inherent productivity of the soil: therefore, yearly
fluctuations in grain yield and profitability are often quite variable for this production
system.

Weeds, insects and diseases (including stem canker, frog eye leaf spot, and soybean
rust) can reach or exceed threshold levels with the FSSPS. Proper variety selection and
the use of pesticides can be a great aid in minimizing the impact of many of the pest
problems.

Current and future soybean production challenges for the FSSPS include, but are not
limited to, the following: better variety selection; fertility problems including potassium
and minor nutrients; soil problems such as increasing salts and low organic matter;
persistent or changing weed concerns including herbicide resistant horseweed and
pigweed; many diseases; insects including stink bugs, three corner alfalfa hoppers and
bean leaf beetles; and irrigation efficiency.

To address the need for understanding of the interactions involved in this production
system, 32 principal investigators and 31 co-investigators are involved in a major
research effort to optimize production recommendations for the FSSPS. The objectives
and intended outcomes resulting from this research will result in improved
recommendations that are appropriate for soybean production, specifically in the
FSSPS.


Double crop soybean production system; Scott Monfort (Rice research and
Extension Center, University of Arkansas); ($234,176). (smonfort@uaex.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Production Management, Double Cropping,
Soybean Educational Activities



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Double crop soybean production accounts for about one third of the soybean acreage in
Arkansas. Double crop soybean production, despite the increased economic returns,
does have its potential risks. The shortened season associated with double crop
soybeans intensifies the effect of any stress on the crop. These stresses often result in
reduced plant development; increased insect, disease, and weed problems; and a
decline in yield potential.

The goals of this project involving several research groups are to increase productivity
and profitability of the double crop soybean production system by evaluating agronomic
management (row spacing, population density, planting dates, maturity group selection
and tillage), soil fertility and plant nutrition, pest management (diseases, insects, and
weeds), irrigation methods and requirements that are constraints to the production
system. The data collected by investigators will be used to develop production
guidelines and recommendations. Information will be disseminated through UA
extension fact sheets, newsletters, appropriate electronic updates (web-based and
electronic mailings), production meetings, Cooperative Extension agent training, field
days, scientific journal articles, and through conferences in Arkansas as well as regional
and national scientific meetings.


Soybean germplasm enhancement using genetic diversity; Pengyin Chen,
Caroline Gray, Tina Hart, Tet Ishibashi, Eddie Gordon, Joe Shafer, Bill Apple, Jonathan
McCoy and Scott Hayes (Crops, Soil and Environment Sciences, University of
Arkansas); ($97,098). (.pchen@uark.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Breeding, Soybean Genetic Diversity

An important aspect of the University of Arkansas soybean research program is to
develop diverse germplasm that will broaden the genetic background and improve the
southern soybean gene pool, specifically, the project will: 1) Incorporate useful genetic
diversity and unique traits from exotic plant introductions and Northern elite germplasm
into high-yielding strains adapted to Arkansas environments; and 2) Incorporate unique
traits of interest from diverse germplasm into southern elite cultivars and soybean
breeding lines.


Breeding soybean cultivars with high yield and multiple pest resistance;
Pengyin Chen, Caroline Gray, Tina Hart, Eddie Gordon, Joe Shafer, Bill Apple, Jonathan
McCoy and Scot Hayes (Crops, Soil and Environment Sciences, University of Arkansas);
($104,485). (pchen@uark.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Breeding, Genetic Resistance to Soybean Diseases,
Genetic Resistance to Nematodes

The goal of this checkoff project is to provide a steady flow of new and improved
soybean cultivars with high productivity and profitability to the soybean industry.
Specifically, the research team will develop varieties and germplasm which are high-
yielding, maturity group 4-5 (Roundup Ready and conventional), adapted to various
environments and production systems in Arkansas, and with resistance to soybean cyst
nematode, root knot nematode, sudden death syndrome, stem canker, frogeye leaf spot,
soybean mosaic virus and soybean rust.

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Protein, amino acid composition and bioactive peptides (protein fragments)
in meals of high oleic acid soybean lines developed in Arkansas; Navam
Hettiararchchy, (Food Science Department) and Pengyin Chen (Crops, Soil and
Environment Sciences, University of Arkansas); ($42,053). (nhettiar@uark.edu)

Key Words: Soy Protein Utilization, Soy-Human Health Studies,
Soybean Meal-Composition

In this project the researchers will investigate the potential of using peptides produced
from high oleic soybean lines for their health benefits. The project’s specific objectives
are to:
    • Produce protein fragments (peptides) from high oleic acid soybean meals by
        using alcalase enzyme under controlled degree of hydrolysis to produce
        predominantly smaller molecular size peptides;
    • Treat the hydrolysates with simulated gastric and intestinal juices to produce
        resistant peptides and subject the resulting digests to ultrafiltration to obtain
        protein fragments of various sizes;
    • Prepare the peptides by using papain enzyme; and
    • Investigate anti-hypertensive, and anticancer activities of resistant ultrafiltered
        protein fractions in model systems and human cell lines.


Comprehensive disease screening of soybean varieties in Arkansas; Terry
Kirkpatrick, Richard Cartwright, Scott Monfort (Departments of Plant Pathology and
Crops, Soil and Environmental Sciences, University of Arkansas); ($118,039).
(tkirkpatrick@uard.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Variety Testing, Genetic Resistance to Soybean Diseases,
Genetic Resistance to Nematodes

The researchers will screen all cultivars in the 2008 Official Variety Test for frogeye leaf
spot, stem canker, root-knot nematode, reniform nematode, and soybean cyst nematode
resistance in the field nurseries and greenhouse studies. They will evaluate last year’s
promising root-knot resistant cultivars in their root-knot nursery field near Dermott, AR.
The variety test locations and sentinel rust plots will be monitored for the development of
Asian soybean rust and foliar diseases. The various diseases will be rated for severity
and the researchers will make the screening data available to Cooperative Extension
Service personnel by December 1st. The data will also be published on the University of
Arkansas variety testing Website


Soybean research verification program; Jeremy Ross, J.D. Beaty and Trey
Reaper (Department of Crops, Soil and Environmental Sciences, University of
Arkansas); ($77,267). (jross@uaex.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Production Management, Soybean On-farm Research,
Soybean Educational Activities, Soybean Verification Programs

The objective of this program is to conduct field trials to verify the University of Arkansas,
Division of Agriculture recommendations for soybean production and to maintain an

                                                                                           69
economic data base of production practices on a large scale field basis. The specific
objectives are to:
    • Conduct field trials to verify that high yields can be profitably produced by
        coordinating the implementation of all research-based recommendations;
    • Aid researchers in identifying areas of soybean production and marketing that
        need further study;
    • Develop improved recommendations which contribute to profitable soybean
        production utilizing both irrigated and non-irrigated production of both early
        season (indeterminate) and conventional (determinate) varieties into
        economically sustainable soybean production systems for the Arkansas farmers;
        and
    • Utilize the Soybean Research Verification Program concept to maintain and
        improve producers, County Extension Agents' and other crop advisors' soybean
        production and marketing expertise.


Soybean planting seed quality assessment and education in Arkansas;
Richard Cartwright, John Rupe, Pengyin Chen, Don Nombek, Jeremy Ross and Larry
Purcell (Departments of Plant Pathology and Crops, Soil and Environmental Sciences,
University of Arkansas); ($158,117). (rcartwri@uark.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Seed Quality, Soybean Germplasm Screening,
Commercial Product Testing, Soybean Seed Treatments,
Soybean Educational Activities

The general goals of this project is to determine factors influencing soybean seed germ
and vigor test results, correlation with field emergence under Arkansas conditions; and
to educate Arkansas producers about seed quality and vigor testing. The project’s
specific objectives are to:
    • Determine the correlation of the standard germination test, AOSA-recommended
        accelerated aging vigor test, a cold temperature vigor test, and the SVIS vigor
        test system with emergence, survival and yield of selected soybean seed lots (of
        varying quality and vigor) under growth chamber and field emergence stress
        environments;
    • Survey and test different soybean seed lots in Arkansas over time and in different
        storage environments (controlled and real world) and compare using standard
        germination tests, AOSA-recommended accelerated aging vigor testing, a cold
        temperature vigor test and the SVIS vigor test;
    • Evaluate selected seed treatments on seed lots representing a range of seed
        vigor;
    • Determine the effect of seed disease resistant cultivars or breeding lines and the
        use of
        very late season foliar fungicides on seed quality (vigor);
    • Evaluate soybean germplasm for potential to produce seed with high germability
        and vigor using standard germination, accelerated aging vigor, cold vigor and
        SVIS vigor tests under Arkansas production conditions; and
    • Develop and deliver a sustained education program focused on soybean planting
        seed quality and seed vigor testing in Arkansas to soybean growers and the
        soybean industry.


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Assessment of soybean varieties in Arkansas for sensitivity to chloride
injury; Steven Green and Matt Conatser (Arkansas State University); ($29,700).
(sgreen@astate.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Variety Testing, Soybean Stress-Salt Tolerance

This project will continue to determine the reaction of commercial soybean varieties in
Arkansas to chloride toxicity using the hydroponic screening method developed at
Arkansas State University in Jonesboro, AR. The specific objectives are to analyze the
chloride reaction in soybean cultivars provided by the University of Arkansas Variety
Testing program and breeding lines provided by private seed companies; and to improve
accuracy, reproducibility, and efficiency of the chloride screening process.


High-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) soy oil quality; Andrew Proctor (Food
Science Department, University of Arkansas); ($67,131). (aprockor@uark.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Composition, Modifying Oil, Soy Foods, Soybean Oil Derivatives

The goal of this continuing project is to determine the composition and quality of high
conjugated linoleic acid soy oil to develop new food and medical nutritional products to
promote consumer health. The project’s specific objectives are to:
   • Produce high-CLA salad oils and salad dressing from CLA-rich soy oil and
       determine their quality and shelf life;
   • Produce high-CLA potato chips by frying in CLA-rich soy oils and determine their
       quality and shelf life; and
   • Produce CLA concentrate from high CLA soy oil and evaluate quality and stability
       as dietary supplements.


Improving technology transfer for profitable and sustainable soybean
production; Jeremy Ross, Chris Grimes, Steve Kelley (Cooperative Extension Service,
Little Rock, AR., University of Arkansas); ($28,635).
(jross@uaex.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Production Management, Soybean Educational Activities
Soybean Research Coordination

The goal of the project is to improve the rate of technology transfer and adoption by the
implementation of educational programs that impact critical decision-making information
at advisory and producer levels for improved profitability for sustainable soybean
production systems. In addition to educational programs, the researchers will develop
weekly electronic soybean reports and publish timely newsletters such as Arkansas
Weekly Soybean Report, Soybean Notes, and Arkansas Soybean Rust Working Group
Update.

The researchers will continue to coordinate state and regional meetings to facilitate the
latest soybean production updates. These will include the Arkansas Soybean Research
Conference, Tri-State Soybean Forum as well as other events deemed necessary by
emerging production problems. Successful completion of these educational activities

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will increase the awareness of county extension agents, consultants, agribusiness
representatives, concerned producers of the status, direction, and value of current
soybean research and Extension efforts.


Effect of diets supplemented with CLA-enriched soybean oil, standard
soybean oil, or marine fish oil on growth, health, feed conversions,
survival, body composition and shelf life of Channel catfish; Rebecca
Lochmann (Department of Aquaculture and Fisheries, University of Arkansas, Pine Bluff,
AR); ($21,476). (rlochmann@uaex.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Oil-Utilization, Conjugated Linoleic Acid, Soybean Oil-Aquaculture

The goal of this project is to determine whether CLA-enriched soybean oil can improve
the fatty acid composition of farmed channel catfish for human health relative to diets
with traditional soybean oil or fish oil, while maintaining or improving catfish growth,
health, and product quality.

The competiveness of the U.S. channel catfish production could be strengthened if
farmers could differentiate their products and claim health benefits from eating catfish
containing n-3 fatty acids. Dr. Andrew Proctor has developed soybean oil that is rich in
conjugated linoleic acids (CLA). These lipids provide many of the same protective
benefits as marine fish oils, but they are sustainably-produced plant oils that could be
used to enhance both fish health and the health value of farmed fish for humans.
Furthermore, CLA-enriched soybean oil would be a good candidate for organic
production of catfish, which is a lucrative niche market.

The project’s specific objectives are to:
   • Determine growth, survival ,and feed conversion of channel catfish fed diets
       differing only in lipid composition (6% standard soybean oil, CLA-enriched
       soybean oil, or menhaden fish oil) for 12 weeks;
   • Measure hematocrit, and non-specific immune responses (alterative complement
       activity, lysozyme activity) of fish from the feeding trial to assess health;
   • Determine body composition and fatty acid composition of the fillets; and
   • Measure quality characteristics filets stored frozen for I month.


Detection of soybean cyst, reniform and root-knot nematodes in soil using
multiplex real-time PCR; Ron Sayler and Terry Kirkpatrick (Department of Plant
Pathology, University of Arkansas); ($49,598). (rsayler@uark.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Nematodes, Soybean Cyst Nematode, Soybean Reniform
Nematode, Soybean Root-knot Nematode, SCN-Analysis

Currently, the Cooperative Extension Service relies on a time-consuming microscopic
process for nematode identification and counting. The researchers propose to develop a
PCR-base method to detect soybean cyst, reniform, and root-knot nematode individually
and in mixed populations from soil samples. They will incorporate this technology with
existing nematode assay methods used by CES to significantly reduce the time and


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labor required to process the thousands of soil samples received every year and speed
reporting of nematode infestations to growers.

The specific objectives are to:
   • Develop a reliable PCR technique that can accurately identify field populations of
      these nematodes in Arkansas; it will first be necessary to assess the genetic
      diversity of these species;
   • Understand the genetic diversity of each of the nematode species, isolates will
      be collected from soybean fields across the state; and
   • Genetic diversity will be analyzed by sequencing the intergenic transcribed
      spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal RNA gene.

Based on these sequences, they will design primers that will be unique and specific for
each of the three nematode species, but will not amplify DNA from closely related
species. When individual assays for each nematode species have been developed Tag
probes will be designed specifically for the amplified region of each nematode species.
These probes will enhance the detection and quantification of each nematode species in
the same reaction tube using real-time PCR. They will correlate these PCR-base
detection and quantification methods with the microscopic visualization methods used by
the Cooperative Extension Service.


Soybean real-time weed and disease alerts; Ken Smith, Richard Cartwright,
Debby Monfort and Bob Reynolds (Departments of Crops, Soil and Environmental
Sciences and Plant Pathology, University of Arkansas); ($9,994).
(smithken@uammt.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Production Management, Soybean Educational Activities,
Soybean Websites

The project’s goal is to provide producers with real-time information                and
recommendations regarding weeds and diseases that affect soybean production.

The specific objectives are to:
   • Improve the ability of county agents, specialists and producers to access
      information that has immediate impact on soybean production;
   • Provide producers real-time status of weed growth and control options through
      the Internet and handheld devices to positively affect soybean production; and
   • Provide producers real-time status of plant disease occurrences and movement
      during the growing season through the Internet and handheld devices to
      positively impact the production of soybeans.

The use of the Internet, with access by computers or cell phones, will greatly reduce the
delay in providing producers and/or consultants with timely information concerning weed
and disease control. Specialists, through the podcasts will display for viewing what the
specialists are seeing in the field, which will better enable soybean producers with
immediate information to better manage weeds or diseases.




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Economic analysis of soybean production practices; Robert Stark (Southeast
Research and Extension Center, University of Arkansas-Monticello); ($12,900).
(stark@uamont.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Economic Studies, Soybean Production Management,
Soybean Verification Programs, Soybean On-farm Research,
Soybean Educational Activities,

The objective of this project is to conduct an economic analysis of production practices
used in the Soybean Research Verification Program that impact profitability and other
checkoff funded projects. The plans are to integrate verification program results with
data from previous years to show the long-term benefits of the Soybean Research
Verification program.

The economic feasibility of various production management decisions will be analyzed
using enterprise budgets. Specific information related to field operations, inputs,
irrigation, and yield will be entered into a computerized budget generator to estimate
production costs. Breakeven prices and/or yields will be used to determine which
production practices offer producers the highest expected net returns for their soybean
enterprises. Partial budgets will be utilized to evaluate production system changes being
considered by producers and generate expected cost, revenue, and net revenue
changes resulting from the proposed changes. Sensitivity analysis will be employed to
estimate outcome changes from input price and output price variations


Identification of the factors that cause soybean green bean syndrome;
Loannis Tzanetakis, John Rupe and Scott Monfort (Department of Plant Pathology,
University of Arkansas); ($58,812). (itzaneta@uark.edu)

Key Words: Green Bean Syndrome

Green bean syndrome (GBS) has been observed in the Arkansas soybean fields for
decades and yields in affected areas can be significantly reduced. The term GBS
describes the generation and proliferation of pod clusters that emerge primarily from
nodes in the middle of the plant giving the appearance of witches' broom whereas plants
remain green failing to mature any pods. GBS should not be confused with disorders
seen in other soybean producing areas such as the flat pod or green stem syndromes.
GBS can be seen on individual plants in the field, small patches or areas that exceed 80
acres in size. GBS is a regional problem since it has also been observed in Mississippi
and Southern Illinois, but areas at northern latitudes tend to be less affected.

The goal of the checkoff funding is to identify and characterize biotic and aboitic factors
that cause green bean syndrome. The specific objectives are to:
    • Survey for the presence of soybean green bean syndrome;
    • Identify the causal agent of the disorder;
    • Identify vectors of the soybean green bean syndrome agent; and
    • Characterize conditions that make the disorder prominent.




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Arkansas biodiesel research, demonstration and education project; Donald
M. Johnson and G.W. Wardlow (Department of Agricultural and Extension Education,
University of Arkansas); ($28,150). (dmjohnso@uark.edu)

Key Words: Biodiesel Studies, Soybean Educational Activities

The goal of the project is to educate professionals involved in agriculture about the
performance and usability of biofuels. This goal will be accomplished by developing
specific target objectives that include developing curriculum materials for use by
farmers/producers, extension groups, school groups, fleet managers, purchasing agents,
and other professionals involved in agriculture and creating a mobile classroom to
educate professionals involved in agriculture, about alternative energy solutions in
agriculture. The curriculum developed will identify professionals; encourage adoption
rates and performance capabilities of biofuels. Additional objectives of the project
include developing relationships between faculty and students and professionals
involved in agriculture to improve communication between these two entities through the
promotion of biofuel opportunities and analysis.



Delaware Soybean Board
Soybean variety trial on salt infused soils; Bob Uniatowski (Plant & Soil Science
Department, University of Delaware); ($3,400). (bobuni@udel.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Variety Testing, Soybean Stress-Salt Tolerance

Approximately 4,000 acres of soybean fields were flooded by salt water during a coastal
storm. Additional growers are affected by saltwater intrusion in irrigation wells and
irrigation from brackish creek sources. This project will evaluate the performance of
soybean varieties reported to be salt-tolerant on soils contaminated with salt during
coastal flooding in 2008. The results of the study will help growers choose varieties
which can excel under these conditions.


Evaluate Selected Group II, III, IV & V soybean varieties for Delaware: Bob
Uniatowski (Plant & Soil Science Department University of Delaware); ($3,000).
(bobuni@udel.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Variety Testing

The title describes the objectives. This is an old-fashioned variety trial, expanded to
include Maturity Group 2 varieties, which some growers report success with in northern
areas of Delaware. The research will help growers select the ideal varieties for their
locations.


Dectes stem borer in soybeans; Joanne Whalen (Integrated Pest Management,
University of Delaware); ($3,952). (jwhalen@udel.edu)



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Key Words: Dectes Stem Borer, Soybean Insect-Control

Dectes Stem Borer damage appears to be more widespread in Delaware than most
growers realize. This project will provide for field surveys to determine the pest
population and extent of damage. The results will help quantify that damage/loss, raise
grower awareness and evaluate the effectiveness of pyrethroid insecticides in managing
this pest.


Delaware soybean cyst nematode survey; Bob Mulrooney (Plant & Soil Science
Department, University of Delaware); ($3,300). (bobmul@udel.edu)

Key Words: SCN-Surveys

Race surveys have not been done for at least ten years. We know that SCN is able to
mutate into different races to get around SCN resistance built into plants. In this study
soil samples will be taken from plots across Delaware to determine the race of SCN
most prevalent in the fields.


Seeking salt tolerant varieties/lines for Delmarva; William Rhodes and John
Schillinger (Schillinger Genetics, Inc.); ($2,440). (inquiries@schillingerseeds.com)

Key Words: Soybean Variety Testing, Soybean Stress-Salt Tolerance

Between coastal flooding situations and instances of saltwater intrusion in irrigation wells
or irrigation from brackish creek sources, salt levels in soil are a concern for Delaware
growers. This soybean breeding program will evaluate and develop lines which show
salt tolerance and which are suitable agronomically for Delmarva. The information
developed will help growers choose varieties which can excel under these conditions
and develop new varieties suitable for Delaware which can succeed under these
conditions.


Using molecular markers to enable and accelerate development; William
Rhodes and John Schillinger (Schillinger Genetics); ($5,000). (This project is co-funded
with the Maryland Soybean Board). (inquiries@schillingerseeds.com)

Key Words: Soybean Breeding, Marker Assisted Selection

Schillinger Genetics has been working on developing varieties that are especially suited
to Delaware, Delmarva and the greater mid-Atlantic. Using their new molecular lab, they
can expedite the breeding process.

The University of Delaware does not have a soybean breeding program. Schillinger’s
willingness to develop varieties that are specifically bred for this area and its markets
ensure that Delaware soybean growers can continue to meet market needs into the
future.




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Georgia Agricultural Commodity Commission for Soybeans
Evaluation of current Georgia soybean cultivars to Metribuzin herbicides;
Timothy Grey (Crop and Soil Sciences Department, University of Georgia); ($10,000).
(tgrey@uga.edu)

Key Words: Weed Control, Herbicide Resistance

Soybean varieties that incorporate the use of Roundup Ready biotechnology have
become the most successful genetically altered crop to be established. But glyphosate
resistant weeds have resulted in major soybean production problems.

In order to evaluate soybean cultivars that will improve Georgia soybean production,
field trials that emphasize metribuzin tolerance needs to be considered. Metribuzin can
provide residual weed control, help to improve yield and increase profitability. Therefore,
a study comparing the most commonly used Roundup Ready soybean cultivars for
metribuzin tolerance to determine the affects of soybean tolerance, yield, and net return
on investment are planned. The tests will evaluate Sencor ®, Canopy ® and
Boundary® herbicides. Soybean varieties developed by public and private companies
will be evaluated at two locations.


Developing soybean resistance to the lesser cornstalk borer, stink bugs
and defoliators; John All (Entomology Department, University of Georgia); ($15,000).
(jall@uga.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Insect-Genetic Resistance, Soybean Insects

The objective of this project is to evaluate insect resistance of a pyramid “Benning”
soybean lines developed with various insect resistant traits. Specifically, the researcher
will evaluate various combinations of resistance traits that will protect soybeans during
the development (seedling, vegetative and reproductive stages) against major pests in
Georgia, including lesser cornstalk borer and three cornered alfalfa hopper which are
pests of seeding plants, various defoliating insects (corn earworm, soybean looper,
velvetbean caterpillar and Mexican bean beetle), soybean aphids that are pests of
vegetative growth stages, and stick bugs injury to soybean pods.


2010 UGA Soybean Production Guide; Eric Prostko (Crop and Soil Sciences
Department, University of Georgia); ($5,000). (eprostko@uga.edu)

Key Works: Soybean Educational Activities

The objective of this project is to update the University of Georgia Soybean Production
Guide and deliver copies to growers at local county production meetings.


Managing herbicide resistant Palmer amaranth with the Liberty-Link (LL)
soybean system (Ignite-based programs); Eric Prostko (Crop and Soil Sciences
Department, University of Georgia); ($3,500). (eprostko@uga.edu)

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Key Words: Weed Control, Liberty Link Soybeans, Herbicide Resistance

The objective of this project is to evaluate Liberty Link soybean system as an alternative
strategy for the management of herbicide-resistant Palmer amaranth.


Rust resistance RR2Y soybean varieties that produce superior poultry
meal; H. Rogers Boerma (Center for Applied Genetic Technologies, University of
Georgia-Athens); ($30,000). (rboerma@uga.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Breeding, Soybean Breeding-Composition, Improving Protein,
Reducing Phytate Phosphorus

This project will incorporate improved seed protein, low phytate and low trypsin inhibitor
traits into high-yielding Asian soybean rust and RR2Y™ varieties. The investigator has
initiated a backcrossing program to incorporate these genes into the most productive,
multiple pest resistant breeding lines with 46% or higher protein content. The funding
during this period will allow the researcher to select and evaluate lines that best combine
the characteristics of the recurrent parent and the improvements contributed by the
donor parent of the value-added trait.


Impact of climate variability and tropical storms on the incidence of Asian
soybean rust in the sentinel plots in Georgia; Gerrit Hoogenboom, Rabio O.
Olatinwo and Joel Paz (Biological & Agricultural Engineering, University of Georgia-
Athens) and Robert Kemerait, Jr. (Crop and Soil Science Department, University of
Georgia-Athens); ($5,000). (gerrit@uga.edu)

Key Words: Asian Soybean Rust, Soybean Modeling, Phakopsora pachyrhizi

Asian soybean rust (ASR), caused by the fungus Phakopsora pachyrhizi, was found for
the first time in North Americas in late 2004. The disease remains an important disease
and is of significant concern to soybean producers in Georgia. The fungus is an obligate
parasite and has a very wide host range. In addition to soybeans, the ASR fungus is
able to infect over 30 legumes, including edible bean crops and kudzu. Soybeans grown
in Georgia are particularly vulnerable to the spread of ASR since the pathogen can
overwinter in the southeast due to the light or negligible frosts during the winter months.
In 2008, a large percentage of the soybean acreage that was planted in the Coastal
Plain was sprayed at least once with a fungicide to protect the crop from ASR.

The overall goal of this project is to collect and analyze baseline environmental data at
several locations where sentinel plots have been established for monitoring soybean
rust. The specific objectives are: 1) To conduct exploratory data analysis using climate
data from NOAA, weather data from the Georgia Automated Environmental Monitoring
Network weather stations, and historical ASR data from sentinel plots in establishing a
link between ENSO, tropical storm wind currents, and ASR; and 2) To determine if there
are correlations between specific tropical storm parameters, and the detection of ASR,
dispersal of P. pachyrhizi spores and spread of soybean rust.




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Funding to support the Georgia soybean rust sentinel plot monitoring
program and activities of the University of Georgia’s soybean team; Robert
Kemerait, Jr. (Crop and Soil Sciences Department, University of Georgia-Athens);
($30,000). (kemerait@uga.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Educational Activities, ASR-Sentinel Plots

This project primarily deals with support of the UGA extension education program for
soybeans. The extension program consists of grower meetings that update producers
on developments with soybean production practices and economics, printing of
production guides and maintenance of the Soybean Web page. In addition, there is
funding to support an applied research program focused on variety evaluations, various
production practices, and support of the rust monitoring and research program through
partial support of a post-doc to monitor and collect data from sentinel plots.


Evaluation of agronomic inputs for Georgia soybean production; Jared
Whitaker, (Crop and Soil Science Department, University of Georgia); ($25,000).
(jared@uga.edu).

Key Words: Soybean Production Management, Soybean Fungicide Studies,
Early Season Planted Production Systems, Weed Control

Soybean acreage has increased significantly in Georgia during the past decade. With
this widespread planting comes an opportunity for research to fine-tune production
practices that maximizes profitability. Many growers are expanding their production and
other growers are planting soybean for the first time in several years. These
experiments will play an important role in fine-tuning soybean production in Georgia.

The project’s objectives are to:
   • Develop an on-farm dryland variety testing program;
   • Evaluate seeding rates and row configurations;
   • Investigate agronomic (herbicides and fungicides) inputs; and
   • Further evaluate early-planted soybean production systems.



Illinois Soybean Board
Managed Research Area: Soybean diseases and insect pests; Linda Kull
(University of Illinois-Urban-Champaign) and Jason Bond (Southern Illinois University-
Carbondale) (Project Leaders), Keith Ames, Roger Bowen, Carl Bradley, Darin
Eastburn, Ron Estes, Mike Grey, Curt Hill, James Haudenshield, Houston Hobbs, Doug
Jones, Terry Niblack, Wayne Pedersen, Kevin Steffey and David Voegtlin (University of
Illinois-Urbana/Champaign), Ahmad Fakhoury (Southern Illinois University-Carbondale),
and Leslie Domier and Glen Hartman (USDA/ARS-University of Illinois); (The funding is
allocated to projects). (lkull@illinois.edu)

Every year U.S. soybean harvests are reduced 10-70% by a host of known and
emerging soybean diseases and pests. While traditional methods of control have

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proved successful at times, building resistance to pathogens and insects in the cultivars
is imperative if growers are to improve yields and reduce loss due to pests and
pathogens. The overall goal of this program is to improve soybean yield by reducing the
impact of diseases and pests in Illinois. The managed project is designed to create
interaction between researchers and improve communications between researchers and
Illinois soybean grower leaders. The individual objectives of this MRA are:


Soybean diseases and pests surveys; Jason Bond (Southern Illinois University-
Carbondale), Carl Bradley, Linda Kull and Kevin Steffey (University of Illinois-
Urbana/Champaign), Leslie Domier and Glen Hartman (USDA/ARS-UIUC); ($30,000).
(jbond@siu.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Disease Survey, ASR-Sentinel Plots, Soybean Aphids,
SA-Management

This objective will: 1) Use sentinel plots, research locations, producers’ fields, and
mobile scouting sites, to develop estimates of diseases and pests present, disease
severity and associated yield loss; 2) Continue regular surveys of soybean aphids and
correlate in-field densities with aphid captures in suction traps. Where possible,
determine impact of insect injury on yield using estimates from insecticide-treated and
non-treated areas/plots; and 3) Compile an annual report on disease and insect
occurrence in the state.


Interaction of management tactics for soybean aphid, including host plant
resistance, natural enemies and insecticides; Kevin Steffey, Mike Grey and Ron
Estes (University of Illinois-Urbana/Champaign); ($28,579). (ksteffey@illinois.edu)

Key Words: SA-Management, SA-Genetic Resistance, SA-Biocontrol

The availability of soybean lines that are resistant to soybean aphids will have a major
impact on management of soybean aphids, with the potential for significantly reducing
the use of insecticides and their associated costs. However, the development of
soybean aphid biotypes that can overcome resistance in soybean varieties will threaten
the long-term effectiveness of host plant resistance. Consequently, continuous study of
soybean aphid-resistant cultivars in the field is necessary to stay ahead of the pest.
Also, the impact of soybean aphid-resistant cultivars and insecticides on populations of
soybean aphids and their natural enemies will have ecological implications that will affect
management of the soybean aphid. The objectives of this project are to: 1) Establish and
evaluate plots to determine the effect of experimental soybean lines with putative
resistance against soybean aphids; and 2) Establish and evaluate an experiment to
measure the impact and interaction of host plant resistance, natural enemies, and
insecticides on populations of soybean aphids and on soybean production. Results from
these studies can contribute immediately to the development of best management
practices.




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Refining our ability to forecast population of soybean aphids and field
releases of Binodoxys communis; David Voegtlin, Kevin Steffey, Mike Grey and
Ron Estes (University of Illinois-Urbana/Champaign); ($19,158). (dvoegtli@illinois.edu)
Key Words: SA-Management, SA-Suction Trap Studies, SA-Biocontrol

The specific objectives of this project are to: 1) Monitor for alate soybean aphids (sorting
samples) captured in nine Illinois suction traps; 2) Sample for soybean aphids and
multicolored Asian lady beetles in soybeans (late summer) and Rhamnus (buckthorn) in
the fall and spring to refine our ability to forecast soybean aphid outbreaks; and 3) Rear,
release, and monitor Binodoxys communis for controlling soybean aphids.
Understanding of the population dynamics of soybean aphids and the interaction of
predators and pests is essential for improving management strategies. The parasitoid
Binodoxys communis shows great promise for helping to regulate populations of
soybean aphids, as occurs in the parasitoid’s home range in Asia. Much of the
information generated from the research will be published in annual Extension
publications and in peer-reviewed scientific journals. Information also will be presented
to many audiences of soybean growers and agribusiness personnel at meetings (e.g.,
field days, winter conferences, workshops) throughout the year.


Impact of Japanese beetle defoliation on soybean yield and survey for
natural enemies of Japanese beetle; Doug Jones, Kevin Steffey, Mike Grey and
Ron Estes (University of Illinois-Urbana/Champaign); ($16,893). (jonesd@illinois.edu)

Key Words: Japanese Beetle Studies

Japanese beetles have become the primary insect defoliator of soybeans in Illinois over
the past several years, but guidelines for their management are outdated. The
relationship between defoliation caused by Japanese beetles and components of
soybean yield need to be explored to improve decision making. Additionally, very little is
known about natural enemies of Japanese beetles. This study will evaluate the effects of
Japanese beetle defoliation on soybean yields. Twenty-four cages will be used examine
six levels of defoliation, replicated four times, possibly using one or two treatments to
examine timing of infestation in relation to soybean blooming. Additionally, treated vs.
untreated blocks (1/2 acre blocks) will be evaluated. About 1/2 acre of soybeans will be
kept Japanese beetle-free for the season by spraying periodically with Hero insecticide.
Yields of treated and untreated blocks will be compared. Beetles will be sampled weekly
throughout the growing season to determine infestation levels.

A second objective will involve surveying Japanese beetle populations for parasitoids.
The survey will be conducted along a north-south transect in southern Illinois. Beetle
larvae will be sampled once every month between April–October and examined for
parasites.


Effect of Japanese beetle (and potentially other defoliators) on modern
soybean production); Kevin Steffey, Mike Grey, Doug Jones and Ron Estes
(University of Illinois-Urbana/Champaign); ($42,272). (ksteffey@illinois.edu)

Key Words: Japanese Beetle Studies

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Japanese beetles have become the primary insect defoliator of soybeans in Illinois over
the past several years, but guidelines for their management are outdated. The
relationship between defoliation caused by Japanese beetles and components of
soybean yield need to be explored to improve decision making for modern soybean
production. One of the limitations of making decisions about management of Japanese
beetles is a lack of knowledge about the spatial and temporal distributions of Japanese
beetles during critical times of soybean development. For example, it is widely reported
that Japanese beetles are frequently concentrated along field edges. Because Japanese
beetles are so mobile and respond to many different cues, the timing and location of a
Japanese beetle infestation are critical for making valid control decisions, either for
entire fields or for field edges. The specific objectives of this project are to determine the
spatial and temporal distributions of Japanese beetles in commercial soybean fields to
add necessary improvements for making control decisions and determine the impact of
Japanese beetles on soybean production in commercial soybean fields.


Charcoal rot management in Illinois; Ahmad Fakhoury and Jason Bond (Southern
Illinois University-Carbondale); ($31,000). (amfakhou@siu.edu)

Key Words: Charcoal Rot

The specific objectives of this effort are to: 1) Identify charcoal rot resistant germplasm;
2) Determine tolerance of the identified soybean lines to phaseolinone. Promising
soybean lines will be challenged with purified phaseolinone; a toxin produced by the
pathogen and believed to be one of the important factors leading to disease
development. This will allow us to determine whether the “resistance” of the elite lines is
because of their tolerance to the toxin or due to some other mechanisms. This may
ultimately lead to the identification of distinct sources of resistance to charcoal rot; and 3)
Determine the effect of other diseases on charcoal rot expression, microplot and
greenhouse experiments revealed that parasitism by soybean cyst nematode increased
colonization by the charcoal rot pathogen. In 2009, this will be repeated with additional
germplasm (SIU and private varieties). This project will determine if charcoal rot
resistance can be compromised by other pathogens.


Delayed infection of Fusarium virguliforme using fungicide seed
treatments, and its impact on sudden death syndrome and soybean yield;
Carl Bradley and Terry Niblack (University of Illinois-Urbana/Champaign) and Jason
Bond (Southern Illinois University-Carbondale); ($33,000). (carlbrad@illinois.edu)

Key Words: Sudden Death Syndrome SDS), Soybean Fungicide Studies, Fusarium
virguliforme

A preliminary study was conducted at two locations in Illinois, twelve fungicide seed
treatments (including an untreated control) with two cultivars, one moderately
susceptible to SDS and the other moderately resistant to SDS. Roots were collected
four times during the season and will be assayed using quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) to
determine the level of infection by Fusarium virguliforme. Additionally, digital images of
the roots were analyzed for size and number of secondary roots using WinRhizo
software. Fungicide seed treatments significantly increased plant stand at one of the


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two locations and some seed treatments reduced the amount of Fusarium virguliforme
DNA in soybean roots at 32 days after planting. The objectives of this continuing project
is to: 1) Use quantitative PCR to determine if fungicide seed treatments can delay
infection of Fusarium virguliforme; and 2) To determine if delayed infection of Fusarium
virguliforme reduces sudden death syndrome severity and yield losses.


Characterization of the SDS pathogen in Illinois; Jason Bond and Ahmad Fahoury
(Southern Illinois University-Carbondale); ($24,000). (jbond@siu.edu)

Key Words: Sudden Death Syndrome (SDS), Fusarium virguliforme

SDS is a significant production restrain for soybean producers in Illinois. Despite
advances in host resistance, research is still needed to elucidate the mechanism
involved in disease development. Limitations for the needed studies include the
relatively small amount of characterized fungal isolate available for researchers and the
high costs associated with maintaining the collections. This project will complement the
efforts of the researchers in NCSRP SDS Research Alliance who are building a
collection of Fusarium virguliforme isolates mainly from Iowa, Minnesota and Wisconsin.
This project will: 1) Expand the available collection of F. virguliforme isolates from
Illinois; 2) Partially characterize 30 of the collected isolates via greenhouse assays to
determine aggressiveness on soybean and by performing karyotyping analysis to detect
polymorphisms; and 3) Evaluate the expression levels of fungal genes in the plant that
are associated with SDDS.


Using race-specific probes to monitor population shifts of the frogeye leaf
spot pathogen; Jason Bond and Ahmad Fahoury (Southern Illinois University-
Carbondale); ($28,000). (jbond@siu.edu)

Key Words: Frogeye Leaf Spot, Cercospora sojina, Soybean Fungicide Studies

The objective of this continuing project is to characterize isolates of Cercospora sojina,
the causal agent of frogeye leaf spot on soybean, to race and to develop specific
molecular markers to distinguish races of the pathogen. Greenhouse assays are
underway to characterize 23 isolates of the fungus collected in Illinois using the race
scheme recently proposed. DNA isolated from the fungal isolates and primers has been
designed to amplify the Internal Transcribed Spacer Regions (ITS) of the rDNA. The
amplified DNA fragments are being sequenced and analyzed to identify polymorphism
amongst the isolates. The specific studies for the coming year are to expand the use of
the race-specific C. sojina probes to include monitoring shifts in populations and to
determine the effect of the fungicides chlorothalonil (Bravo) and pyraclostrobin
(Headline) on inducing shifts in C. sojina populations


Fungicide resistance monitoring and overwinter survivability of the frogeye
leaf spot pathogen, Cercospora sojina; Carl Bradley (University of Illinois-Urbana/
Champaign); ($29,000). (carlbrad@illinois.edu)

Key Words: Frogeye Leaf Spot, Cercospora sojina, Soybean Fungicide Studies

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Cercospora sojina isolates have been collected to determine “baseline” sensitivity to
strobilurin fungicides, which is the first step in a fungicide resistance monitoring program.
Additionally, C. sojina isolates were collected from fields and research plots that had
been sprayed with a strobilurin fungicide during the 2007 and 2008 seasons. The
proposed objectives of the 2009 studies are to: 1) To initiate a fungicide resistance
monitoring program for C. sojina by collecting isolates of the fungus from fields that have
been sprayed with a strobilurin fungicide and comparing their fungicide sensitivity levels
with the fungicide sensitivity levels of non-exposed “baseline” isolates of the fungus; and
2) To evaluate the survivability of “northern Illinois” and “southern Illinois” C. sojina
isolates on soybean debris at different soil depths over time in different locations in the
state.


Soybean viruses and management; Leslie Domier, Houston Hobbs, Glen Hartman
(USDA/ARS-UIUC); ($10,000). (ldomier@illinois.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Viruses, Tobacco Streak Virus (TSV), Soybean Germplasm
Screening

The research group will evaluate about 3,000 soybean accessions from the USDA
Soybean Germplasm Collection for reaction to Tobacco streak virus and Tobacco
ringspot virus. Virus isolates obtained from Illinois soybean fields will be evaluated for
aggressiveness to virus-resistant soybean accessions. The deliverable from the project
will include the identification of germplasm sources for resistance to TSV and TRSV and
characterization of viruses found in Illinois.


Foliar fungicides: Their control of Illinois foliar diseases and their effect on
soybean yield and green stem disorder; Carl Bradley, Roger Bowen, Curt Hill and
Keith Ames (University of Illinois-Urbana/Champaign) and Glen Hartman (USDA/ARS-
UIUC); ($62,000). (carlbrad@illinois.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Fungicide Studies

Through multi-location trials across the state, this project has provided information on
the value of applying a foliar fungicide to soybean. Based on results from 2007,
fungicides significantly increased yield at two of the ten locations. The significant yield
increases at these two locations were likely related to nearly two to three times more
rainfall being received at these locations in July and August compared to other locations
in the state; thus, presumable more foliar fungal disease pressure at these locations.
These results have been used in extension presentations given around the state and
have been used in Extension newsletters and farm press articles.

 Variability in soybean yield response to foliar fungicides can be great and has been
demonstrated in “piano graphs” used by extension and industry people. Preliminary
research has shown some evidence of yield and seed weight response to specific
application timings, but additional research is needed to sort out the effect of different
fungicide application timings. Fungicides may also impact the incidence of green stem
disorder. Prior research has demonstrated a relationship between a combined



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application of a strobilurin (Headline) and a triazole (Domark) fungicide on green stem
incidence and the additive effect of cultivar and location on green stem incidence.

Proposed objectives of this study are to: 1) To evaluate foliar fungicides for control of
foliar diseases present in Illinois and the effect on soybean yield at six locations
throughout the state; 2) To determine if different cultivars respond similarly or differently
to foliar fungicides; 3) To determine the effect of foliar fungicides, if any, on selected
yield components; 4) To consider the effect of combined and separate applications of
strobilurin and triazole fungicide on green stem incidence, yield, and diseases; and 5) To
quantify the effect of fungicide timing, time of day, and stage of plant development on
yield and disease.


Evaluation of fungicide seed treatments on performance of soybean in
Illinois, and the impact of soybean cyst nematode on the efficacy of seed
treatments; Carl Bradley and Terry Niblack (University of Illinois-Urbana/Champaign)
and     Jason     Bond      (Southern     Illinois   University-Carbondale);      ($32,000).
(carlbrad@illinois.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Fungicide Studies, Soybean Cyst Nematode (SCN), Rhizoctonia
solani, Soybean Seed Treatments

Annually, seedling diseases are responsible for losses estimated at 8.7 million bushels
in Illinois. The response of soybean and these diseases to fungicide seed treatments
can be highly variable. Variable responses can be due to differences in pathogen
pressure and environmental conditions just prior to and after planting. Despite variable
responses to seed treatments, seed companies have plans to increase the amount of
soybean seeds that are treated. Although fungicide seed treatment studies have been
conducted in Illinois, these trials tend to be very limited in the number of locations (only
one or two locations, generally) and number of products evaluated. In addition, many
new products are now available and even more will soon be registered for use on
soybean. To be able to better understand how these products affect soybean stand and
yield and to identify the products that provide consistent disease management, it is
important to evaluate multiple products at many locations throughout the state.

While it is known that site specific factors can reduce the efficacy of seed treatments,
there are questions about the impact of SCN on fungicide performance. Fields infested
with Rhizoctonia often have more severe disease when plants are infected with high
levels of SCN. Necdotal field observations in 2007 and 2008 seemed to indicate that
erratic performance of seed treatments were associated with higher SCN densities. This
project will help answer this question by evaluating seed treatments for their efficacy
towards Rhizoctonia when plants are subjected to varying levels of infection by SCN.

The proposed objectives are to: 1) To measure the effect of registered and nearly-
registered fungicide seed treatment products on soybean establishment, disease
severity, and soybean yield at multiple sites in Illinois; and 2) To determine the impact of
SCN infection and reproduction on the efficacy of seed treatment fungicides used to
manage Rhizoctonia.




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Herbicides, strobulurin fungicides and implication for Rhizoctonia root rot
of soybeans; Darin Eastburn and Wayne Pedersen (University of Illinois-Urbana/
Champaign); ($30,000). (eastburn@illinois.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Fungicide Studies, Rhizoctonia solani,

This study will expand our understanding of the effectiveness of Stamina and Dynasty
fungicides in reducing symptom severity, protecting root development and preventing
yield losses resulting from infection. The results will help soybean growers in Illinois
make better decisions about which seed treatment fungicide to select and use. The
establishment of baseline sensitivity levels of Rhizoctonia solani to these fungicides will
allow for monitoring pathogen populations and to detect the development of fungicide
resistant strains.


Interaction of anthracnose and charcoal rot on green stem incidence; Curt
Hill (University of Illinois-Urbana/Champaign) and Glen Hartman (USDA/ARS-UIUC);
($20,000). (curthill@illinois.edu)

Key Words: Green Stem Disorder, Charcoal Rot, Anthracnose,
Soybean Disease Interactions

Although the “Green Stem Disorder” effect on soybean yields has not been established,
it is a problem that complicates soybean harvesting and has increasingly become a
nuisance for soybean producers.      When encountered in the field at harvest time,
producers often leave patches affected by the disorder uncut until frost eventually kills
the stems.

The cause of the “Green Stem Disorder” is unknown, however, we have found that
fungicide application can increase the incidence of green stem disorder, especially on
cultivars sensitive to the disorder, suggesting that fungi are involved in the disorder. We
have also found that the plant pathogenic fungi causing anthracnose and charcoal rot
appear to be inversely associated with the disorder. The pathogen causing anthracnose
is the predominant fungus isolated from stems showing green stem disorder. In contrast,
the pathogen causing charcoal rot is the predominant fungus isolated from normal ripe
soybean stems. We have recently developed quantitative PCR assays to measure the
colonization of soybean plants by the charcoal rot and the anthracnose pathogens inside
plants with or without green stem disorder. The proposed research will determine if the
interaction of two fungal pathogens that cause anthracnose and charcoal rot will
increase or decrease green stem disorder on cultivars that are sensitive or insensitive to
the disorder.


Multiplexing and field validation of quantitative, molecular assays of soy
diseases; James Haudenshield and Curt Hill (University of Illinois-Urbana/Champaign)
and Glen Hartman (USDA/ARS-UIUC); ($35,000). (jsh1@illinois.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Disease Survey, Soybean Disease Assay, SoybeanTechnologies




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Researchers at the University of Illinois have cooperated with field scouts and visually
examined many hundreds to thousands of specimens in annual surveys for the past
several years, and we have evaluated numerous soybean lines/cultivars for pathogen
resistance. Recently, they have developed quantitative, DNA-based molecular assays
for the soy pathogens causing charcoal rot, sudden death syndrome, Phytophthora root
and stem rot, anthracnose, and Phomopsis seed decay. Other laboratories have
developed similar assays for the soy pathogens causing brown stem rot, frog eye leaf
spot, Rhizoctonia root rot, and soybean cyst nematode, rust, and possible others. We
have used some of these as well. Molecular assays provide both affirmative
confirmation of visual inspections and a quantitative estimate of the pathogen presence,
previously only possible by laborious culturing methods, if at all. Furthermore, they
provide very fast results, affording real-time decision-making. One challenging aspect to
such molecular analyses is the purification and concentration of pathogen DNA from
bulky tissue or soil specimens; however, once total DNA is extracted, multiple assays
can be employed to identify and quantify pathogens present in the initial sample. We
have utilized a “FastDNA” method (which can effectively isolate DNA from stem, leaf,
seed, and root tissues) in our laboratory for several years. A single preparation provides
sufficient DNA for 10 or more molecular analyses.

The proposed objectives of this new project are to: 1) Assay harmonization– develop a
multiplex system incorporating the ten pathogen analyses, that can be performed in
each single tube, thus increasing the total number of assays that can be performed with
the available DNA; 2) Diagnostic expansion– develop similar assays targeting additional
pathogens, including fungal; bacterial, and certain viral diseases, to increase the test
panel to 20 or more diseases; and 3) Prove that tissues taken from field specimens we
receive, when processed as a single sample, give results qualitatively and quantitatively
consistent with, or better than, the results of legacy methods. These three objectives will
effectively bridge the “missing link” between the promises & resources of the molecular
laboratory and the realities of agricultural field pathology.


High impact outreach and education; Douglas Jones and Linda Kull (University of
Illinois-Urbana/Champaign); ($7,098). (jonesd@illinois.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Educational Activities

This funding request is for an Extension Associate that will write timely articles and news
releases about the soybean disease and insect pest managed research area research
for distribution through various news media including local newspapers and agricultural
magazines. A secondary objective is to develop outreach brochures, bulletins, and fact
sheets presenting SDIP MRA research for distribution at farmer-attended meetings and
events.


Managed research area administration; Linda Kull (University of Illinois-Urbana/
Champaign) and Jason Bond (Southern Illinois University-Carbondale); ($22,000).
(lkull@illinois.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Research Administration



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This objective will promote coordination and communication between researchers
involved in this managed research area. The activities will include proposal and report
writing, budget oversight and organizing meetings with stakeholders and researchers
throughout the year.


Managed Research Area: Management of soybean rust, sentinel plots,
diagnostics, outreach and research; Linda Kull (coordinator, National Soybean
Research Laboratory, University of Illinois-Urbana/Champaign), Jason Bond (Southern
Illinois University-Carbondale), Carl Bradley, Nancy Pataky and Robert Bellum
(University of Illinois-Urbana/Champaign) and Glen Hartman and David Walker
(USDA/ARS-UIUC); (The funding is allocated to projects). (lkull@illinois.edu)

In response to the introduction of soybean rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi) into the U.S. in
November 2004, the USDA facilitated the development of a federal/state/industry
coordinated framework for surveillance, reporting, prediction, and management of
soybean rust. This effort has been continued for the 2007-growing season. This
framework draws from ideas and material presented at the USDA-ARS Strategic
Planning meeting held Baltimore MD on December 1-2, 2004. As an integral part of the
framework, a national Sentinel Plot System was established in 2005 with the cooperative
efforts of the USDA, State Departments of Agriculture, state universities, checkoff
boards, industry, local producers, and the National Plant Diagnostic Network (NPDN)
and can be viewed at www.sbrusa.net. The main functions of the Sentinel Plot System
are to test the USDA soybean rust model forecasting system, to provide an early alert
system, and to assist state specialists with management guidelines for soybean
producers. As part of this effort, soybean production states were asked to provide
resources to assist with the USDA Sentinel Plot System to effectively monitor and
manage soybean rust.

The USDA program leaves states free to deploy additional resources at their own
discretion. The overarching goal of this framework is to provide stakeholders with
effective decision support for managing soybean rust. In cooperation with the USDA
efforts, on February 14, 2005 the Illinois Soybean Association (ISA) facilitated the
organization of the Illinois coordinated framework for managing soybean rust. An ISA
soybean rust research coordinator and six working groups were established to mitigate
the threat of soybean rust in Illinois. The following four objectives are being funded in
2009:


Illinois soybean rust sentinel plots; Jason Bond (Southern Illinois University-
Carbondale), Carl Bradley (University of Illinois-Urbana/Champaign) and Glen Hartman
(USDA/ARS-UIUC); ($32,000). (jbond@illinois.edu)

Key Words: ASR-Sentinel Plots

The objective of this project is to monitor 15 disease monitoring sites (sentinel plots)
across the state and data will be entered into the IPM PIPE database. Write weekly
commentary that will be posted on the IPM PIPE Website and turn counties green or red
on the IPM PIPE soybean rust map, depending on the presence or absence of soybean
rust. The sentinel plots and any mobile scouting will occur if soybean rust is predicted, if


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a high amount of spores are detected in certain areas of the state, or if soybean rust is
detected in an adjacent state.


Soybean rust spore traps; Glen Hartman (USDA/ARS-UIUC); ($10,000).
(ghartman@illinois.edu)

Key Words: ASR-Spore Traps

The researcher will implement the state passive spore-trapping network, confirm
positives from microscopic observations of rust spores on slides with quantitative
molecular detection, and integrate this information with national spore trapping network.


Fungicide applied research and spraying guidelines; Jason Bond (Southern
Illinois University-Carbondale) and Carl        Bradley   (University   of   Illinois-Urbana/
Champaign); ($28,000). (jbond@siu.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Fungicide Studies

The objectives of this project are to assess the impact of soybean rust, native diseases
and foliar fungicides on double crop soybeans, survey fungicide use and performance.
The researchers will develop survey tools to help estimate fungicide use, factors that
contributed to their use and how the fungicides performed. They intend to collect this
information from producers, extension personnel, crop consultants, custom applicators,
and other sources within the Illinois soybean industry. A summary and a fact sheet on
fungicide use in Illinois will be developed.


Updating and management of the Illinois soybean rust Website; Linda Kull
(University of Illinois-Urbana/Champaign); ($4,000). (lkull@illinois,edu)

Key Words: Asian Soybean Rust (ASR), Soybean Websites

The Illinois soybean rust Website provides comprehensive information on soybean rust
and will continue to serve as a decision support tool to assist Illinois soybean producers
with soybean rust management decisions. Two domain names are assigned:
www.illinoissoybeanrust.org and www.soybeanrust.org. The ‘Alerts’ section will be
updated weekly or as needed with the status of soybean rust in the U.S. and Illinois.
Commentary from the Illinois Extension Plant Pathologist and other experts will be
available and updated weekly. All information regarding fungicide status and use for
Illinois producers will be updated as soon as possible after released.


Managed Research Area: Weeds; Bryan Young (Southern Illinois University-
Carbondale) and Aaron Hager (University of Illinois-Urbana/Champaign) (Program Co-
coordinators), Emerson Nafziger, Dean Riechers, and Pat Tranel (Crop Science
Department, University of Illinois-Urbana/Champaign), Adam Davis (USDA/ASR-UIUC),
Bryan Young (Plant and Soil Science Department, Southern Illinois University-


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Carbondale), and Gordon Roskamp and Loretta Ortiz-Ribbing (Western Illinois
University-Macomb); (The funding is allocated to projects). (bgyoung@siu.edu)

The weeds research area seeks to provide coordination of collaborating institutions and
agencies to develop, implement and disseminate information on weed management
practices and information that promotes integrated pest management, the preservation
of yield potential and enhancement of profitability.       Program objectives include
communicating weed research information, developing weed management programs for
Illinois, increasing the knowledge base of the biology, ecology and genetics of priority
weed species, investigating and reducing soybean stress related to weed management
practices, evaluating technologies for herbicide applications, investigating crop
production elements that may impact weed management decisions, and fostering the
understanding and sustainable use of natural resources in Illinois.


Communicate weed research information; Bryan Young (Southern Illinois
University-Carbondale) and Aaron Hager (University of Illinois-Urbana/Champaign);
($13,000). (bgyoung@siu.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Educational Activities, Weed Control

The goals of the communications program are to provide useful, reliable information to
assist soybean producers in weed management decisions. The specific objectives of
the project are to: 1) Provide extension and outreach information of weed research at
collaborating institutions; 2) Develop educational materials (brochures, pest bulletins,
fact sheets, slide sets, CD-ROMS, videos, weed databases, computer software
programs) that can be used to inform soybean producers, certified crop consultants and
extension personnel; and 3) Maintain and expand weed science web pages to facilitate
collective and comprehensive sources of information on soybean weed management.


Develop weed management systems for Illinois; Bryan Young (Southern Illinois
University-Carbondale), Dean Riechers and Doug Maxwell (University of Illinois-
Urbana/Champaign) and Gordon Roskamp (Western Illinois University); ($85,000).
(bgyoung@siu.edu)

Key Words: Weed Control

Identification of techniques and management strategies for weed species of importance
to Illinois soybean producers will enhance profitability through reduced weed competition
and improved weed management strategies. This project will identify problem weed
species in Illinois, evaluate alternative methods for their control and recommend weed
control strategies that can be used in the production system. The project also involves
monitoring weed species shifts and future weed problems that need attention.


Increase the knowledge base of biology, ecology and genetics of priority
weed species; Aaron Hager and Pat Tranel (University of Illinois-Urbana/Champaign)
and Bryan Young (Southern Illinois University-Carbondale); ($122,000).
(hager@illinois.edu)

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Key Words: Weed Control

An increased understanding of weed species will aid in optimizing existing weed
management strategies, provide new strategies to control particular weed species, and
reduce the potential for the development of new weed problems. To increase the
understanding of selected weed species, the researcher will: 1) Identify and investigate
traits that contribute to the weediness of problem species; 2) Characterize the genetic
variability of weed species and its impact; 3) Identify the mechanism of herbicide
resistance and the evolution of herbicide resistance in weeds; and 4) Determine the
environmental and management conditions that increase the prevalence of a particular
weed species. These basic studies will help researchers develop more effective control
recommendations.


Investigate crop production elements that impact weed management
decision; Emerson Nafziger (University of Illinois-Urbana/Champaign); ($30,000).
(enaf@illinois.edu)

Key Words: Weed Control, Soybean Production Management

This project will help farmers understand the effects of the interactions of soybean
production systems on weed management strategies. The expected outcomes of the
project are to: 1) Optimize weed management strategies based on soybean planting
date, populations and row width; 2) Develop information to maximize weed control under
replanting conditions; and 3) Provide unbiased yield data for herbicide-resistant soybean
cultivars.


Managed Research Area: Soybean cyst nematode (SCN); Terry Niblack
(Coordinator), Brian Diers, Glen Hartman, Kris Lambert (Crop Science Department,
University of Illinois-Urbana/Champaign) and Jason Bond, Khalid Meksem and Michael
Schmidt (Plant and Soil Science Department, Southern Illinois University-Carbondale);
(The funding is allocated to projects). (tniblack@illinois.edu)

The soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines, continues to be the most
economically important soybean pathogen in Illinois. To address the problem, in
cooperation with advisers from the Illinois Soybean Association, a group of scientists
from the University of Illinois and Southern Illinois University developed a strategic plan
to guide research. The overall goal of the research program is to conduct research and
outreach activities on the soybean cyst nematode–soybean interaction to enhance the
competitiveness of soybean production in Illinois.


Deciphering the interaction between SCN and Fusarium virguliforme; Jason
Bond and Ahmad Fakhoury (Southern Illinois University-Urbana/Champaign); ($27,500).
(jbond@siu.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Cyst Nematode (SCN), SCN-SDS Interaction,
Fusarium virguliforme



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SCN and F. virguliforme are two of the most important pathogens on soybeans. The
mechanism governing the interaction between SCN and F. virguliforme is unknown.
This project uses tools such as the green fluorescing protein containing pathogen to
investigate the interaction. The specific objectives are to determine the role of SCN in
the infection and colonization of roots by the pathogen, and to identify genes expressed
in the fungus when plants are co-infected with SCN.


Phenotypic variability in SCN populations in Illinois; Jason Bond (Southern
Illinois University-Carbondale) and Terry Niblack (University of Illinois-Urbana/
Champaign); ($31,500). (jbond@siu.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Cyst Nematode (SCN), SCN-HG Populations,
SCN Genetic Resistance

Over 80% of the fields in Illinois are infested with SCN and the SCN populations and
70% of the infested fields can reproduce on PI 88788. This study will determine: 1) The
phenotypic variability of SCN populations in Illinois; 2) Evaluate the impact of
temperature on HG type determinations; and 3) Develop outreach materials for
educating producers and the soybean industry on the importance of HG types.


Integrating strategies to manage SCN; Jason Bond (Southern Illinois University-
Carbondale) and Terry Niblack (University of Illinois-Urbana/Champaign); ($20,500).
(jbond@siu.edu)

Key Words: SCN-Management, Soybean Cover Crops, Cover Crop Studies

The objective of this project is to determine the effect of cover or green manure crops
(rye grass, rapeseed or canola) and host resistance on SCN population densities.


Generation of recombinant inbred SCN lines for the identification of SCN
virulence genes and the development of a molecular virulence assay; Kris
Lambert and Terry Niblack (University of Illinois-Urbana/Champaign); ($17,300).
(knlamber@illinois.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Cyst Nematode (SCN), SCN-Assays, SCN-Genetic Resistance

SCN can be managed using natural resistance; however, SCN populations adapt and
reproduce on resistant plants. This results in SCN resistance sources becoming less
effective over time and the need for new sources of resistance. This project will develop
200 recombinant inbred lines of SCN that segregate for virulence for all of the main
types of SCN resistant plants. The inbred lines will be screened for virulence on PI
88788 and DNA will be extracted from each line for genotype screening.


Genetic diversity and mapping new genes for resistance to SCN; Khalid
Meksem and Stella Kantartzi (Southern Illinois University-Carbondale); ($45,500).
(meksemk@siu.edu)

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Key Words: Soybean Cyst Nematode (SCN), SCN-Genetic Resistance,
Soybean Gene Mapping, SCN-Virulence Genes

The researchers will isolate new genes for resistance to SCN from PI 438489B and Pis.
They will also develop NILs and DNA markers for use in developing new genetic
materials.


Screening for soybean resistance to SCN with molecular assays; Terry
Niblack (University of Illinois-Urbana/Champaign); ($56,500). (tniblack@Illinois.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Cyst Nematode (SCN), SCN-Genetic Resistance, SCN-Assays
SCN-Virulence Genes

Researchers will develop and optimize a molecular quantification system for screening
for soybean resistance to SCN. The researchers will be measuring the amount of SCN
DNA within the infected soybean roots which is directly related to performance in the
field. The new concept of screening soybean lines may have major advantages over
existing methods.

Can phenylalanine be used to reduce the virulence of SCN and improve the
survival of soybean (Glycine max); Lon Kaufman (University of Illinois-Chicago);
($51,500). (lkaufman@illinois.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Cyst Nematode (SCN), SCN-Genetic Resistance,
SCN-Virulence Genes

Biotic and abiotic stresses use a common signaling mechanism in the phenylalanine
biosynthetic pathway to initiate plant protection in the very young seedling. This study
will develop a better understanding whether phenylalanine, related metabolites and
derived compounds are involved in SCN infection.


Managed Research Area: Soy nutrition and food sciences; Keith R.
Cadwallader (Co-coordinator) (Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition,
University of Illinois-Urbana/Champaign) and William Banz (Co-coordinator) (Animal
Science, Food & Nutrition, Southern Illinois University-Carbondale); (The funding is
allocated to projects). (cadwlldr@illinois.edu)

In the U.S. and the rest of the developed world, the major hurdles to widespread
consumption of soy foods have been the negative consumer perceptions of soy and the
limited numbers of highly acceptable soy food products in the marketplace. While some
health benefits of soy are well understood, others are still being researched. The
mission of the Soy Foods MRA is to connect the Illinois Soybean Association with
leading food scientists, nutritionists, health professionals, and other researchers in an
effort to promote the further development and consumption of soy foods through
targeted research areas. These include:
        1. Nutrition, Health, and Safety (obesity, cancer, disease, and malnutrition)
        2. New, Improved, Alternative Food Uses (products, processes, applications)
        3. Soy Education and Outreach

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The ultimate beneficiaries of this research are soy producers, soy food processors and
consumers. Outcomes of the MRA will promote the ISA’s interests in increasing and
improving the domestic and global utilization and consumption of Illinois-grown
soybeans. In addition, the MRA will facilitate a positive consumer image of soy foods in
the U.S. and throughout the world. This year, the MRA is proposing eight projects that
cover issues related to obesity and diabetes.

Among these, six projects address nutrition and health and one project investigates new,
improved, and alternative food uses. In addition, the Illinois Center for Soy Foods (ICSF)
will conduct education and outreach activities related to the mission of the MRA.


A team approach targeted at identifying anti-obesity and anti-diabetic
soybean ingredients; William Banz, Jeremy Davis and April Strader (Southern Illinois
University-Carbondale), Elaine Krul (Solae), Kola Ajuwon (Purdue University) and Neil
Shay (University of Florida); ($55,000).(banz@siu.edu)

Key Words: Soy Foods, Soy Human Health Studies

This project is an SIU-industry joint project that will take a team approach to identifying
anti-obesity and anti-diabetic soybean ingredients using a host of markers. The project
has the potential to generate new and improved uses for soybeans and possibly
increase the value of soy as a raw material for the expanding health and medical foods
industry. In addition, identifying the health benefits of soy ingredients could have
potential socioeconomic impacts, such as increasing the overall health and general
quality of life for people by preventing and reducing the disease conditions associated
with obesity and diabetes.


Soy intake and the risk of glucose intolerance and diabetes; Karen Chapman-
Novakofski (University of Illinois-Urbana/Champaign); ($16,000).

Key Words: Soy Foods, Soy Human Health Studies

The researcher will investigate the question of glucose intolerance and diabetes and
how tofu can reduce the harmful tendencies. The second goal of this project is to
introduce soy food benefits into a community-based education program in Illinois.


The effect of soy diets on Igf2 gene expression and development of obesity
in rats; Hong Chen (University of Illinois-Urbana/Champaign); ($13,000).
(hongchen@illinois.edu)

Key Words: Soy Foods, Soy Human Health Studies

The researcher will test the hypothesis that dietary soy consumed at early stages of life
induces epigenetic modifications that change Igf2 expression. Igf2 is a growth factor that
affects fat metabolism and epigenetic imprinting controls its expression. It has been
shown that Igf2 expression is associated with adiposity and obesity. This study will

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illustrate the mechanisms underlying epigenetic regulations by dietary soy and the
relationship between Igf2 and adiposity and will provide information on development of
obesity and potential protective mechanisms of soy.


Bioactive peptides in human health: Inhibition of fat accumulation in
humans consuming soybean milk with different protein profiles; Elvira de
Mejia (University of Illinois-Urbana/ Champaign); ($15,000). (edemejia@illinois.edu)

Key Words: Soy Foods, Soy Human Health Studies

There is a need to evaluate the effect of soybean with different protein profiles, on lipid
metabolism in humans. The research group will perform a clinical trial to measure
parameters related to obesity after the intake of soymilk from different soybean varieties.
The objective of the study will be to evaluate the effect of soybean with different protein
profiles, but same protein concentration, on human adipogenesis using weight reduction
and fat accumulation as main markers.


Adipocyte development in neonatal piglets receiving soy infant formula;
Sharon M. Donovan and Paul S. Cooke (University of Illinois-Urbana/Champaign);
($15,000). (sdonovan@illinopis.edu)

Key Words: Soy Foods, Soy Human Health Studies, Soy Phytoestrogens

The research group will investigate if soy components at physiological concentrations
can alter adipogenesis in neonates highlighting an opportunity for development novel
strategies for obesity prevention in formula-fed infants, which includes utilization of soy
infant formula. The proposed studies will investigate the hypothesis that isoflavones,
predominantly genistein, in soy infant formula will reduce adipose cell development and
gene expression in neonatal piglets


Efficacy of soy protein supplementation in diabetic hemodialysis patients;
Ken Wilund (University of Illinois-Urbana/Champaign); ($13,271).

Key Words: Soy Foods, Soy Human Health Studies

The objective of this proposed research is to evaluate the efficacy of soy protein
supplementation on CVD risk, bone health, and diabetes specific risk factors in obese
diabetic patients undergoing hemodialysis therapy. Patients will be randomized to the
following groups for 12 months and provided the usual care/control; or an intradialytic
soy protein supplementation.


Perceptual and rheological profiles of high protein soy foods targeted for
alleviation of overweight and obesity; Soo-Y Lee and Youngsoo Lee (University of
Illinois-Urbana/ Champaign); ($18,000). (soolee@illinois.edu)

Key Words: Soy Foods, Soy Human Health Studies

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The objectives of this study are to aid in weight control and loss through high protein soy
food consumption and to enhance soy food consumption domestically and
internationally. The researchers will systematically model how specific parameters affect
the sensory and rheological properties of extruded high protein soy-based cereal/snack
foods targeted for alleviation of overweight and obesity.


Illinois Center for Soy Foods: Education and outreach programs; Marilyn
Nash, Keith Cadwallader, Barbara Klein, Stacey Krawczyk, and Bridget Owen
(University of Illinois-Urbana/ Champaign); ($90,000).(mnash@illinois.edu)

Key Words: Soy Foods Educational Activities

Education and outreach is a major component of the ICSF and the Soy Foods MRA. The
MRA will support ICSF activities related to promoting consumption of soy foods,
supporting technological innovations and technology transfer to processors, and
disseminating information about health benefits of soy. In addition, the ICSF, through
public awareness efforts, workshops, symposia, and short courses, will highlight the
findings of research conducted with MRA support

The Illinois Center for Soy Foods (ICSF) brings together expertise from a wide variety of
disciplines to focus on creating and promoting healthy foods, economical and tasty food
products based on soybeans thereby providing benefits to growers, processors, and
consumers in Illinois. ICSF does this by work in soy product development, consumer
acceptance, processing technology transfer, and education and outreach. Each of these
four broad activities will be brought together to enhance the ICSF focus on obesity and
diabetes.

Specific program objectives and deliverables for 2009 include: 1) Develop and
implement outreach projects focused on obesity and diabetes; 2) Plan and develop
programs for education and outreach among Native and Mexican American populations
to address the populations high prevalence of obesity and diabetes; 3) Provide support
for 2009 Future of Foods for Children Conference; 4) Provide soy food usage and health
benefits information as needed via website, health fairs, State Fair, Soy Foods Month,
etc.; 5) Provide technical research and training support, including product development
work, facility use, staff support, etc.; and 6) Perform acceptability testing of a soy
enhanced micronutrient supplement for infants and children to address malnutrition.


Managed research area administration; Keith Cadwallader (University of Illinois-
Urbana/ Champaign); ($17,300). (cadwllr@illinois.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Research Administration

This objective will promote coordination and communication between researchers
involved in this managed research area. The activities will include proposal and report
writing, budget oversight and organizing meetings with stakeholders and researchers
throughout the year.




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Managed Research Area: Soybean germplasm and breeding research
initiative; Linda Kull and Pete Goldsmith (Project Coordinators, National Soybean
Research Laboratory), Brian Diers, and Ram Singh (University of Illinois-
Urbana/Champaign), Glen Hartman and Randy Nelson (USDA/ARS-UIUC), and Stella
Kantartzi (Southern Illinois University-Carbondale); ($607,061). (lkull@illinois.edu)

The overall mission of this managed research area is improvement of the Illinois
soybean germplasm base leading to increased production efficiency and improved
quality and value for soybean growers. This mission combines two major research
areas, soybean germplasm research and soybean breeding research, into a single
unified and interactive program between the University of Illinois and Southern Illinois
University. This integrated approach allows increased efficiency of the soybean
germplasm screening and breeding efforts supported by the Illinois Soybean
Association. Collaborative activities between the universities include exchanges of
breeding populations and sharing of field-testing resources. In addition, genetic
mapping of traits and marker-assisted selection are ongoing collaborations between the
universities.


Improve levels of disease resistance by identifying new sources of
pathogen resistance, determining inheritance and genetic relationships of
resistance traits, and developing molecular markers associated with new
sources of disease and pest resistance traits; Glen Hartman (USDA/ARS-UIUC).
(ghartman@illinois.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Diseases, Soybean Disease Resistance, Soybean Germplasm
Screening

Illinois soybean producers are challenged with yield reducing diseases including aphids,
brown stem rot, frogeye leaf spot, charcoal rot, nematode diseases, Phytophthora root
rot, rhizoctonia root rot, Sclerotina stem rot, soybean rust, sudden death syndrome, and
viruses. One of the most sustainable and cost-effective disease management options is
the deployment of resistant cultivars. In addition to currently useful resistance sources,
new and novel sources of resistance must be located. Often soybean accessions with
resistance are not readily adapted because they may have agronomically undesirable
traits, and the desirable resistance traits need to be transferred to elite germplasm to be
widely used by growers. The availability of high quality and diverse soybean germplasm
is essential if genetic resistance continues to be a major option in reducing losses due to
plant diseases. Part of our responsibility in this Initiative is to find sources of resistance,
study the genetics of this resistance, and move the resistance into readily adaptable
lines.


Utilize wild perennial Glycine species by wide hybridization technology to
integrate agronomically desirable traits into soybean varieties; Ram Singh
(University of Illinois-Urbana/Champaign) and Randall Nelson (USDA/ARS-UIUC).
(ramsingh@illinois.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Breeding, Soybean Germplasm Screening, Soybean Genetic
Diversity, Glycines max

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The primary focus for the wide hybridization research is to transfer novel traits not
available in soybean to elite soybean varieties. Important traits have been identified in
wild perennial Glycine species, but these species are not compatible by classical
breeding methods. Wide hybridization uses a combination of classical genetic methods
and in vitro technologies to overcome the incompatibility between plants of different
species. This will allow us to produce fertile hybrids and eventually soybean varieties
with genes from the perennial species. The 23 wild perennial Glycine species, currently
available at the University of Illinois, are extremely diverse morphologically, cytologically
and genomically; and grow in a wide range of climatic and soil conditions. Wide
hybridization techniques can open the gates to novel germplasm reservoirs that are rich
sources of agronomically useful genes such as resistance to soybean cyst nematode,
bean pod mottle virus, soybean aphid and soybean rust.


Combine and integrate new genetic sources of high yield potential, disease
resistance, and composition into elite soybean germplasm; Brian Diers
(University of Illinois-Urbana/ Champaign) and Stella Kantartzi (Southern Illinois
University-Carbondale). (bdiers@illinois.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Breeding, Soybean Germplasm Screening, Soybean Genetic
Diversity, Glycines max

Breeders recognize the need to expand the existing soybean germplasm base with
additional genes that confer high yield with disease resistance and/or specific
composition traits. In our integrated breeding program, we will continue to identify and
move agronomically useful genes; some have been previously identified through
research funded by Illinois Soybean Board and other agencies, forward into elite
germplasm. Newly developed germplasm can be directly released to producers or can
be utilized as parents in other breeding programs.

Traditional plant breeding has led to an increase in soybean yield of only about 0.5% per
year or about 0.2 bushels per acre (as of 1998) per year in North America. A possible
reason for the slow progress is the limited genetic diversity in elite North American
soybean germplasm. To ensure that soybean yield potential increases and the Illinois
soybean producers flourish in this world market, we will continue to exploit G. max to
identify and consolidate yield genes in preferred varieties and simultaneously focus on
examining exotic germplasm for sources of yield potential. Exotic germplasm can
provide new, untapped reservoirs of genes for improved agronomic performance. After
identified, germplasm carrying promising yield potential genes will be employed,
populations will be developed and screened with genetic markers, and yield genes will
be mapped.


Map the locations of genes from soybean plant introductions that can
improve soybean yield and disease resistance; Brian Diers (University of Illinois-
Urbana/Champaign) and Randall Nelson (USDA/ARS-UIUC). (bdiers@illinois.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Gene Mapping, Soybean Genetic Diversity




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The identification and mapping of new genes that increase yield will be key research
objectives for this initiative. Populations have been developed through crossing elite
lines or cultivars with plant introductions or lines recently developed from plant
introductions. These exotic parents have been shown to be genetically diverse and are
likely good sources of genetic variability. In addition, work will be done to confirm
previously identified yield QTL. This work is critical for increasing the rate of yield
increases in future new varieties. Less than 1% of the soybean lines in the USDA
Soybean Germplasm Collection have contributed to current Illinois varieties. This
untapped genetic diversity represents a great opportunity to find and incorporate new
genes into Illinois varieties that can increase yield. Genetically mapping these important
genes will identify which of the thousands lines available are most likely to be beneficial
and at same time provide DNA markers that will allow us to efficiently extract the good
genes from a genetic background with many unfavorable genes. Although the payoffs
are potentially very large, the private sector is doing very little of this research because
of the long-term commitment needed to complete this research.


Managed Research Area: Varietal information program for soybeans
(VIPS); Bridget Owen, Linda Kull and Emerson Nafziger (project coordinators,
University of Illinois-Urbana/ Champaign); (The funding is allocated to project).
(bcowenl@illinois.edu)

VIPS was designed as a tool to help producers make the transition to soybean
marketing based on seed quality attributes. This transition can provide an opportunity
for progressive farmers to capture greater value from their soybeans. To do so,
however, producers need reliable information about their capacity to produce and deliver
seed components of known value to processors. VIPS is a unique source of reliable,
unbiased, and accessible information on soybean varieties tested in the University of
Illinois Soybean Variety Testing Program. VIPS includes Illinois variety trial data for eight
years.

This screening program includes four projects involved with screening soybean varieties
in the annual Illinois Variety Trials for resistance to sudden death syndrome, Sclerotina
stem rot (white mold), Phytophthora root rot, Soybean mosaic virus, root knot nematode,
soybean aphid resistance, and SCN resistance, and where possible, field observations
for reaction to green stem disorder and sudden death syndrome will be recorded. Brief
summaries for each project are included here:


Evaluation of disease and insect pest resistance for VIPS; T. Slaminko, Roger
Bowen and Houston. Hobbs (University of Illinois-Urbana/Champaign) and Glen
Hartman (USDA/ARS-UIUC); ($75,000). (tnlynch@illinois.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Variety Testing, Soybean Disease Resistance, SCN-Genetic
Resistance, Soybean Insect Genetic resistance

This effort will provide independent, multiple disease evaluations to enable growers to
effectively compare resistance traits for cultivars from various companies.



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Identifying varieties with resistance to root knot nematode; Jason Bond
(Southern Illinois University-Carbondale); ($19,000). (jbond@siu.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Variety Testing, Soybean Root Knot Nematode

The researcher will identify varieties with resistance to southern root knot nematode.


The Illinois SDS commercial variety testing project; Jason Bond and Cathy
Schmidt; (Southern Illinois University-Carbondale); ($79,000). (jbond@siu.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Variety Testing, Sudden Death Syndrome,
Soybean Disease Resistance

This effort continues the evaluation of hundreds of soybean varieties in maturity groups I
through V in field studies with naturally occurring SDS infection


Evaluating SCN-resistant varieties for resistance; Terry Niblack (University of
Illinois-Urbana/Champaign), and Jason Bond (Southern Illinois University-Carbondale);
($77,000). (tniblack@illinois.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Variety Testing, SCN-Genetic Resistance

All SCN-resistant varieties that are entered in the Illinois soybean variety trials will be
evaluated in this project. About 550 new varieties are anticipated for 2009, and each
variety will be evaluated using the Female Index (FI).


Breeding non-GMO varieties; Brian Diers (University of Illinois-Urbana/Champaign)
and Stella Kantarzi (Southern Illinois University-Carbondale); ($244,890).
(bdiers@illinois.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Breeding

In 2007, about nine percent of the US soybean acreage and twelve percent of the Illinois
acreage were planted to non-GMO soybean varieties. The private seed industry has
done an excellent job in developing new high yielding soybean varieties and delivering
them to farmers, however, most of the varieties are GMO varieties with herbicide
tolerance. This trend is anticipated to continue. The objective of this project is to
encourage the development of non-GMO varieties, which are competitive with those
produced by industry. The funding will be used by two soybean breeding programs
(IUIUC and SUIC) to develop high-yielding, non-GMO varieties with needed disease and
nematode resistances.


Managing soybeans for high yields; Emerson Nafziger and Stephen Ebelhar
(University of Illinois-Urbana/Champaign); ($15,000). (ednaf@illinois.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Production Management, Soybean Yield Improvement

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In 2007, a southwestern Missouri farmer Kip Cullers set the record soybean yield with a
yield of 154.7 bu/acre. His success has been attributed to a combination of genetics, the
use of large amounts of irrigation water to eliminate drought stress and to control canopy
temperatures during pod set and pod fill, applications of foliar fungicides, the use of
various seed treatments, and to the application of nutrients, including nitrogen,
micronutrients, and growth regulating products. Because he manages his “contest” field
uniformly, there can be no estimation of the effect of individual inputs on soybean yield.
This study is designed to test whether or not such irrigation and nutrient treatments will
result in similarly high soybean yields at three sites in Illinois that differ in soils and
weather.


Soy-in-aquaculture research program; John Campen (Smith Bucklin); ($100,000).
(john_campen@sba.com)

Key Words: Soybean Meal Use-Aquaculture

This research project will support the Soy-in Aquaculture Managed Program, a
coordinated program of the United Soybean Board and the United States Soybean
Export Council, designed to remove the barriers to the use of soybean meal and soy
protein concentrate in diets fed to aquaculture species. As discussed at the July ’08
Durham, New Hampshire meeting of Managed Program Stakeholders, the research will
focus on the following species: marine shrimp, seriola (yellowtail and amberjack), cobia,
cod, tilapia, white sea bass, milkfish, summer and olive flounder, Asian seabass, and
giant grouper. These species are large industries currently under utilizing or consuming
little or no soybean meal or soy protein concentrate. The highly integrated and
collaborative nature of this initial series of projects should result in expansion of soybean
meal and protein concentrate into new rapidly growing markets


The effect of various processing techniques on the nutritional value of
soybean meal fed to weaned pigs; Jonathan Holt (Illinois State University);
($24,000). (jholtz@ilstu.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Meal-Swine, Soybean Processing, Soybean Meal-Composition

The objectives of the research in this current proposal are to: 1) Analyze the nutrient and
energy digestibility of diets containing fermented soybean meal fed to weaned pigs; 2)
Determine if various processing of soybean meal can enhance the growth performance
of weaned pigs; and 3) Quantify the amount of anti-nutritional factors present in soybean
meal processed using various techniques


NSRL Extension Associates; Linda Kull (National Soybean Research Laboratory,
University of Illinois-Urbana/Champaign); ($35,000). (lkull@illinois.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Educational Activities

This project provides funds for three Extension Educators: Robert Bellm, Doug Jones,
and Marion Shire from the University of Illinois Extension Services as NSRL Extension

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Associates to handle outreach for the MRAs and the VIPS program. The plan of work
for the NSRL Extension Associates includes but is not limited to the following: become
involved in the research and outreach activities of an MRA; work closely with
researchers, producers, NSRL, and Illinois Soybean Association staff to deliver high
impact outreach programming to the soybean farmers of Illinois; utilize the VIPS as a
base information technology for knowledge creation, organization, and dissemination.


Research support for soybean breeding and genetics position at SIUC;
Todd Winters and Brian Klubek (Southern Illinois University-Carbondale); ($147,907).
(tw3a@siu.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Research Technical Support

This funding will be used to provide support and bridge funding for the new molecular
soybean breeding position. This person will develop a fully functional externally
supported molecular breeding facility at Southern Illinois University-Carbondale.


Start up cost for soy and obesity research at SIUC; Todd Winters and William
Banz (College of Agriculture, Southern Illinois University-Carbondale); ($85,761).
(tw3a@siu.edu)

Key Words: Soy Human Health Studies, Soybean Research Technical Support

This funding is to provide start up staffing cost for new human health studies at Southern
Illinois University in Carbondale, IL. The studies will involve soy’s role in preventing
obesity and fatty livers.


Startup support for sturgeon caviar research at SIUC; Todd Winters, James
Garvey and Brian Small (Southern Illinois University); ($89,287). (tw3a@siu.edu)

Key Words: Soybean meal Use-Aquaculture, Soybean Research Technical Support

This funding will be used to develop a new aquaculture research program at Southern
Illinois University in Carbondale, IL.


Revealing the blueprint for soybean seed composition using the “next
generation” sequencing; Lila Vodkin and Brian Cunningham (University of Illinois-
Urbana/Champaign); ($60,000). (l-vodkin@illinois.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Gene Expression, Soybean Genomics, Soybean Gene Mapping

The researchers in this project will apply recently developed photonic crystal arrays that
have been shown to enhance sensitivity in detecting gene expression to specific
problems of biological and economic importance in soybean: (a) the validation of genes
involved in seed protein composition and (b) the validation of genes involved in disease
resistance response.

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Development of a rapid test for glyphosate-resistant waterhemp; Pat Tranel
and Aaron Hager (University of Illinois-Urbana Champaign); ($66, 914).
(tranel@illinois.edu)

Key Words: Glyphosate Studies, Herbicide Resistance

The increasing incidence of weed species that are resistant to some herbicides has
increased the interest in developing a rapid test to identify herbicide resistant weeds.
This project is directed that developing such a method that can rapidly evaluate the
susceptibility of waterhemp to glyphosate. Successful completion of the project will
provide soybean growers another tool to use in their weed control program.


Sequencing the Fusarium viguliforme genome; Madan Bhattacharyya and
Xiaoqiu Huang (Iowa State University), Ahmad Fakhoury (Southern Illinois University)
and Burton Bluhm (University of Arkansas); ($107,780). (A joint project with the Iowa
Soybean Board). (mbhattac@iastate.edu)

Key Words: Sudden Death Syndrome, Fusarium viguliforme

Objective of this project is to generate a high quality genomic sequence of Fusarium
viguliforme and make it available to the SDS research community through a web server.


College of Applied Science and Technology, Dean Enhancement Program:
ISA Cast new faculty mentorship program; Rob Rhykerd and Jeffrey Wood
(Illinois State University); ($36,750). (rrhyker@ilstu.edu)

Key Words: Research-Other

The funding will be used to expand the effectiveness of the agricultural teaching program
at Illinois State University.


NSRL communication, coordination and facilitating intellectual properties
protection/commercialization; Bridget Owen (National Soybean Research
Laboratory, University of Illinois-Urbana/ Champaign); ($64,782). (bcowen@illinois.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Research-Coordination, Soybean Research Administration

The funding will be used to assist in the coordination of the soybean research program
at UIUC. The effort also involves monitoring the protection of intellectual property rights
of research advances and encouraging the commercialization of research results.


Implementation of “traditional” and “designer” oils in aquaculture feeds;
Jesse Trushenski and Christopher Kohler (Southern Illinois University-Carbondale);
($314,839). (saluski@siu.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Oil Utilization

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Nutritional and medical communities have recommended increasing consumption of
long-chained polyunsaturated fatty acids Seafood remains the most effective means of
incorporating these nutrients in to the human diet. Cultured fish can be an excellent
source of these long-chained polyunsaturated fatty acids, however, the use of alternative
lipids in aquafeeds can reduce these fatty acids in the fillet. Using fish oil in the
“finishing” diet may be an effective way to increase the long-chained polyunsaturated
fatty acids in fish fed alternative lipid-based diets during the grow-out period.

This project will assess traditional low saturated fatty acid, low alpha-linolenic acid, high
oleic acid and hydrogenated soybean oils as partial substitutes for fish oil in grow-out
feeds for hybrid striped bass, rainbow trout and Nile tilapia. After the idea soybean oil
has been identified, the researchers will evaluate increasing fish oil replacement rates
and the responsiveness of these fish species to long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid
restoration during the finishing period.


Increasing Utilization of soy-derived protein sources in aquaculture feeds;
Jesse Trushenski and Christopher Kohler (Southern Illinois University-Carbondale);
($137,645). (saluski@siu.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Meal-Aquaculture

The objectives of this project is to evaluate a range of soybean-derived protein sources
in hybrid striped bass feeds, in order to identify maximal inclusion rates for soy products
in aquafeeds for carnivorous fish. Specifically, the researchers plan to:
    • Evaluate the extent to which soybean meal may spare fish meal in feeds for
        hybrid striped bass without impairing performance;
    • Identify the extent to which a reduced fish meal feed can be amended by
        inclusion of soy protein concentrate to further reduce fish meal; and
    • Further reduce, or eliminate the remaining fish meal by including soy protein
        isolates containing about 90 percent protein.


R u a healthy kids? Sharon Petersen (Southern Illinois University-Carbondale);
($261,731).

Key Words: Soy Human Health Studies

Type-2 diabetes is increasingly occurring in children and this pilot program is address
some of the concerns and encouraging the use of soy foods as an alternative to foods
that encourage this nutritional disorder. The research group will survey children and
develop inactive programs that can reduce the diabetes risk.


North Central Soybean Research Program; ($300,000).




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Indiana Soybean Alliance
Concrete sealants; Bernard Tao (Agricultural and Biological Engineering) and Jason
Weiss (Civil Engineering, Purdue University); ($72,166). (tao@purdue.edu)

Key words: Soy-based Concrete Additive, Soybean Oil-Industrial Uses, Soybean Methyl
Esters

The concrete industry uses expensive, petroleum-based commercial compounds as
evaporation retardants, curing compounds and penetrating sealants to reduce cracking,
spalling, freeze-thaw damage, sulfate attack and chloride ion penetration. Research by
Dr. Tao has shown that soybean methyl esters, with or without, dissolved polystyrene
are an effective, economical, sealant for concrete.         Their testing program has
demonstrated that mixtures of soy methyl ester and polystyrene have potential use as a
concrete sealant, crack sealer or water proofing agent. Research has shown high
reductions in water absorption and salt penetration can be achieved with soy methyl
ester and polystyrene. These results indicate that there is a large potential market for
the soy-based concrete additive in road, bridge, sidewalk and other applications.

However, additional research is needed to quantify the performance of these soy-based
additives. The project will allow researchers to continue to conduct testing on the soy
methyl ester-polystyrene treated concretes to evaluate the benefits on corrosion, freeze-
thaw properties and on cracked/sawcut concrete joints. The project’s goal is to develop
a soy-based concrete additive that has commercial use applications and will greatly
expand the market for soybean oil.


Student soybean contest; Bernard Y. Tao (Agricultural and Biological Engineering,
Purdue University); ($197,000). (tao@purdue.edu)

Key Words: Soybean New Product Development

Over the years, the “Student Soybean Innovation Contest” has produced several
commercial products, numerous concepts and ideas that have stimulated potential
industrial interest. It produces graduates who understand the value and importance of
utilizing renewable resources, such as soybeans, for industrial and food products. Past
students who have participated in this competition have gone on to work at companies
such as Pepperidge Farms, Proctor & Gamble, Favorite Brands, Nestles, M&M Mars,
Kroger Foods and Union Carbide. They continue to champion the use of soybean
components in the development of snack foods, fat substitutes, industrial chemical
intermediates and cosmetics in their respective companies.

Student innovation contests sponsored by industry are an excellent learning tool for
students. Through these projects students gain practical experience in utilizing their
course work education to develop products/processes, learn about specific new
technical areas, and to apply economic, technical and market feasibility. Industry gains
novel ideas for potential commercial development, as well as developing future potential
employees.
The Indiana Soybean Alliance and Purdue University have also benefited from this
activity. Numerous mass media articles and TV reports have been done on the products
derived from this program.

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Engaging new researchers to work in soybean utilization; Bernard Y. Tao
(Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Purdue University); ($73,471).
(tao@purdue.edu)

Key Words: Soybean New Product Development, Soybean Research Other

The overall goal of this project is to get more people, ideas, and disciplines focused on
soybean utilization. The project has two specific objectives: 1) To engage two new
research projects, or research groups, in soybean utilization studies over the coming
year; and 2) To target Purdue disciplines of chemistry, chemical engineering,
biochemistry and material sciences for research ideas and projects.


Catalytic conversion of glycerin to dihydroxyacetone; Arvind Varma (Chemical
Engineering Department) and Bernard Tao (Agricultural and Biological Engineering,
Purdue University); ($47,606). (avarma@purdue.edu)

Key Words: Glycerol Use-Industrial Uses

The market for glycerol (glycerin) has become saturated as biodiesel production has
increased. To improve the economics of biodiesel operations, it is desirable to increase
the utility of glycerol. The objective of this project is to investigate the conversion of
glycerol to high value chemicals. Glycerol can be subjected to oxidation reaction that
can result in oxygenates that have a wide variety of use.

This study will develop kinetic models for glycerol oxidation that will determine the
equipment and process conditions needed to produce high-value chemical reagents. Of
particular interest will be studies with a continuous-flow membrane reactor to optimize
the production of dihydroxyacetone.


Effective micronutrient management for higher soybean yields; Tony Vyn and Jim
Camberato (Agronomy Department, Purdue University); ($56,614). (tvyn@purdue.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Fertility Studies; Micro-Nutrients, Manganese (Mn), Zinc (Zn),
Glyphosate Studies, Weed Control

The long-term goals of this project are to improve the management of micro-nutrients
such as manganese and zinc in order to help achieve higher soybean yields in Indiana
cropping systems that rely on glyphosate for weed control. The specific objectives are
to: 1) Better understand the soil, environment and soybean management factors that
reduce manganese and zinc availability in soybean plants; and 2) Determine the
optimum mode for micronutrient supplementation of Roundup ready soybean production
systems for both individual and combinations of micronutrients when soybeans are
grown in soils with varying micronutrient availabilities.


Optimizing recommendations for foliar-applied chemicals to soybeans;
Kiersten Wise (Department of Plant Pathology) Bill Johnson and Tony Vyn (Agronomy


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Department) and Christian Krupke (Entomology Department, Purdue University);
($50,000). (kawise@purdue.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Pesticide Application Studies, Soybean Production Management

Soybean producers in Indiana frequently apply foliar chemicals to soybean with the goal
of increasing yield. These chemicals, which include herbicides, fungicides, insecticides
and foliar fertilizers, are often applied simultaneously to minimize trips made across the
field. Each of these chemicals can improve soybean yields under certain conditions,
however, the impact of co-applications on individual product efficacy and plant health is
not well understood.

The overall goal of this project is to understand the effects of chemical co-applications
on product efficacy, soybean yield and economic return for soybeans. The researchers
will also determine how these types of applications impact the biology of fungal
diseases. Understanding these interactions is important to advancing fundamental
knowledge of these systems and improving management recommendation to soybean
producers.


Monitoring soybean rust in Indiana; Kiersten Wise (Department of Plant
Pathology, Purdue University); ($15,000). (kawise@purdue.edu)

Key Words: Asian Soybean Rust, ASR-Sentinel Plots

The risk of soybean rust occurring in Indiana is hard to predict, since the disease
depends on the timing, weather patterns and level of the disease in the southern U.S.
The sentinel plot system was established in Indiana to monitor the northern spread of
the disease. The program has been in place since 2005 and has been able to detect
soybean rust in Indiana at low levels in 2006 and 2007. The funding will allow Purdue
University researchers to continue the established soybean sentinel plot monitoring
program in Indiana.

The sentinel plots program also monitors other destructive soybean pathogens that may
be present in Indiana soybean fields. Monitoring of new and emerging diseases is
important and provides valuable information to soybean researchers in their efforts to
develop disease management recommendations for soybean producers.


Genetic dissection of uncharacterized Rps genes; Jianxin Ma (Agronomy
Department, Purdue University); ($78,127). (maj@purdue.edu)

Key Words: Phytophthora Root Rot, Phytophthora sojae, Marker Assisted Selection,
Soybean Genomics,

The long-term goal of this project is to identify molecular marker closely related to, or
located with, new and known Rps genes, which confer resistance to Phytophthora sojae,
the pathogen that causes Phytophthora root rot. These molecular tags will be used in
marker-assisted selection programs to accelerate the incorporation of Rps genes into
elite soybean cultivars that have other desirable traits and high yield potential.


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The specific objectives of the project are to: 1) Perform gene analysis of Phytophthora
resistance carried by two soybean varieties; 2) Explore new genetics and genomic
approaches to mapping of Rps genes; and 3) Develop molecular markers tightly linked
to, or within, these Rps genes. These results will be effectively used by soybean
breeders in efforts to develop soybean germplasm with greater resistance to P. sojae.


Farmer nominated program through Purdue soybean performance trials;
Craig Beyrouty and Phil DeVillez (Agronomy Department, Purdue University); ($13,000).
(beyrouty@purdue.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Variety Testing

The Purdue Soybean Performance Program has been providing Indiana’s soybean
growers with quality unbiased data for almost forty years. Participation by the
companies is strictly voluntary. In recent years the number of varieties tested has been
decreasing due to fewer seed companies and other changes. The smaller testing
program has reduced the value of the program. In an attempt to create more useful
information on soybean varieties that are being planted in Indiana, this project was
created to allow soybean growers to nominate popular soybean varieties to be tested.
The yield data will be sent directly to the producers and posted on the Purdue Crop
Performance website.


Improving the Purdue order-based setback distance model and interactive
website: Phase II; Albert Heber and Teng Teeh Lim (Agricultural and Biological
Engineering Department, Purdue University); ($45,000). (heber@purdue.edu)

Key Words: Other studies,

The Purdue odor setback distance model is a tool that is used to calculate reasonable
odor setbacks for existing and proposed livestock facilities in Indiana. The model has
been used to resolve conflicts between livestock producers and neighbors in various
situations. Phase I of the study funded by the Indiana Soybean Alliance had five
objectives: 1) Identify individual sources and setback distances; 2) Provide economic
setbacks based on odor exposure percentages; 3) Specify odor abatement methods; 4)
Include dairy operations; and 5) Provide emission rates of various manure storage and
treatment facilities.

Phase II objectives include: 1) Expanding the application of the model to include egg
layer facilities; 2) Automatically plot calculated directional setbacks on aerial maps; 3)
Automatically collect topographic and land use data around the farm; 4) Introduce links
to case studies and examples at user input steps, so that users can make informed
decisions; and 5) Convert the Phase I Excel spreadsheet to a user-friendly web-
interactive model.


The cost of community services and the impact of development for Indiana
Counties; Lawrence DeBoer (Agricultural Economics, Purdue University); ($23,824).
(ldeboer@purdue.edu)

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Key Words: Other studies, Soybean Economic Studies

This project will provide a fiscal impact model which communities can use to gauge the
budget effects of new development. The model will be incorporated into Purdue
University’s Local Decision Maker website. Community members will be able to type
characteristics of a new development into a form on the website. The website will fill in
additional information from its data base of tax rates and other information. The user will
then receive an estimate of the fiscal impact; i.e. the effects of the development on local
government revenues and costs.

The researcher has conducted several economic studies; one published in 2009
investigated the fiscal impact of confined animal feeding operation on Indiana Counties.
The goal of this project is to provide information on the soybean industry to the Indiana
Soybean Alliance.


North Central Soybean Research Program; ($100,000).



Iowa Soybean Association
Breeding for disease resistance in soybean; Silvia Cianzio (Agronomy
Department, Iowa State University); ($206,987). (scianzio@iastate.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Breeding

The overall goal of the program is to develop and release germplasm and cultivars with
improved resistance to stress factors of economic importance to soybean production in
Iowa. The breeding program will concentrate primarily on developing resistance to
Phytophthora root rot, soybean cyst nematode, brown stem rot, sudden death syndrome,
iron-deficiency chlorosis, soybean aphid, and emerging diseases of importance to
soybean production in Iowa. The program will incorporate resistance genes into high-
yielding germplasm lines adapted to Iowa. The work will be conducted at two
geographical locations (Iowa and Puerto Rico).

The ISU program differentiates itself from private breeding programs in that its main role
is to search the germplasm collection and bring to the public the new genes. Private
programs, in which the objective is the economic survival of the seed company, do not
invest dollars in tasks that do not result in a directly saleable cultivar. The ISU public
program serves the growers and the commodity by providing new resistance genes, that
otherwise would never be reached in commercial production. The program is unique
and essential to soybean production and maximum potential

The soybean breeding targets are developing germplasm with disease resistance (PRR,
BSR, SCN, SDS, and IDC), high-yielding characteristics and resistance to emerging
stress factors that impact Iowa soybean growers.




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Breeding program for general-use and specialty soybeans in Iowa; Walter
Fehr (Agronomy Department, Iowa State University); ($193,900).
(wfehr@iastate.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Breeding-Composition, Soybean Breeding-Soy Foods,
Soybean Composition, Modifying Oil

The project goals are to develop general-use and specialty soybeans with improved
agronomic traits for the farmer and desirable seed traits for end users. The project is
targeting the development of varieties with:
    • Altered fatty acid composition;
    • Yellow hilum color for general use and for the food industry;
    • Large seed and high protein for the soy foods industry
    • Without lipoxygenase to reduce the beany favor in soy foods;
    • Large seed for the production of vegetable soy foods; and
    • Low phytate and altered fatty acid content.


Introgression of novel genes conferring resistance to SCN in soybean
germplasm of early maturity groups; Silvia Cianzio (Agronomy Department, Iowa
State University) and Prakash Arelli (USDA-ARS/ West Tennessee Experiment Station);
($168,682). (scianzio@iastate.edu)

Key Words: SCN-Genetic Resistance

The narrow genetic base of the U.S. cultivated soybean has been a concern to soybean
growers and producers in terms of how the crop will respond to pest outbreaks that may
overcome the genetic resistance commonly used in breeding cultivars. Concurrent to
this concern is the fact that soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is one of the most destructive
and yield- damaging pest to which soybean may be exposed. Once the nematode is in
the soil it cannot be eradicated; it is in the soil forever. Since nematode populations are
genetically variable, new types that could overcome resistance may arise under
environmentally favorable circumstances. Cultivars with genetic resistance are the only
feasible means to control the pest and protect seed yield.
The researchers will incorporate newly discovered novel SCN-resistant genes into
soybean maturity groups I, II and III germplasm with resistance to other economically
important diseases and adequate agronomic performance. The specific objectives are
to incorporate newly identified SCN-resistant genes into high-yield germplasm with
Phytophthora root rot, brown stem rot resistance and sudden death syndrome.


Assessing nematode control and yield of SCN-resistant soybean varieties
in response to different SCN populations (Hg types); Greg Tylka (Plant
Pathology Department, Iowa State University); ($234,772). (gtykla@iastate.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Cyst Nematode (SCN), SCN-Hg Populations,
SCN-Genetic Resistance, Soybean Variety Testing

The overall goal of the project is to provide Iowa soybean growers with a source of
unbiased and complete information about the agronomic performance of soybean cyst

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nematode (SCN) control provided by soybean varieties marketed in Iowa that are
resistant to SCN. The existing ISU SCN-resistant Soybean Variety Trial Program will be
expanded into a more comprehensive program for evaluation of a greater number of
SCN-resistant soybean varieties sold in Iowa.

The project’s specific objectives are to annually:
   • Compile information on soybean varieties marketed as resistant to SCN that are
       available to Iowa producers;
   • Assess the amount of SCN reproduction that occurs on the roots of SCN-
       resistant soybean varieties using SCN populations from the field in greenhouse
       bioassays;
   • Assess the agronomic performance of SCN-resistant soybean varieties in field-
       plot experiments conducted in fields infested with different SCN HG types; and
   • Measure the control of SCN population densities provided by SCN-resistant
       soybean varieties in field-plot experiments in fields infested with different SCN
       HG types at various locations throughout Iowa.


Determining the impact of multiple pests on soybean yields and grain
composition; Gustavo MacIntosh (Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology),
Matthew O’Neal (Entomology), Gregory Tylka and Felicitas Avendano (Plant Pathology)
and Palle Pedersen (Agronomy Department, Iowa State University); ($102,347).
(gustavo@iastate.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Composition, Soybean Aphid, Soybean Cyst Nematode,
Brown Stem Rot (BSR)

Soybeans with altered lipid composition are an attractive opportunity for growers to
improve upon the profitability of soybean production. Without an understanding of how
these common soybean pests act alone and in concert on these varieties, growers may
be at risk of losing the premiums associated with these specialty bean varieties. Upon
completion we will validate pest management recommendations based on commodity
soybeans for production of low-linolenic soybeans or determining where modifications
are needed for successful production.
The goal of this study is to better understand the relationship between soybean
composition and agronomic stresses. Specifically we want to determine:
    • The impact of soybean aphids, soybean cyst nematode, and brown stem rot,
        alone and in combination, on yield and composition of commodity and low
        linolenic varieties;
    • The susceptibility of low-linolenic soybean varieties to soybean aphids, soybean
        cyst nematode and brown stem rot; and
    • Whether soybean leaf fatty acid levels can be used to predict differences in
        soybean grain composition and susceptibility to pests.


Fusarium species infecting soybean roots: Risks and management tools;
Gary Munkvold, Leonor Leandro, Palle Pedersen, Greg Tylka, Silvia Cianzio and Alison
Robertson (Plant Pathology and Agronomy Departments, Iowa State University);
($117,000). (munkvold@iastate.edu)


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Key Words: Sudden Death Syndrome

The goal of the research is to characterize the frequency of Fusarium species from
soybean roots and soil, determine how these Iowa isolates are impacting soybean yield,
and to improve management of SDS and the rest of the Fusarium complex through
agronomic practices, soybean cyst nematode (SCN) management, and resistance to
Fusarium infection of roots.

The research team will:
   • Characterize the frequency of Fusarium species associated with soybean roots in
       Iowa, the occurrence of SDS foliar symptoms, and the occurrence of Fusarium
       virguliforme in soils from Iowa soybean field;
   • Determine the aggressiveness of predominant Fusarium species towards
       soybean;
   • Estimate potential yield loss caused by Fusarium root rot on soybean;
   • Determine the effect of SCN infestation and SCN resistance on Fusarium root
       colonization and root rot;
   • Characterize the current SDS resistance in relation to root infection; and
   • Measure effects of agronomic practices (planting date, maturity group, row
       spacing) on SDS and Fusarium root rot under current growing conditions:


Identify the mechanism used by Fusarium virguliforme to cause sudden
death syndrome in soybean; Madan Bhattacharyya (Plant Pathology Department,
Iowa State University); ($64,648). (mbhattac@iastate.edu)

Key Words: Sudden Death Syndrome (SDS), Fusarium viguliforme

Little is known about the pathogenicity mechanisms of Fusarium viguliforme. The goal
of this research project is to generate novel soybean germplasms with enhanced SDS
resistance that can be used in designing SDS management practices. The project will
build on past research projects and specifically:
     • Identify candidate F. viguliforme pathogenicity genes involved in SDS;
     • Mutate the candidate F. virguliforme pathogenicity genes by conducting
         homologous recombinations;
     • Determine the phenotype of the F. virguliforme mutants that carry mutated
         candidate pathogenicity genes; and
     • Conduct complementation analysis of mutants to identity pathogenicity genes.


Sequencing the Fusarium viguliforme genome; Madan Bhattacharyya (Plant
Pathology Department, Iowa State University); ($106,270).
(mbhattac@iastate.edu)

Key Words: Sudden Death Syndrome (SDS), Fusarium viguliforme

Sudden death syndrome (SDS) is an emerging disease and is becoming a major threat
to soybean production in the north central United States. Research programs leading to
the development of SDS resistant cultivars have been a major focus of the North Central
Soybean Research Program.

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A better understanding of the mechanisms used by F. virguliforme to infect soybean
plants is expected to facilitate the development resistance by genetic manipulation of the
soybean through biotechnical means. Thus, understanding of the molecular basis of the
SDS disease causing mechanisms used by the pathogen is crucial for the developing
SDS resistant soybean cultivars.

The research goals of this project are to provide the SDS research community with:
   • A high quality genome sequence of F. virguliforme through a web server;
   • A bacterial artificial chromosome library of F. virguliforme; and
   • The genome sequences of an additional two highly aggressive and two less
       aggressive strains of F. virguliforme.


Soybean development and susceptibility to sudden death syndrome; Leonor
Leandro (Department of Plant Pathology, Iowa State University); ($32,878).
(lleandro@iastate.edu)

Key Words: Sudden Death Syndrome (SDS)

The goal of this project is to identify the critical states of soybean development that are
most susceptible to root infection and foliar symptoms in soybean sudden death
syndrome (SDS). This information will improve SDS management by revealing traits for
soybean resistance breeding and identifying the most effective times to apply protective
measures.

The specific objectives of the project are to:
   • Determine if soybean roots are susceptible to infection by F. virguliforme at
      different growth stages;
   • Determine the relationship between ligin and suberin deposition in soybean roots
      of different ages and the severity of SDS foliar symptoms; and
   • Evaluate the effect of flowering on the development of SDS foliar symptoms.

Toxins and laccases: Potential pathogenic weapons in soybean sudden
death syndrome; Leonor Leandro (Department of Plant Pathology, Iowa State
University); ($50,000). (lleandro@iastate.edu)

Key Words: Sudden Death Syndrome (SDS), Fusarium virguliforme

The goal of this project is to improve management of soybean sudden death syndrome
(SDS) by investigating how a toxin secreted by F. virguliforme affects foliar symptoms.
The research will be accomplished by investigating the following goals:
   • The impact of the F. virguliforme toxin on foliar symptoms I plants of different
       ages and with varying levels of SDS resistance;
   • Determining if F. virguliforme can produce the toxin that induces SDS foliar
       symptoms while growing in soil;
   • Isolate all F. virguliforme NLP genes and determine if they contribute to SDS
       symptoms; and
   • Isolate all F. virguliforme laccase genes and determine if they contribute to the
       pathogenicity.

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Aspects of integrated management for viruses and infection Phomopsis in
soybean; Gary Munkvold, John Hill, Alison Robertson, Matt O’Neal, Palle Pedersen
and Jeff Bradshaw (Seed Science Center, and Plant Pathology, Entomology and
Agronomy Departments, Iowa State University); ($36,855). (munkvold@iastate.edu)

Key Words: Bean Pod Mottle Virus, Soybean Mosaic Virus, Phomopsis spp.

Soybean viruses, bean leaf beetles, soybean aphids and Phomopsis spp. all affect
soybean seed quality in addition to causing yield loss. The goal of this project is to
understand the interactions between soybean viruses (Soybean mosaic virus and Bean
pod mottle virus) and Phomopsis spp. (cause of pod & stem blight and Phomopsis seed
rot), and to suggest improved crop management practices for soybean viruses and
Phomopsis spp. There is some evidence that virus infection predisposes soybean
plants to Phomopsis infection; and insect vector activity may also directly affect
Phomopsis colonization of soybean pods and stems. The results of this project should
be useful for integrating the management of these interacting pests and diseases.

The goal of the research is to understand the interaction between soybean viruses
(soybean mosaic virus and bean pod mottle virus) and Phomopsis spp. and to assess
the impact of virus vector management practices on infection of soybean plants by
Phomopsis spp. The study will evaluate fungicide application timing for reducing
Phomopsis infection and reducing soybean yield and quality; assessing the integration of
insecticide and fungicide application programs; and determining potential seed
transmission mechanism for bean pod mottle virus.

The project’s objectives are to:
   • Assess the effect of virus infection on susceptibility of soybean plants to infection
       by Phomopsis spp.;
   • Determine the impact of bean leaf beetle and soybean aphid management on
       infection of soybean by Phomopsis spp.;
   • Evaluate fungicide application timing for reduction of Phomopsis infection and
       effect on soybean quality, and assess the integration of insecticide and fungicide
       application programs; and
   • Determine potential seed transmission mechanisms for Bean pod mottle virus:


Exploring new resistance resources for treating soybean diseases; John Hill,
Steven Whitham and Thomas Baum (Plant Pathology Department, Iowa State
University) and Michelle Graham and Randy Shoemaker (USDA/ARS-ISU); ($200,724).
(johnhill@iastate.edu) (A joint project with USB)

Key Words: Virus-inducted Gene Silencing, Genetically Engineered Soybean,
Soybean Disease Resistance

The objectives of this research are to first establish a road map to find disease
resistance using new “gene silencing” technology (VIGS – virus induced gene silencing)
and secondly, to use this information to develop durable resistance against a multitude
of soybean disease-causing agents. The project allows development and use of novel
technology to ask questions focused on what soybean genes do. This research is

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directed towards answering those questions with emphasis on genes involved in biotic
and abiotic stress resistance. It is likely that identification of genes for resistance against
a few target stress agents will contribute to our understanding of common mechanisms
involved in protecting soybeans against distinct groups of pathogens. Therefore, in the
long term results will be viewed in a larger context whereby genes can be exploited to
develop new resistance traits for different pathogens and in so doing, can enhance
breeding efforts directed at soybean improvement through identification of new genetic
markers for disease resistance.

The specific objective of the research is to identify soybean genes involved in the
resistance of the soybean to virus diseases, fungal diseases and the soybean cyst
nematode.


Identifying factors that influence genetic diversity in endemic Phytophthora
sojae populations; Alison Robertson (Department of Plant Pathology, Iowa State
University) and Anne Dorrance (Department of Plant Pathology, Ohio State University);
($77,800). (alisonr@iastate.edu)

Key Words: Phytophthora Root Rot, Phytophthora sojae

The goal of this proposal is to identify factors that shape the genetic diversity of P. sojae
populations. The project’s objectives include:
   • Assess the genetic diversity of P. sojae populations in diverse environments in
       the US using microsatellite (SSR) analysis;
   • Evaluate if tranposons present in the P. sojae genome are active;
   • Determine if infections by more than one race of P. sojae occur in plants in the
       field and result in the generation of new races; and
   • Determine effect of major resistant gene deployment on race structure and
       population dynamics of P. sojae.


Extension and research to facilitate the incorporation of soybean aphid
resistant varieties into Iowa crop production; Matthew O’Neal, Erin Hodgson
and Aaron Gassman (Entomology Department, Iowa State University); ($40,091).
(oneal@iastate.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Aphids (SA), SA-Management

Previous research at Iowa State indicates that within the field, soybean varieties with the
Rag1 gene have lower densities of soybean aphids compared to a susceptible isolines.
However, this resistance did not keep the aphid population below the economic injury
level, despite having populations that were significantly reduced. Yield losses of 30-50%
were reported compared to the aphid-free plots. The use of aphid resistant varieties will
require changes in aphid control management recommendations. This project will
address some of these concerns. The project’s objectives are to:
    • Develop background information to help soybean growers make informed
        decision on the economic benefit of soybean aphid resistant varieties;
    • Determine the role of the overwintering host for the soybean aphid colonization
        and the spread of biotype resistance; and

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   •   Answer the question whether aphid resistant varieties withstand attack from leaf
       feeding beetles.


Optimizing pest management in soybeans; Alison Robertson, Matthew O’Neal,
Leonor Leandro, and Daren Mueller (Plant Pathology Department) and Palle Pedersen
(Agronomy Department, Iowa State University); ($115,262). (alisonr@iastate.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Production Management, Soybean Insect Management,
Soybean Fungicide Studies, SA-Biocontrol

The goal of this proposal is to optimize pest management in soybean by identifying and
developing effective pest management options that ensure profitable and sustainable
soybean production.

The research team plans to achieve the project’s goal by:
   • Comparing new insecticide options for soybean aphid management within
       current recommendations;
   • Quantifying yield losses caused by foliar diseases of soybean in Iowa;
   • Determining the efficacy and economic benefits of fungicide/insecticide tank
       mixes in soybeans; and
   • Characterizing the frequency and role of entomopathogenic fungi on soybean
       aphid populations in Iowa:


Releasing Binodoxys communis of soybean aphid suppression: Delivering
on the promise; Matthew O’Neal (Entomology Department, Iowa State University);
($33,061). (oneal@iastate.edu)

Key Words: SA-Biocontrol

This project supports the NCSRP’s project involving release of B. communis in the
Midwest. Specifically, the objectives provide for recruiting, training and equipping
agribusiness, extension and farmers in their efforts to release the parasitoid wasp in their
production regions and determining the emergence rate, spread and persistence of the
wasp.


Towards integrated management of bean pod mottle virus and the
prediction of the winter survival of the insect vectors: Bean leaf and
Japanese beetles; Forrest W. Nutter Jr. and Alison Robertson (Plant Pathology) and
Erin Hodgson (Entomology Department, Iowa State University); ($101,219).
(fwn@iastate.edu)

Key Words: Bean Pod Mottle Virus, Japanese Beetle Studies

Bean pod mottle virus is the most common virus infecting soybeans in the North Central
States. The risk continues to grow based on surveys conducted in Iowa. In order to
devise more cost effective integrated BPMV disease management programs, more

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knowledge is needed for the interaction between the host crop, the virus pathogen and
environment. Row spacing has been reported to influence the micro-climate within the
crop, thereby affecting the fungal and bacterial pathogens. The effect of row spacing on
temporal and spatial dynamics of a plant virus that is vectored by insects, such as BPMV
and the bean leaf beans, has not been investigated.

The role of Japanese beetles as a BPMV vector is largely unknown, despite reports that
the Japanese beetle is a vector for BPMV. With the increased occurrence of Japanese
beetles in the Midwest in recent years, additional research is needed.

This project will target the following objectives:
   • Temporal dynamics of BPMV in soybeans planted in different row spacings;
   • Spatial spread of BPMV as affected by row width spacings;
   • Population densities of Japanese beetles under different row width spacings; and
   • Develop, evaluate and compare bean leaf beetle and Japanese beetle survival
       models to assess winter survival and the difference in BPMV incidence in Iowa.


Soybean production research: Breaking the yield barrier: Palle Pedersen
(Department of Agronomy, Iowa State University); ($150,443). (palle@iastate.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Yield Improvement

The overall goal is to increase soybean yield and profit even faster than it currently is
accomplished by intensive management. The research project will address stabilizing
and increasing soybean yield while improving production efficiency and the environment
by providing information that may help reduce aboitic and biotic stress-related yield loss.

The specific objectives are to:
   • Investigate the importance of management decisions in a low and a high-yielding
      environment with a reduction in photosynthesis at various growth stages;
   • Determine soybean growth, development and yield in various corn and soybean
      rotations using no-tillage and conventional tillage systems; and
   • Verify the impact of using current management recommendations from ISU
      compared to current practices on farms that have been identified as low yielding.


Entomology extension and research initiative; Les Lewis (Entomology
Department, Iowa State University); ($162,500). (leslewis@iastate.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Research Technical Support, Soybean Educational Activities

This funding initiative will provide short-term funding for an entomology Extension
position that will enable Iowa State University to transfer timely Entomology Best
Management Practices to all of Iowa soybean producers. The information transfer will
be accomplished through the Integrated Crop Management newsletter, field days, radio
interviews and the development of Soybean Aphid Management Guide and other
activities.




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On-farm re-evaluation of soybean response to lime application in Iowa;
Antonio Mallarino (Agronomy Department, Iowa State University); ($62,473).
(apmallar@iastate.edu)

Key Words: Soil Fertility Studies

This on-farm project is designed to re-evaluate soybean response to lime in Iowa and to
collect data needed to support any needed change in existing recommendations. The
project uses precision agriculture technologies, replicated strip trials, and dense soil
sampling to identify optimum soil pH for corn and soybean, to study the variation in crop
response to lime across soil series and topography, and to compare laboratory analysis
methods to assess lime needs and lime ECCE.


Relationships between grain yield, potassium removal and recycling, as
soil potassium in corn-soybean rotations; Antonio Mallarino (Agronomy
Department, Iowa State University); ($49,490). (apmallar@iastate.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Fertility Studies, Potassium (K)

The goal of this new project is to better understand relationships between potassium (K)
fertilization, grain yield, K uptake and removal, K recycling with residue, and K
distribution into soil pools to improve the efficacy of K management and economic
benefits from fertilization. The project began in October 2008, and this goal will be
achieved by using a combination of new short-term conventional plot experiments and
sampling of selected plots of ongoing long-term experiments that were established years
ago with partial support from ISA.



Aphid-crop interactions; W. Allen Miller (Plant Pathology Department), Bryony C.
Bonning, (Entomology Department), and Gustavo MacIntosh (Biochemistry Department,
Iowa State University); ($30,000). (wamiller@iastate.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Aphid, SA-Genetic Resistance

This research will be directed at increasing the understanding of the soybean-soybean
aphid interaction, and to search for aphid viruses to control the soybean aphid. The
research group will use microarray analysis of gene expression changes to identify
specific plant genes that are turned on, or off, in response to aphid infestation. The
researchers will engineer known viruses and seek soybean aphid viruses that could be
used for biocontrol and/or transgenic aphid resistance.


Development of a field crop weed identification guide; Daren Mueller, Robert
Hartzler, Kristine Schaefer, Clarke McGrath and Greg Tylka (Plant Pathology
Department, Iowa State University); ($9,987). (dsmueller@iastate.edu)

Key Words: Weed Control,



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The goal of the project is to help soybean growers make better informed decision
concerning weed control through the development of a pocket-size, durable weed
identification field guide.


Non-host resistance for engineering disease resistance in soybean; Madan
Bhattacharyya (Plant Pathology Department, Iowa State University); (This project is
jointly funded by the Iowa Soybean Association and the Consortium of Plant
Biotechnology Research); ($30,000). (mbhattac@iastate.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Disease Genetic Resistance

The overall goal of the project is to discover the unique nonhost resistance mechanism
of Arabidopsis against the soybean pathogen Phytophthora sojae. Once such a unique
mechanism is discovered, its transfer to soybean is expected to generate cultivars with
broad-spectrum Phytophthora resistance. In order to accomplish our goal, we mutated
Arabidopsis nonhost resistance genes and identified mutants that showed susceptibility
to P. sojae. The following research objectives were proposed to accomplish in a three-
year research proposal starting October 1, 2007:
    • Isolate Arabidopsis nonhost resistance genes;
    • Genetically map (i.e., place the genes on one of five Arabidopsis chromosomes)
       to classify the putative Phytophthora sojae susceptible (pss) mutants in
       Arabidopsis;
    • Develop high-resolution molecular (DNA markers that show different phenotypes
       between parents or lines) map of the Arabidopsis genomic regions containing
       nonhost Phytophthora sojae resistance genes; and
    • Isolate nonhost Phytophthora sojae resistance genes through complementation
       analyses (i.e., make a susceptible mutant resistant by transforming it with the
       corresponding wild-type or non-mutant version of the gene) in Arabidopsis.


Soybean seed treatment and inoculant evaluation; Palle Pedersen (Agronomy
Department) and Erin Hodgson (Entomology Department, Iowa State University);
($51,141). (palle@iastate.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Seed Treatments, Soybean Inoculate Studies

The overall goal is to determine the value of soybean seed treatments and seed
inoculants in Iowa using current production practices. The specific objectives are to
determine the effects of seed treatment on soybeans and to determine the effects of
soybean inoculant on yield.


Environmental Services 2009: Roger Wolf (Iowa Soybean Association); ($567,098).
(rwolf@iasoybeans.com)

Key Words: Environmental Studies

A continuing project for development, implementation and promotion of action-oriented
conservation and environmental initiatives implemented at multiple-scales and locations

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throughout Iowa. Funding is leveraged with other public and private funding and
interfaces with other Objective 9 projects from ISA’s strategic plan.

The project objectives are to:
   • Provide technical and administrative support for implementing CEMSA and
       Watershed programming;
   • Expand issue specific research offerings within CEMSA and Watershed
       programs (e.g. paired micro watersheds, energy use, carbon, GHG issues);
   • Build alliances and support for program expansion within Iowa (crop reporting
       districts) and in the Upper Mississippi River Basin;
   • Conduct information and communication promotion of work associated with
       Iowa’s soybean Association’s environmental programs; and
   • Provide technical assistance and staff support with policy and program education
       and information and communication outreach.


Iowa Soybean Association’s On-Farm Network®/On-farm Research; Tracy
Blackmer (Iowa Soybean Association); ($849,978). tbackmer@iasoybeans.com

Key Words: Soybean On-farm Research, Soybean Educational Activities,
Soybean Research Websites

This project involves coordinating the On-Farm Network®, which works with more than
500 Iowa soybean and corn growers who conduct a wide variety of on-farm research
studies. The focus is on using precision ag technologies, including GPS, aerial imagery,
and combine yield monitors, to determine the economic potential of specific crop
production practices, such as use of fertilizers, fungicides, insecticides, pest resistant
hybrids or varieties, tillage or other soil management practices, etc. To do this, growers
use alternating replicated strips across their field(s) that compares their current
management with the practice they want to study. Strips are marked with GPS, so they
can be monitored using aerial imagery and so data can be collected with yield monitors
at harvest.

This project relies on a statewide infrastructure of growers and service providers that has
been developed over the past nine years to support collection of data that can be used
by Iowa growers and, on a larger scale, by legislators and others involved in monitoring
the progress of agriculture at self-regulation and in administering current regulatory
programs, such as nutrient management.

The project involves working with researchers and agronomists from state universities,
commercial companies, crop consultants and farm cooperatives to collect production
data, aerial imagery photos, highly accurate elevation data, soil conductivity information
and other field information that helps improve crop management decisions.

The project provides for an annual conference for On-Farm Network® participants,
technical presentations at national scientific conferences, local crop fairs, field days,
county annual meetings, and other grower meetings with the goal of improving profits for
Iowa’s soybean growers.

North Central Soybean Research Program; ($550,000).

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Kansas Soybean Commission
Development of soybean host plant resistance and other management
options for the soybean stem borer; Lawrent Buschman, C. Michael Smith, Phillip
E. Sloderbeck, William Schapaugh and Harold Trick (Entomology, Agronomy and Plant
Pathology Departments, Southwest Area Extension Office, SW Research/Extension
Center, KSU Extension Offices, Kansas State University); ($26,156).
(lbuschma@ksu.edu)

Key Words: Dectes Stem Borer, Soybean Germplasm Screening,
Soybean Variety Testing, Soybean Insect Control, Soybean Educational Activities

Soybean stem borers continue to be a soybean production problem in Kansas. The
researchers in this project will:
   • Continue screening soybean germplasm accessions for resistance to soybean
       stem borer;
   • Evaluate the yield response of different soybean varieties to soybean stem borer
       feeding using systemic insecticides;
   • Conduct a survey of the occurrence of soybean stem borer across the High
       Plains and Midwest to determine if the problem is widespread enough to
       encourage registration of insecticides against this pest; and
   • Expand web pages and other educational materials associated with soybean
       insect pests.


Enhancement of soybean through genetic engineering; Harold Trick, William
Schapaugh and Tim Todd (Departments of Plant Pathology and Agronomy, Kansas
State University); ($75,092). (hnt@ksu.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Bioengineering, Genetically Engineered Soybeans,
Virus-Induced Gene Silencing

This project will continue to produce and evaluate genetically engineered soybeans for
increased fungal resistance. They will use gene silencing (RNAi) to enhance soybean
cyst nematode (SCN) resistance in transgenic soybean, and produce phenylalanine-free
corn protein in transgenic soybean. The project’s goal is to produce a nutraceutical
(value-added) trait that may open new markets for Kansas’ soybeans.


Influence of soils, nutrition and water relations upon charcoal rot disease
processes in Kansas; Christopher R. Little, P.V. Vara Prasad, DeAnn Presley (Plant
Pathology and Agronomy Departments, Kansas State University); ($33,770).
(crlittle@ksu.edu)

Key Words: Charcoal Rot

The objectives of this project are to: 1) Determine the influence of common soil types on
charcoal rot disease incidence and severity; and 2) Determine the influence of water
relations and soil nutrition on charcoal rot disease incidence and severity within the
context of various soils and irrigation regimes.

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Correction of potassium deficiency in soybean production in Kansas; David
B. Mengel, Dorivar Ruiz Diaz (Agronomy Department, Kansas State University);
($30,990). (dmengel@ksu)

Key Words: Potassium (K), Soil Fertility Studies

The objectives are to: 1) Determine the impact of K deficiencies on soybean yields in
Kansas; 2) Determine if broadcast applications of K will correct the observed
deficiencies when soil test K levels are below the current critical level and if so, the
amount of K required to correct deficiencies at a given soil test level; and 3) Determine if
surface banding of K will correct the K deficiency in soybeans more efficiently than
broadcast applications.


Trait and production efficiency enhancement in soybean; Bill Schapaugh, Tim
Todd, Harold Trick, Jim Long, (Agronomy Department, Plant Pathology Department,
Southeast Research Center, Kansas State University); ($276,449). (wts@ksu.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Breeding; Soybean Breeding-Composition,
Soybean Breeding-Disease Resistance, Charcoal Rot, Sudden Death Syndrome (SDS)

The soybean breeding project will develop high yielding, multiple pest resistant varieties;
special purpose varieties for use in food, feed or industrial products; germplasm with
specific disease and insect resistance; and lines with improved oil quality. The breeding
targets are increased seed yield under dryland and irrigated production systems; seed
composition (high oil, high protein, low phytate, low linolenic, mid-oleic, and low
saturated fats); and disease and insect resistance: soybean cyst nematode, soybean
sudden death syndrome, soybean aphid and soybean rust.

The researchers will improve selection efficiency in breeding for specific traits. They will
also continue to improve charcoal rot and soybean cyst nematode (SCN) and soybean
sudden death syndrome (SDS) management recommendations. Including identifying
and assess biological methods to control diseases, evaluating seed treatments and foliar
treatments.


Use of seed and foliar fungicides at two planting dates for soybean
production in Kansas; Barney Gordon, Doug Jardine, Kraig Roozeboom, Stu
Duncan (Department of Agronomy, Department of Plant Pathology, Northeast Area
Extension, Kansas State University); ($8,500). (bgordon@ksu.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Fungicide Studies, Soybean Seed Quality,
Soybean Production Management

The objective of this research will be to investigate response of soybeans to both seed
and foliar applied fungicides at a normal and a late planting date under irrigated and
dryland conditions. An additional objective will be to assess the role of fungicides in
improving quality of soybean seed for planting.




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Iron deficiency chlorosis in soybean: Effect of soil properties and iron
fertilizer application; Dorivar Ruiz Diaz, David Mengel (Department of Agronomy,
Kansas State University); ($33,656). (ruizdiaz@ksu.edu)

Key Words: Iron Deficiency Chlorosis (IDC), Soil Fertility Studies,
Soybean Economic Studies

The project’s objectives are:
   • Evaluating the effect of different iron fertilizer application strategies on soybean
       yield on iron deficiency chlorosis potential soils;
   • Determining interactions between soil properties and iron fertilizer applications on
       soybean yield; and
   • Evaluating economic returns to iron fertilizer applications and varietal resistance
       selection.


Understand charcoal rot disease using a genetics approach; Bin Shuai
(Department of Biological Sciences, Wichita State University); ($28,745).
(bin.shuai@wichita.edu)

Key Words: Charcoal Rot

The research objective is to identify genes that are involved in the charcoal rot disease
using Medicago as the model.


Soy oil latex for pressure sensitive adhesives; Xiuzhi Susan Sun, Donghai
Wang (Department of Grain Science and Industry, Department of Bio & Ag Engineering,
Kansas State University); ($48,700). (xss@ksu.edu)

Key Words: Soy-based Polymers, Soybean Oil-Industrial Uses, Soy-based Adhesives

The goal of this proposal is to convert soybean oil into latex for pressure sensitive
adhesive applications. Specific objectives include:
   • Developing technology in which soybean oil will be used as a major material for
       latex production;
   • Evaluating the soy oil latex for pressure sensitive adhesives applications; and
   • The Aging of pressure sensitive adhesives will be characterized and stabilized.


Nutritional enhancement of soybean carbohydrates and hulls for animal
feed using microbial cultures; Praveen Vadlani, Ron Madl, Dan O’Brien
(Department of Grain Science and Industry, Department of Extension Agricultural
Economics NW Research Extension Center, Kansas State University); ($38,742).
(vadlani@ksu.edu)

Key Words: Soy Carbohydrates, Soy Hulls

The objectives of the research are to:
   • Achieve bioconversion of soluble carbohydrates (raffinose, sucrose and

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       stachyose) and residual starch from soybean hulls to microbial protein;
   •   Co-culture fermentation of sugars derived from soybean carbohydrates and hull
       to single-cell-protein,
   •   Characterize the fiber utilization and nutritional enhancement; and
   •   Assess the economics of nutritionally enhanced soybean hulls compared with
       current use value and vs. distiller’s grain from the ethanol process.


Premium texturized soybean protein by extrusion processing: Product
quality from different formulations and processing parameters; Sajid Alavi,
Enzhi Michael Cheng (Department of Grain Science and Industry, Kansas State
University); ($35,530). (salavi@ksu.eu)

Key Words: Soybean Processing, Textured Soy Proteins; Soy Foods

The objectives for this proposal are as follows:
   • To produce high moisture meat analogs (HMMAs) using a model formulation
       consisting of soy protein isolate, vital wheat gluten and wheat starch;
   • To study how protein dispersibility index (PDI) of defatted soy flour (DSF) and
       soy protein concentrate (SPC) affects processing requirement and finished
       product quality of low moisture texturized soy proteins (TSPs);
   • To characterize the water holding capacity, texture and integrity of HMMAs and
       low moisture TSPs; and
   • To conduct a consumer acceptance study of the texturized protein products.


Analysis of an antibiotic protein from soybean; Daniel Zurek (Department of
Biology, Pittsburg State University); ($26,461). (dzurek@pittstate.edu)

Key Words: Genetically Engineered Soybean

The objectives are to:
   • Obtain mutation free copies of the gene for this glucanase in a yeast expression
       system in order to produce large amounts of authentic soybean protein;
   • Effectively purify nonmutant, authentic soybean glucanase protein for further
       studies with maximal yield and minimal degradation; and
   • Analyze the purified protein for antibiotic activity upon variety of plant and animal
       pathogenic organisms, and quantitate its effects in comparison to commercial
       antibiotics.


Extension and applied research programs for Kansas soybean production;
Kraig Roozeboom (Department of Agronomy, Kansas State University); ($4,814).
(kraig@ksu.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Production Management, Soybean Educational Activities

The objectives are to effectively educate producers, crop advisors, and other agri-
business professionals about the latest developments in best management practices for


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soybean production and soybean cropping systems; and to maintain and expand
personal soybean production and educational expertise.

Development of farm management data systems for Kansas farmers; Bryan
Schurle, Kevin Herbel, Michael Langemeier (Department of Agricultural Economics,
Kansas State University); ($15,000). (bschurle@ksu.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Production Management, Soybean Educational Activities

The objective of this project is to develop new database systems for farm management
data for Kansas farmers. Specifically, we intend to:
   • Develop a new data collection system that collects farm management data in a
        similar fashion to the system currently in place, but with vastly superior flexibility
        in data handling ability and report writing capacity;
   • Develop new report writing systems that improve readability by utilizing graphs
        and charts for comparison purposes; and
   • Develop new and improved benchmarks for enterprises and whole farm
        analyses.


Biodiesel glycerin based hydrogen production for electrical generation
from a hydrogen internal combustion engine; William Ayres (Renewable
Solutions, LLC); ($43,000).

Key Words: Biodiesel Studies, Glycerol Use-Industrial Uses

The objective of this project is to test hydrogen from glycerin from biodiesel production
for hydrogen gas powered internal combustion engines by:
    • Producing glycerin hydrogen fuel gas at Biomass Energy Foundation (BEF);
    • Continue testing of plasma reformer on glycerin to produce hydrogen rich gas
        and operation of an engine generator set; and
    • Integrate the reformer and operate an engine on biodiesel glycerin hydrogen rich
        gas.


Hyperbrached polyols for flexible foams from soybean oil fatty acids; Zoran
Petrovi, Henry Emadipour (Kansas Polymer Research Center, Plastics Engineering
Technology, Pittsburg State University); ($52,000). (bti@pittstate.edu)

Key Words: Soy-based Polyols, Soy-based Foams, Biodiesel Studies

The objectives are to:
   • Develop a new family of low viscosity, all bio-based polyols for flexible foams
       starting from methyl esters of soybean oil (bio-diesel) using a new concept of
       hyperbranching;
   • Characterize new polyols by measuring molecular weight, functionality, and
       viscosity using standard methods of polymer chemistry; and
   • Test new polyols as base polyols in flexible foams.



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Solvent-free bio-based adhesives from soybean oil-based urethane
prepolymers; Ivan Javni, William Shirley (Kansas Polymer Research Center,
Department of Chemistry, Pittsburg State University); ($50,000). (ijavni@pittstate.edu)

Key Words: Soy-based Polyols, Soy-based Adhesives, Soybean Oil-Industrial Uses

The objectives are:
   • Screening of soy polyols and isocyanates; optimizing the conditions for
       synthesizing soy polyol-based urethane prepolymers with different isocyanates
       (aliphatic, cycloaliphatic, and aromatic isocyanates);
   • Studying the physical properties of the urethane prepolymers based on different
       isocyanates so as to determine their potential applications;
   • Development of: a) one-component moisture-cure polyurethane adhesives (low
       viscosity): b) one-component moisture-cure hot-melt polyurethane adhesives
       (solid at room temperature but melt at elevated temperatures): c) two-component
       polyurethane adhesives;
   • Testing the adhesion property of different prepolymers on different substrates at
       different conditions, in order to get optimized formulations; and
   • Obtain patents and commercialize the products.


North Central Soybean Research Program; ($50,000).



Kentucky Soybean Promotion Board
Migration patterns for soybean aphid as indexed by capture in an aphid
suction trap; Doug Johnson (Entomology Department, University of Kentucky);
($2,404). (doug.johnson@uky.edu)

Key Words: SA-Suction Trap Studies

The objective of this project is to obtain information specific to Kentucky on the annual
immigration, seasonal activity and relative abundance of the invasive pest soybean
aphid, and other aphids important to Kentucky field crops. Two suction traps will be
located in Kentucky to monitor aphid activity.

The suction trap data will be complied into a database of aphid species, their relative
numbers, as well as the timing and duration of flights. This information will help
understand when the risk for aphid infection/movement is elevated or decreased.


Sensing soybean canopy development and crop stress: Understanding the
relationship to grain yield; John H. Grove (Department of Plant and Soil Science,
University of Kentucky); ($21,000). (jgrove@uky.du)

Key Words: Soybean Growth and Development, Soybean Stress



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New technologies for monitoring crop growth and development have been developed.
Research by Dr. Grove has found that an active canopy normalization difference
vegetative index (NDVI) sensor was sensitive to poor canopy development resulting
from low plant population and predicted poorer soybean grin yields. The main goal of
this project is to determine the ability of the NDVI sensor to “capture” other soybean
stress factors that result in impaired canopy development and lower grain yields. He will
investigate soybean stresses such as water, phosphorus and potassium nutrition, and
soybean cyst nematode infestations. The project’s goal is to better understand soybean
stress and its relationship to soybean yield.


Final development of a yield loss prediction model for Asian Soybean Rust;
Karatha Kumudini (Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, University of Kentucky);
($15,550). (skumud@email.uky.edy)

Key Words: Asian Soybean Rust, Soybean Modeling

The goal of this project is to validate the model of soybean yield loss due to Asian
soybean rust. This would give us confidence of the applicability of this model in a range
of production systems and give us an understanding of the accuracy of prediction. A
soybean yield loss prediction model for Asian soybean rust has been developed in
Lexington, KY and Baton Rouge, LA. The model being developed requires estimation of
damage caused by the disease to both healthy leaf area and photosynthetic capacity.
This model predicts the disease in the soybean canopy and relating effective leaf area
duration to seed yield. In order to validate the model being developed we need an
independent data set where the disease is present. The predicted yield loss may then
be compared to the observed yield loss to determine the accuracy of the model.

The specific objectives of the project are to: 1) Validate the current yield loss model
using an independent data set of materials with Asian soybean rust; and 2) Develop an
interactive, web-based yield loss risk management tool using the model to assist
growers in making fungicide application decisions.


Soybean yield response to soil P and K availability: Optimizing fertilizer
expenses, Year 2; John Grove, Lloyd Murdock and Greg Schwab (Department of
Plant and Soil Sciences, University of Kentucky); ($10,000). (jgrove@uky.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Fertility Studies, Phosphorus, Potassium,
Variable Rate Application

The primary goal of this project is to reduce the cost of producing soybeans. Fertilizer
phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) prices have been rising. New technologies for P and
K fertilization (variable rate application) have been developed, and new soybean
varieties with greater disease, nematode and herbicide resistance are available, but the
University of Kentucky’s soil test-based P and K fertility recommendations for soybean
have not been changed. In Kentucky, soybean P and K fertilization is recommended up
to the point that the soil test (Mehlich III) P and K reach 60 and 300 pounds per acre,
respectively. Modern circumstances suggest that our understanding of soybean’s
response to soil P and K availability needs updating.


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This project will: 1) Examine the relationship between plant availability soil test for P and
K and soybean yield; and 2) Determine the relationship between plant available soil test
for P and K and soybean yield in the absence and presence of poultry litter amendment.


Optimum planting date for soybean; Jim Herbek (Department of Plant and Soil
Sciences, University of Kentucky); ($3,000). (jherbek@uky.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Production Management, Double Cropping

There is an increasing trend in Kentucky for soybean producers to plant earlier than the
current recommendation dates of early May to mid-June. There is no comparative
research data in Kentucky to determine if April plantings achieve maximum yield
potential nor any management problems associated with early plantings.

The goal of this research project is to determine the optimum planting date for soybeans
in Kentucky to achieve maximum yield potential. This study will consist of seven
planting dates ranging from early April to early July. Soybean yield and other agronomic
parameters will be obtained.


Soy MVP: Soybean management verification program-Year 2; Chad Lee, Jim
Herbek, Lloyd Murdock and Greg Schwab (Department of Plant and Soil Sciences,
University of Kentucky); ($81,793). (cdlee@uky.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Production Management, Soybean Verification Programs,
Soybean On-farm Research

The goal of the project is to maximize soybean yields and profits through intensive
scouting and management. The project funding will be used to investigate whether
fields in Western Kentucky are deficient in potassium and to hire a person to scout
soybean fields and work with cooperating farmers in making production management
decisions.

The project objectives are to: 1) Improve production, production efficiency, and
profitability of Kentucky soybeans, through scouting and implementation of current
recommended practices; 2) Share information gained from the scouting program with the
Kentucky Soybean Board, farmers, and agribusiness through the published summary
reports and Extension meetings; and 3) Identify areas of soybean production needing
additional investigation.

The results generated from the production practices across these farms will help
Extension personnel refine and update soybean production management
recommendations.


Soybean fertilization: Is hidden hunger reducing yield? Greg Schwab
(Department of Plant and Soil Science, University of Kentucky); ($3,000).
(gschwab@uky.edu)


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Key Words: Soil Fertility Studies; Boron; Potassium; Sulfur Fertilization

The goal of this project is to evaluate soybean yield response to added boron, sulfur,
potassium and zinc fertilization on a well-fertilized field.


Can foliar applied products reduce yield loss in soybean caused by
soybean cyst nematode? Don Hershman (Department of Plant Pathology, University
of Kentucky); ($9,061). (dhershma@uky.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Cyst Nematode; Soybean Fungicide Studies

Soybean cyst nematodes remain the most serious disease threat to soybeans in
Kentucky. In a very preliminary study, a strobilurin foliar fungicide produced increased
yields in about 25 percent of the plots when foliar diseases were not thought to be
present.

This project has the objectives of determining if soybean yields of SCN-resistant and
SCN-susceptible cultivars can be improved by applying the fungicide, Headline, when
grown in a field infested with damaging levels of a HG-type 2.5.7 SCN population. The
second objective is to relate disease control, SCN population dynamics and plant
canopy densities at key soybean growth stages to yield.


Quantification and mitigation of pesticide application errors on Kentucky
soybean farms; Scott Shearer (Department of Biosystems and Agricultural
Engineering, University of Kentucky); ($31,116). (shearer@bae.uky.edu)

Key Words: Pesticide Application Studies

Pesticide application errors from agricultural sprayers can represent upwards of 15% of
the field area on Kentucky soybean farms. The goal of this project is to demonstrate
cost-effective solutions for reducing these application errors. The project will address
four specific objectives:
    • Characterize and quantify pesticide application errors using a method of analysis
        developed at the University of Kentucky with pesticide application data collected
        from Kentucky producers;
    • Compare and contrast the implementation of precision agricultural technologies
        such as automated boom section control, light bar guidance and automated
        guidance;
    • Compare the potential savings from different sprayer control technologies for
        fields of different size and shape (regular versus irregular); and
    • Prepare and publish spreadsheet tools and a detailed analysis of cost/benefit of
        precision agriculture technologies on Kentucky soybean farms.


Use of a novel virus based vector in search for resistance to the soybean
cyst nematode and other important soybean pathogens; Said Ghabrial and
Donald Hershman (Plant Pathology Department, University of Kentucky); ($30,563).
(saghab00@email.uky.edu)

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Key Words: Virus-induced Gene Silencing, Induced Gene Silencing,
Soybean Bioengineering

The project’s goals are to develop information that will allow the researchers to make
recommendations for effective and novel control measures for the soybean cyst
nematode and important fungal pathogens in Kentucky. They will use the newly
developed BPMV-vector for expression of selected anti-nematode/anti-fungal proteins
that confer disease resistance to soybean cyst nematode and fungal pathogens.

The project’s specific objectives are to:
   • Express the anti-nematode proteins from the BPMV-based vector in soybean
       plants;
   • Evaluate candidate nematode resistance genes in soybeans using virus-induced
       gene silencing (VIGS) analysis;
   • Evaluate the resistance of soybean lines over-expressing selected anti-nematode
       proteins (or silenced for target soybean genes); and
   • Express selected anti-fungal proteins from the BPMV-based vector in soybean
       plants and evaluate the resultant plants for resistance to several fungal
       pathogens.


Identifying factors affecting soybean productivity from previous broiler
fertilization, including a possible copper nutritional effect; David Ferguson
(Murray State University); ($24,176). (David.ferguson@murraystate.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Fertility Studies, Copper:

The objective of this project is to determine the factors that contribute to higher soybean
yields in plots fertilized with broiler litter. A second objective is to evaluate the possible
role that copper nutrition may have on the yield resulting from broiler litter.


Development of the soybean-derived peptide Lunasin as a chemo-
prevention agent; Keith Davis (University of Louisville/Owensboro Cancer Research
Program); ($53,550). (keith.davis@louisville,edu)

Key Word: Soy Human Health Studies

This research project will investigate the health benefits of a soy peptide in the
prevention of cancer.



Louisiana Soybean and Grain Research and Promotion Board
Deposition efficiency of pesticides application; Roberto Barbosa (Biological and
Agricultural Engineering Department, Louisiana State University); ($12,500).
(rbarosa@lsu.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Pesticide Application Studies

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An effective pesticide application maximizes product penetration in the soybean canopy
while minimizing off-target drift. Droplets that are too large may bounce off leaves and
increase soil deposition and subsequent run-off. Small droplets do not have enough
mass to be propelled towards the canopy and may become airborne thus increasing off-
target drift. The ability to distribute products in the canopy with aerial application
depends on spray volume and nozzle technology. The research group will compare the
application effectiveness of different hydraulic nozzles, pressures and spray volumes for
ground and aerial-based application systems. The researchers will also be monitoring
off-target drift.


Continuous microwave extraction of soy isoflavones; Cristina Sabliov
(Biological and Agricultural Engineering Department, Louisiana State University);
($23,000). (csabliov@lsu.edu)

Key Words: Soy Isoflavones, Soybean Processing

The researchers have designed a continuous microwave extraction system for extracting
soybean isoflavones from whole soy flour and defatted soy flakes. Testing with the
prototype extractor has demonstrated the stability and reliability of the extraction system
at different processing parameters (temperatures, flow rates and residence times).

Future research will explore options for automatically controlling process parameters
using a feedback mechanism based on time-temperature history. Another effort will be
to perform preliminary economic analysis of the operating and capital cost for a full-scale
operation. The long term goal is to use the laboratory scale system developed to build a
pilot plant microwave extraction system designed for efficient extraction of soybean oil
from soybean flour.


Louisiana Soybean and Grain Research Report; Frankie Gould (Louisiana State
University AgCenter Communications); ($4,500). (fgould@agcenter.lsu.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Educational Activities

Funding will be used to produce the Louisiana Soybean and Grain Research Report that
highlights checkoff funded projects. The report will be distributed to farmers, consultants,
extension agents, political leaders, industry representatives and other stakeholders. The
report and press releases will also be posted on the LSU AgCenter Web site.


Biology, distribution and management of soybean insect pests; Jeffrey Davis
(Department of Entomology, Louisiana State University); ($52,000). (jeffdavis@lsu.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Insect Control, Stink Bugs

Louisiana soybeans are attacked by a diverse insect pest complex, but the primary
problems in recent years are associated with stink bugs, three-corned alfalfa hoppers,
bean leaf beetles and several Lepidopteran defoliators (velvet bean caterpillar, soybean
looper and green cloverworm). One or more of these pests are significant annual


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problems and are responsible for limiting soybean yields in Louisiana. To address these
concerns, this research project will continue to evaluate new and current chemical
control strategies, but also attempt to improve information on the interaction of these
pests in the soybean agroecosystem.

The project’s specific objectives are:
• Evaluate the efficacy of new and current insecticides for control of all soybean
   arthropod pests;
• Determine the economic injury levels and economic thresholds for red banded stink
   bugs in soybeans;
• Determine red banded stick bug distribution and densities in soybean fields and
   surrounding landscapes in Louisiana; and
• Survey for biological control agents for parasitizing red banded stick bug eggs.


Extraction, purification and antioxidant properties of soy isoflavones from
defatted soy flakes; Zhimin Xu (Department of Food Science, Louisiana State
University); ($25,500). (zxu@agcenter.lsu.edu)

Key Words: Soy Isoflavones, Soybean Processing

The objectives of the research project are to evaluate the antioxidant activities of
defatted soy flour extract in preventing lipid oxidation in ground beef during storage.
This information may increase the utilization of soybean products as important food
antioxidants that could be used in preventing deterioration of food quality and prolong
food storage times.


Weed management and biology research; James Griffin (School of Plant,
Environmental, and Soil Sciences, Louisiana State University); ($40,000).
(jgriffin@agcenter.lsu.edu)

Key Words: Weed Control, Weed Research, Glyphosate Studies, Herbicide Resistance

This project will focus on weed management and weed biology, and herbicide drift
reduction technologies in the lower Mississippi Delta and in southwest Louisiana where
cropping systems, climatic conditions, soil types and weed species can differ from the
more northern areas of the state.

The objectives of the project include:
• Evaluating crop safety, weed control and fit of experimental herbicides in Louisiana
   production systems and to develop low-cost effect weed control programs;
• Monitoring weed population shifts and weed resistance associated with herbicide-
   resistant crops;
• Evaluating future transgenic technologies for weed control and non-target crop
   responses; and
• Evaluating the possible interaction that may occur with the use of insecticides and
   fungicides and the value of harvest aids on soybean yield and quality.



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Calibrating soil tests and fertilization for soybean and grain crops of
Louisiana; Jim Jian Wang, Brenda Tubana, J. Cheston Stevens, Jr., Donald Boquet,
Rick Mascagni and Rodney Henderson (School of Plant, Environment and Soil
Sciences, Louisiana State University); ($20,000). (jjwang@agcenter.lsu.edu)

Key Words: Soil Testing, Soil Fertility Studies

The research goals are to develop and improve soil tests so the state soil testing
program can better serve soybean and grain producers in Louisiana. The research
involves improving both the accuracy and efficiency of soil tests and soil fertility issues.

Specific objectives include:
• Evaluate the possibility of incorporating maintenance criteria into recommendations
   for P and K for maintaining soil test nutrient levels above critical levels;
• Calibrate P fertilization for soybean in acid alluvial soils;
• Recalibrate P, K, and liming for soybean production in acid soils; and
• Continue to evaluate the incorporation of maintenance criteria into sufficiency
   recommendations for P and K.


Identification of plant viruses infecting soybean in Louisiana; Rodrigo
Valverde (Department of Plant Pathology and Crop Physiology, Louisiana State
University); ($3,500). (rvalverde@agcenter.lsu.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Viruses, Soybean Disease Survey

The main goals of this project are to continue the survey for viruses infecting the
soybean crop in Louisiana and to develop diagnostic tools for characterizing these
viruses.


Biology and control of major diseases of soybeans; Raymond Schneider
(Department of Plant Pathology and Crop Pathology, Louisiana State University);
($84,350). (rschnei@lsu.edu)

Key Words: Asian Soybean Rust ASR), Soybean Fungicide Studies,
Soybean Germplasm Screening, Cercospora Leaf Blight, Soybean Disease Modeling

The research will involve variety testing, germplasm screening and fungicide treatments
for establishing management recommendations to minimize losses from Asian soybean
rust and Cercospora leaf blight in Louisiana. The study involves assessing the effects of
plant nutrients on the severity of Asian soybean rust.

The study will include:
   • Determine the time of infection as related to symptom expression with Asian
       soybean rust and Cercospora leaf blight and attempt to control these diseases at
       these vulnerable growth stages;
   • Determine the role of seed infection in eventual development of Cercospora leaf
       blight;


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   •   Continue fungicide evaluations with regard to optimizing rates and times;
   •   Expand mineral nutrition studies with the goal of developing specific leaf mineral
       analyses associated with disease suppression; and
   •   Continue to develop of disease forecasting models based upon spore trapping
       protocols.


Developing a new strategy to control soybean rust disease through a
proteomics-based approach; Zhi-Yuan Chen (Department of Plant Pathology and
Crop Physiology, Louisiana State University); ($63,400). (zchen2@lsu.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Bioengineering, Asian Soybean Rust (ASR)

The objective of this project is to identify fungal hydrolytic enzymes produced during
infection of soybean leaves and to develop ways to stop the activity of these proteins so
soybean rust fungus does not access the host for nutrients for fungal growth. Express-
induced proteins will be sequenced and characterized in an attempt to better understand
how the fungus establishes itself on soybean and how the soybean defends against rust
infection.


Developing soybean resistance to Asian rust pathogen; Svetlana Oard and
Frederick Enright (AgCenter Biotechnology Laboratory, Louisiana State University);
($25,600). (soard@agcenter.lsu.edu)

Key Words: ASR-Genetic Resistance, Soybean Bioengineering


The goal of this project is to develop soybean lines with enhanced resistance to Asian
rust as well as a wide range of bacterial and fungal pathogens. The approach will be to
develop plants producing a potent antimicrobial peptide PTH under conditions providing
functional resistance to the fungal pathogens.

The specific objectives for 2009 include:
   • Produce first generation transgenic soybean plants with vectors encoding the
      PTH precursor sequence;
   • Determine the efficiency of the regulatory DNA sequence for PTH; and
   • Test second generation transgenic soybean plants for the production of PTH.


Louisiana soybean research verification program for 2009; Ronald Levy (Dean
Lee Research Station, Louisiana State University); ($39,700).
(REFerguson@agcenter.lsu.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Verification Programs, Soybean Production Management,
Soybean On-farm Research

The goal of this project is to help speed the transfer of research results to soybean
growers in Louisiana. The program will provide for on-farm testing of research strategies
that improve soybean production in Louisiana. Working with individual soybean

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growers, County Extension Agents and crop advisors, the researcher will test new
concepts in improving soybean profitability.

The specific objectives of the project are to:
• Conduct on-farm field trials to verify the research-based recommendations for the
   LSU AgCenter with the goal of maximizing profitability;
• Increase the confidence of producers, county agents and crop specialists in LSU
   AgCenter recommendations;
• Continue to build a good cost database for soybean production in Louisiana;
• Provide data on various production systems as related to yields and costs;
• Demonstrate what the higher-yielding fields have in common in addition to refining
   existing recommendations; and
• Aid researchers in identifying areas of soybean production that may need additional
   research.


Soybean and grain on-farm demonstration program; R. Levy (Dean Lee
Research Station and Louisiana Cooperative Extension Service, Louisiana State
University); ($26,150). (REFerguson@agcenter.lsu.edu)

Key Words: Soybean On-farm Research, Soybean Production Management,
Soybean Educational Activities

The goal of this project is to develop research plots on grower fields to demonstrate
proven practices. The information that is generated will be provided to county agents,
consultants, industry representatives and farm supply dealers that have daily contact
with soybean growers. The project involves field days, producer meetings and
publications in an effort to publicize results of on-farm research.


Evaluation of soybean cultivars and fungicides for disease management in
Northeast Louisiana; Boyd Padgett (Macon Ridge Research Station, Louisiana State
University); ($22,556). (bpadgett@agcenter.lsu.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Variety Testing, Soybean Disease-Genetic Resistance,
Soybean Fungicide Studies

The research will evaluate soybean varieties entered in the state’s official variety trials
for resistance to disease pathogens common to Northeast Louisiana, to evaluate
commercially available and experimental fungicides for soybean disease management,
and to quantify disease losses in selected soybean varieties adapted to Louisiana to
determine when fungicides are necessary.

Results from this research will provide the following information to producers:
• Identify disease resistant varieties;
• The efficacy of new fungicides;
• Quantify yield losses from diseases; and
• Define when fungicides are likely to be economical.



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Evaluating selected insecticide use strategies in Louisiana Soybean; B.
Roger Leonard (Northeast Research Station, Department of Entomology, Louisiana
State University); ($15,500). (318-435-2157)

Key Words: Soybean Insect Management, Integrated Pest Management, Stink Bugs,
Soybean Seed Treatments

These continuing studies will address the emerging soybean insect pest problems and
evaluate new insecticide use strategies that are recommended in other states. The
results of these tests will help to define the IPM strategies in response to the insect pest
problem or the adoption of new agronomic production practices. The goal of the
research is to adapt promising experimental technologies to meet the needs of the
soybean producer in Louisiana.

The project’s specific objectives include:
• Evaluating the performance of commercial and experimental insecticides against the
    stink bug complex attacking Louisiana soybean, with an emphasis on red banded
    stink bug;
• Determine the impact of persistent populations of three-cornered alfalfa hopper on
    soybean seedling mortality, plant lodging and seed yields;
• Evaluating the efficacy of insecticide seed treatment products and rates against
    seed and seedling pest; and
• Define when to terminate late season insecticide treatment for controlling stink bugs.


Soybean weed control research; Donnie Keith Miller (Northeast Research Station,
Louisiana State University); ($32,200). (dmiller@agcenter.lsu.edu)

Key Words: Glyphosate Studies, Weed Control-Herbicide Resistance, Weed Control

The increased use of glyphosate in crop production has increased selection pressure on
weed populations to create individual weeds that may be more tolerant to the herbicide.
Research is needed to assure the longevity of the technology by alerting producers to
potential resistance problems and to identify effective alternative control measures to
species determined to be resistant.

The objectives of this project are to continue to:
   • Screen suspected herbicide resistant weed species;
   • Evaluate dicamba and glufosinate soybean technologies;
   • Evaluate late fall/early winter herbicide applications;
   • Evaluate management and impact of weed populations emerging after harvest;
       and
   • Continue to evaluate spring burndown programs.

The research also focuses on conservation tillage stale seedbed systems that are
playing a major role in soybean production in Northeast Louisiana. The project will
continue to evaluate effect and economical burndown programs. Effectiveness of
herbicide combinations on difficult to control winter weed and effectiveness of newly
developed compounds will also be a major focus.


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The soybean green plant problem: An evaluation of possible influencing
factors; B. Roger Leonard (Northeast Research Station, Department of Entomology,
Louisiana State University); ($50,000). (318-435-2157)

Key Words: Green Plant Problem, Soybean Fungicide Studies

In recent years soybean growers have reported increasing problems with plants
retaining green leaves, green stems, and/or green pods in fields of mature soybeans
resulting in delayed harvest and decreased quality of harvested samples. In some
cases, the problem was so severe that the soybeans were not harvested. In other
cases, seed quality reductions caused significant losses in seed value and/or rejection of
truckloads at the elevator. The cause of the problem is not known and research is
needed to elucidate those factors associated with this late-season soybean malady,
referred to as the green plant problem.
Researchers are involved in a comprehensive study that is trying to determine the
factors involved. The approach is to investigate several objectives that may be involved
in the “green plant” problems. Some of the objectives are to:
•   Evaluate varieties in the commercial variety trials at as many locations as possible
    for incidence of green leaves, green stems and/or green pods for any consistency in
    response and notation of environment conditions that may contribute to the green
    plant problem;
•   To determine seed yields and seed quality of plants that exhibit green leaves, stems
    and/or pod symptoms vs. those that do not show symptoms;
•   Evaluate incidence of green leaves, stems and/or pods in response to low rates of
    fungicides, timing of fungicide application, or selection of fungicide, plant stress
    (water deficiency/excess), stinkbugs and Roundup applications;
•   Analyze stem samples from “green plant” symptoms for the presence of viruses; and
•   Evaluate harvest aids as a means to overcome incidence of green leaf stems and/or
    pods;

Soybean breeding and varieties development; Blair Buckley (Red River
Research Station, Louisiana State University); ($25,271). (bbuckley@agcenter.lsu.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Breeding, Soybean Breeding-Disease Resistance

The goal of this soybean breeding project is to collaborate with other research efforts at
Louisiana State University that are working on screening for soybean diseases,
developing soybean lines and varieties with tolerance to drought, water logging and salt
stresses. The goal of the project is to develop high-yields and disease resistant soybean
lines that are adapted to the environmental conditions of Louisiana and the Gulf Coast
region. Soybean diseases being targeted are Cercospora leaf blight, frogeye leaf sport,
aerial blight and Asian soybean rust. Other breeding targets include drought tolerance
and salt tolerance.


Extraction of the anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory protein Bowman-Birk
inhibitor from soybean whey for use in multiple sclerosis, muscle



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dystrophy, and inflammatory bowel disease; Jack Losso (Department of Food
Science, Louisiana State University); ($35,000). (jlosso@agcenter.lsu.edu)

Key Words: Soy Human Health Studies, Bowman-Birk Inhibitors

Soybeans contain a protein known as the Bowan-Birk inhibitor (BBI) that is easily
absorbed by the body. Numerous animal and clinical studies have concluded that BBI
inhibits cancer cell growth, reduces inflammation and attenuates neuron loss, making it
an excellent candidate for oral therapy in multiple sclerosis, muscle dystrophy and
ulcerative colitis. This study will develop a method to extract BBI from soybean whey
and a method to measure levels of the BBI inhibitor in soyfood products.


Soybean weed management systems in Louisiana; Daniel Stephenson (Dean
Lee Research and Extension Center-Alexandria, Louisiana State University); ($40,000).
(DStephenson@agcenter.lsu.edu)

Key Words: Weed Control, Soybean Educational Activities

The goal of this project is to provide Louisiana soybean growers with effective weed
management strategies. The specific objectives are to:
   • Identify and investigate weed management with new and/or currently registered
      herbicide-tolerant soybeans in Louisiana;
   • Elucidate the potential of current registered and/or new herbicide products for
      weed management in Louisiana soybeans; and
   • Disseminated weed management systems to Louisiana soybean producers and
      the scientific community through county agents, consultants, commodity
      meetings, popular press, online publications, professional meetings and scientific
      journals.


Evaluation of maturity group III, IV and V soybeans for production as
double crops following wheat; Ernie Clawson (Northeast Research Station,
Louisiana State University); ($8,365). EClawson@agcenter.lsu.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Production Management, Double Cropping,
Soybean Variety Testing

This project will compare yield, timing of maturity and other aspects of perfomance of
Maturity Group III, IV and V soybeans when planted after wheat.



Maryland Soybean Board
Effect of soybean maturity on nitrogen availability for wheat production;
Robert Kratochvil (Department of Plant Science and Landscape Architecture, University
of Maryland); ($11,050). (rkratch@umd.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Production Management, Soybean Fertility Studies;

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Cover Crops Studies

Maryland has an incentive-based cover crop program that pays farmers for planting fall
cover crops. Many farmers are skeptical about producing small grain after corn or
soybeans without applying some fall nitrogen since they do not know how much residual
nitrogen remains. The small window between fall harvest and planting small grains
discourages soil sampling and analyses that assist in making the fall nitrogen decision.
The restriction that no nitrogen is applied in the fall causes concern about small grain
yields.

Earlier maturing soybean varieties should allow earlier harvesting, warmer harvest
temperatures that enhance residue degradation and mineralization supplying a small
amount of nitrogen for the small grain. This proposal is designed to evaluate a range of
maturity for soybean varieties and the effect of different maturity has on the use of
nitrogen when planting cover crops.

The objectives of this continuing project are to:
   •   Determine if soybean maturity in a full season crop production system affects the
       availability of fall nitrogen for a subsequent small grain crop;
   •   Evaluate the performance of wheat planted with and without fall nitrogen and
       following different maturity group soybean varieties; and
   •   Determine if pre side dress nitrate test kit use for corn can be used as a fall soil
       nitrate test to measure adequacy of residue nitrate following soybean for planting
       winter wheat.


Effects of cereal cover crops on full season soybean production; Robert
Kratochvil (Department of Plant Science and Landscape Architecture, University of
Maryland); ($3,500). (rkratch@umd.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Production Management, Cover Crop Studies

The objective of this project is to evaluate the performance of full season soybeans
following cereal cover crops.


Soybean variety evaluation and development; Bill Kenworthy (Department of
Plant Science and Landscape Architecture, University of Maryland); ($16,850).
(wkenwort@umd.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Variety Testing, Soybean Composition-Modifying Oil,
Soybean Composition-Reducing Phytate Phosphorus, Soybean Breeding

The objectives of this project are to evaluate agronomic performance data of public and
private varieties in full-season and double-cropped plantings. The project involves
evaluating and developing soybean varieties with soybean cyst nematode and pest
resistance, and soybean lines with low linolenic acid and low phytic acid levels. The
project provides the soybean growers with the latest agronomic performance information
on publicly and privately developed soybean varieties.


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Weed management programs utilizing Liberty-Link soybeans; Ron Ritter
(Department of Plant Science and Landscape Architecture, University of Maryland);
($3,500). (rlritter@umd.edu)

Key Words: Weed Control, Herbicide Resistance, Liberty-Link Soybeans

With the growing concern for glyphosate-resistant weeds, the Liberty-Link system would
be an ideal rotation program for controlling weeds in soybeans. Previous research by
this researcher has shown the utility of using Liberty-Link herbicide to control
horseweed. This would be a real advantage to soybean growers with glyphosate-
resistant horseweed populations.


The objectives of this research project are to investigate the utility of Liberty herbicide
(glufosinate) and Liberty-Link soybeans for utility in managing weeds in Maryland. Weed
control and crop phytotoxicity ratings will be obtained throughout the growing season.



Post-emergence, pre-emergence or pre-emergence followed by post-
emergence: Which is better? Ron Ritter (Department of Plant Science and
Landscape Architecture, University of Maryland); ($3,500). (rlritter@umd.edu)

Key Words: Weed Control, Herbicide Resistance

Most of the soybeans grown in Maryland are Roundup Ready. While one application of
glyphosate is usually adequate, some late-season weed escapes still occur. This project
will evaluate various weed control strategies that have application for Maryland soybean
growers. The study will produce practical results that can be communicated to growers
through Extension weed control educational program activities.


Management of glyphosate-resistant weeds in soybeans; Ronald Ritter
(Department of Plant Science and Landscape Architecture, University of Maryland);
($3,500). (rlritter@umd.edu)

Key Words: Weed Control, Herbicide Resistance

The objectives of this research project are to investigate the management of glyphosate-
resistant weeds in soybeans. While horseweed is the primary weed showing glyphosate
resistance, there have been reports of resistance in common lambsquarter. The
researcher will monitor glyphosate failures and develop strategies for managing these
weeds as they develop and spread across the state.


Development of soybean varieties that produce unique feed meal for
chicken and swine and aqua species; Bill Rhodes, John A. Schillinger, and Harlan
Hochstetler (Schillinger Seeds Inc., Queenstown, MD.); ($12,400).
(inquiries@schillingerseeds.com)

Key Words: Soybean Breeding-Composition, Soybean Meal Use,

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Soybean Composition-Improving Digestibility

The researchers have conducted poultry and swine feeding trials using new soybean
meals with value-added traits and found improved metabolizable energy and amino acid
digestibility. The funding will be used to evaluate additional experimental soybean
varieties with 15-20% more protein, reduced phytate phosphorus and lower levels of
trypsin inhibitor in swine and poultry feeding experiments.


Seeking salt tolerant soybean varieties/lines for Delmarva fields flooded
with brackish water; Bill Rhodes (Schillinger Seeds Inc., Queenstown, MD.);
($2,440). (inquiries@schillingerseeds.com)

Key Words: Soybean Variety Testing, Soybean Stress-Salt Tolerance

Schillinger Seeds will grow 100+ soybean varieties and germplasm lines in replicated
plots to identify lines tolerant to soils with high salt content.


Using molecular markers to enable and accelerate the development of new
and unique soybean varieties, adapted to the Delmarva and Southeast
Pennsylvania for food and feed markets; Bill Rhodes (Schillinger Seeds Inc.,
Queenstown, MD.); ($5,000). (inquiries@schillingerseeds.com)

Key Words: Soybean Breeding-Composition, Soybean Technologies,
Marker Assisted Selection

The research group is using molecular marker technology to make selections that are
difficult and expensive by other methods to detect compositional traits such as protein,
oil quality, allergen free, trypsin free, altered sugar profiles and lipoxygenase free, traits
important to increasing soy use in food and feed markets. The funding will be used to
grow, sample and prepare three million leaf samples for molecular marking and making
200 crosses between selected lines and elite parents.


Agronomic evaluation of soybean lines selected for Asian rust resistance;
Bill Rhodes (Schillinger Seeds Inc., Queenstown, MD.); ($6,000).
(inquiries@schillingerseeds.com)

Key Words: Soybean Variety Testing; Asian Soybean Rust-Genetic Resistance

The research group has selected 100 Asian rust resistant soybean lines that are
adapted to the Delmarva area. The objective of this project is to:
   • Yield test maturity group IV and V resistant lines in two locations in Delmarva;
   • Yield test for rust resistance in Arkansas and Mississippi; and
   • Purify the highest yielding lines for seed increase.




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Risk analysis of response of soybeans to the fungicide Headline; Arvydas
Grybauskas (Department of Plant Science and Landscape Architecture, University of
Maryland); ($7,000). (arvydas@umd.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Fungicide Studies

This project will examine the performance of soybeans after treatment with a range of
rates of Headline in comparison to plants treated with Folicur (a triazole fungicide) and
untreated plants. Plants will be grown with and without irrigation to provide a range of
non-disease stress environments. The results will be analyzed using standard statistical
approach and a risk analysis approach. The risk analysis method is commonly used in
business and provides an estimate of the probability of a return.


Development of value-added utilization of Maryland-grown soybean
varieties in nutraceutical ingredients and functional foods; Lianglu Yu
(Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Maryland); ($24,000).
(lyu5@umd.edu)

Key Words: Soy Foods, Soybean Variety Testing

The goal of this continuing project is to promote the production and consumption of
value-added Maryland-grown soybeans with demonstrated potential to prevent disease
and promote human foods.

The specific objectives of the project are to:
   • Evaluate soybean varieties low in alpha-linolenic acid for their possible use in
      nutraceutical ingredients and functional foods development for improved human
      nutrition;
   • Determine the possible value-added utilization of soybean by-products in
      nutraceutical and functional foods; and
   • Evaluate soybean varieties with low lipoxygenase and/or phytate levels for their
      possible value-added use in nutraceutical and functional food development.


Survey of brown marmolated stink bug and assess of its potential
economic impact on soybean production in Maryland; Galen Dively
(Department of Entomology, University of Maryland); ($6,042). (galen@umd.edu)

Key Words: Stink Bugs, Soybean Insect Management

The objectives of this research project is to determine the incidence and infestation
levels of marmorated stink bug infestations in soybean fields in Maryland; and to develop
educational resources for extension educators, soybean growers and crop advisors to
identify this pest and learn about control options.


Assessment of below ground pests of tilled and untilled soybean and
potential for biocontrol; Daniel Gruner (Department of Entomology, University of
Maryland); ($14,856). (dsguner@umd.edu)

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Key Words: Soybean Nematodes, Soybean Insect Biocontrol

Entomopathogenic nematodes are widespread and this potential predator can control
outbreaks of soil insect pests, but population distributions and their ability to manage
pest populations in Maryland is unknown. This project will:
   • Survey populations of entomopathogenic nematodes and host insects in
       replicated, paired tilled and no-till soybean fields;
   • Measure soil physical and aboitic properties to tillage regime and in correlation
       with invertebrate populations; and
   • Assess temporal dynamics of these objectives beginning with winter cover crops
       and over the course of the soybean growing seasons.

These preliminary data will allow the design of an experimental framework intended to
manage soils to promote the long-term persistence of entomopathogenic nematodes
and their biological control possibilities.


Impact of Italian rye grass on above and below ground organisms
inhabiting soybean fields; Cerruti Hooks, Sandra Sardanelli, Susan Meyer and
Koon-Hui-Wang (Department of Entomology, University of Maryland); ($15,000).
(crrhooks@umd.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Production Management, Cover Crop Studies

The objective of this project is to determine the effect of Italian rye grass on population
dynamic of soybean cyst and lesion nematodes and other soil organisms. The
researchers will also quantify the effects of Italian rye grass on organisms in the soybean
foliage and on soybean yields.


Value-added application of Delmarva soybean; Y. Martin Lo (Department of
Nutrition and Food Science, University of Maryland); ($9,000). (ymlo@umd.edu)

Key Words: Soy Foods, Soy Product Development

The overall goal of this project is to improve the competitiveness of Delmarva soybeans
through the development of value-added applications. The specific objectives are to:
    • Identify and characterize quality attributes crucial in enabling Delmarva soybeans
       to compete with Canadian and Midwest soybeans for tofu and soymilk
       production;
    • Develop a natural product using okara, a waste product left from soymilk and tofu
       production; and
    • Assess the market potential of each of the products developed by analyzing
       consumer acceptance, cost effectiveness for commercial production and the size
       of the potential market.




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Michigan Soybean Production Committee
Potential herbicide interactions in double and triple stacked herbicide
resistant soybeans; Don Penner (Crop and Soil Science Department, Michigan State
University); ($20,000). (pennerd@msu.edu)

Key Words: Weed Control, Herbicide Resistance

The appearance of glyphosate resistant weeds along with the availability of the multiple
stacked herbicide resistant seed will be a motivating factor for using herbicide
combinations. Historically, herbicides used in combination have shown the mode of
action of one herbicide may antagonize the other’s effectiveness. The underlying
hypothesis is that soybean producers will continue using glyphosate and when/if
glyphosate resistant weeds appear will apply herbicide combinations commensurate with
any herbicide resistant seed trait. Initial research will be done in the greenhouse where
controlled conditions can be best attained to investigate any potential interactions
between these herbicides associated with herbicide trait developed seed.

The project’s objectives are to:
   • Document whether interactions, synergistic or antagonistic, occur from
       combinations of post emergence applications of glyphosate and glufonisate,
       glyphosate and chlorimuron and glyphosate and the combination of glufonisate
       with chlorimuron.
   • Determine the basis for any interactions.
   • Evaluate the combinations on weeds common to soybean production in
       Michigan.


Screening for herbicide resistant weeds in no-till soybean production
systems; Christy Sprague (Crop and Soil Science Department, Michigan State
University); (Cost will be reimbursed on a billing basis at a rate of $30.00 per sample
analysis). (spague@msu.edu).

Key Words: Weed Control, Herbicide Resistance

At the end of any growing season, there are several weeds that escape control.
Common lambsquarters, grant ragweed, common ragweed, horseweed (marestail) and
velvet leaf are the most commonly mentioned. Herbicide resistant weed concerns are
heightened by the widespread use of glyphosate. Suspected herbicide weed resistant
samples can be tested, free of charge to soybean producers, at the MSU Plant
Diagnostic Center. To confirm field diagnosis of suspected herbicide weed resistance in
a soybean field, a mature seed head of the suspected resistant plant must be submitted
to the MSU Plant Diagnostic Center for a greenhouse grow-out analysis.


Long term management of dandelion in a corn and soybean rotation; Christy
Sprague and Jim Kells (Crop and Soil Science Department, Michigan State University);
(Approved funding level up to $5,400). (spague@msu.edu)

Key Words: Weed Control

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Previous research has demonstrated reasonable management levels of dandelion in a
no-till corn and soybean rotation could be attained with proper application and herbicide
selection. Without investigating tillage options, control could only be attained to an 85%
acceptable level. At this level, dandelion can still be a problem for subsequent crops.
Because of this, dandelion population dynamics need to be examined over a long time
frame for sustainability of no-till production when considering control with both chemical
and tillage options. This study was established in 2006 as a four year project.

The projects objectives are to:
   • Examine population dynamics and various weed management strategies of
       seedling and established dandelion in no till corn and soybean rotations.
   • Determine the effect of tillage and herbicide combinations on the establishment
       and population dynamics of dandelion.
   • Analyze the net return of grain yield for various dandelion control strategies.

Two year results indicate that dandelion populations are essentially zero in systems that
were intensively managed (treated with Roundup Weather Max + 2, 4D ester + AMS in
the fall and spring) in both crops; tillage reduced dandelion populations by 98% or
greater; unmanaged dandelion plots where dandelions reduced soybean yields by 35%;
and after just two years, the benefits of intensely managed dandelion has resulted in
markedly reduced dandelion populations and preservation of crop yield.


Impact of winter annual weed populations on early-season pest in reduced
and no-till soybean; Christy Sprague (Department of Crop and Soil Science) and
Chris DiFonzo (Entomology Department, Michigan State University); (Approved funding
level up to $20,000). (spague@msu.edu)

Key Words: Weed and Pest Interactions, Soybean Insects, Weed Control,
Root Lesion Nematode

Conservation tillage systems (no-till) and the reduced use of residual herbicides, most
likely have contributed to increased presence of winter annual weeds in Michigan
soybean fields. Soil-borne insects and SCN have presented challenges in reduced
tillage systems in recent years. The growth habit of winter annuals may act as a “green
bridge” for the survival of next year’s insects and diseases.

Fifty-five no-till fields were sampled during the 2007 and 2008 crop years; common
chickweed, purple deadnettle and Shepherd’s purse were the most common winter
annuals identified. Three fields had wireworms present and ten had grubs present.
Asiatic garden beetle (2), European chafer (3), Japanese beetle (8) and true white grubs
(6) were present upon sample analysis. Approximately half of the root samples have
root lesion nematode with only one sample having any SCN (purple deadnettle). Only
four fields had SCN present in the soil samples with the root/soil analysis from the field
with SCN infected purple deadnettle having a moderate number of SCN present.

The effect of timing for winter annual weed management was investigated for soybean
yield and insect survival. A residual (Canopy EX+2,4D ester) and no residual
(glyphosate +2,4D ester) were spring applied at two locations. Mid-season biomass
analysis results indicated a significant benefit with the application of a residual herbicide


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across all but one timing application. Only root lesion nematode was present in weed
and soybean roots in this study. With an intended three year study, future year’s data
will assist growers in determining winter annual weed control and possible SCN
management options.

The 2009 objectives of this continuing project are to: 1) Continue the survey of early-
season pests (SCN) associated with winter annual weeds in conservation tillage-
throughout Michigan; 2) Determine the suitability of several winter-annuals as hosts for
SCN in Michigan; and 3) Investigate the effect of timing of winter-annual weed
management and effects on soybean yield and early season pests for conservation tilled
fields.


Weed control and yield comparisons in new herbicide resistant soybean
varieties; Christy Sprague (Crop and Soil Science Department, Michigan State
University); (Approved funding level up to $22,000). (spague@msu.edu)

Key Words: Weed Control, Weed Control-Herbicide Resistance

Many claim the widespread use of glyphosate as the cropping herbicide choice has
resulted in a number of weeds in Michigan that escape control. Implementation of other
weed management strategies is generally used to manage weed escapes that have
increased tolerance to glyphosate. In 2006 and 2007, the soybean checkoff researched
and helped promote residual herbicides for weed control.

With the recent introduction of Liberty Link™, and the Roundup Ready 2 Yield™ seed
traits, soybean producers are increasingly asking about yield and weed control
comparisons when using these newer technologies as compared to non GMO and the
older glyphosate seed technology. Because of the different companies involved in
differing seed traits, background genetics are not similar; therefore, isolines cannot be
compared. For this research, four similar maturity soybean varieties for each seed trait
will be evaluated.

The objectives of this project are to evaluate weed control from different weed
management systems in Roundup Ready 2 Yield™, conventional glyphosate, Liberty
Link™ and non-GMO. Yields and economic returns from Roundup Ready 2 Yield™,
conventional glyphosate, Liberty Link™ and non-GMO weed management systems will
be compared.


MSU diagnostic services: Free SCN soil testing/communications; George
Bird and Fred Warner (Crop and Soil Science Department, Michigan State University);
(Approved funding level up to $22,550). (birdg@msu.edu)

Key Words: SCN-Soil Sampling Program, SCN-Educational Activities

Diagnosticians at MSU will provide free SCN soil testing for SCN presence and provide
grower recommendations for management practices in the event of a positive
identification. The overall analysis results will be made accessible to growers through
meetings/mailings/etc. indicating counties of concern.


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In 2008, nearly 700 samples of suspected SCN infected soils were submitted
representing 30 counties. Data analysis indicates 58% of the samples were positive for
SCN with an average SCN population density/county of 18,000 per 100 cm³ soil. The
program will continue in 2009 with greater emphasis on communication relative to SCN
identification needs/management.


Soybean cyst nematode management research and education: George Bird
(project leader) and John Davenport (Crop and Soil Science Department, Michigan State
University), Joe Scrimger (BioSystems) and Tom Kendle (Farm Cooperator); (Approved
funding level up to $7,400). (birdg@msu.edu)

Key Words: SCN-Management, SCN-Educational Activities, Root Lesion Nematode

Soybean Cyst Nematode (SCN), a key pest of soybean, is managed through the
planting of resistant varieties. Even though three sources of resistance may be
available, one source, PI88788 predominates. Since it has been shown that continual
use of one source can result in virulent SCN populations causing less effective SCN
control resulting in lower soybean yields, the result of using one source needs to be
analyzed. It has also been shown that the most common plant parasitic nematode in
Michigan, the root lesion nematode, can breakdown SCN resistance.

2009 is the final year of this project with a main objective of the development of
management practices designed to slow or prevent highly virulent SCN populations.
The specific studies planned for this year are:
   • Determine whether using resistant varieties and a two year corn-soybean rotation
       will lower SCN populations to levels where a susceptible variety can be grown;
   • Determine if resistant sources PI 88788 or PI 437654 can be used;
   • Determine any impact glyphosate resistant soybean production may have on
       SCN populations;
   • Determine any impact soil enhancement practices may have on SCN
       development; and
   • Communicate the results of this study to assist growers in making future SCN
       management decisions.


Soybean aphid management: The next step; Christina DiFonzo (Entomology
Department) and Dechun Wang (Crop and Soil Science Department, Michigan State
University); (Approved funding level up to $14,000). (difonzo@msu.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Aphid (SA), SA-Management, SA-Thresholds, Potassium (K)

Over the last six years, a core group of mid-western scientists including Dr. DiFonzo at
MSU have conducted research on the soybean aphid (SBA). Successful research has
addressed threshold recommendations (250 SBA/plant), bio-control and host plant
resistant evaluations and the development of a suction trap network for researching
predictive models.




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Since host plant resistance has now been identified by several universities, much of the
earlier research is now needed when using resistant soybean germplasm. With well
established inoculation methods, the screening of various host plant resistant sources
must be evaluated across environments.

The project’s objectives are to:
   • Collect data to determine any need to modify thresholds in SBA resistant
       germplasm;
   • Examine the relationship between SBA resistance and potassium deficiency;
   • Continue to screen host plant resistance when exposed to natural SBA
       population conditions;
   • Follow-up/initiate any new biological control releases; and
   • Maintain the suction trap network for the development of a predictive model.


Using biological agents to control soybean white mold; Jianjun Hao, Dechun
Wang and Ray Hammerschmidt (Plant Pathology and Crop and Soil Science
Departments, Michigan State University); (Approved funding level up to $20,000).
(jjhao@msu.edu)

Key Words: Sclerotina White Mold, Soybean Disease Management

White mold is said to be the second most important disease of soybean in Michigan and
continues as a challenge to Michigan soybean production. Partial resistant varieties and
agronomic practices are relied upon for control measures. This project will research the
possibilities of using commercially available biological control of soil sclertoia to disrupt
the disease cycle.

During the past two years the research team has conducted greenhouse and field
studies to test bio-control products for reducing sclerotia in soil. They report that no
viable sclerotia were retrieved from the Contans treated soil; the greatest effect was from
a fall application followed by a spring treatment; and Contans could be a viable option for
sclerotia control, however, prior year’s disease severity and product cost must be
considered.
This project will continue to evaluate the effectiveness of bio-control agents in the
greenhouse and field studies, and studying the interaction of soil types and bio-control
agents on the reduction of the apothecial germination with the goal of determining the
efficacy of the bio-control agents on soybean disease incidence and yield. The specific
2009 objectives are to:
     • Plant tolerant and susceptible varieties after sclerotia soil infestation for
         greenhouse soil and plant disease evaluations after applying Contans bio-control
         product;
     • Use the greenhouse for evaluating the effects of soil temperature and moisture
         on the efficiency of bio-control agents; and
     • Use commercially accepted row spacing and populations for field scale testing of
         bio-control agents where sclerotia was added to the soil for evaluating soybean
         yield and sclerotia survival.




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Strip testing at regional sites (STARS); Dave Pratt (Michigan State University);
(Approved funding level up to $6,000). (prattda@msu.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Production Management; Soybean Educational Activities
Soybean On-farm Research

Michigan soybean growers have increasingly expressed interest in a coordinated effort
to test new management opportunities on a replicated, field scale, strip trial basis. In
2008 a program was initiated called Strip Testing at Regional Sites (STARS) designed to
test various soybean management options.

In 2008 they agreed to test a foliar fungicide spray at the R3 stage using standardized
protocol and multiple cooperators to obtain comparisons across environments. Thirty
four farmers across Michigan agreed to use the protocol for testing the foliar fungicide
STRATGO™ when applied at the R3 stage. Twenty four completed yield comparisons
were received showing that with adequate soil moisture the foliar fungicide produced an
economic return, whereas, tests in areas with too little moisture were not economically
beneficial. The results of the STARS program was published in the Michigan Soybean
News and provided to every Michigan soybean producer.

In 2009, the STARS program will continue to address soybean production options. This
year’s objectives are to:
    • Again test a foliar fungicide spray at the R3 stage with the same protocol,
        however, only in irrigated fields;
    • Using standardized protocol, evaluate soybean performance at differing
        population levels; and 3) Evaluate foliar fertilizer spray at multiple locations with
        standardizing testing procedures.

Again, the program plans to provide statistically sound results to every Michigan
soybean producer through the Michigan Soybean News.


Upgrading thumb area research and education (TARE) technologies
(exclusive of equipment); Dave Pratt (Michigan State University); (Approved funding
level up to $9,000). (prattda@msu.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Research Support

A consortium of counties in the “thumb area” of Michigan initiated an effort called TARE
(Thumb Area Research and Extension) to test new products and technologies as a third
party source of grower information. Since it was, initially, an experimental program,
older equipment was purchased for the field testing component of the program. Non-
discretionary grant funds are available which could be used for equipment purchases but
would require additional funds for other variable expenses.

The project will provide grant funds to allow the purchase of other variable expense
items (fuel, seed, fertilizer, etc.) when transferring some non-discretionary funds to new
equipment purchases.




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Soybean yield contest for Michigan; Mike Staton (Extension Southwest Region)
and Ned Birkey (Michigan State University); (Approved funding level up to $8,000).
(jjhao@msu.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Yield Contest

Success in implementing a Michigan soybean yield contest has been minimal in past
years. The decision to re-initiate such an effort in 2006 was to build upon the Michigan
Soybean 2010 project. With the commitment of MSUE to be supportive of Soybean
2010, there was increased interest in promoting the yield contest to augment Soybean
2010. With three years of yield contest experience, the MSPC is building upon past
successes.

The project is designed to use the collected yield contest data to augment Soybean
2010; to encourage commercial soybean seed companies to promote successful yield
contest entries; involve campus and county based MSUE personnel in the Soybean
2010 effort; and use the three years of data to more effectively define management
practices leading to higher yields as an educational tool.

In 2008, thirty-nine completed entrees were received representing ten Michigan
counties. Some of the most significant results included:
   • The average yield of all yield contest entrees was 52.8 bu/acre compared to the
       state average of 37 bu/acre (as reported by NASS).
   • Four of the five winners planted in fifteen inch rows.
   • All five winners had soybean populations of 140,000–160,000; corn in the field
       the previous year; and used a fungicide seed treatment.
   • Four of the five winners inoculated their seed; planted in fifteen inch rows; and
       used some secondary tillage for seed bed preparation.

The project will continue in 2009 with similar objectives and make a special effort to
obtain more entries and company sponsors.


Soybean 2010 on-farm research and demonstration trials; Mike Staton
(Extension Southwest Region), George Silva, Dave Pratt, Phil Kaatz, Dan Rossman,
Marilyn Thelen, Paul Gross, Bruce MacKellar, Dan Rajzer, and Ned Birkey, (Crop and
Soil Science Department, Michigan State University); (Approved funding level up to
$22,000). (jjhao@msu.edu)

Key Words: Soybean On-farm Research, Soybean Educational Activities, Soil Fertility
Studies

When comparing Michigan crop yields for wheat, corn and soybeans for a ten year
period (1990–1994 vs. 2000–2004), wheat increased 17.4 bu/acre (35.1%), corn 9.4
bu/acre (8.4%) and soybean -3.2 bu/acre (-8.7%). The declining soybean yield appears
to be unique to Michigan as nationally an increase of 6.8% has occurred for the same
time frame. The Soybean 2010 project was created to determine any yield limiting
factors for Michigan. The research, education and demonstration addressed in this
project are designed to help growers overcome any identified barrier.



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The project was initiated in 2008 to obtain practical information on soybean production
options that impact the state’s soybean yield. Results obtained during the first year
included:
    • A slow-release N fertilizer soil applied at the R1 stage provided no significant
       yield increase;
    • The only economical response to an R3 fungicide treatment of Stratego™ was
       under ideal rainfall conditions;
    • No location yielded significantly more where seed treatment was used;
    • Specialty soybean production can be profitable under proper management when
       compared to the use of GMO varieties;
    • Under irrigation conditions of S.W. Michigan, a determinant variety significantly
       out yielded a similar maturity soybean of indeterminate growth;
    • Neither a July and/or an August foliar nitrogen treatment to soybean yielded an
       advantage; and
    • When comparing four seeding populations ranging from 141,000 to 247,000
       PPA, there was no significant difference in yield.

The objectives for the 2009 growing season are:
   • Evaluating the yield potential of soybean varieties grown across Michigan’s
       environments;
   • Maximize soybean yield by researching the yield effect of a combination of
       recommended treatments;
   • Evaluating the yield potential of non GMO specialty trait soybean varieties;
   • Continuing research designed to compare performance of determinant vs. non-
       determinant soybeans grown under irrigation in S.W. Michigan;
   • Evaluating the economics of seed treatment and of inoculants;
   • Evaluating the economic effect of the placement of potassium fertilizer on
       soybean performance; and
   • Investigating the effect of tramline use in soybean


Overcoming the barriers to higher soybean yields: A Soybean 2010 Project;
Mike Staton (Extension Southwest Region, Michigan State University); (Approved
funding level up to $12,500). (jjhao@msu.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Educational Activities, Soybean Production Management

With Michigan soybean yields declining by 8.7% comparing a time period of 1990-1994
vs. 2000-2004, when compared to increase of 35.1% for wheat and 8.4% for corn, a
program called Soybean 2010 was established to reverse this trend by the year 2010. A
soybean 2010 survey in 2005 clearly shows differences when comparing management
practices of higher yields to lower yields.

An educational program was established in 2008 to better enable grower’s
understanding of how the soybean plant responds to proper management. The program
included an effort to continually update the Soybean 2010 website and a 3-ring grower
educational resource binder, a toll free Soybean Hotline designed to deliver timely in-
season pest and crop management information, and to analyze the results of the winter
soybean grower survey that listed research needed to address areas of shortcomings.


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The program objectives were accomplished in 2008 and the 2009 program will
concentrate on holding two grower meetings and disseminating the latest information on
equipment trends such as planters, combines, GPS, etc. Since this will be the final year
of Soybean 2010, grower input will be gathered for future program directions.


Foliar manganese recommendations for Michigan soybean on chronically
Mn deficient soils; Kurt Thelen and Tim Boring (Crop and Soil Science Department,
Michigan State University); (Approved funding level up to $18,300). (thelenk3@msu.edu)

Key Words: Soil Fertility, Manganese (Mn)

The characteristics of many of Michigan’s calcareous lake-bed and muck soils render
soil applied manganese (Mn) fertilizers ineffective so foliar Mn applications are
necessary for optimal growth. Presently, Michigan soybean producers do not have
adequate information on optimal rates, products or timings of Mn applied to soybeans on
chronically Mn deficient soils. This project will research and develop recommendations
specifically for soybeans grown on Michigan’s calcareous lake-bed and muck soils while
developing components of application and evaluating products.

The specific objectives are to:
   • Evaluate current and potential management scenarios for Mn application in order
      to maximize soybean yield while minimizing application expenses;
   • Evaluate the effectiveness of differing Mn forms in different management
      scenarios; and
   • Develop environmental and/or physiological indicators by which to base
      preventive Mn applications.


The development of a strategic management strategy for profitable
soybean production in Southeast Michigan; Tom VanWagner (Lenawee Soil
Conservation District), Blain Baker and Tim Stutzman (Cooperators); (Funded at a level
not to exceed $9,300).

Key Words: Soybean Production Management, Best Management Practices

The concept of using precision agriculture technologies on Michigan Soybean producer
farms is not a new concept. However, the use of research on a field scale basis while
incorporating these technologies that result in field variability recommendations is an
emerging concept. Many growers have the technologies of variable rate technology,
GPS receivers, yield monitors, field grid systems, either through grid sample or Veris
machine readings, aerial imaging, etc. to allow zone management within fields. This is
often referred to as spatial management with a single field.

With increasing frequency, soybean producers who have the proper technologies are
asking for agronomic recommendations to treat spatially. With the cooperation of
identified soybean producers and technology consultants, the soybean checkoff will
research management concepts to allow agronomic decisions to be made spatially with
a field. The specific objectives of this project are to assess final yields and the resultant
economics to three final soybean populations by using within field spatial management

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concepts and to scout the spatial managed fields by soil types to observe field and crop
conditions.


Specialty soybean breeding and soybean germplasm enhancement for
Michigan environment; Dechun Wang and John Boyse (Crop and Soil Science
Department, Michigan State University); (Approved funding level up to $74,300).
(wngdech@msu.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Breeding, Soybean Breeding-Soy Foods,
Soybean Breeding-Composition, Soybean Breeding-Disease Resistance

This is a long term project with crosses made yearly with subsequent evaluation for
desired quality traits. Crosses are made, grow outs are implemented, selections are
made, and those with desirable traits are advanced. The breeding program objectives
are to:
    • Develop newer, higher yielding, disease resistant, large seed, and clear hilum
        edible-type soybean varieties;
    • Develop vegetable soybean (edamame and out-of-pod green soybean) varieties;
    • Enhance soybean germplasm adaptable to Michigan by incorporating resistance
        to white mold, SCN, viruses, aphids, and rust;
    • Enhance grower opportunities to profitably grow “targeted market” soybean
        varieties (low sat, low lin) through genetic improvement of varieties; and
    • Analyze fatty acid profile of developing germplasm for soy bio-based product
        development.

Since this is a long term project with crosses made annually with subsequent
evaluations for desired quality traits incremental stages of progress are reported.
Recent results included:
   • Two new non-GMO varieties suitable for tofu use as evaluated by the Japan Tofu
       Association were approved for release to compete with the Vinton 81 variety;
   • Four specialty trait varieties (tofu, low sat, low lin, etc.) were among top
       performers in Michigan conventional performance trials;
   • One specialty variety was entered in the USDA uniform soybean tests;
   • Two advanced lines for edamame were tested at seven Michigan locations with
       better yield and characteristics than the check variety.; and
   • Thirty-one low-lin lines and eleven low-sat lines were selected, based on
       quality/yield parameters, for 2009 advanced yield traits.

The 2009 objectives are to continue to develop specialty varieties and germplasm with
characteristics for tofu, low-lin, low-sat, disease/insect resistance, etc. suitable for the
Michigan environment. A secondary objective is to develop vegetable soybean
(edamame and out-of-pod green soybean) varieties.


Introgress aphid resistance from exotic germplasm to elite Michigan
soybean germplasm; Dechun Wang (Crop and Soil Science Department) and
Christine DiFonzo (Entomology Department, Michigan State University); (Approved
funding level up to $20,000). (wngdech@msu.edu)


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Key Words: Soybean Aphids, Genetic Resistance to Soybean Aphids

In addition to yield losses of up to 50% from physical damage of the soybean aphid
(SBA), they also transmit several viruses. In the long term, host plant resistance is the
solution rather than risk the cost of spray timing while having environmental
consequences of killing beneficial insects. The successful evaluation of over 2,000 plant
introductions that resulted in identifying two PI’s with antibiosis resistance has resulted in
our antibiosis SBA resistant trait release. This release requires greater informational
needs as questions arise from possible commercial partners.

The researchers at MSU report that eight different sources were crossed into elite
Michigan germplasm in an attempt to diversify the SBA resistant characteristics. Six
MSU SBA resistant lines were evaluated in seven mid-western states plus Ontario,
Canada with two being rated the highest of all lines tested. DNA markers for the
commercially released SBA germplasm, SPARTA™, were identified. In addition, most
major commercial soybean breeding companies have licensed the MSU germplasm,
SPARTA™, for the incorporation of SBA resistance into their elite germplasm.

The project’s goal is to continue to incorporate SBA resistance from diverse sources into
elite Michigan soybean germplasm for variety development and germplasm release; and
to continue research into identifying DNA markers for SBA resistance for the two anti-
biosis source P.I.’s.


Rust resistance confirmation and utilization in Michigan soybean
improvement; Dechun Wang and Ray Hammerschmidt (Crop and Soil Science and
Plant Pathology Departments, Michigan State University), Hiraigu Chen (Jiangsu
Academy of Agricultural Science) and Ying Luo (Sanming Institute of Agricultural
Science); (Approved funding level up to $24,000). (wangdech@msu.edu)

Key Words: Asian Soybean Rust, ASR-Genetic Resistance

Since host plant resistance to Asian soybean rust (ASR) has not yet been employed as
a major control method, probably due to a lack of known source for stable and strong
resistance. It is now possible to screen for soybean rust resistance in two newly
established rust screening nurseries in China. Screening priorities will be for new PI’s
along with previously identified possible rust-resistant plant introductions.

One identified line consistently showed partial resistance under ASR infection in a
multiple Chinese test as well in University of Georgia field trials. This partial resistant
line was used as the resistant source in crossing into elite Michigan germplasm. To
date, a total of 891 lines were evaluated in our China rust nursery with about 5%
showing some resistance.

The project’s objectives are to continue to monitor the ASR resistance identified in
previous years of screening at the Jiangsu and Sanming Academies and to use the
previously identified SBR screening methods and nurseries to screen more early
maturing unique Chinese soybean germplasm. The research team will concentrate on
the breeding process to introgress the confirmed rust resistant sources into elite
Michigan adaptable soybean germplasm.


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Soyfoam for automotive applications; Alan Argento and W. Kim (Engineering and
Computer Science, University of Michigan-Dearborn); (Carry over funds are being used
to fund this year’s effort); (Co-funded by the United Soybean Board).
(aargento@umich.edu)

Key Words: Soy-based Foams

“Plugs” as manufactured foams are used as fillers in the automobile industry for
applications such as reducing noise producing vibrations (drive shafts) and dissipate
impact energy to prevent cracking of the plastic facia between metal and plastic
structures (bumpers). The traditional “plug” material is usually a petroleum-based
polyurethane foam of low density. Preliminary research has shown that soy based
foams can have similar properties if they can be manufactured to have similar densities
and suitable stiffness to the existing petro based products.

The researchers will pursue the use of soy based foams for both flexible and rigid
automotive applications by incorporating soy blended polyol resins with some containing
soy meal and flour fillers. Results to date have developed new impact testing
apparatuses for testing these low modulus materials. Rigid foam material samples have
been produced by varying the percentages of soy flour. The addition of soy flour fillers
appears to increase the foam’s softness. The researchers will further investigate process
refinement to obtain the ultimate goal.


Use of soymeal as a filler in plastics for automotive applications; Cynthia
Flanigan (Ford Motor Company); (Carry over funds are being used to fund this year’s
effort); (Co-funded by the United Soybean Board). (cflaniz2@ford.com)

Key Words: Soy-based Plastics, Soybean Meal Use-Industrial Uses

With the strong corporate philosophy of using environmentally responsible materials and
processes as evidenced by the recent implementation of soy based, flexible foam for
automotive applications, Ford Motor Company intends to research the use of soymeal as
filler for automotive plastics.

In similar progression to the soy-based foam products, Ford has completed positive
initial assessments of soymeal use as filler in plastics. The logical progression is to
investigate processing conditions, properties and complete prototype molding of
soymeal modified plastics.

The researchers have successfully compounded soy based materials with rubber and
determined molding parameters of the formulations to form parts that pass many of the
required properties for underbody shields. Observations have been recorded on
optimum percentages of soy meal and soy flour to use for processing and use
parameters. Aging parameters were used to determine suitability of the compounded
products when compared to the control product.

The researchers will continue to evaluate processing methods and properties of
automotive plastics using soybean meal and flour as a filler. This year’s emphasis will
continue to define optimum compounding formulas while performing performance testing


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and preliminary results will be shared with Ford supplier companies for product
design/development/testing partnerships.


Preparation of soy-based isocyanates from soy meal; Ramani Narayan and
Dan Graiver (Chemical Engineering and Material Science, Michigan State University);
(Approved funding level up to $50,000 and the project will continue with co-funding and
project coordination provided by the United Soybean Board). (narayan@msu.edu)

Key Words: Soy-based Chemicals

This is a “proof of concept” project which will determine if the chemistry hypothesized
can result in a soy isocyanate that can be used with soy polyols to produce high bio-
based content polyurethanes. If viable soy isocyanate can be produced from soy
protein, there will need to be a more involved project to investigate how to develop a
cost effective process. With limited chemical experience to support the concept,
success may be risky; however, if successful further research would be intriguing.

MSU researchers have successfully demonstrated the feasibility using soy meal through
their research process to make bio-based isocyanates. This initial process though
successful in making soy meal based isocyanates, the yields were low and require
considerable work to improve the process if high biobased polyurethanes are to be
commercially produced.

The overall objective of this project continues to investigate the feasibility of using
soymeal in the process to make soy-based isocyanates. Isocyanates are common
industrial raw products used in the production of polyurethanes and polyureases. By
building upon earlier “proof of concept” research, plans are to prepare soy-based
isocyanates with similar properties to traditional isocyanates to interest the polyurethane
manufacturers.


Moisture activated cure of modified soyoil for sealants, paints and
varnishes: Phase II; Ramani Narayan and Dan Graiver (Chemical Engineering and
Material Science, Michigan State University); (Approved funding level up to $20,000).
(narayan@msu.edu)

Key Words: Soy-based Coatings

Limited laboratory testing by this research group has shown that the silylated soybean oil
can be used as a coating for wood, paper, glass and metal with good adhesion. The
commercial target is to replace silicone coatings and sealants and polyurethane
adhesive and coatings with a more cost effective system that has less environmental
hazards and has the silylated soybean oil as the feedstock. Increased effectiveness
should be realized because of the low viscosity of the modified soyoil allowing greater
penetration into porous surfaces for providing a waterproof coating. Based on a recent
patent application allowing intellectual property protection, additional work can be done
to effectuate commercialization.




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The project’s objectives are to develop additional data on this novel coating polymer
based on “grafting” a poly-functional vinyl silicone onto the fatty acid backbone of
soybean oil through an extensive product development and testing program. The
researchers plan to present the resultant test data to companies involved in commercial
coatings and sealants.


Alpha olefins from soyoil; Ramani Narayan and Dan Graiver (Chemical Engineering
and Material Science, Michigan State University); (Funded at a level up to $10,000).
(narayan@msu.edu)

Key Words: Soy-based Chemicals

Alpha olefins are not an end product but are building block hydrocarbon chemicals used
in plastic copolymers, synthetic detergents, lube oil additives, metal working fluids,
personal care products, and surfactants presently derived from petroleum based
feedstocks. The hypothesis is that these new derivatives would have unique properties,
be very price competitive and have a certain degree of biodegradability. The reasonable
amount of funding requested is adequate to perform a limited amount of exploratory
synthesis work and for analytical characterization of the product.

The objectives of this project is to substitute a different alcohol for methanol in the soyoil
transesterifcation process in hopes the reaction and end product, ally fatty acid esters
(AFAE) can be readily made in the laboratory. Even though the AFAE are not a
completely new product, they have not been investigated in some of the current
applications for alpha olefins.


OEM technology development 2010 and beyond; Steve Howell (National
Biodiesel Board); (Approved funding up to $100,000). (info@biodiesel.org)

Key Words: Biodiesel Studies

Through the soybean checkoff, soybean farmers funded most of the earlier research and
market development efforts for soy biodiesel. Continuing efforts are now being leveraged
with both private and government funding to address the many issues being faced in this
burgeoning biodiesel industry. Since the year 2000, biodiesel production has grown from
thousands to millions of gallons. It is estimated 700 million gallons were produced in
2008 and is estimated to be available nationwide at nearly 1,600 distributors and about
1,300 retailers.

Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM) have diligently researched biodiesel use in
their equipment which has resulted in a low biodiesel blend level endorsement by most
OEM. With more restrictive emission requirements being implemented, newer
challenges now face the biodiesel effort. As an example, diesel engine manufacturers
that address emission with a Diesel Particulate Filter in conjunction with In-Cylinder Post
Injection of fuel to regenerate the trap (burn off accumulated particular matter) believe
biodiesel blends of greater than a B5 will cause engine oil dilution. If true, this could lead
to premature engine wear if oil changes are not more frequent.



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With newer EPA emission mandates, diesel engine manufacturers are developing newer
technologies that must be tested with B20 for compatibility to assure the continued use
of biodiesel, such testing is the objective of this research.


North Central Soybean Research Program; ($100,000).



Minnesota Soybean Research and Promotion Council
Nutrient management research for profitable soybean production; Daniel
Kaiser and John Lamb (Department of Soil, Water and Climate, University of
Minnesota); ($65,000). (dekaiser@mnu.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Fertility Studies, Sulfur Fertilization (S), Potassium (K),
Iron Deficiency Chlorosis (IDC), Testing Commercial Products

This project will study a number of nutrient management issues in soybeans. Objectives
of this project include: 1) The evaluation of crop response to sulfur fertilization on
different soils of a landscape; 2) The evaluation of interactions between nitrogen,
phosphorus and sulfur fertilization in a rotation on grain yields and quality; and, 3)
Determination of optimum timing, placement and fertilization rates for phosphorus to
optimize yields in the rotation. An additional objective for 2009 is to develop
recommendations on how to use cover crops and Soygreen to reduce the severity of
iron deficiency chlorosis in soybeans.


Management and environmental effects on yield formation and seed quality
in Minnesota grown soybeans; Seth Naeve (Department of Agronomy and Plant
Genetics, University of Minnesota); ($100,000). (naeve002@umn.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Composition, Production Management Studies, Soybean Modeling

This project will continue the effort to determine the management and environmental
limitations to yield, protein and oil accumulation in Minnesota soybeans, so that
management and breeding strategies can be developed to overcome the limitations.
This effort will include modeling interplant distance affects on soybean branching and
pod height; as well as, evaluate interacting environmental factors, such as, temperature,
soil moisture, residue type and quantity, to determine whether existing seeding rate
recommendations are sufficient to reduce harvest loss due to podding height. A second
objective includes evaluating soybeans across geographies and maturity groups to
determine the effects of soil rolling (land rolling) on lowest pod height. A third objective
is to investigate plant growth, yield and quality in developing seed of different varieties
and maturities, to determine risks and benefits of planting early, adapted or full season
maturities.


Soybean aphid research in Minnesota; Dave Ragsdale, George Heimpel and
Bruce Potter (Department of Entomology, University of Minnesota); ($66,200).

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(ragsd001@umn.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Aphid (SA), SA-Thresholds, SA-Biocontrol, SA-Management

This project has three primary objectives: The first is to evaluate the release of the
Asian parasitoid wasp, Binodoxys communis, for biological control of soybean aphid. A
second is the validation of the soybean aphid threshold under narrow row spacing. And,
a third is to determine the impact of natural enemies (native predators and pathogens)
on soybean aphid population growth rates and emigration.


A possible relationship between soybean vascular disease and soybean
aphid populations: A preliminary investigation; Bruce Potter (Southwest
Research & Outreach Center), Ian MacRae (Northwest Experiment Station) and Dean
Malvick (Department of Plant Pathology, University of Minnesota); ($7,800).
(bpotter@umn.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Aphid (SA), SA-Disease Interactions

The purpose of this study is to examine a potential mechanism regulating soybean aphid
populations on an individual plant level. The study will determine whether vascular
diseases of soybeans have an effect on soybean aphid reproductive (offspring per
female) and colonization (emigration and immigration) rates. The project includes both
greenhouse and field components.


Evaluating soybean plant introductions and breeding lines for resistance to
yield limiting fungal diseases found in Minnesota; James Kurle (Department of
Plant Pathology) and James Orf (Department of Agronomy and Plant Genetics,
University of Minnesota); ($40,000). (kurle001@umn.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Disease Resistance, Soybean Screening Methods,
Soybean Germplasm Screening, Soybean Variety Testing

This study will refine screening methods for evaluating the susceptibility of soybeans to:
Fusarium verguliforme (SDS), Phialophora gregata (BSR), Phytophthora sojae and
Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (White Mold); and, develop methods for evaluating the
susceptibility of soybean lines to Phakopsora pachyrhiza (Asian Soybean Rust). The
researchers will conduct disease resistance evaluations of commercial soybean
cultivars, Plant Introductions (PIs), and breeding lines using the procedures that are
developed.


Identification of soybean cultivars resistant to Fusarium solani; James Kurle
(Department of Plant Pathology) and James Orf (Department of Agronomy and Plant
Genetics, University of Minnesota); ($40,000). (kurle001@umn.edu)

Key Words: Fusarium Root Rot, Soybean Screening Methods, Fusarium solani
Soybean Cyst Nematode (SCN)



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Fusarium Solani root rot is one of the most significant root rot problems in Minnesota.
The purpose of this study is to develop a screening technique to identify cultivars that
could be used as parent material in a breeding program to introduce Fusarium solani
root rot resistance into marketable soybean varieties. This will be done by identifying
soybean cultivars that exhibit resistance or partial resistance to colonization by Fusarium
solani under optimal infection conditions. Then determine if SCN infection increases the
severity of root rot and determine the minimum SCN population that is required to
increase the severity. Finally, they will verify if the partial resistance identified remains
effective at elevated SCN population levels. This is important in Minnesota because of
the severity of both Fusarium root rot and SCN infestations.


Advancing knowledge of root and stem diseases of soybean for yield
improvement; Dean Malvick (Department of Plant Pathology, University of
Minnesota); ($58,891). dmalvick@umn.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Pathogens, Marker Assisted Selection, Soybean Disease
Interactions

This project will develop molecular tools (PCR primers) to quickly and accurately identify,
diagnose, and quantify important root and stem pathogens in soybeans.                 The
researchers will determine the characteristics of the most common and significant root-
infecting pathogens in Minnesota and factors that contribute to their ability to cause
disease and reduce yields. They will evaluate the interaction between Brown Stem Rot
(BSR) and other diseases and pests, and determine the relationship between Fusarium
root rot and Iron Deficiency Chlorosis.


Effects of host resistance and fertilizer applications on the soybean cyst
nematode (SCN) and soybean yield.; Senyu Chen, Bruce Potter, Jeff Vetsch and
Gyles Randall (Southwest Research and Outreach Center, University of Minnesota);
($100,000). (chenx099@umn.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Cyst Nematode (SCN), SCN-HG Populations

This project has a number of objectives. One objective is to determine the effect of
different sequences of SCN-resistance sources on the dynamics of SCN population
densities and their virulence phenotypes (races or HG Types). A second objective is to
determine effect of manure and chemical fertilizers on SCN population densities, SCN
community structure and food web, the parasitism of nematodes by fungi, the level of
nematode-suppressiveness and soybean yields. A third objective will be to determine
the relationship between SCN suppression and the SCN community structure and food
web.


Expanded soybean cyst nematode and other variety testing; James Orf
(Department of Agronomy and Plant Genetics) and Senyu Chen (Southwest Research
and Outreach Center, University of Minnesota); ($45,000). (orfxx001@umn.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Cyst Nematode (SCN), Soybean Variety Testing

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This project is geared to evaluation of commonly grown, commercially available SCN
varieties at eight field sites across Minnesota and in the greenhouse. The evaluations
for each variety include yield performance and a Reproductive Index (RI) at each SCN
infested field site and a greenhouse derived Female Index (FI). The field HG type SCN
populations will be determined and reported for each of the field test locations. This
information will be critical to the future effective management of SCN through the use of
SCN resistant soybean varieties.


Soybean breeding and genetics support; James Orf (Department of Agronomy
and Plant Genetics, University of Minnesota); ($196,877). (orfxx001@umn.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Breeding, Soybean Breeding-Composition,
Soybean Breeding-Soy Foods, Soybean Breeding-Disease Resistance

This project continues the development of soybean varieties and germplasm adapted to
Minnesota with improved protein and oil content, acceptable levels of other quality
characteristics, competitive yield and resistance to production hazards (rot and stem
diseases, nematodes, iron chlorosis, aphids, rust, lodging, drought, etc.). It continues
testing public and private soybean varieties available or intended for sale to soybean
producers in Minnesota and report results of yield, protein, oil, maturity and hazard
reactions. This project is expanding the development of special purpose soybean
varieties for food and other uses adapted to Minnesota. And, it will analyze advanced
and preliminary breeding lines for seed components that have been genetically altered.
The University of Minnesota public breeding program is the vehicle through which new
innovations in other research programs can be tested and ultimately brought to the farm
level.


Expanded variety development and testing for Northern Minnesota; James
Orf (Department of Agronomy and Plant Genetics, University of Minnesota); ($25,000.).
(orfxx001@umn.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Breeding, Soybean Breeding-Composition,
Soybean Breeding-Soy Foods

This project specifically evaluates additional breeding lines and varieties adapted to
northern Minnesota with special emphasis on protein, oil and yields; as well as, disease
and other hazard resistance. It is also evaluating additional special purpose lines
adapted to northern Minnesota or traits such as small seed, large seed, very high
protein, altered fatty acids, altered amino acids, isoflavone content and other seed
components of interest from a food or special use perspective.


Genetic transformation to investigate genes conferring tolerance to
soybean iron deficiency chlorosis; Robert Stupar and Carroll Vance (Department
of Agronomy and Plant Genetics, University of Minnesota); ($48,000).
(stup0004@umn.edu)

Key Words: Iron Deficiency Chlorosis (IDC), Soybean Transformation,

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Molecular Engineering

The objective of this project is to identify genes that are differentially responsive to Iron
Deficiency Chlorosis (IDC) in susceptible and tolerant genotypes using microarray and
real-time PCR data. The researchers will use genetic transformations to up-regulate
three of these genes in the IDC-susceptible line Iso-Clark and to down regulate the
same three genes in the IDC-tolerant variety Clark. Phenotyping of the transformed
lines will allow the researchers to confirm which genes are conferring the tolerance to
IDC.


Forward genetic screen for soybean varieties with improved oil/protein
content; Seth Naeve and Jim Orf (Department of Agronomy and Plant Genetics,
University of Minnesota); ($48,000). (naeve002@umn.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Germplasm Screening, Soybean Composition,
Marker Assisted Selection, Soybean Genetic Diversity

This project will continue the characterization of the collection of approximately 60,000
genetically varied soybeans lines that were produced through mutagenesis of a current
Minnesota cultivar. Special emphasis is directed at identifying lines with particular
quality traits related to protein and oil. With the use of molecular markers these traits
could be added to Minnesota adapted soybean varieties.


Genetic dissection of soybean seed protein and oil content; Gary Muehlbauer
(Department of Agronomy and Plant Genetics, University of Minnesota); ($49,978).
(muehl003@umn.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Composition, Soybean Gene Expression, Soybean Gene Mapping

This project focuses on understanding and improving Minnesota soybean quality traits
with regard to seed development and protein/oil levels by generating gene expression
profiles from the developing seed of recombinant inbred lines. The researchers will map
expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) from soybean seed in a recombinant inbred line
population and identify eQTL that contribute to variation in seed protein and oil levels.
This information will be used in future breeding efforts.


Exploiting genetic variation in soybean to improve seed composition and
yield; Sue Gibson, Jane Glazebrook, Fumiaki Katagiri (Department Plant Biology) and
James Orf (Department of Agronomy and Plant Genetics, University of Minnesota);
($30,000). (orfxx001@umn.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Composition, Soybean Gene Expression

This is the second year of a project designed to identify the factors in the soybean plant
which control gene expression. The project specifically targets those factors that control
gene expression for soybean quality traits and yield. The techniques employed in this
research are innovative and unique. Due to the innovation and uniqueness of the

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project these dollars will leverage an additional $220,000 grant from the Consortium for
Plant Biotechnology Research.


Using genomics to increase soybean biodiesel yield; Sue Gibson (Department
of Plant Biology) and James Orf (Department of Agronomy and Plant Genetics,
University of Minnesota); ($20,000). Gibso043@umn.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Composition, Soybean Bioengineering

This project is a very basic study that makes use of the plant, Arabidopsis thaliana,
which produces oilseed similar soybean but has a much simpler genome, to identify
genes that control seed yield and composition (protein, oil, size & sugar). A number of
promising genes have been identified. This project is designed to identify similar genes
in soybeans and generate transgenic soybeans that under or over express select
soybean genes. The techniques employed in this research are innovative and unique.
Due to the innovation and uniqueness of the project these dollars will leverage an
additional large grant from the Consortium for Plant Biotechnology Research.


Traditional and molecular breeding for soybeans resistant to cyst
nematode and other diseases; Nevin Young (Department of Plant Pathology) and
James Orf (Department of Agronomy and Plant Genetics, University of Minnesota);
($50,000). (neviny@umn.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Breeding, SCN-Genetic Resistance,
Genetically Engineered Soybean, Marker Assisted Selection

This project continues the breeding and development of Minnesota-adapted varieties
with resistance to soybean cyst nematode (SCN) through traditional and molecular
breeding techniques. This project expands the use of marker-assisted selection and
germplasm screening, using a newly developed and comprehensive panel of resistance-
related Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNPs) markers for SCN, soybean rust, SDS,
BSR, soybean mosaic virus (SMV) and other stem diseases. This project will also
establish a platform for screening rust resistance using the new BL3 facility on campus.


Improving management of common soilborne diseases of soybeans; Dean
Malvick (Department of Plant Pathology, University of Minnesota); ($29,957).
(dmalick@umn.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Diseases, Sclerotina White Mold, Brown Stem Rot (BSR)

The goal of this project is to develop information to improve management of Brown Stem
Rot, White Mold and root diseases; as well as, conduct extension education programs
on soilborne diseases to improve soybean production in Minnesota. The trials involve
various seed treatments, soil applied fungicides and a biological treatment for white
mold.




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A basic monitoring and early warning system for soybean rust in
Minnesota; Dean Malvick and James Kurle (Department of Plant Pathology, University
of Minnesota); ($9,223). (dmalvick@umn.edu)

Key Words: Asian Soybean Rust, ASR-Sentinel Plots

The purpose for this project is to maintain a basic soybean rust monitoring              and
forecasting system for Minnesota that will provide information for early warning         and
management of this disease in Minnesota. This project will monitor soybean               rust
sentinel plots and rust spore movement into Minnesota; as well as, run, validate         and
disseminate results from the Minnesota soybean rust forecasting system.


Economic comparison of soybean pest management input programs; Ian
MacRae, Ken Ostlie and Carlyle Holen (Northwest Experiment Station), Bruce Potter
(Southwest Research & Outreach Center) and Fritz Breitenbach (Rochester Regional
Extension Center, University of Minnesota); ($26,312). (imacrae@umn.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Disease Management, Best Management Practices,
Soybean Economic Studies, Integrated Pest Management (IPM)

This is the second year of a project that is evaluating the relative contributions to yield of
the various parts of a multi-input management system and comparing the relative
economics of the various systems. The researchers are comparing ten management
options for maximizing return on input investment. One of those options is to base
management decisions on an Integrated Pest Management Program.


Southwest Minnesota soybean tech transfer proposal; Bruce Potter (Southwest
Research & Outreach Center, University of Minnesota); ($40,000). (bpotter@umn.edu)

Key Words: Soybean On-farm Research, Soybean Educational Activities,
Best Management Practices, Integrated Pest Management, Soybean Weed Control,
Weed Control-Herbicide Resistance, Soybean Yield Improvement

This regional level applied research and education project encompasses numerous field
studies in southwest and western Minnesota. It involves the IPM specialists, regional
educators and local extension from this area of the state. This project will be conducted
on farms to detect and manage biotypes of SCN that are overcoming variety resistance
and developing an infra-structure for designing on-farm trails, reporting data, and using
them as training and learning centers. A second part of this project includes establishing
a high yield study to determine the management and input components of yields. A third
part involves field training and field surveys to help determine the level of glyphosate
tolerant weeds in Southwest MN.


Improving the profitability of soybeans in Southern Minnesota; Fritz
Breitenbach, Lisa Behnken, Ryan Miller, Lizabeth Stahl and David Nicolai (Rochester
Regional Extension Center, University of Minnesota); ($40,000). (breit004@umn.edu)



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Key Words: Soybean On-farm Research, Soybean Educational Activities,
Best Management Practices, Integrated Pest Management, Soybean Weed Control,
Weed Control-Herbicide Resistance, Soybean Yield Improvement

This regional level applied research and education project encompasses many field
studies across southeast and southern Minnesota. It involves the IPM specialists,
regional educators and local extension from throughout this area of the state. The
studies include specialized variety trials, weed management trials, planting date trials,
seeding rate trials, fertilizer trials and tillage trials. The trials are coordinated with state
specialists in order to maximize the value of the information to soybean farmers.


Northwest Minnesota soybean tech transfer proposal; Charla Hollingsworth,
Doug Holen, Phil Glogoza, Jeff Stachler, Doug Holen, Howard Person, Randy Nelson,
Russ Severson, Ray Bisek, Jim Stordahl, Senyu Chen, Jodi DeJong,-Hughes, Seth
Naeve, Mike Christoffers and Robert Koch (Department of Plant Pathology and the
Northwest Research and Outreach Center, University of Minnesota); ($40,000).
(holli030@umn.edu)

Key Words: Soybean On-farm Research, Soybean Educational Activities,
Tillage Systems, Best Management Practices, Integrated Pest Management,
Weed Control, Weed Control-Herbicide Resistance, SCN-Surveys

This regional level applied research and education project encompasses numerous field
studies in northwest and western Minnesota. It involves the IPM specialists, regional
educators and local extension from throughout this area of the state. The field studies
include: 1) Evaluating the effect and interaction of planting date and maturity on soybean
yields; 2) Evaluating the effect of planting date, inoculation, seed treatments, etc. in the
northern growing regions; 3) Field training and field surveys to help determine the level
of glyphosate tolerant weeds; 4) Determining the economic and environmental impact of
ground rolling on soybean yields; and 5) Field surveys to determine the spread of SCN
into northern soybean production areas.


North Central Soybean Research Program; ($300,000).



Mississippi Soybean Promotion Board
Enhancement of Mississippi soybean trials through entry standardization;
Bernie White (Mississippi Research Support Unit, MAFES, Mississippi State University);
($36,000). (bwhite@ra.msstate.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Variety Testing

The ultimate goal of this research is to provide Mississippi soybean growers with
accurate information on the yield potential of soybean varieties. In 2008, 249 soybean
varieties were tested at seven locations; three of the tests were irrigated and four non-


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irrigated. Ninety-three percent of the varieties tested were Roundup Ready and the
remaining 7% were conventional varieties.


Viruses of soybean in Mississippi: A case study; Sead Sababadzovic
(Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, MAFES, Mississippi State University);
($21,414). (ssababadzovic@entomology.msstate.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Viruses, Bean Pod Mottle Virus (BPMV)

This is the third year of a comprehensive study on viruses affecting soybean production
in Mississippi. The project identifies viruses present in Mississippi and evaluates their
relative incidence, survival and spread. The researcher will also study alternative hosts
of the main viral pathogen causing bean pod mottle virus (BPMV). The project’s goal is
to create a better understanding of viruses in Mississippi in hopes the information will
lead to better future control strategies.


Evaluation of private and public soybean varieties and breeding lines for
resistance to stem canker, frogeye leaf spot, purple leaf and pod stain, and
soybean mosaic virus; Gabe Sciumbato (Delta Research and Extension Center,
MAFES, Mississippi State University); ($49,089). (gabe@drec.msstate.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Variety Testing, Genetic Resistance to Diseases

Field studies will be conducted to determine: 1) The disease resistance of commercially
available soybean varieties and advanced breeding lines to stem canker, frogeye leaf
spot, purple leaf and pod stain and charcoal rot; 2) The virulence of stem canker isolates
collected in Mississippi; and 3) The resistance to soybean rust in Mississippi soybean
varieties. Results of these studies will be provided to soybean growers and the seed
industry interested in the disease resistance of commercially available soybean varieties.


Evaluation of critical shattering time of early-maturity soybeans under early
soybean production system; Lingxiao Zhang, Bernie White and Dan Posten (Delta
Research and Extension Center), Trey Koger (Mississippi Research Support Center),
and Alan Blaine (North Mississippi Research and Extension Center, MAFES, Mississippi
State University); ($5,000). (lzhang@drec.msstate.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Production Management, Soybean Growth and Development
Early Season Soybean Production System

The goal of this continuing research project is to understand shattering behavior of
maturity group IV soybean grown in irrigated and non-irrigated fields under Midsouth
climate conditions. They will determine the critical period for shattering for major
maturity group IV varieties under both irrigated and non-irrigated fields in the Mississippi
Delta and to evaluate shattering effects on final yields and their economic impacts.

The specific objectives of this research project are to:


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   •   Investigate the shattering pattern and characteristics of soybean varieties in the
       Mississippi environment;
   •   Identify early varieties that have better shattering resistance; and
   •   Study the effect of planting date and harvest time on seed shattering and yield
       loss.


Impact of starter fertilizers on growth and yield of March-, April- and May-
planted soybean; Steve Martin, Brewer Blessitt, Trey Koger, Wayne Ebelhar and Tom
Eubank (Delta Research and Extension Center) and Normie Beuhring (North Mississippi
Research and Extension Center, MAFES, Mississippi State University); ($43,875).
(smartin@ext.msstate.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Fertility, Soybean Growth and Development,
Soybean Inoculants Studies, Soybean Research Needs Survey

The original objective of this continuing project was to determine the impact of starter
fertilizers on growth and yield of soybeans planted at various dates. Progress has been
made and a detailed progress report was submitted to the checkoff board. This year’s
project will concentrate on the following objectives:
     • Determining the impact of new-to-the-market inoculant products and associated
         growth-enhancing compounds for soybean growth and development;
     • Determining the most beneficial inoculate product pertaining to specific areas
         with nodulation problems;
     • Determining the impact of seed treatments on the efficacy of inoculant products
         and associated growth-enhancing products;
     • Developing more accurate nodulation thresholds for modern yield potentials for
         various stages of soybean development; and
     • Surveying Mississippi soybean growers for the most frequent limiting production
         factor.


Economics of soybean maturity groups’ yield response to insecticides
seed treatments with early planting dates; Normie Buehring and Don Cook
(North Mississippi Research and Extension Center), Steve Martin, Jeff Gore (Delta
Research and Extension Center) and Angus Catchot (Extension Service), Mississippi
State University); ($35,954). (buehring@ra.msstate.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Insect Management, Soybean Fungicide Studies, Stink Bugs

Very limited information is available regarding soybean maturity groups response to
insecticide-seed treatments and planting dates. The objective of this project is to
evaluate the response of selected varieties from selected soybean maturity groups to
insecticide-fungicide seed treatments (Apron, Cruiser plus Apron) with three, four-week
planning intervals from mid-March to mid-May at three locations. The studies will be
scouted and rated for early season bean leaf beetle and thrips damage and scouted and
sprayed for Asian soybean rust and stinkbugs during the growing seed. Maturity dates,
green stem ratings at maturity, plant height at maturity and yield will be recorded.
Returns above seed treatment costs will be determined.


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The researchers anticipate that the insecticide-fungicide treatment combination will
produce higher yields and net returns above seed treatment costs than the fungicide
treatment alone with early plantings and no difference in the later plantings. They also
expect yield differences among soybean maturity groups, planting dates and locations.
The research results have the potential to improve soybean profitability through the
appropriate use of maturity group variety seed-treatment and planting date selection.

Impact of insect pests on soybean yields at different growth stages; Jeffrey
Gore and Don Cook (Delta Research and Extension Center), Fred Musser (Department
of Entomology and Plant Pathology), Gordon Andrews and Angus Catchot (MSU
Extension Service, Mississippi State University); ($65,000). (jgore@drec.msstate.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Insect Management, Three-cornered Alfalfa Hopper

Soybean production in Mississippi has made significant increases over the last several
years. The most significant change has been the shift from late-planted maturity group
V soybeans to early-planted maturity group IV soybeans. In conjunction with this shift,
there has been a significant increase in soybean yields over the past ten years.
However, soybeans have become a high-value crop in Mississippi, and losses
associated with insects may pose an unneeded threat to yield and profits. Many of the
soybean insect management options and thresholds were developed over 20 years ago
on late planted, maturity group V soybean varieties. Little data exists over the last 10-20
years on the impact of insects on group IV soybeans. These experiments will identify
insects that cause yield reductions in maturity group IV soybean and treatment timing to
control these insect pests.

Specifically, the researchers will:
   • Identify the insect species, their densities, timing and when they cause yield
        losses in soybeans;
   • Identify when soybeans are most vulnerable to damage from three-cornered
        alfalfa hoppers;
   • Compare and contrast the economic threshold and insect day approaches as
        ways to estimate when insecticides are needed to avoid economic losses from
        three-cornered alfalfa hopper; and
   • Evaluate the efficacy of insecticides against various insect pests.


Soybean rust monitoring; Tom Allen and Trey Kroger (Delta Research and
Extension Center, MAFES, Mississippi State University); ($70.000).
(tallen@drec.msstate.edu)

Key Words; Asian Soybean Rust (ASR), ASR-Sentinel Plots

Even though yield losses due to soybean rust have not occurred in Mississippi, soybean
rust remains a constant threat to profitable soybean production. Over the past four
seasons the soybean rust sentinel plot monitoring network has saved soybean
producers in Mississippi potentially millions of dollars by providing information and
advocating no chemical action after rust has been reported in the region. This system
has successfully created an information network to warn producers to the impending
threat of soybean rust. This project will continue the monitoring of soybean sentinel

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plots, kudzu and commercial soybean fields for the presence of soybean rust through
the growing season.


Soybean management for application of research and technology program:
Collaborative initiative through Mississippi State University and private
consulting sector; Trey Koger, Tom Allen, Brewer Blessitt and Tom Eubank (Delta
Research and Extension Center, MAFES, Mississippi State University); ($121,280).
(tkoger@drec.msstate.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Production Management, Soybean On-farm Research,
Soybean Educational Activities

Soybean yields over the past twenty years have increased across Mississippi due to a
multitude of factors including higher yielding varieties, earlier maturity varieties, earlier
planting, improved pest management tools, improved irrigation practices, better
management and the soybean management for application of research and technology
(SMART) program. The SMART program services are an excellent resource to
demonstrate new and innovative production programs and inputs that improves soybean
yield and profitability.

The overall objective of this continuing project is to further improve Mississippi soybean
productivity and profitability by operating the SMART program through a collaborative
effort between private consulting and public extension personnel.



Seeking the cause of bud proliferation syndrome in Mississippi; Sead
Sabanadzovic (Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, MAFES, Mississippi
State University); ($16,500). (ssababadzovic@entomology.msstate.edu)

Key Words: Bud Blight/Bud Proliferation

The project is being initialed to identify and characterize the cause of a new emerging
disease of soybeans recently observed in Mississippi and Arkansas. “Bud blight/bud
proliferation” is being observed and the research community has no information on its
cause or control. This project is a multi-disciplinary approach, combining filed scouting
and laboratory analyses to assess if the causal agent might be a virus or phytoplasma.
They will also collect insects from affected fields to try to understand the epidemiology of
the disease. The project’s goal is to develop a better understanding of the disease so
that control strategies can be proposed.


Control, characterization and identification of potential novel resistance of
the late-season soybean disease Cercospora leaf blight and frogeye leaf
spot; Steve Martin, Brewer Blessitt, Trey Kroger, Tom Eubank, Gabe Sciumbato and
Tom Allen (Delta Research and Extension Center, MAFES, Mississippi State University);
($53,475). (smartin@ext.msstate.edu)

Key Words: Cercospora Leaf Spot, Frogeye Leaf Spot, Fungal pathogens


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Four studies will be established to assess the efficacy of fungicides on the control of late
season foliar diseases in soybeans. Two major diseases and their pathogens will be
targeted namely late season cercospora (Cercospora kikuchii) and frogeye leaf spot
(Cercospora sojina) because these two are the predominant late season foliar
pathogens in Mississippi soybean production.

The specific objectives of the project are to:
   • Evaluate the efficacy of foliar fungicides for control of late season diseases in
      soybean varieties lacking resistance to certain important late season diseases;
   • Survey and collect isolate of late season cercospora pathogens and identify any
      variability between the isolates; and
   • Begin to identify possible resistance to these late season cercospora pathogens.


Management of seed rot and poor seed quality with insecticides and
fungicides combinations in soybean; Gabe Sciumbato, Don Cook, Jeff Gore, Tom
Allen and Trey Koger (Delta Research and Extension Center) and Angus Catchot
(Entomology Department, MAFES, Mississippi State University); ($45,000).
(gabe@drec.msstate.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Seed Quality, Soybean Fungicide Studies, Soybean Insect Control

In recent years, weather has delayed the harvest of MG IV and V soybeans resulting in
poor seed quality and dockage at the elevator. Therefore, an interest in research to
implement management strategies to reduce seed quality losses in the field.

This project will address some of the concerns and targets to:
   • Determine the interaction between fungal pathogens, insects and environmental
       conditions that impact seed quality;
   • Develop specific management strategies to control pod/seed rotting diseases late
       in the season and avert seed quality issues;
   • Determine if foliar fungicides applied to soybean at growth stage R5 and later will
       affect seed quality and appearance;
   • Determine whether foliar insecticides will control pod feeding insects that reduce
       seed quality;
   • Compare the effects of late season applied insecticides and fungicides, alone
       and in combination, on any interaction between insecticides and fungicides, and
   • Determine the economics of chemical treatment on seed quality and soybean
       profits.


Characterization of alternative soybean storage practices and their effects
on post-harvest quality; Jason Ward and Jeremiah Davis (Agricultural and Biological
Engineering Department, MAFES, Mississippi State University); ($30,500).
(jward@ext.msstate.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Storage, Soybean Seed Quality

Soybean production in Mississippi is likely to increase and many soybean producers
may not have no-farm storage capacity required for the increased production. Some

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producers may be interested in alternative soybean storage systems such as
polyethylene grain bags. At present there are no guidelines for using these grain bags.
Therefore, this study will measure the storage conditions within the grain bag and to
assess its effect on grain quality.


Screening soybean varieties evaluation entries for resistance to plant
parasitic nematodes to enhance our soybean production; Gary Lawrence
(Entomology and Plant Pathology Department) and Bernard White (Mississippi
Research Support Unit, MAFES, Mississippi State University); ($17,250).
(glawrrence@entommology.msstate.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Cyst Nematodes SCN, Soybean Root Knot Nematode,
Soybean Reniform Nematode

Plant-parasitic nematodes are the most serious pest to soybean production in the
Southern U.S. In Mississippi, they have three major species, which include soybean
cyst, reniform and root knot nematodes. Although the soybean cyst is specific to
soybean as a host, the reniform and root-knot will feed and reproduce on many
Mississippi crops.

Soybean varieties have been identified with resistance to one or more races of soybean
cyst and reniform nematodes found in Mississippi. With the increased soybean
production in Mississippi there is a need for up-to-date listing of varieties with
resistance/tolerance to these nematodes.

The objectives of this project are to screen new soybean introductions for resistance to
Mississippi nematode populations as they are introduced through the variety evaluation
programs. The research project is designed to provide Mississippi soybean growers with
the latest information on the nematode resistance reactions available to one or more of
these nematodes.


Addressing critical soybean weed control issues in Mississippi; Daniel
Poston, Vijay Nandula, Clifford Koger, Tom Eubank and Brewer Blessitt (Delta Research
and Extension Center, MAFES, Mississippi State University and USDA/ARS); ($77,330).
(dposton@ext.msstate.edu)

Key Words: Weed Control, Herbicide Resistance, Glyphosate Studies

The goal of this project is to identify critical soybean weed control issues and develop
cost effective control strategies to benefit Mississippi soybean producers. Specifically,
the research project involves:
    • Assessing the long-term impact of glyphosate-only weed management systems
        on pigweed populations;
    • Developing cost effective control strategies for glyphosate-tolerant Italian
        ryegrass and horseweed;
    • Comparing the efficacy and economics of fall- and spring-applied winter weed
        management programs;



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   •   Developing control strategies for late-emerging annual grasses in early-maturity
       soybeans; and
   •   Evaluating new products for positioning into soybean weed management
       programs in Mississippi.


Survey of Mississippi Delta for the spread and distribution of glyphosate
resistant and other herbicide resistant weeds; Vijay Nandula and Robin Bond
((Delta Research and Extension Center, MAFES, Mississippi State University);
($33,136). (vnandula@drec.msstate.edu)

Key Words: Weed Control, Herbicide Resistance

The widespread adoption of glyphosate resistant crops has not only caused weed
species shifts in the crops, but it also resulted in evolution of glyphosate resistant weed
biotypes. To date, three weed species are reported to be resistant to glyphosate in
Mississippi (horseweed, Italian ryegrass and Palmer amaranth). University researchers
and industry representatives are reporting poor control of other weed species that could
be related to herbicide resistance. The objective of this project is to establish a
comprehensive database of herbicide-resistant weed species in the Mississippi Delta.


Addressing agronomic and management issues related to soybean
production and soil loam soils; Trey Koger, Tom Allen, Brewer Blessitt and Tom
Eubank (Delta Research and Extension Center, MAFES, Mississippi State University
and USDA/ARS); ($23,000). (tkoger@drec.msstate.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Production Management, Best Management Practices
Soybean Inoculate Studies, Soybean Fertility Studies

The goal of this project is to address important issues related to soybean production on
clay soils in Mississippi. Specifically, they will:
    • Identify optimal seed rates for MG IV and V soybeans for twin-row and wide-row
        planting systems on silt loam soils;
    • Determine optimum plant populations and planting dates for MG IV and V
        soybeans to reduce lodging potential on silt loam soils; and
    • Investigate inoculates and fertilizer needs of soybeans grown on fields historically
        planted to cotton.


Development of a rapid genetic field race test for soybean cyst nematode
(SCN) and generation of SCN resistance through gene inactivation; Vincent
Kirk (Department of Biological Sciences), Gary Lawrence and Clarissa Balbalian
(Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology), Trey Koger and Tom Allen (Delta
Research and Extension Center, MAFES, Mississippi State University and USDA/ARS);
($54,850). (vklink@biology.msstate.edu)

Key Words: SCN-Gene Sequencing, SCN-Genetic Resistance, Soybean Technologies



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Soybean cyst nematodes (SCN) are a major agricultural problem that is costing
Mississippi soybean growers millions of dollars each year. The goal of this project is to
use new technologies (massively parallel signature sequencing (MPSS) to identify
molecular markers in races of SCN. This new technology should provide DNA sequence
information that allows for comprehensive analysis of gene activity in SCN. The
project’s goal is to develop strategies that can be used to expand the resistance in
soybean to all races of SCN.


Mississippi soybean basics: Changes, impacts and implications; John
Michael Riley, John Anderson and Ardian Harri (Department of Agricultural Economics,
Mississippi State University); ($18,720). (info@agecon.msstate.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Marketing Studies

The primary objective of this research project is to determine the factors impacting
Mississippi soybean basis and to develop tools for mitigating the growing basis risk.
This funding will allow for the compilation of local cash price information for the analysis.
The results of the research will be made available to Extension personnel and
Mississippi soybean producers. Understanding the basis is key in making risk
management and marketing decisions.


Internet access to soybean information in Mississippi; Bob Ratliff (Office of
Agricultural Communications, Mississippi State University); ($2,000).
(bobr@ext.msstate.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Educational Activities, Soybean Websites

The funding will be used to host, maintain, update and continue to improve the Website
that provides timely, convenient Internet access to information resources of importance
to the soybean industry in Mississippi. The “Soybeans in Mississippi” Website provides
a one-stop source of information on soybean production and information on the
Mississippi Soybean Promotion Board.



Missouri Soybean Merchandising Council
Delta Center soybean breeding projects; Grover Shannon (Division of Plant
Sciences, University of Missouri); ($305,827). (ShannonG@missouri.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Breeding, Soybean Breeding-Disease Resistance

The objective of this research is to develop new soybean varieties for Mid-South
environments. The specific objectives are breeding for higher yields, disease and
nematode resistance and quality traits.




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Development and deployment of biotechnology for soybean improvement;
Henry Nguyen (Division of Plant Sciences, Mexico Research Center, University of
Missouri); ($300,000). (nguyenhenry@missouri.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Technologies, Soybean Bioengineering, Soybean Transformation

This project takes a holistic biotech approach to identify enabling technology traits,
transformation tools and ultimately varieties that contain value-added biotech traits.


Screening and characterizing soybean germplasm for drought tolerance;
Henry Nguyen, Bob Sharp, Grover Shannon and David Sleper (Division of Plant
Sciences, University of Missouri); ($64,005). (nguyenhenry@missouri.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Drought Tolerance, Soybean Germplasm Screening

The goal of the research is to develop soybean lines that will perform better when soil
moisture levels are less than optimal. The project’s specific objective is to identify
soybean germplasm with drought tolerance characteristics.


Using microgenomics to identify new sources of soybean cyst nematode
resistance in soybeans; Melissa Mitchum, Henry Nguyen, David Sleper and Grover
Shannon (Division of Plant Sciences, University of Missouri); ($73,000).
(goellmeron@mssouri.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Cyst Nematode (SCN), Genetic Resistance to Nematodes

This project will study a new biotech approach to soybean nematode resistance.


Translational genomics for drought tolerance in soybean; Henry Nguyen
(Division of Plant Sciences, University of Missouri); ($55,957).
(nguyenhenry@missouri.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Drought Tolerance, Soybean Bioengineering

The goal is to develop elite soybean lines with candidate genes from the model plant
Arabidopsis that will protect and maintain the function and structure of cellular
components using genetic engineering tools.


Development of a high throughput Agrobacterium-mediated transformation
system for soybean (Glycine max); Zhanyuan Zhang and Henry Nguyen (Division
of Plant Sciences, University of Missouri); ($0, time extension). (zhangzh@missouri.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Transformation, Soybean Technologies

The objective of this research is to design and conduct transformation experiments to
provide stronger evidence and more solid data to support a full patent application; and to

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fully evaluate the scope and utility of this new invention for research groups to use as a
transformation vehicle.


Identification of soybean proteins which are allergenic to young pigs; Monty
Kerley and Hari Krishnan (Department of Animal Science, University of Missouri); ($0;
time extension). (KerleyM@missouri.edu)

Key words: Soybean Allergens

The goal of this research is to eliminate soy proteins that cause allergic reactions in the
gut of young pigs.


Construction of fungal resistant soybean; Gary Stacey, Jinrong Wan, Kristin
Bilyeu, Jim English, and Jim Schoelz (Division of Plant Sciences, University of Missouri);
($0; time extension). (staceyg@missouri.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Disease Resistance, Asian Soybean Rust (ASR)

The objective of this research is to develop germplasm resistant to soybean rust.


Development and evaluation of soy protein and epoxidized soy oil ester
derived versatile plastics; Shubhen Kapila, Virgil Flanigan, K. Chandrashekhara,
and Paul Nam (Missouri University of Science & Technology); ($0; time extension).
(kapilas@umr.edu)

Key Words: Industrial Uses, Soy-based Plastics, Epoxidized Soybean Oil, Soy Proteins

The objectives are the development and evaluation of a new class of soy
proteins/plastics.


Genetic engineering to enhance oil traits in soybean; Henry Nguyen, Rajesh
Kumar, David Sleper and Ed Cahoon (Division of Plant Sciences, University of Missouri
and Donald Danforth Plant Science Center); ($71,875). (nguyenhenry@missouri.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Composition-Modifying Oil; Genetically Engineered Soybean

The overall goal is to develop elite soybean lines through genetic modulation of
candidate genes from plant and/or microbial sources. Efforts will be made toward
increasing the oil content in soybean seeds and directed at altering the oil quality in
soybean by targeting novel genes.


Transcriptional profiling of soybean transcription factors; Gary Stacey, Henry
Nguyen and Dong Xu (Division of Plant Sciences, University of Missouri); ($70,876).
(staceyg@missouri.edu)


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Key Words: Soybean Technologies, Soybean Transcription Factors

The research goals are to develop gene-specific primers for all identified soybean
transcription factors and utilize these to develop a high-throughput system for sensitive
transcriptional profiling of soybean transcription factors. And, utilize the transcription
factor resource to profile gene expression in various soybean tissues and in response to
drought and soybean rust attack.


Optimum level of soybean meal in sow lactation diets; Gary Allee (Animal
Science Department, University of Missouri); ($0; time extension).
(AlleeG@missouri.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Meal Use-Swine

The goals of this project are to determine the optimum levels of soybean meal in diets
for parity one and parity two high-producing sows during lactation in a commercial
environment. It is essential that we are able to follow subsequent performance and
evaluate the influence of treatments during lactation not only on litter size, but also
longevity in the breeding herd.


Genetic modification of sterol composition in soybean seeds: Henry Nguyen
(Division of Plant Sciences, University of Missouri); ($61,012).
(nguyenhenry@missouri.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Composition, Molecular Engineering, Soy Phytosterols

The overall goal is to develop elite soybean lines with improved nutritional quality and
elevated phytosterol content by isolating and manipulating key components of
phytosterol biosynthetic pathway in soybean.


Defense peptides to protect soybean from rust; Jim English, Gary Stacey and F.
Schmidt; (Division of Plant Sciences, University of Missouri); ($0; time extension).
(staceyg@missouri.edu)

Key Words: Asian Soybean Rust, Soybean Bioengineering

This research is a biotech approach to preventing rust infestation on soybean.


Does genistein, a soy phytoestrogen, prevent prostate cancer by regulation
of the hedgehog-signaling pathway? Dennis Lubahn (Division of Plant Sciences,
University of Missouri). ($0; time extension); (lubahnd@missouri.edu)

Key Words: Soy Human Health Studies, Soy Phytoestrogens, Soybean Bioengineering




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The overall goal is to explore the protective effect of the soy phytoestrogen genistein and
to examine the molecular mechanisms involved in this protection with emphasis on
estrogen- and Hedgehog-signaling pathways.


Carbon isotope discrimination analysis as a tool for researchers to improve
soybean drought tolerance; Felix Fritschi, Bill Wiebold, Grover Shannon and David
Sleper (Division of Plant Sciences, University of Missouri); ($0; time extension).
(fritschif@missouri.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Drought Stress, Soybean Drought Tolerance


This project is intended to establish the utility of carbon isotope discrimination (CID)
analysis for soybean and to develop an optimized screening procedure. The benefit of
this project will materialize when the procedure(s) developed are applied to select and
breed soybean germplasm with greater drought tolerance.


Developing a web server for soybean translational genomics; Dong Xu,
Jianlin Cheng, Henry Nguyen, Gary Stacey (Division of Plant Sciences, University of
Missouri); ($0; time extension). (xudong@missouri.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Translational Genomics, Soybean Genomics, Soybean Websites

The goal of this project is to create a central knowledge database and develop a user-
friendly web server with rich information and strong capacity, as a one-stop shop for
soybean transgenic developments.


Enhancing the nutritional value of soybean seed meal to meet the amino
acid requirements of livestock; Monty Kerley and Hari Krishnan (Animal Science
Department, University of Missouri); ($0; time extension). (mkerley@missouri.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Meal Use

The overall goal of this research is to improve the density of amino acids in soybean
protein that are nutritionally relevant and limited in availability commercially.


Molecular-genetic regulation of seed oil accumulation in soybean; Henry
Nguyen, Rajesh Kumar and Grover Shannon (Division of Plant Sciences; University of
Missouri); ($74,880). (nguyenhenry@missouri.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Composition-Modifying Oil, Soybean Bioengineering

Increasing the seed oil content in agronomic lines will not only make crop more
competitive globally, but will also expand its application toward biodiesel production or
other industrial applications. Soybeans with increased oil content will be more
competitive and would ensure for better economic gains for farmers.

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High throughput cloning and functional characterization of molecular
switches for stress tolerance and enhanced seed composition in soybean;
Henry Nguyen, Babu Valliyodan, Son Tran and Gary Stacey (Division of Plant Sciences,
University of Missouri); ($75,825). (nguyenhenry@missouri.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Drought Tolerance, Soybean Composition, Molecular Engineering

The production of drought tolerant soybean will result in better yield and quality. For
market competition, Missouri farmers need to have soybean cultivars with improved
drought tolerance and yield stability. With the focus of developing soybean plants with
enhanced stress tolerance and seed composition, the overall goal is to generate and
characterize the number of abiotic stress-related and seed development-related
transcription factor conducts.


Does soy lunasin prevent prostate cancer by regulation of the hedgehog-
signaling pathway? Dennis Lubahn (Division of Plant Sciences, University of
Missouri); ($0; time extension) (lubahnd@missouri.edu)

Key Words: Soy Biochemical Pathways, Soy Phytoestrogens,
Soy Human Health Studies

The focus is to investigate the most widely used botanical products, which have
phytoestrogenic activities, for their role in prostate cancer prevention via regulation of the
Hedgehog-signaling pathway both in vivo and in vitro. The overall goal is to explore the
protective effect of soy lunasin and to examine the molecular mechanisms involved in
this protection with emphasis on the Hedgehog-signaling pathways.


Cholesterol-lowering property of a naturally-occurring peptide derived from
soy: Ryan Schmidt and Alfredo Galvez (SoyLabs); ($176,000).
(ryan.schmidt@soylabs.com)

Key Words: Soy Human Health Studies

The goal is to identify new uses for soybeans and to commercialize those new
discoveries, generating additional demand.


Missouri soybean research & economic impact study of direct impacts of
the Missouri soybean industry; Joe Parcell (Value Ag, LLC); ($35,000).
(joe@valueag.com)

Key Words: Soybean Economic Studies, Soybean Checkoff Impact

The purposes is to establish the impact of the soybean industry on Missouri’s economy
coupled with the impact of soybean checkoff-funded research on producers’ profitability
and value to industry and consumers. Quantifying these impacts highlights the
importance of soybean production to Missouri’s economy and identifying where checkoff
dollars have earned producers the highest return on investments.

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The production of the nutraceutical carotenoid zeaxanthin in transgenic
seeds; Monica Schmidt (Danforth Center, St. Louis, MO); ($100,000).
(MSchmidt@danforthcenter.org)

Key Words: Soy Nutraceutials

The aim is to produce enhanced soybean seed as a means to include these value-
added traits into soybeans targeted to a specialty market for the aging health conscious
population in developed countries. Identity preservation is always necessary for
specialty use crops. This project, if successful, will yield soybeans that are visually
distinguishable from the normal beige soybean color.


Generating isoflavone-null lines for commercialization and developing
sweet soybean; Oliver Yu (Danforth Center, St. Louis, MO.); ($40,000).
(oyu@daanfortcenter.com)

Key Words: Soy Isoflavones, Soy Phytoestrogens

The goal is to build synergies among researches in the isoflavone area, to capitalize on
previous farmers’ investments, and to bring high and ultra low soybean one step closer
to commercialization. The demand for healthy and natural food products is increasing.


Microbial digestion of soybean hulls; Monty Kerley (Animal Science Department,
University of Missouri); ($40,000). (mkerley@missouri.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Hulls, Soybean Processing

The goal is to increase the feed value of soybean to animals which aligns with the Better
Bean Initiative, and coordination and support of animal agriculture. The research should
allow for the identification of technology that would improve the fermentability of oilseed
and processed grain fibers.


Identification of genes for resistance to multi-soybean nematode species;
Henry Nguyen (Division of Plant Sciences, University of Missouri); ($70,128).
(nguyenhenry@missouri.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Cyst Nematode (SCN), SCN-Genetic Resistance,
SCN-HG Populations

The objective is to identify and map quantitative trait loci (QTL) or genes conveying
resistance to diseases and to determine whether the resistance to these nematode
species is controlled by the same QTL(s) or gene(s).

Is the soy allergen effect on pigs a myth? Monty Kerley (Animal Science
Department, University of Missouri); ($36,000). (mkerley@missouri.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Allergens, Soybean Meal-Swine

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The goal of this research is to generate soybean meal that does not reduce performance
of the young pig. The objectives are to determine the feed value of low oligosaccharide
soybean meal and then assess various commercial enzymes for their ability to hydrolyze
the oligosaccharides present in soybean meal.


North Central Soybean Research Program; ($30,000).



Nebraska Soybean Board
Soybean breeding and genetics research for Nebraska; George Graef and
James Specht (Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, University of Nebraska);
($203,596). (ggraef1@unl.edu)

Key words: Soybean Breeding, Soybean Breeding-Disease Resistance,
Soybean Breeding-Soy Foods

The goal of the project is to develop high-yielding soybean varieties for Nebraska
farmers. The research project will develop and evaluate germplasm and cultivars that
are resistant to iron deficiency chlorosis, soybean mosaic virus, bean pod mottle virus,
Phytophthora root rot, Sclerotinia stem rot and soybean cyst nematode. Research will
also be conducted to produce germplasm and cultivars with improved compositional
quality and for use in specialty food markets such as tofu, natto, edamame, sprouts and
soynuts


Winter nursery support for soybean breeding and genetic research; George
Graef and James Specht (Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, University of
Nebraska); ($71,500). (graef1@unl.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Winter Nursery, Soybean Breeding

The funding will allow the soybean breeders to speed the development of soybean
variety development. The winter nursery will be used for advancing generations by
single seed descent and for small-scale seed increases of specific lines that will hasten
the development of breeding lines for commercial production.


Enhancing soybean germplasm through biotechnology; George Graef and
Tom Clemente (Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, University of Nebraska);
($71,860). (clemente1@unl.edu)

Key Words: Genetically Engineered Soybean, Soybean Bioengineering
The goal of this research project is to use new biotechnology methods to improve
soybean germplasm. The research group is using gene transfer technology for
introducing novel genes and output traits that will complement the University of
Nebraska’s soybean breeding program. A wide variety of unique gene transfer
techniques and novel traits are being investigated.

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Improving Nebraska’s soybean seed protein and oil content; James Specht
(Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, University of Nebraska); ($46,950).
(specht1@unl.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Composition-Improving Protein, Soybean Genetic Map
Soybean Composition-Modifying Oil,

The objective of the project is to locate the genomic map positions of all genes (QTLs)
that influence soybean seed protein and oil content found in 50 highest protein and 50
highest oil accessions of the soybean germplasm banks, using a new genotyping
procedure that was developed by Dr. Specht and his national soybean research
colleagues. The information will be used to identify the best flanking makers that will
allow soybean breeders to incorporate the best genes for enhancing protein content
and/or oil content (with minimal side effects) into high-yielding soybean varieties that are
adapted to Nebraska.


Nitrogen application to irrigated soybeans at planting and during early
reproductive growth; Charles Wortmann (Department of Agronomy and Horticulture,
University of Nebraska); ($18,700). (cwortmann2@unl.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Production Management, Soil Fertility Studies, Nitrogen (N)

The project will:
   • Determine for irrigated soybean in eastern & south central Nebraska the
       probability of response to soil application of N at R3 for high yield irrigated
       soybean;
   • Determine the probability of response to starter N application, under no-till high
       residue conditions;
   • Determine the conditions where response is most likely to occur; and
   • Develop a practical framework for N management in irrigated soybeans in
       Nebraska.


Developing an IPM program for stink bug in Nebraska soybeans; Thomas
Hunt (NEREC, University of Nebraska); ($21,541). (thunt2@uln.edu)

Key Words: Stink Bugs, Integrated Pest Management

The objectives of this study are to:
   • Determine the phenological relationships between the stink bug species and
       soybean from south to north in Nebraska and assess the risk of stink bug
       damage to soybeans;
   • Develop a stink bug monitoring system that helps farmers/consultants determine
       when to scout;
   • Initiate Nebraska specific research on the effects of stink bugs on soybeans; and
   • Determine the efficacy of established and new insecticides on stick bug.
 
 

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Nebraska Research Consortium for Water and Energy in Agriculture;
Kenneth Cassman (Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, University of Nebraska);
($75,000); (kcassman@unl.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Educational Activities, Water Management

The purpose of this project is to develop a research consortium that will include
Nebraska commodity organizations, UNL, NPPD, and other public and private-sector
groups that share a vision for ensuring rural economic development with the reality of
limited water and energy supplies for irrigation, biofuel plants, and livestock operations.
The two objectives are to increase agricultural income per unit of water used for crop,
biofuel, or livestock production, and to decrease peak-load irrigation associated with
energy demand.
 
 
Influence of irrigation and crop rotation sequence on SCN populations;
Loren Giesler (Department of Plant Pathology, University of Nebraska); ($32,851).
(lgiesler@unl.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Production Management, SCN-Management

Determine the effects of crop rotation patterns on soybean cyst nematode populations in
Nebraska. Determine the effect that irrigation has on SCN population dynamics within
the studied rotations


Profitability-oriented site-specific liming for soybean production; Viachestlav
Adamchuk (Biological Systems Engineering, University of Nebraska); ($37,260).
(Vadamchuk2@unl.edu)

Key Words: Soil Fertility Studies, Variable Rate Application
Develop an inexpensive screening procedure to identify fields suitable for variable rate
liming. Quantify agronomic and economic advantages of variable rate liming in Nebraska
growing conditions. Share our findings with producers, consultants and service
providers who regularly treat soil acidity in agricultural fields, and equipment
manufactures.


Incorporating farm programs and risk management strategies for profitable
soybean production; Bradley Lubben (Department of Agricultural Economics,
University of Nebraska); ($51,650). (blubben2@unl.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Production Management

Develop a farm-level database of Nebraska farms to produce real-time farm income
projections and evaluations of risk management strategies under policy, production, and
market price variability. Evaluate the impact of farm program changes in the new farm
bill on farm-level risk management decisions.



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Evaluation of plant growth enhancement products for their effects on
soybean yields and quality; Michael Rethwishch (University of Nebraska);
($37,520). (mrethwisch2@unl.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Production Management, Soybean Stress; Water Management

Determine efficacy of various products with potential to reduce/negate stress and
resultant economic increase of soybean yields and quality. Compare product efficacy
under irrigated and rain fed conditions. Develop criteria for producers/field scouts to use
in future decisions. Determine if treatments effect root zone nitrogen levels. Document
effects of products on plant pest populations if opportunities arise.


Biotechnological development of soybean germplasm with improved
industrial and multi-use functionalities; Edgar Cahoon (University of Nebraska);
($62,580). (ecahoon2@unl.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Composition-Modifying Oil, Soy-based Lubricants,
Biodiesel Studies,

The projects objectives are to:
   • Enhance the oxidative stability of high oleic and high polyunsaturated fatty acid
       oils from established Nebraska soybean germplasm by introduction of a high
       vitamin E antioxidant trait;
   • Improve the low temperature properties of soybean oil for lubricant and biodiesel
       applications by metabolic engineering for replacement of palmitic acid (16:0) with
       the monounsaturated fatty acid palmitoleic acid (16:1); and
   • Develop soybeans with altered seed coat color for improved segregation and
       identity preservation of industrial and other biotechnology-derived traits.


Evaluation of diverse soybean germplasm for improvement of protein
composition of soybean seeds; Brian Waters (University of Nebraska); ($41,850).
(bwaters2@unl.edu).

Key Words: Soybean Composition, Improving Protein, Marker Assisted Selection

Evaluate a diverse set of soybean germplasm to identify phenotypic differences in S and
Se accumulation, and correlate seed sulfur, selenium, and protein concentrations with
specific molecular markers. This information will then be incorporated into soybean
breeding programs to improve overall compositional quality and value for feed, food, and
industrial uses.


Assessing new pest complexes: The potential for winter annual weeds to
increase soybean cyst nematode populations in Nebraska; Mark Bernards
(University of Nebraska); ($47,220). (mbernards2@unl.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Cyst Nematode, Weed Control


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The project’s objectives are to:
   • Measure the emergence, growth, and survival of key winter annual weed species
       in Nebraska;
   • Measure the effect of four common winter annual weed species on SCN
       population density;
   • Measure the effect of henbit density and removal time on SNC density; and
Determine if SCN can complete its lifecycle after a winter annual weed has been treated
with an herbicide.


North Central Soybean Research Program; ($400,000).



North Carolina Soybean Producers Association
Continuation of off-season winter nursery for soybean breeding in North
Carolina; David Smith (Crop Science Department, North Carolina State University);
($13,500). (wdavid_smith@ncsu.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Breeding

The objective of this research is to take breeding materials through one or two
generations of inbreeding in the winter nursery. This project will speed the development
of soybean lines with drought tolerance, higher protein, improved oil quality and soyfood
quality traits.


Soybean cultivars and germplasm adapted to North Carolina growing
conditions; Andrea J. Cardinal (Crop Science Department, North Carolina State
University); ($44,985). (Andrea_Cardinal@ncsu.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Breeding, Soybean Variety Testing, SCN-Genetic Resistance

The objectives of this project are to:
   • Test the agronomic performance and yield potential of new conventional and
       Roundup Ready lines;
   • Develop both conventional and Roundup Ready high-yielding soybean varieties
       adapted to North Carolina environments; and
   • Create soybean populations that combine high yield potential and resistance to
       soybean cyst nematode populations.

Soybean cultivars resistant to soybean cyst nematode races 2 and 4;
Andrea J. Cardinal (Crop Science Department, North Carolina State University);
($10,625). (Andrea_Cardinal@ncsu.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Variety Testing, SCN-Genetic Resistance



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The research will screen soybean varieties for resistance to soybean cyst nematode
populations.


Evaluating blends of soybean cyst nematode (SCN) resistant and
susceptible varieties for management of SCN; Steve Koenning (Crop Science
Department, North Carolina State University); ($10,398). (srkpp@unity.ncsu.edu)

Key Words: SCN-Management

This project involved evaluating blends of soybean cyst nematode resistant and
susceptible varieties for managing soybean cyst nematode populations. The potential of
this management strategy will be fully examined.


Populations of Roundup Ready soybeans; James Dunphy and R.W. Heiniger
(Crop Science Department, North Carolina State University); ($8,400).
(jim_dunphu@ncsu.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Production Management, Weed Control,
Soybean Educational Activities

The objectives of this project are to:
   • Determine whether the yield-population in Roundup Ready soybean is the same
       for 30-inch rows as it is in 15-inch rows and is the same for indeterminate
       maturity group IV soybeans as determinate soybeans;
   • Train county Extension personnel about soybean growth; and
   • Provide county Extension personnel with aids for teaching producers and
       agribusiness about soybean production.


Soybean variety demonstrations; James Dunphy (Crop Science Department,
North Carolina State University); ($6,000). (jim_dunphu@ncsu.edu)

Key Words: Weed Control, Soybean Educational Activities

The objective of this project is to provide side-by-side comparisons under local
conditions of promising new and widely grown soybean varieties; and to train county
Extension personnel to use results of soybean variety studies.


Management and surveillance of Asiatic soybean rust in North Carolina;
Steve Koenning and James Dunphy (Crop Science Department, North Carolina State
University); ($23,250). (srkpp@unity.ncsu.edu)
Key Words: Asian Soybean Rust (ASR), Soybean Fungicide Studies

The objectives of this project are to evaluate fungicides for management of Asiatic
soybean rust and their effects on soybean yield; and to monitor the development and
potential arrival of soybean rust in North Carolina soybean production environments.


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Selecting high oil soybean varieties; Andrea Cardinal and Joseph Burton (Crop
Science Department, North Carolina State University); ($3,000).
(Andrea_Cardinal@ncsu.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Variety Testing, Soybean Composition-Modifying Oil

The objectives of this project are to identify soybean lines with oil higher than 19% @
13% moisture and to measure yield ability of high oil soybean lines with the goal of
developing high oil, high yielding varieties.


Potential yield enhancements; James Dunphy (Crop Science Department, North
Carolina State University); ($6,600). (jim_dunphu@ncsu.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Educational Activities, Soybean On-farm Research

The objective of this project is to improve soybean profitability, train county agents, train
producers, and support on-farm test and demonstration projects. This extension project
incorporates findings from replicated on-farm tests of new or unique products that may
increase soybean yields and profits.


On-farm evaluation of resistant varieties for management of soybean cyst
nematode; Steve Koenning (Crop Science Department, North Carolina State
University); ($9,880). (srkpp@unity.ncsu.edu)

Key Words: SCN-Genetic Resistance, Soybean On-farm Research,
Soybean Variety Testing

The project incorporates on-farm research to evaluate newly released or experimental
soybean lines for resistance to soybean cyst nematode and for yield potential in the
presence of SCN.


Evaluation of abamictin as a seed treatment for control of soybean cyst
nematode; Steve Koenning (Crop Science Department, North Carolina State
University); ($15,906). (srkpp@unity.ncsu.edu)

Key Words: SCN-Management, SCN-Nematicides


Abamictin is a seed treatment nematicide for cotton that holds promise for management
of soybean cyst nematode. Syngenta is funding research on Abamictin for soybean but
the information garnered may not be applicable to North Carolina. This research will
evaluate the effectiveness of Abamictin as a seed treatment for controlling SCN in North
Carolina.




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Evaluation of replacement of fish meal with soybean meal in hybrid striped
bass diets; Tom Losordo and M.J. Turano, (North Carolina State University Sea Grant
Program); ($20,044). (tlosordo@unity.ncsu.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Meal-Aquaculture

This preliminary study focuses on the creation of soy-based diets for hybrid striped bass.
If successful in replacing fish meal with soy meal in the diet of hybrid striped bass, the
species could be used as a model for creating diets for other fin fish including salmon.


Drought tolerant varieties; Jim Dunphy (Crop Science Department, North Carolina
State University); ($7,375). (jim_dunphu@ncsu.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Drought Tolerance, Soybean Variety Testing

The project seeks to determine if potential new varieties being developed to tolerate
drought conditions yield higher than other available varieties under drought conditions.


Manganese-Roundup interaction; Jim Dunphy and D.L. Osmond (Crop Science
Department, North Carolina State University); ($9,475). (jim_dunphu@ncsu.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Fertility Studies, Manganese Mn), Glyphosate-Manganese Studies

The project investigates whether Roundup or the Roundup Ready gene interferes with
the uptake of manganese by soybean plants.


Cover crops for management of soybean cyst nematode; Steve Koenning
(Crop Science Department, North Carolina State University); ($10,000).
(srkpp@unity.ncsu.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Production Management, Cover Crops Studies, SCN-Management

The researcher will measure the influence of cover crops on SCN and soybean yield in
fields infested with SCNs and determine the usefulness of cropping systems including
potential biofuel crops for inclusion in soybean production systems.


Optimizing the roll kill / no-till organic soybean production; Chris Reberg-
Horton (Crop Science Department, North Carolina State University); ($14,087).
(chris.reberg-horton@ncsu.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Production Management, Tillage Systems, Weed Control,
Organic Production Systems

Are additional weed control measures such as organically approved herbicides needed
for no-till organic soybeans? The project investigates the use of a cover crop roller to


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plant no-till soybeans into rye mulches, and compare no-till organic to conventionally-
tilled organic soybeans in terms of yield and weed control.


County demonstration projects; James Dunphy (Crop Science Department, North
Carolina State University); ($10,000). (jim_dunphu@ncsu.edu)

Key Words: Soybean On-farm Research, Soybean Educational Activities

County soybean agents receive small grants for county-led soybean extension
demonstration projects.


Using GPS to test foliar products on soybeans; James Dunphy (Crop Science
Department, North Carolina State University); ($4,600). (jim_dunphu@ncsu.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Production Management, Testing Commercial Products,
Pesticide application Studies

The project develops a method to determine whether one or more foliar products
influence soybean yield and profits, and determines how much damage a sprayer does
traveling across standing soybeans.


A fact sheet on using GPS to test foliar products on soybeans; James
Dunphy (Crop Science Department, North Carolina State University); ($1,200).
(jim_dunphu@ncsu.edu)

Key Words: Global Positioning Studies (GPS), Soybean Educational Activities

Provides soybean producers and their advisors with a method to utilize GPS equipment,
and resulting yield maps, to document whether foliar products impact yield.



North Dakota Soybean Council
Value of soybean residue for cattle feed; Vern Anderson and Breanne Ilse (North
Dakota State University Carrington Research Extension Center, Carrington, N.D.);
($10,000). (vern.anderson@ndsu.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Residue Studies

The objective of this project is to determine the nutritional value of soybean resides.
Soybean residues will be collected and analyzed for the following components: crude
protein, crude fiber, acid detergent fiber, fat and mineral content. The relative economic
value of the soybean residue will be determined as roughage for gestating beef cows or
as a soil amendment.




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Continued development of fuels, chemicals and polymers from soybean
oil; Wayne Seames (Chemical Engineering Department, University of North Dakota);
($110,000). (WayneSeames@mail.und.edu)

Key Words: Biodiesel Studies, Soybean Oil-Cracking, Soybean Oil-Industrial Uses,
Soy-based Chemicals

This project will research technologies to improve the efficiency and economic
attractiveness of a number of processes that researchers at the University of North
Dakota are exploring or developing—all of which start with the cracking of soybean oil.
The products being developed include biojet, cold weather biodiesel, aromatic and
cycloparaffinic compounds useful as gasoline additives, jet fuel blend stock, and
commodity chemicals (short-chain fatty acids, esters, and polymers). Additional
research can make commercialization of the University of North Dakota’s biojet fuel
process more economically attractive and generate additional markets for soy-based
products that may of themselves ultimately justify processing facilities.

The specific research objectives include developing research technologies that:
   • Improve the efficiency and economic attractiveness of biojet and cold weather
      biodiesel fuels;
   • Remove and purify valuable aromatic chemical products from cracked soybean
      oil;
   • Improve the removal and purifying of short-chained fatty acids and chemical
      products from cracked soybean oil; and
   • To obtain economically attractive polymers from these intermediates.

The goal of the research is to develop technologies to increase the economic feasibility
of producing fuels, chemicals and polymers from soybean oil.


Capturing value from real-world soybean production practices; Stephen S.
Metzger (Carrington Research Extension Center, Carrington, N.D.); ($9,500).
(S.Metzger@ndsu.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Production Management, Tillage Systems,
Best Management Practices, Soybean Economic Studies

The main goal of this project is to evaluate the relative effectiveness of multiple on-farm
soybean production practices and determine the comparative profitability of these
practices using actual and total farm data from soybean producers in North Dakota.


Smart polymer adjuvant-surfactants to improve herbicide activity in
soybeans; Andriy Voronov and Rich Zollinger (North Dakota State University);
($30,000). (andriy.voronov@ndsu.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Adjuvant-surfactants

This project aims at the development of novel adjuvant-surfactants based on smart
polymeric materials, instead of traditional substances. The major part of the research

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will be directed to the development of the polymeric formulations preventing herbicides
antagonism from micronutrient and simultaneously improving the wetting of plant leaves
by the herbicide composition and, thus, the herbicide uptake by the plant. The
optimization of polymer chemical structures will be followed with screening tests in the
laboratory and greenhouse.


Impact of tillage system and previous crop on soybean production; Ezra
Abele and Blaine Schatz (Carrington Research Extension Center, Carrington, N.D.);
($4,600). (ezra.aberle@ndsu.edu)

Key Words: Tillage Systems, Best Management Practices, Soybean Rotations

The goal of this study is to determine the optimum tillage practice for soybean depending
upon the previous crop and to demonstrate the benefits of rotation on the following crop.
The specific objectives are to:
   • Compare conventional, minimum and no-tillage practices on barley, corn and
       spring wheat residue as previous crops for soybean production;
   • Compare crop production of wheat, corn and canola after soybean production
       within and across tillage systems; and
   • Analyze the net return of soybean production with previous crop and tillage
       practices.


Marker assisted selection compared to phenotypic selection for iron
deficiency chlorosis; Ted Helms (Department of Plant Sciences, North Dakota State
University); ($21,262). (ted.helms@ndsu.edu)

Key Words: Iron Deficiency Chlorosis (IDC), Marker Assisted Selection,
Soybean Breeding

This research project will compare the new molecular markers approach to breeding
cultivars that are tolerant to iron deficiency chlorosis to tradition methods based on field
evaluation for tolerance. Molecular markers and IDC tolerant cultivars have been
identified; this project will evaluate the two methods to determine the best strategy for
developing new varieties that are tolerant to iron deficiency chlorosis.


Breeding of improved general use cultivars and germplasm; Ted Helms
(Department of Plant Sciences, North Dakota State University); ($120,000).
(ted.helms@ndsu.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Breeding-Disease Resistance, Soybean Breeding-Composition

The goal of this research project is to provide soybean farmers in North Dakota cultivars
that are genetically superior to varieties that are currently being grown. The soybean
breeding effort is also producing both cultivars and germplasm lines that private
companies can use in their breeding programs. The breeding targets are high yield,
disease resistance (iron deficiency chlorosis (IDC), soybean mosaic virus (SMV), aphid
resistance, soybean cyst nematode (SCN) resistance, improved protein composition and

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resistance to selected herbicides. Advanced experimental lines are tested at eight to
fourteen different sites in North Dakota.

Two cultivars (RG7008RR (MG 00.8) and Sheyenne (MG 0.7)) were released in 2007
and seed was available for commercial production in 2008. Currently, seed from five
lines are being advanced in Chile, S.A. for testing and possible release.


Protein and oil data analysis of cultivars in the fee testing program; Ted
Helms (Department of Plant Sciences, North Dakota State University); ($4,680).
(ted.helms@ndsu.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Composition, Soybean Variety Testing

This checkoff funding program provides for analyzing soybean varieties in the North
Dakota Soybean Yield Test for protein and oil. Soybean samples will be collected from
seven sites in North Dakota. Approximately 800 soybean samples will be collected and
analyzed.


Breeding of natto and tofu specialty cultivars; Ted Helms (Department of Plant
Sciences, North Dakota State University); ($15,000). (ted.helms@ndsu.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Breeding-Soy Foods, Soybean Educational Activities

The breeding of cultivars with specialty traits are required for the tofu, soy sauce and
natto markets. The objectives of this project are to provide soybean growers with
specialty soybean varieties which are genetically superior to those currently being
grown; and to provide technical support to the soybean growers that are producing
specialty soybean types.


Breeding aphid resistance soybean cultivars; Ted Helms (Department of Plant
Sciences, North Dakota State University); ($15,000). (ted.helms@ndsu.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Breeding, Soybean Aphids, SA-Genetic Resistance

This is a continuing research project that has involved backcrossing the Rag1 and Rag2
genes into early maturity soybean germplasm. The project will also determine whether
these aphid resistant genes are associated with reduced yields or increase lodging
susceptibility.


Screening company cultivars for tolerance to water-saturated soil
conditions; Ted Helms (Department of Plant Sciences, North Dakota State University);
($10,000). (ted.helms@ndsu.edu)
Key words: Soybean Variety Testing, Soybean Production Management,
Water Logged Soils




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Soybean growers need to increase yield in fields with heavy clay and low pH soils. One
of the most important methods of increasing the yield on these problem soils is to
choose cultivars that can recover from stunting, due to water-saturated conditions.
While it is true that excessive moisture does not occur every year, research has shown
that cultivars can be identified that perform under normal rainfall and yield well during a
year of above-precipitation.

The objective of this project is to evaluate approximately 40 private company Roundup
Ready and/or experimental lines for tolerance to water-saturated soil conditions. The
ultimate goal of the project is to increase yields of soybeans planted on high-clay fields
that are susceptible to water-logging conditions. The results will allow soybean growers
to select cultivars that will perform well under both wet and dry environments for low-pH
soils found in North Dakota.


Yield of cultivars tolerant to iron deficiency chlorosis; Ted Helms (Department
of Plant Sciences, North Dakota State University); ($10,000). (ted.helms@ndsu.edu)

Key Words: Iron Deficiency Chlorosis (IDC), Soybean Variety Testing

Iron deficiency chlorosis (IDC) is a common disease of soybean in Northern States.
Most seed companies give a chlorosis rating to their varieties, but companies use
different rating scales that confuse farmers. Some seed companies do not provide side-
by-side comparisons that can be used by farmers to select varieties most appropriate for
their farm. The commercial chlorosis evaluations that are available to farmers are not
satisfactory.

NDSU provides information on the tolerance of private company cultivars to IDC, based
on a visual rating scale of 1-5. The goal of this project is to determine yield of twenty
Roundup Ready cultivars known to be tolerant to IDC based on past ratings.


Yield evaluation of company cultivars for SCN; Ted Helms (Department of Plant
Sciences, North Dakota State University); ($10,000). (ted.helms@ndsu.edu)

Key Words: SCN-Genetic Resistance, Soybean Variety Testing

Planting soybean cyst nematode resistant soybean varieties is one management option
to increase soybean yields in North Dakota. Growers need unbiased information on the
yield of commercial varieties in soybean cyst nematode (SCN) infested fields. This
project involves soliciting soybean seed from private companies for planting in SCN-
infested fields. The anticipated results will allow private companies and soybean
growers to compare the yield of SCN resistant cultivars and breeding lines at three North
Dakota sites that are infested with SCN. This study should help North Dakota soybean
growers better cope with the growing SCN problem.


Development of novel soybean oil-based thiol-urethane coatings; Dean
Webster (Department of Coating and Polymeric Materials, North Dakota State
University); ($58,740). (dean.webster@ndsu.edu)


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Key Words: Soybean Oil-Industrial Uses, Soy-based Coatings

The objective of this project is to develop and optimize thiol-urethane coatings from
soybean oil derivatives using a high-throughput combination approach. New soy-based
thiols will be synthesized directly from soybean oil and then large numbers of soy-based
thiol-urethane coating formulations will be prepared and properties evaluated. The goal
of the project is to provide a new market for soybean oil derivatives in high-value
markets.


Biological control and aphid resistance cultivars; Janet Knodel and Deirdre
Prischmann-Voldseth (Department of Entomology, North Dakota State University);
($38,850). (janet.knodel@ndsu.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Aphid, SA-Biocontrol, SA-Genetic Resistance, SA-Management

The goal of this project is to integrate the use of beneficial insects and aphid-resistance
breeding to reduce the damage by soybean aphid on North Dakota soybean production.
The researchers will examine the compatibility of soybean cultivars containing the Rag1
gene for resistance to the soybean aphid with a biological control agent, the parasitic
wasp Binodoxys communis, using a combination of greenhouse and field studies. Using
biocontrol agents and pest resistant soybean varieties are two strategies that can keep
aphid pest levels below threshold where chemical control is necessary. While both
approaches have been proven to successfully reduce aphid numbers, the compatibility
of biocontrol and plant resistance has not been thoroughly studied.

The objective of this project is to evaluate the compatibility of Rag1-containing cultivars
of soybean and biological control. While both approaches show great promise in
controlling soybean aphids and reducing the need for chemical control. Developing a
successful IPM program to control soybean aphids should reduce insecticide costs while
reducing damage caused by the soybean aphid.


Soybean viruses in North Dakota; Berlin Nelson (Department of Plant Pathology,
North Dakota State University); ($13,620). (berlin.nelson@ndsu.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Viruses

The recent discovery of two viruses of soybeans in North Dakota has indicated that virus
diseases in soybeans may be more widespread than previously indicated. The objective
of this project is to conduct an intensive survey for soybean viruses in North Dakota over
two seasons using several detection methods. The goal of the project is to understand
which soybean viruses could be potential threats to soybean production in the state.


Control of soybean diseases; Berlin Nelson (Department of Plant Pathology, North
Dakota State University); ($50,300). (Berlin.nelson@ndsu.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Diseases, Phytophthora sojae, Soybean Cyst Nematode SCN,
Soybean Breeding


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Soybean diseases reduce soybean yields and profits. The main goals of this research
are to:
    • Incorporate resistance to important diseases into public soybean germplasm and
        cultivars;
    • Determine the changes occurring in the pathogen populations which will impact
        disease control; and
    • Determine if there are new diseases that threaten soybean production in North
        Dakota.

The project provides for screening of breeding lines and cultivars for resistance to SCN
and Phytophthora sojae and other pathogens that threaten the soybean crop and
monitoring soybeans for new pathogens such as rust, sudden death syndrome, viruses
and new virulent strains of established pathogens.


Effect of soil type on soybean cyst nematode; Berlin Nelson (Department of
Plant Pathology, North Dakota State University); ($6,975). (berlin.nelson@ndsu.edu)

Key Words: SCN-Management

The soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines, is the most serious pathogen
of soybean in the United Sates. In August 2003, SCN was discovered for the first time in
North Dakota and now is found in several counties. Numerous fields are infested and
soybean yields are reduced in infested fields. It is assumed that the nematode will
continue to spread throughout soybean production areas in the state and will continue to
have a major impact on soybean yields. The long-term goal of this project is to develop
a comprehensive SCN management plan. Part of the plan is to identify soils where SCN
would be a greater risk for soybean production. Site-specific management would allow
growers an additional tool for the control of SCN.

This research will evaluate SCN reproduction and disease development on soybeans in
ten different soil types from five geographic areas in the eastern half of North Dakota.
Both greenhouse and field tests using microplots will be used to measure the effect of
soil type on SCN reproduction and disease development. Soybean seed yields and
growth parameters will be measured. Reproduction of SCN will be measured as the
number of cysts and eggs. Risk tables will be developed for assessing the risk of SCN
development in various soils.


Determining soybean variety response to tile drainage in the Red River
Valley; Hans Kandel (Department of Plant Science, North Dakota State University);
($7,868). (hans.kandel@ndsu.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Variety Testing, Water Management, Water Logged Soils
The research will investigate the yield response of a range of soybean genotypes to tile
drainage. The project involves growing soybeans in tiled and non-tiled fields and
measuring yield, disease levels and other crop growth characteristics.             Soil
measurements include monitoring the water table, soil properties and temperature
between the tiled and non-tiled fields.



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Improving soy food quality for enhancing health; Sam Chang (Department of
Cereal and Food Sciences, North Dakota State University); ($70,000).
(kow.chang@ndsu.edu)

Key Words: Soymilk Processing, Soy Foods

The long-term goal of this research project is to advance the science and technology
needed for the utilization of soybeans, to improve soy food quality, to enhance the
marketability in the domestic and global market, and to improve consumer health
through the retention of beneficial components and the removal of unwanted
components. Soybean and soy foods contain significant amounts of health-promoting
components, however, they also contain undesirable traits such as beany odor and
trypsin inhibitors. These traits are barriers to greater soy food consumption and use.

Soymilk is used as a beverage and is also an ingredient in making tofu and textured
meat products. Maximizing desirable health-promoting components and the removal of
unwanted materials will improve the utilization of soybeans in food products.

This research project is focused on the processing of soymilk to produce a product with
improved flavor and positive health-promoting characteristics. The specific objective of
this project is to investigate the effect of ultra-high heating processing methods for the
removal of beany flavors and trypsin inhibitor activities. The process can also be used to
retain desirable phytochemicals such as isoflavones and the phenolics that are related to
antioxidant activities, bioavailability and anti-tumor activities in cell culture.

The study involves characterizing raw soymilk, traditional cooked soymilk and ultra-high
heat processed soymilk samples heated to various temperature and time combinations.
The best continuous ultra-high temperature processing procedures for removing the
undesirable flavors and trypsin inhibitors will be identified. They will also identify the
best processing conditions and soybean varieties for producing a soymilk with needed
sensory qualities.


Screening soybean varieties for resistance to iron deficiency chlorosis; T.
Jay Goos (Department of Soil Science, North Dakota State University); ($36,032).
(rj.goos@ndsu.edu)

Key Words: Iron Deficiency Chlorosis IDC, Soybean Variety Testing

Iron deficiency chlorosis (IDC) is a common disease of soybean in Northern States.
Most seed companies give a chlorosis rating to their varieties, but companies use
different rating scales that confuse farmers. Some seed companies do not provide side-
by-side comparisons that can be used by farmers to select varieties most appropriate for
their farm. The commercial chlorosis evaluations that are available to farmers are not
satisfactory.

The objectives of this project are to screen about 250 public and commercial soybean
varieties for resistance to IDC under field conditions; support the NDSU soybean
breeding program; and provide information to soybean growers, seed dealers and
consulting agronomists on IDC scores.


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The experimental design is a randomized complete block design with four replications.
IDC scores, on a 1-5 scale, are taken at the 2-3 trifoliolate stage, 5-6 trifoliolate and
about two weeks after the 5-6 trifoliolate stage. Yield is not recorded for the five foot
rows due to labor costs and high experimental errors. Six standard soybean varieties
with different response to IDC are planted to verify IDC scores. This year ten of the
most resistant varieties from 2007 will be planted to provide a year-to-year comparison
of IDC severity.

The program is in its eighth year, experience gained in selecting the location for sites
and assuring adequate number of sites and replications have proven valuable in creating
unbiased IDC scores that are valued by farmers and the seed industry.


Soybean rust sentinel plots in North Dakota; Sam Markell (Department of Plant
Pathology, North Dakota); ($9,000). (samuel.markell@ndsu.edu)

Key Words: ASR-Sentinel Plots

The objective of this project is to establish nine soybean rust sentinel plots in North
Dakota. The continued monitoring effort will provide a real-time warning system for
North Dakota should soybean rust become a problem. The project will also demonstrate
that rust is not a problem, which will help protect North Dakota soybean growers from
making unnecessary fungicide applications.


Survey of emerging soybean diseases in North Dakota; Sam Markell and Berlin
Nelson (Department of Plant Pathology, North Dakota State University); ($16,284).
(samuel.markell@ndsu.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Disease Survey, Charcoal Rot, Brown Spot, Asian Soybean Rust,
Anthracnose

In recent years, previously unreported economically important soybean diseases have
been identified in North Dakota. The objective of this new project is to conduct an
intensive survey of soybean fields in North Dakota to assess the prevalence and
distribution of these emerging diseases; and create a culture collection of pathogens
causing disease.

The project will concentrate on four soybean diseases (anthracnose, charcoal rot, brown
spot and soybean rust). The results of the survey will aid in developing management
strategies for diseases in North Dakota.


Bacterial blight (Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea) race analysis in
North Dakota; Sam Markell, Berlin Nelson and Rubella Goswami (Department of Plant
Pathology, North Dakota); ($16,850). (samuel.markell@ndsu.edu)

Key Words: Bacterial Blight




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Bacterial blight, has not been considered a major disease in North Dakota, however,
survey data collected in 2008 found the disease in all 131 field surveyed. Bacterial blight
cannot be managed with fungicides, but can be controlled by planting resistant varieties.
Multiple resistance genes are known, but the effectiveness is dependent on the
pathogen race in the pathogen population. This study will identify the Pseudomonas
syringae pv. glycinea races present in North Dakota and make such information
available to the scientific community.


Plant populations and row spacing effects on natto soybean varieties; Hans
Kandel, Greg Endres and Burtin Johnson (Department of Plant Science, North Dakota
State University); ($9,705). (hans.kandel@ndsu.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Variety Testing, Soy Foods

The project will evaluate natto soybean varieties seeded with different plant populations
and row spacings for stand after emergence, diseases, lodging, plant height, yield, seed
protein and oil, seed weight and test weight to establish the maximum net returns for
natto producers. This information will be useful for soybean producers interested in
exporting natto soybeans.


Do intensive management practices increase net return for soybean
producers; D.K. Lee and Han Kandel (North Dakota State University, Carrington
Research Extension Center); ($9,600); (Gregory.endres@ndsu.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Production Management, Water Management, Weed Control,
Plant Health Promoters

This project is directed towards increasing soybean profitability by adopting the best
management practices. While soybean production has increased significantly in North
Dakota, research integrating multiple factors such as water management, variety
selection, planting date, plant population and seed treatments, with soybean yield and
net economic return has not been done. This project is designed to provide information
that will potentially increase the profitability of soybean produced in North Dakota.

The specific objectives include:
   • Comparing irrigation vs. dry plant management, Roundup Ready vs.
      conventional varieties, and early planting vs. late planting for soybean
      production;
   • Determining the appropriate row spacing and plant population for optimum
      soybean yield;
   • Investigating the effects of optimum management practices such as seed
      treatments with fungicide, seed inoculation with inoculate containing plant health
      promoter on soybean yield;
   • Determining the net return of soybean production with each management
      practice based on input costs and market price; and
   • Identifying the best management practice for soybean production for North
      Dakota soybean farmers.


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The researchers will design field research that will generate information on the impact of
water management, variety selection, planting date, plant population, optimum seed
treatments and foliar treatments to develop best management practices to optimize
profitability. The results of this study will be communicated to soybean growers through
grower meetings, field tours, annual reports and the NDSU’s Website


Integrating plant resistance and natural enemies for soybean aphid control;
Deirdre A. Prischmann-Voldseth and Janet Knodel (Department of Entomology, North
Dakota State University); ($26,100). (Deirdre.Prischmann@ndsu.edu)

Key Words: SA-Management, SA-Biocontrol

The goal of this project is to integrate the use of beneficial insects and aphid-resistance
breeding to reduce the damage by soybean aphid on North Dakota soybean production.
The researchers will examine the compatibility of soybean cultivars containing the Rag1
gene for resistance to the soybean aphid with a biological control agent, the parasitic
wasp Binodoxys communis, using a combination of greenhouse and field studies. Using
biocontrol agents and pest resistant soybean varieties are two strategies that can keep
aphid pest levels below threshold where chemical control is necessary.

The objective of this project is to evaluate the compatibility of Rag1-containing cultivars
of soybean and biological control. While both approaches show great promise in
controlling soybean aphids and reducing the need for chemical control. Developing a
successful IPM program to control soybean aphids should reduce insecticide costs while
reducing damage caused by the soybean aphid.


North Central Soybean Research Program; ($100,000).



Ohio Soybean Council
Identifying and characterizing resistance to Ohio's major soybean
pathogens: Part III; Anne Dorrance (Ohio Agricultural Research and Development
Center); ($143,708). (dorrance.1@osu.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Disease Resistance, Marker Assisted Selection,
Soybean Fungicide Studies

This research will ultimately increase yield and soybean quality and support the
development of varieties with bi-based traits that are best adapted to Ohio's challenging
production environment. Specifically, this research will support the development of
soybeans with resistance to key plant pathogens (Phytophthora sojae, Pythium spp.,
SDS, Fusarium graminearum and Cercospora sojina) in the region and identify genes
with molecular markers which may be deemed as specialty traits that can be released as
licensed germplasm. In addition, best management practices for Ohio Soybean
Producers will be identified through identification of plant pathogens, efficacy of



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fungicides, efficacy and mechanisms of different sources of resistance to Ohio's
predominant soybean pathogens.


Combating Ohio's soybean aphid biotypes; Andy Michel (Ohio Agricultural
Research and Development Center); ($60,852). (michel.18@osu.edu)

Key words: Soybean Aphid, SA-Genetic Resistance

The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines, is the most important insect pest of soybeans in
Ohio. While soybean aphid resistant cultivars have been developed, data suggests
different aphid populations, or “biotypes,” can overcome resistant soybean plants.
Successful deployment of aphid resistant genes depends on using them in areas where
the aphid is less likely to overcome resistance. However, observations suggest that
biotypes may arise quickly, necessitating more detailed studies in multi-genic soybean
aphid resistance and how soybean aphid biotypes spread and become established.

The proposed studies will:
   • Broaden the base of Ohio cultivars with soybean aphid resistance;
   • Identify multi-genic (QTL) resistance in soybean against soybean aphids;
   • Evaluate a potential biotype diagnostic assay using detached leaves; and
   • Determine the role of the overwintering host for soybean aphid colonization and
       the spread of biotype resistance.

Results from this proposal will create a wider biotype distribution map, and more durable
soybean aphid resistant lines in the event of additional biotype formation. Integrating
these two results will provide predictive power in determining which aphid-resistant
genes would be most effective in a certain region, given the pre-dominant biotype and
likelihood of aphid migration.


Development of soybean varieties and germplasm; Leah McHale (Ohio
Agricultural Research and Development Center); ($135,650).
(mchale.21@osu.edu)

Key words: Soybean Breeding, Soybean Disease Resistance, Molecular Engineering

With the release of the soybean genome in 2008, a tremendous amount of information
has become available on soybean genes and the adjacent DNAs that regulate those
genes. For the proposed research, 20 genes associated with defense response to
various pathogens will first be selected. The promoter regions of these genes, which are
in front of the genes and control their expression, will be isolated and characterized. As
these defense genes are typically turned on, in response to pathogen exposure/invasion,
regions of DNA within the promoter that are responsible for its regulation, will be
identified and characterized. To perform promoter analysis, we will utilize gene
expression validation tools available in the Finer Laboratory and induction treatments
developed in the Dorrance Laboratory. Isolation and characterization of promoters and
promoter regulatory elements from pathogen responsive genes will enhance knowledge
of the pathogen response mechanism and lead to the development of new tools for
combating pathogen invasion.

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Engineering soybean plants for multi-viral resistance; Feng Qu (Ohio
Agricultural Research and Development Center); ($30,000). (qu.28@osu.edu)

Key words: Soybean Viruses, Alfalfa Mosaic Virus, Bean Pod Mottle Virus,
Soybean Mosaic Virus, Molecular Engineering

Three major viruses, alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) and
soybean mosaic virus (SMV), cause significant losses in the yield and quality of soybean
seeds in Ohio. Although SMV can be partially contained with a resistance gene, genetic
resistance against AMV and BPMV is either not well defined (AMV) or unavailable
(BPMV). Thus it is necessary to engineer multi-virus resistance in transgenic plants.
We have carried out studies to generate transgenic soybeans that confer resistance to
all three viruses with one single transgene construct. We now propose to evaluate the
resulting transgenic plants. Approximately ten lines of transgenic plants will be screened
to identify lines that show enhanced resistance against all three viruses while displaying
no adverse impact on the growth and productivity of the crop. Successful completion of
this project will lay the groundwork for field tests, ultimately leading to effective control of
virus problems in soybeans. This will in turn lead to increased yield and improved
quality of the soybean crop, thus contribute to the mission of Ohio Soybean Council of
maximizing the profit opportunities for Ohio soybean farmers.


North Central Soybean Research Program; ($75,000).




Oklahoma Soybean Board
Yield response of soybeans to foliar and seed treatment fungicides: State-
wide soybean cyst nematode survey; John Damicone (Department of Entomology
and Plant Pathology, Oklahoma State University); ($20,250).
(john.damicone@okstate.edu)

Key Words: Asian Soybean Rust, Soybean Fungicide Studies, SCN-Survey,
Soybean Seed Treatments

Soybean rust was first reported in 2007 in Oklahoma and again in 2008 about a week
before a killing frost in late October. The state’s sentinel plot program and rust
monitoring activities by soybean growers and crop advisors have increased the
awareness of the presence of other foliar diseases in the state.

Soybean cyst nematodes (SCN) are known to occur in 11 eastern Oklahoma counties.
A formal survey of the distribution and infestation levels of SCN has not been conducted
in Oklahoma. Knowing the current distribution of SCN and infestation levels would help
growers better manage the disease through variety selection and crop rotation.

The project has three objectives; first, is to evaluate the disease and yield response of
full-season soybeans to fungicide programs designed to control soybean rust. Single
applications of triazole, strobilium and premixed fungicides will be made at R3 (early pod
set) and various combinations of fungicides will be applied at R5 (early pod fill).

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Assuming a response to the fungicide treatments, the researcher will determine whether
yield responses are due to rust control, frogeye leaf spot, delayed maturity, or
combination of factors.

The second objective is to evaluate stand establishment and yield response to fungicide
seed treatments at various planting dates. Treatments will be compared to untreated
seed planted in replicated plots in April, May, June and July planted soybeans.

The third objective is to conduct a state-wide survey for SCN. The researcher aims at
collecting 300 soil samples for the survey and using the data collected to alert soybean
growers at production meetings to the growing SCN threat.


Partners in research 2009; Chad Godsey, Jason Warren and Jeff Edwards
(Department of Plant and Soil Sciences), Randy Taylor (Biosystems and Agricultural
Engineering), John Damicone (Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology), George
Driever and Bob Woods (Oklahoma Cooperative Extension, Oklahoma State University);
($7,250). (chad.godsey@okstate.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Production Management, Soybean On-farm Research,
Soybean Fungicide Studies

During the last decade the role of Cooperative Extension has changed. Extension
funding has declined which has also reduced crop production research. This reduction
in crop production research has impacted farmers in Oklahoma by not having up-to-date
recommendations from Extension. To stay profitable in a changing environment,
farmers want recommendations based on current research for fertility, plant populations,
herbicide management, etc. for their area. One way to do this is through a team-based
approach that involves Extension, farmers and industry. Farmers are acquiring
technology (yield monitors, guidance systems and computer controlled application
systems) that makes this team based approach to research possible and presents
Oklahoma State University with a great opportunity to strengthen the relationship with
Oklahoma producers. A team-based approach makes sense for determining specific
recommendations for specific areas of Oklahoma. In addition, producers have more
faith in large field-scale plots compared to small plot trials.

Specific on-farm trials planned for the coming year include:
• Evaluation of the application of insecticides/fungicides at R3 growth stages in
   soybean at eight locations;
• Soybean plant population studies across soil type at two locations;
• Evaluation of raised bed tillage systems for corn and soybeans at three locations;
   and
• Evaluation of intensive management of soybeans.

Specific trial protocols will be developed for each on-farm study. Field tours and
“Partners in Research” meetings will be held to highlight results obtained from the
producer field trials.




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Comparison of low-input and high-input soybean production systems in
Oklahoma; Chad Godsey (Department of Plant and Soil Sciences) and John
Damicone (Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, Oklahoma State University);
($9,000). (chad.godsey@okstate.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Production Systems, Soybean Economic Studies, Weed Control,
Soybean Seed Treatments

The majority of soybean acreage in Oklahoma has been planted to glyphosate resistant
soybeans. Oklahoma growers are also using more fungicides and soybean seed
treatments in their soybean production programs. While the acreage of soybeans
planted in the state will continue to have a herbicide resistant trait and fungicides will be
evaluated; there is growing farmer interest in going back to lower cost conventional
soybean production systems.

The objective of this study is to compare high-input systems to a low-cost soybean
production system. Economic comparisons of these two systems will determine which
system in more profitable in Oklahoma.


Soybean planting date and maturity group select; Chad Godsey (Department of
Plant and Soil Sciences, Oklahoma State University); ($15,500).
(chad.godsey@okstate.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Production Systems, Best Management Practices

In Oklahoma, soybean planting recommendations have been divided into two different
concepts. The first concept is to plant a MG3, or early MG4, variety as early in April as
possible. The second concept is to plant a MG4 or MG5 soybean in early June (1-15).
With the wide selection of planting dates in Oklahoma, research is needed to understand
the effect of planting dates on soybean varieties of differing maturity groups. The
objective of this study is to determine the effects of planting date on soybean yield
components, seed protein and oil concentrations. The findings will allow for better
recommendations for soybean planting dates and use of varieties with different maturity
groups.


Assessment of soybean cyst nematode population in Northeastern
Oklahoma and SCN treatment; Jae-Ho Kim (Rogers State University); ($4,700).
(jkim@rsu.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Cyst Nematode (SCN), SCN-Biocontrol

The researcher involved in this project would like to develop a new strategy to control
soybean cyst nematode populations. Citing studies with Hirsutella minnesotensis as a
possible pathogenic microorganism to juvenile soybean cyst nematodes, the researcher
plans to conduct a survey of soybean cyst nematodes in Northeastern Oklahoma;
identify soil microbial populations associated with the nematodes; and then test the
pathogenicity of the microbes against the nematode populations. Once candidate
microorganisms are identified, they will then run bioassays to determine the

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effectiveness of the organism o controlling soybean cyst nematodes in greenhouse
studies.



Pennsylvania Soybean Promotion Board
Evaluation of soybean germplasm under Pennsylvania conditions; Greg
Roth (Department of Crop and Soil Science, Pennsylvania State University); ($7,000).
(gwr@psu.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Variety Testing

Varieties differ in their response to environmental conditions, soil resources and pest
tolerance. Most of the varieties available to Pennsylvania growers were developed in
other regions of the U.S. The objective of the commercial soybean variety testing
program is to provide growers with Pennsylvania performance data. Tests will be
conducted at two locations with four replications per cultivar. Data on yield, maturity,
plant height, lodging, seed quality, seed size and seed composition will be obtained.



Processing of a natural soluble soy protein ingredient for foods and
beverages; John Coupland (Food Science Department, Pennsylvania State
University); ($9,683). (coupland@psu.edu)

Key Words: Soy Foods, Soy Product Development

Wider use of soy protein in the American diet would have health benefits for the public.
However, soy proteins are relatively insoluble under acid conditions (pH~4) and hard to
use at high levels in many products (e.g. protein-rich fruit smoothies). In a recent study
this research group has demonstrated that soy proteins can form soluble complexes with
pectin. These complexes are soluble under acid conditions and seem a promising route
to producing useful food ingredients based on soy protein. The present project is to
exploit the natural charge-based affinity for pectin with soy to produce a high solubility
complex that could be used in fruit and vegetable-based drinks. However, it remains to
be seen whether these complexes will remain intact under conditions commonly used in
foods processing.


The specific objectives of the study will be to evaluate the following food processing
operations:
   •   Heating-simulate commercial pasteurization;
   •   Additions of salt- both soy protein and pectin react with minerals used in
       processing;
   •   Combination salt/heating-It is possible that calcium additions will provide some
       protection to heat; and
   •   Drying-evaluate whether a dried soy-pectin ingredient will be stable to drying and
       rehydration.


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The success of the project would provide a new way to use soy in pectin-rich fruit juices
or to generate soy-pectin complexes that could be added as a soluble ingredient to other
foods.


Soybean increases soil carbon sequestration better than canola; Roger
Koide (Department of Horticulture, Pennsylvania State University); ($10,000).
(rxk12@psu.edu)

Key Words: Biodiesel, Carbon Sequestration

Life cycle studies have shown that using biodiesel in the place of petroleum diesel
reduces net CO2 emissions. This is because the CO2 from the combustion of biodiesel
from plant sources is recycled back into the vegetation by photosynthesis and less fossil
fuel is used in the production of biodiesel compared to petroleum diesel. Therefore,
replacing a small portion of the petroleum diesel with biodiesel can have a significant
effect on net CO2 emissions.

This study will compare the reduction of CO2 emissions from the production and use of
biodiesel derived from canola and soybean oil. The researchers will account for soil
carbon sequestration in assessing the life cycle of CO2 emission reductions with
biodiesel and compare competing biodiesel feedstocks in respect to net carbon
emissions.


Development of an on-farm product evaluation network; Dell Voight, Ronald
Hoover and Gregory Roth (Cooperative Extension, Lebanon County, Pennsylvania State
University); ($21,955). (dgv1@msu.edu)

Key Words: Soybean On-farm Research; Soybean Fertility Studies,
Soybean Fungicide Studies, Bean Pod Mottle Virus; Bean Leaf Beetle,
Soybean Seed Treatments

This new project will be conducted on farms throughout Pennsylvania. The specific
objectives are:
    • Develop a on-farm product testing network for soybean production;
    • Evaluate foliar fertilizer materials for the potential to increase yields;
    • Evaluate foliar fungicides responses to the amount of disease present at R3;
    • Evaluate soybean seed treatments (Cruiser Maxx and Apron Maxx); and
    • Conduct a survey of the bean leaf beetle infestations and bean pod mottle virus
        to help establish thresholds for treatment in various regions of Pennsylvania.


Soybean aphid in Pennsylvania: Monitoring and development of new
management tactics; John F. Tooker (Department of Entomology, Pennsylvania
State University); ($19,000). (tooker@psu.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Aphid (SA), SA-Management



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Soybean aphids are spreading; aphids exceeding the 250 aphid threshold were reported
this year in central and southeastern Pennsylvania. The objective of this project is to
monitor soybean aphid populations in Pennsylvania’s sentinel plots and to assess the
potential for using host-plant chemicals to manage aphid populations.


Prevention of colonic inflammation by soybean protein isolate; Joshua D.
Lambert and Ryan J. Elias (Department of Food Science, Pennsylvania State
University); ($10,000). (jdl34@psu.edu)

Key Words: Soy Protein Isolate, Soy Protein Hydrolysate, Soy Human Health Studies

Soy protein isolates and soy protein hydrolysates have been shown to have antioxidant
and anti-inflammatory activity. Studies in animals and epidemiological studies in
humans have suggested that increased consumption of soy protein may prevent the
development of certain types of cancer. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory
properties of soy protein may play a role in these cancer prevention effects.

This study will examine the effects of dietary supplements of soybean protein isolates
and soy protein hydrolysates on the induction of colon cancer in CD-1 mice treated with
azoxymethane and dextran sulfate sodium known to produce colon tumors in mice.
Using this model system, the researchers will assess the effect of these soy products on
colon inflammation.



South Carolina Soybean Board
Optimizing insect management strategies for soybeans in South Carolina;
Jeremy Greene (Department of Entomology, Soils and Plant Sciences, Clemson
University); ($12,480., (greene4@clemson.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Insect Management, Soybean Insect Control

The main objective is to explore multiple aspects of insect management in soybean that
address opportunities for maximum economic gain. Insect control tactics such as
delivery of insecticide using seed treatments, and existing thresholds for various insects
will be evaluated.

Diagnostic DNA system for enhancement of soybean productivity in South
Carolina; Halina Knap and Emerson Shipe (Department of Entomology, Soils and Plant
Sciences, Clemson University); ($4,000). (hskrpsk@clemson.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Genetic Markers, Marker Assisted Selection,
Soybean Bioengineering

The main objectives are to: 1) Identify and characterize chromosomal regions for stress
responses and use this information for combining genes during cultivar improvement;
and 2) Develop novel molecular markers for marker-enhanced selection to improve
responses to stress in South Carolina cultivars.

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Management of glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth in soybean
production systems using preemergence and postemergence programs;
Michael Marshall (Edisto Research & Education, Center, Blackville, SC); ($14,459).
(marsha3@lemson.edu)

Key Words: Weed Control, Herbicide Resistance

The project’s objectives are to evaluate preemergence and postemergence weed
management programs that provide consistent control of glyphosate resistant Palmer
amaranth and to educate and disseminate successful resistance management strategies
for South Carolina soybean producers.


Management of soybean nematodes with resistance and Temik 15G; John
Mueller, J. Varn and J. Croft (Department of Entomology, Soils and Plant Sciences,
Clemson University); ($6,000). (jmllr@clemson.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Cyst Nematode, SCN-Management,
Soybean Root Knot Nematode

The objectives are to demonstrate levels of yield loss occurring on soybeans susceptible
to soybean cyst and southern root-knot nematodes


Breeding improved soybean cultivars for South Carolina; Emerson R. Shipe
(Department of Entomology, Soils and Plant Sciences, Clemson University); ($14,200).
(eshipe@clemson.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Breeding

The objective of this project is to develop soybean cultivars for South Carolina and the
Southeastern U.S. having improved seed yields, pest resistance and improved seed
composition. A second objective is to develop productive and adapted cultivars having
glyphosate resistance for use in double crop production systems in South Carolina.


Screening elite soybean breeding lines for resistance to nematodes and
foliar diseases; Emerson R. Shipe and John Mueller (Department of Entomology,
Soils and Plant Sciences, Clemson University); ($6,000). (eshipe@clemson.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Germplasm Screening, SCN-Genetic Resistance,
Soybean Disease resistance

The objective is to evaluate elite South Carolina soybean lines for resistance to multiple
species of nematodes and naturally occurring diseases.


Evaluation of planting date and plant population on soybean in relation to
soil spatial variability; P. Wiatrak (Edisto Research and Education Center, Blackville,
SC); ($17,752). (pwiatra@clemson.edu)

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Key Words: Soybean Production Management, Best Management Practices,
Soybean Educational Activities

The main objectives of this project are to evaluate the influence of planting dates on
different maturity groups, and also plant populations on soybeans in relation to soil
spatial variability to:
     • Revise best planting dates of different maturity group soybeans;
     • Evaluate the influence of seeding rates on soybeans;
     • Decrease weed pressure, especially glyphosate resistant weeds; 4) Improve
        soybean yields and quality; and
     • Disseminate best management practices to growers through meetings and
        extension publications.



South Dakota Soybean Research & Promotion Council
Development, refining and communicating soybean best management
practices to South Dakota soybean producers; Gregg Carlson, David Clay,
Sharon Clay, Larry Janssen, Peter Sexton and Robert Hall (Plant Science Department,
South Dakota State University); ($140,000), (Gregg_Carlson@sdstate.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Production Management, Best Management Practices,
Soybean Educational Activities, Soybean On-farm Research

Best management conditions vary greatly across South Dakota due to the widely varying
climatic conditions. Recommended management in one region will not apply to others.
Therefore, to increase soybean yields in South Dakota, it will require the development of
adaptable systems that link advances in soybean genetics to an improved understanding
of ecosystem farming. This project creates a structure where locally-led questions are
on-farm tested and flexible best management practices are validated. The project
involves:
    • Creating a producer-led advisory board to identify critical research questions;
    • Conducting strip trials and component research designed to answer these critical
         questions and;
    • Preparing best management practice materials that can be distributed through a
         web-based BMP manual.

Some of the questions to be studied are recommended soybean seeding rates for South
Dakota soybean growers; the feasibility of integrating cover crops into crop rotations the
economics of various seed treatments; optimum fertility recommendations; weed control
strategies; and qualifying the economic and energy efficiency advantages of including
soybean in the crop rotation. These questions will provide practical information for the
on-line Best Management Practices Soybean Manual.


Genetic resource development: Map and isolate new genes for resistance
to soybean aphid, and develop cost-effective markers; David Clay, Wanlong Li,
Paul Rushton, Jai Rohila, Senthil Subramanian, Xing-You Gu, Jose Gonzales, Marci


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Green, Larry Osborne and Catherine Carter (Plant Science Department, South Dakota
State University); ($177,000). (David_Clay@sdstate.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Gene Expression, Soybean Gene Mapping,
Soybean Drought Tolerance, SCN-Genetic Resistance, SA-Genetic Resistance

The goal of this project involves identifying and isolating genes, or germplasm, from
cultivated and wild soybean that can be used to improve yield, seed quality, pest
resistance and energy, nutrient and water use efficiency in soybean plants. The project
provides for innovative approaches to solve practical problems facing soybean
producers in South Dakota. Some of the objectives include:
       • Isolating major QTLs alleles and germplasm from wild soybeans (G. soja) to
           improve commercial varieties for resistance to biotic (soybean aphids) and
           abiotic (iron deficiency Chlorosis) stresses;
       • Isolating transcription factors that can be used by industry to improve soybean
           drought stress;
       • Identifying functional drought-tolerant genes in soybeans through proteomics
           analyses of recombinant inbred lines;
       • Studying the drought-signaling pathway in soybeans by induction and
           characterization of mutants;
       • Identifying new genes for soybean cyst nematode resistance and soybean oil
           composition, and;
       • Mapping and isolating new genes for soybean aphid resistance; and
       • Developing novel techniques for investigating and exploitation of genes.


Integration of new soybean genetics and herbicides to manage challenging
weed species and diminish selection for glyphosate resistance; Michael
Moechnig, Darrell Deneke, Robert Hall, Neal Foster, David Vos and Jill Alms (Plant
Science Department, South Dakota State University); ($11,800).
(Michael_Moechnig@sdstate.edu)

Key Words: Weed Control-Herbicide Resistance, Soybean Production Management,
Glyphosate Studies, Liberty Link Soybeans, Dicamba-Resistance

Herbicide tolerance traits will dominate the contributions of new soybean pest
management tool in the next few years. Liberty link soybeans, dicamba resistant, GAT
(glyphosate and ALS tolerant) and other herbicide tolerant soybeans are in the process
of being released and marketed. Information is needed to determine whether these new
technologies are economical and if so, how they may best benefit the soybean grower.
Working with industry, the research group will evaluate new soybean varieties and
herbicide programs and will provide unbiased evaluations of these programs compared
to conventional weed control programs. The specific research objectives include:
     • Comparing weed management and economic returns associated with
         conventional, Liberty Link and Roundup Ready soybean weed management
         programs;
     • Comparing the yield of conventional, Liberty Link and Roundup Ready soybeans
         in variety trails conducted by the Extension Agronomy crop testing program;
     • Evaluating weed management program in future soybean varieties, such as
         dicamba resistant and GAT (glyphosate and ALS-inhibitor tolerant) soybeans;

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    • Identifying options to make conventional and Liberty Link soybeans more user-
       friendly for growers; and
    • Conducting education programs and publishing extension literature to bring
       awareness to the challenges and benefits of new the soybean genetics with the
       goal of helping growers decide how these new technologies best fit into their
       soybean management programs.


Soybean diseases and insect pests: Monitoring, risk assessment,
management and outreach; Larry Osborne, Kelley Tilmon, Marie Langham and Tom
Chase (Plant Science Department, South Dakota State University); ($200,000).
(Lawrence_Osborne@sdstate.edu)

Key Words: ASR-Sentinel Plots; SA-Genetic Resistance, SA-Biocontrol,
Soybean Variety Testing, SCN-Educational Activities, SCN-Management,
Soybean Fungicide Studies, Bead Pod Mottle Virus (BPMV),
Soybean Mosaic Virus (SMV), Phytophthora Root Rot, Stem Canker

This collaborative research program targets disease and insect stresses that reduce
soybean yields. The researchers will work together to find strong traits of resistance,
mechanisms of pest management, efficient means of disease prevention, and to develop
economical and environmental sustainable disease and pest recommendations. The
various objectives include:
     • Monitoring sentinel plots for soybean rust and providing field data to the ipmPIPE
        program;
     • Screening aphid-resistant soybean lines;
     • Developing aphid thresholds appropriate for aphid-resistant cultivars;
     • Examining population dynamics between soybean aphids and resistant cultivars;
     • Expanding the Binodoxys communis release and monitoring program;
     • Continue to develop a comprehensive research and extension educational
        program on the biology and management of soybean cyst nematode;
     • Continue to evaluate the efficacy and economic feasibility of using foliar
        fungicides and seed treatments to control common soybean pathogens in South
        Dakota.
     • Developing a dual detection assay for bean pod mottle virus and soybean mosaic
        virus; and
     • Screening soybean germplasm and varieties for Phytophthora root and stem rot
        and Northern stem canker.


Farming Systems Initiative; TBD (South Dakota State University); ($10,000).

Key Words: Soybean Production Management

The Farming System Research Initiate was created by pooling funds from South Dakota
Corn Utilization Council, South Dakota Wheat Commission, South Dakota Crop
Improvement Association, South Dakota Oilseeds Council and the South Dakota
Soybean Research and Promotion Council. The objectives of this initiative are to:
   • Support research that would address common interest among these
      organizations;

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   •   Eliminate research and funding duplications;
   •   Promote integrated approaches in solving problems in modern farming; and
   •   Further improve the return on investment for all of the member organizations.


North Central Soybean Research Program; ($50,000).



Tennessee Soybean Board
Management of glyphosate-resistant weeds; Larry Steckel, Thomas Mueller and
Angela Thompson (Plant Sciences Department, University of Tennessee); ($21,500).
(lsteckel@utk.edu)

Key Words: Weed Control, Herbicide Resistance

Glyphosate-resistant weeds are becoming more common in the Midsouth. Managing
herbicide-resistant weeds is a growing concern of Tennessee soybean growers. The
objectives of this project are to: 1) Evaluate different non-glyphosate weed management
strategies for control of Palmer pigweed; 2) Determine if glyphosate-resistant horseweed
can be managed with fall applied burndown applications; and 3) Conduct on site trials to
help soybean producers determine if glyphosate-weed escapes are glyphosate-resistant.


Soybean breeding and genetics; Vince Pantalone (Plant Sciences Department,
University of Tennessee); ($60,000). (vpantalo@utk.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Breeding, Soybean Breeding-Composition,
Glyphosate Resistant Soybean

The objective of this proposal is to provide continuing support for the University of
Tennessee Soybean Breeding Program, including Partial Support of an Applied Field
and Seed Laboratory Research Associate, in order to develop high yielding new
varieties, including those with resistance to Roundup® herbicide, added-value,
resistance to soybean cyst nematode, stem canker, or other diseases. Specific program
objectives include:
    • Developing high yielding varieties and germplasm useful to the soybean industry;
    • Developing genetic resistance to production barriers (soybean cyst nematode,
        foliar diseases, soil and climatic stresses);
    • Improving plant breeding methodologies;
    • Investigating genetic control of important traits;
    • Training graduate students in traditional and modern plant breeding techniques.
    • Developing glyphosate herbicide (Roundup Ready2Yield™ and GAT) resistant
        varieties; and
    • Developing value-added soybean varieties with low phytate, high protein, low
        linolenic, and higher oleic fatty acid traits.




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Breeding soybeans for durable resistance to emerging nematode
populations; Vince Pantalone (Plant Sciences Department, University of Tennessee),
and Prakash Arelli (USDA/ARS-Jackson, TN); ($20,000).
(prakash.arella@ars.usda.gov)

Key Words: Soybean Breeding, SCN-Genetic Resistance

The objective of this project is to improve soybeans for durable resistance to emerging
populations of soybean cyst nematode and yield limiting fungal pathogens that are
adapted to Tennessee. The researchers will use standard breeding techniques
combined with DNA-marker assisted selection. Primarily known markers tagged to
resistance genes are used to select desirable soybean progenies for nematode
resistance.    The researchers have identified unique parent material with broad
resistance to SCN that may provide durable resistance and are transferring resistance
genes from these unique sources into elite soybean cultivars. The elite lines include
‘5601T’, ‘HS93-4118’, ‘Hamilton’ and ‘Hartwig’. They have also evaluated selected
single plant progenies in the field for their agronomic performance. Greenhouse
evaluations of soybeans for nematode resistance combined with marker assisted
selection will follow for development of improved germplasm/cultivars. They have
developed and standardized both greenhouse testing and DNA based methods for their
improved efficiency to nematode resistance in soybean.


Soybean cyst nematode sampling and advisory program; Melvin Newman
(Entomology and Plant Pathology Department, University of Tennessee), Prakash Arelli
and Pat Donald (USDA/ARS/West Tennessee Experiment Station, Jackson, TN);
($22,750). (manewman@utk.edu)

Key Words: SCN-Management, SCN-Educational Activities,
SCN-Soil Sampling Program

Since its discovery in 1956, in Lake County Tennessee, the Soybean Cyst Nematode
(Heterodera glycines) has been the number one nematode problem in Tennessee.
Some producers unknowingly lose 10-25 percent of their potential yield to the Soybean
Cyst Nematode (SCN). There are now four major races of SCN in Tennessee. They
are race 2, 3, 5 and 14. Knowledge of the SCN situation is the basis for profitable
variety selection. Success through this program has proven increases of 5-15 bushels
per acre for producers in SCN infested fields. In addition, cultural practices and
strategies can be used to reduce or slow down the advancement of new races of SCN
that would infect resistant varieties, when proper sampling procedures are followed.

The objectives of this research project are to:
   • Assist and stimulate producers into taking more SCN samples;
   • Reduce loss from SCN and hence increase the net income of Tennessee
       soybean growers;
   • Identify new races of SCN and help producers devise control methods;
   • Provide SCN management strategies to soybean growers; and
   • Improve economic production through more effective disease and nematode
       management.


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Combined evaluation of soybean cultivars for resistance to frogeye
leafspot (FLS), other diseases, sudden death syndrome (SDS), stem
canker, and foliar fungicide efficacy; Newman Melvin, Bob Williams and Blake
Brown (Entomology and Plant Pathology Department, University of Tennessee);
($32,500). (manewman@utk.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Variety Testing, Soybean Fungicide Studies, Soybean Diseases,
Frogeye Leaf Spot,

Frogeye leaf spot (FLS) is a mid-to-late season foliar leaf spot disease, caused by the
fungus Cercospora sojina. It can be found in almost every soybean field in Tennessee,
but it causes the most damage on highly susceptible varieties. This disease may be
more severe in low-lying fields, creeks and river bottoms. In years when conditions are
favorable, FLS can prematurely defoliate soybean plants, causing up to 50 percent yield
loss on susceptible varieties. In the last four years, FLS caused a significant 7.8-8.0
percent loss to the Tennessee soybean crop. Due to extreme dry weather FLS only
caused a two per cent decrease in yield this past season. There are over a hundred
different races of C. sojina across the South according to researchers at the University of
Georgia. Some varieties are resistant to the fungus, some are moderately resistant and
some are very susceptible. Other foliar diseases such as Anthracnose (Colletotrichum
truncatum), Cercospora Leaf Blight (Cercospora kicuchii), Brown Spot (Septoria
glycines), Phomopsis Seed Decay (Phomopsis longicolla) and SDS (Fusarium solani)
can also cause severe yield reduction and reduced seed quality in Tennessee especially
in rainy growing seasons. Producers have difficulty knowing which cultivars are resistant
to these diseases or which varieties to spray with a fungicide.

Producers can save significant yield loss by choosing resistant varieties and/or spraying
susceptible varieties with a recommended foliar fungicide. The Research and Education
Center at Milan, TN. has a pivot irrigation system that is very suitable for these tests.
This field is infested with FLS and other diseases and has been an excellent test field for
the last five years. Variety tests and fungicide spray tests have been very successful and
provided producers with valuable information on FLS and other late season diseases.
The project funding will be used to establish soybean plots under pivot irrigation, known
to be infested with FLS and many other diseases including Brown Spot, Anthracnose,
Cercospora Blight, Stem Canker and SDS. At least 90 of the most recommended
cultivars will be planted and rated for FLS, SDS, Stem Canker, Brown Spot and
Cercospora Blight resistance and other diseases that occur. Each will be sprayed (using
a recommended foliar fungicide) and unsprayed side-by-side with a spray tractor and
evaluated for efficacy. Soil samples will be taken for pH, P&K levels, along with cyst
nematode samples and soybean yields will be determined by harvesting with a two-row
plot combine.


Asian soybean rust (ASR): Training of first detectors and triage personnel;
Melvin Newman and Bob Williams (Entomology and Plant Pathology Department,
University of Tennessee); ($4,500). (manewman@utk.edu)

Key Words: ASR-Educational Activities

Asian Soybean Rust (ASR) is a serious disease of soybeans that can quickly destroy

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soybean yields by causing severe defoliation of the entire plant (from 10 to 80% losses
in yield in many areas of the world. In recent years, ASR has moved from South Africa
to South America and now into the southern US. There are no resistant varieties and
there is little hope of obtaining durable resistance in the near future. The first line of
defense against this wind-blown pathogen is the timely use of foliar fungicides. No one
knows for sure where or when spores of this fungus will be deposited on Tennessee’s
crop and cause disease. The amount of spread and damage will depend largely on the
environmental conditions in the spring and summer of each year. In order for producers
to be able to effectively control soybean rust they must spray fungicides before the rust
pathogen gets started. The first application must be sprayed on the soybeans before
infections reach the 5-10% level. It will be very difficult for the untrained person to
recognize early rust infections since the symptoms are very much like other diseases
that are common in Tennessee soybean fields. However, if producers wait until
symptoms are obvious, then it will be much more difficult to control and might take more
fungicide sprays and obtain less control. Since most producers have never seen this
disease, it will be extremely difficult for most of them to accurately identify soybean rust
in time to effectively spray a fungicide. Therefore, it is very clear that a training program
is needed aimed at educating and helping county Extension agents and producers
identify soybean rust. If soybean rust is identified, producers will have to react very
quickly to spray fungicides to protect their soybean crop from yield losses. We want to
reduce the critical time lost due to confusion and misinformation once rust is re-
confirmed in Tennessee or in surrounding states. It is critical that fungicides be applied
before rust infections get started.
The objectives of this project are to:
     • Train Extension agents to recognize soybean rust in the field using live
        specimens, the microscope and hand lens;
     • Assist soybean producers in making accurate diagnosis of soybean diseases and
        especially soybean rust;
     • Assist soybean producers in making correct decisions on when to spray for
        soybean rust; and


Technical support for soybean specialist; Angela Thompson (Plant Sciences
Department, University of Tennessee); ($18,000). (athompson@utk.edu)
Key Words: Soybean Research Technical Support

This project continues to fund one-half of a full-time technician who helped support the
extension soybean specialist. The remainder of the salary was covered from other
means. This technician is located at the West Tennessee Research and Education
Center in Jackson. Support activities included assistance with demonstration research
such as variety yield comparisons, weed, disease and insect control.


Support of multi-county on-farm demonstrations of (CST) county
standardized variety and agronomic tests; Bob Williams (Entomology and Plant
Pathology Department, University of Tennessee); ($18,500). (jwilli31@utk.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Production Management, Soybean On-farm Research

Funding for this project continues labor and other inputs necessary for adequate data

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retrieval from on-farm demonstrations of county standardized variety and agronomic
tests and identifying superior performing varieties and/or cultural practices that will
improve the profitability/reduce expense for Tennessee soybean producers. These multi-
county on-farm demonstrations specifically investigate soybean-21      n        variety
performance, new varieties with enhanced traits, seed treatments, seeding rates,
fungicide use, variety disease resistance and management of early season Maturity
Group soybean varieties.


Screening of Roundup Ready variety soybeans and breeding lines for
charcoal rot, SCN, and other yield limiting diseases; Alemu Mengistu and Pat
Donald (USDA/ARS/ West Tennessee Experiment Station, Jackson, TN) and Craig
Canaday (Entomology and Plant Pathology Department, University of Tennessee);
($30,000). (alemu.mengistu@ars.usda.gov)

Key Words: Soybean Variety Testing, Glyphosate Resistant Soybean

During the last four years over 500 conventional breeding and commercial cultivars were
screened for charcoal rot resistance and a germplasm DT 97-4290 that is moderately
resistant to charcoal rot was released by the USDA/ARS. Unfortunately, this germplasm
does not have the Roundup Ready (RR) trait necessary for the growers to maximize the
full benefit of charcoal resistance. The majority of soybean growers in Tennessee, as
well as the Midsouth, have shifted to using RR soybeans because of its advantage of
improved weed control and a significant improvement in yield. Realizing the importance
of this issue, and the lack of data on current RR varieties, the Tennessee Soybean
Promotion Board has funded this project over the last two years. Results from screening
of the RR and the public breeding lines indicated the existence of moderately resistant
lines among the lines tested, validation of this test for the third year is necessary in order
to confirm for consistency on the performance of these lines across years. These lines
will be screened in known charcoal rot infested field plots at West Tennessee. The lines
will also be screened for reaction to races 2, 3 and 14 of soybean cyst nematode.
Multiple disease resistance along with roundup ready trait in cultivars offer growers
broad-spectrum protection against diseases with improved yields, improved seed quality
and weed control.
Giant ragweed management in no-till soybeans and confirmation of
herbicide resistant weeds; Thomas Mueller and Larry Steckel (Plant Sciences
Department, University of Tennessee); ($5,000). (tmueller@utk.edu)

Key Words: Weed Control, Herbicide Resistance

Herbicide resistant weeds are a growing problem in some soybean producing regions.
This project is providing funding for student labor to assist in greenhouse and laboratory
studies that investigate the presence of herbicide resistance in weeds in Tennessee. If
found the basis for the observed resistance will be studied. The researchers will also
determine management strategies for controlling giant ragweed in no-till soybeans.


Molecular approaches to effective management tools against soybean cyst
nematode (SCN); Vince Pantalone (Plant Sciences Department, University of


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Tennessee), Prakash Arelli (USDA/ARS-Jackson, TN), Neal Stewart (University of
Tennessee) and Mitra Mazarei (University of Tennessee); ($25,000).
(vpantalo@utk.edu)

Key Words: SCN-Genetic Resistance

The goal of this project is to utilize molecular approaches to potentially enhance soybean
resistance to SCN. The researchers are employing microarrays to compare gene
expression in a susceptible and resistant soybean to identify soybean genes involved in
defense to SCN. Two Tennessee soybean lines TN02-226 (resistant) and TN02-275
(susceptible) were selected. These two soybean lines are sisters from the cross Anand ×
Fowler soybean cultivars; thus they are highly related in genetic background and best
candidate for developing resistance to SCN race 2, the most import race in Tennessee.
The ultimate strategy is to incorporate genes for SCN resistance into favorable cultivars.
For that reason, this research is needed to provide some basic information about
molecular events that occur during the soybean response to this economically important
pathogen. This study has the potential to devise some practical solutions to resisting this
disease. The objectives to be completed during the coming year include:
    • Complete microarray analysis to assess gene expression in a susceptible and a
        resistance response of soybean to SCN infection;
    • Detect molecular events of defense occurring during the SCN infection and
        identify soybean defense-related genes to SCN using time course assays on a
        defined set of genes as identified; and
    • Transfer these candidate genes in soybean by generating transgenic soybean
        hairy roots and assay them for conferring resistance to SCN.


Interactions of planting dates, seeding rate, and fungicide and insecticide
treatments on soybean yield and yield components; Angela Thompson (Plant
Sciences Department, University of Tennessee), Alemu Mengistu ( USDA/ARS-West
Tennessee Experiment Station, Jackson, TN) and Eric Walker (Plant Sciences
Department, University of Tennessee); ($9,300). (athompson@utk.edu)
.
Key Words: Soybean Production Management, Soybean Fungicide Studies
In recent years, producers have increased the number of fungicide and insecticide
applications to soybean. While some of these applications target disease or insect
infestations that were discovered by scouting and preserve soybean yields, other
applications are made in the absence of disease or insects as preventative measures,
and the benefits of these preventative applications are debatable. Results from some
studies and grower experiences show an economic benefit to a fungicide application in
the apparent absence of disease. Some producers include an insecticide with the
fungicide application for convenience and perceived cost savings, even when the insect
numbers are below established thresholds. Other studies indicate that increased profits
from fungicide/insecticide applications only occur in timely response to significant
disease or insect incidence.

This study will be conducted to attain a better understanding of the interactions of
planting date, seeding rate, and fungicide and insecticide applications on soybean yield
and yield components. A secondary objective is to evaluate recommendations for



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soybean management practices that will increase and stabilize soybean yields and
maximize net profits.


Early detection of Asian rust using realtime PCR; Kurt Lamour (Entomology and
Plant Pathology Department, University of Tennessee); ($28,400). (klamour@utk.edu)

Key Words: Asian Soybean Rust

This project is to continue the aggressive early detection program for Asian soybean rust
(ASR) in Tennessee. The research group proposes to continue using a sensitive real-
time PCR assay that can reliably detect the presence of ASR in leaf tissue 1 to 3 days
following infection. This test has been rigorously tested in controlled studies with the
United States Department of Agriculture. Detection of ASR at an early stage will give
producers a useful window of time to make decisions concerning chemical control. From
2005-2007, the research group evaluated over 50,000 leaf samples and used real-time
PCR to screen over 6000 leaf samples from throughout Tennessee. These samples
were from soybean production fields, snap bean fields, soybean sentinel plots, and
kudzu stands from May to late October. They confirmed the presence of soybean rust in
Tennessee in 2006 and 2007 after the threat of significant impact had passed. A key
component to the success of this project has been a rigorous sample processing system
and close coordination with extension personnel located throughout the state. Results of
the screening will be posted weekly and detection of samples positive for ASR will be
posted immediately and the information relayed directly to TSPB members. The specific
objective of this project is to screen on a weekly basis symptom-less and symptomatic
soybean and kudzu leaves collected from sentinel plots, producer’s fields, and natural
stands of kudzu for the presence of P. pachyrhizi using real-time PCR.


Salary for senior plot caretaker; Melvin Newman (Entomology and Plant Pathology
Department, University of Tennessee); ($18,000). (manewman@utk.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Research Technical Support

The workload to plant, care for, evaluate and harvest all the necessary plant disease and
nematode tests has increased significantly in the past three years. The workload has
increased by 100% with new fungicides, soybean rust activities and tests and new races
of the soybean cyst nematode. In the last three years they have harvested an average
of 50 tests with about 3,100 plots per year in several locations. The workload will
continue to increase in the coming years due to increased awareness and yield loss
from soybean diseases and nematodes and the Asian Soybean Rust threat. The
funding will be used to hire a senior plot caretaker to assist in coordinating and
supervising all the daily labor and activities associated with the soybean disease and
nematode test plots studies.


Optimizing fertility levels for soybean production; Angela Thompson and Frank
Yin (Plant Sciences Department, University of Tennessee); ($24,500).
(athompson@utk.edu)



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Key Words; Soybean Fertility Studies

This project is to evaluate the effectiveness of current University soybean fertility
recommendations. Fertility recommendations were established several years ago and
may not reflect usage by current higher yielding soybean varieties. Completion of this
research will allow the researchers to identify areas in which fertility recommendations in
soybean need to be updated. The specific objectives of this project are the following:
   • Implement multiple sites for research at experiment stations and on-farm as
       needed;
   • Evaluate effectiveness of current fertility recommendations; and
   • Begin to identify optimal primary nutrient levels for higher yielding soybean
       environments.


Evaluation of optimum plant population; Richard Joost (Plant Sciences
Department, University of Tennessee); ($4,928). (rjoost@utk.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Production Management

This research will evaluate various soybean planting rates to establish optimum plant
populations for West Tennessee growing conditions.


Developing novel herbicide-resistant Soybean; Chen Fen, Greg Armel and
Vincent Pantalone (Plant Sciences Department, University of Tennessee); ($25,000).
(fengc@utk.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Breeding, Herbicide Resistance

The objective of this proposal is to develop novel soybean cultivars that are resistant to a
broad range of auxim herbicides. A novel herbicide-resistant gene discovered in Dr.
Chen’s lab will be introduced into soybean plants using genetic transformation. The
transgenic soybean plants will be evaluated for their abilities in tolerating various types
of auxin herbicides. Auxin herbicide-resistant soybean will significantly alleviate the
threat with the evolution of herbicide-resistant weeds, especially glyphosated-resistant
weeds. This project will provide an opportunity to take gene discovery research through
to applied field application and solve a problem that currently poses a threat to
Tennessee soybean producers.


Identification and development of diagnostic assays for the causal agent of
a new virus disease of soybeans; Reza Hajimorad, Yannis Tzanetakis and Bonnie
Ownley (Entomology and Plant Pathology Department, University of Tennessee):
($20,000); (mrh@utk.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Virus Studies

The objective of this proposal is to determine the incidence of “soybean vein necrosis
syndrome” in Tennessee. It will help determine the incidence of the two viruses and one
bacterium associated with the disease. The project will search for the possible presence

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of any other viruses associated with the disease and establish the role of the isolated
viruses and bacterium as the causal agent. It will develop antibody-based diagnostic
assays and search for possible ways to control SVNS.


Support of Asian Soybean Rust Sentinel Program; Angela McClure and Melvin
Newman (Entomology and Plant Pathology Department, Extension West Region, Milan
Experiment Station, University of Tennessee); ($20,000;. (athompson@utk.edu)

Key Words: Asian Soybean Rust (ASR), ASR-Sentinel Plots

The objective of this research is to fund a center for the statewide Asian Soybean Rust
detection at the West TN Research and Education Center in Jackson. It will support
activities of West, Middle, and East Tennessee extension agents by providing sample
screening and scouting. Researchers will use ELISA (QuikStix) technology and visual
identification methods to provide rapid confirmation and a more rapid response to
producers.


Evaluation of seed additives for yield enhancement in soybeans; Angela
McClure (Plant Sciences Department, University of Tennessee) and Eric Walker (USDA/
ARS-Jackson, TN); ($8,000). (athompson@utk.edu)

Key Words: Seed Additives, Yield Enhancement

The objective of this research is to evaluate a number of seed additives for effect on
yield using small plot trials and on-farm demonstrations. The project will investigate the
common practice of including molybdenum as a component in many soybean seed
treatments to see if the treatment is cost effective and beneficial in site-specific
applications.


Soybean maturity group and soybean seeding rate combinations for the
soybean-winter wheat double-crop production system to maximize yield
and minimize charcoal rot incidence and severity; Angela McClure (Plant
Sciences Department, University of Tennessee), Eric Walker and Alemu Mengistu
(USDA/ARS-Jackson, TN); ($9,500). (athompson@utk.edu)

Key Words: Seeding rate, Maturity Groups, Charcoal Rot

The objective of this project is to optimize the agronomic factors of seeding rate, plant
population, and maturity group in double-crop soybeans. It will determine the influence
that these factors have on charcoal rot incidence and severity.


Support for printing of weed support manual for soybeans; Larry Steckel
(Plant Sciences Department, University of Tennessee) ($3,000). (lsteckel@utk.edu)

Key Words: Weed Control, Soybean Educational Activities


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Provides a weed identification manual for producers.


Support of extension and research integrated pest management efforts;
Scott Stewart (Entomology and Plant Pathology Department, University of Tennessee);
($22,000). (sstewa21@utk.edu)

Key Words: Dectes Stem Borer, Soybean Insect-Control,
Soybean Educational Activities

This proposal requests support of Extension IPM education and applied research efforts.
Some funding is requested for Soybean Scout Schools which will be held in primary
soybean production areas of Tennessee. Funding is also requested for two additional
research projects. Research in 2007-2008 has shown that a Regent (fipronil) seed
treatment reduces stem tunneling by Dectes stem borer. This chemistry provides
scientists with a method of excluding Dectes larva from soybean. Preliminary indications
are that eliminating Dectes by using a Regent (fipronil) seed treatment is not significantly
improving yield. However, more definitive research is needed. A Regent seed treatment,
plus Regent treatments overlaid on top of a Cruiser seed treatment, will be evaluated to
determine if Dectes stem borer is directly reducing yield in soybeans. Additional
experiments are proposed to investigate the damage potential and insect treatment
thresholds for three cornered alfalfa hopper, again as part of a regional but unfunded
research project. The PI will also perform insecticide efficacy trials and threshold
validation tests as opportunities arise.


Potential of Pasteuria nishizawae as a biological control agent for SCN in
Tennessee; Pat Donald (USDA/ARS-Jackson, TN) and Craig Canaday (Entomology
and Plant Pathology Department, University of Tennessee); ($24,000).
(pdonald@ars.usda.gov)

Key Words: Soybean Cyst Nematode (SCN), SCN-Biocontrol

Soybean cyst nematode juveniles infected with a bacterium, Pasteuria, were found in
soil samples from a field at Ames Plantation near Grand Junction, TN where soybean
has been planted for the last 40 years. Pasteuria nishzawae is the only species of
Pasteuria described infecting SCN under field conditions. This bacterium has been
documented to naturally reduce SCN population density in Illinois (Atibalentja et al,
1998).

The long term goal is to determine the feasibility of using P. nishizawae as a biological
control agent to naturally manage SCN in Tennessee soybean production fields. To
achieve this goal we need to determine how widely distributed the bacterium is in
production fields, the level at which it will reduce SCN population density, and the effect
of common seed treatments on spore attachment of the bacterium to SCN juveniles
since seed treatment is the most logical method of application of P. nishizawae.




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Texas Soybean Board
Agronomic factors involved in soybean production along the Texas Gulf
Coast; James Grichar, Joe Janak and Rick Batchelor (Texas AgriLife Research and
Extension Center, Texas A&M University); ($11,730). (w-grichar@ag.tamu.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Production Management

The objective of this research is to investigate various soybean production management
alternatives. The treatments will involve developing information on date of planting,
recommended maturity groups, row spacing, herbicide and fungicide recommendations
for the Texas Gulf Coast environment.


Bradyrhizobium inoculation and nodulation: Yield tests for Texas soybean;
Jim Heitholt (Texas A&M University), Calvin Trostle and W. James Grichar (Texas A&M
University-Amarillo, TX); ($7,500). (c-trostle@tamu.edu)

Key Words: Nitrogen Fixation, Bradyrhizobium Inoculants

The objectives of this project are to: 1) Test two diverse Bradyrhizobium inoculants on
soybean for degree of nodulation and yield benefit; 2) Examine the effect of limited N
fertilizer on soybeans with and without inoculant; and 3) Determine the level of soybean
economic return for inoculation versus nitrogen fertilization. The results of the study will
be used in Extension educational efforts to inform Texas soybean producers how to
avoid common inoculation application mistakes and ensure that their inoculant is applied
correctly and to assess their in-season root nodulation status


Evaluation of experimental soybean lines for drought tolerance under
greenhouse conditions; Jim Heitholt (Texas A & M Commerce); ($6,308).
(c-trostle@tamu.edu

Key Words: Soybean Drought Tolerance, Soybean Variety Testing

Numerous research groups in the U.S. are studying drought tolerance in soybean.
These include labs in Arkansas, Georgia, Missouri, Nebraska, and North Carolina. I
routinely obtain promising genotypes from these programs. Although these labs have
reported using greenhouse studies to screen genotypes for drought during early
vegetative growth, there are few studies from greenhouse screening conducted during
reproductive growth. My proposed greenhouse research and potting system will provide
novel data and more-exact comparisons of exotic soybean lines.

The objective of the project is to identify drought-tolerant soybean lines using a
competitive soil moisture method.

For the competitive soil moisture test, 25-gallon tubs filled with a soil mixture. Nine PVC
tubes (6-inch diameter) will be inserted halfway down into the soil matrix and each tube
hosts one plant from a selected genotype. In 2009, the research tested 54 experimental
and 10 commercial cultivars in the Maturity Group 4.5 to 5.4 range. Each potting

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apparatus will have one plant each from nine entries with Hornbeck HBK C5025 being
present once in every pot (serving as a check). During early reproductive growth, water
will be withheld from the tub and the degree of wilting will be recorded each afternoon.
Thus, each genotype is exposed to the same soil moisture conditions as the other eight
genotypes, an important experimental condition needed for more accurate comparisons.
Visual ratings of leaf turgidity (opposite of wilting) will be taken three times weekly and
plant water status (removal of one leaf for relative water content) will be recorded twice
weekly to document the degree of drought tolerance.

If our screening program identifies previously-unidentified drought-tolerant lines, the
lines can be crossed with adapted genotypes from either commercial companies or
public breeding programs with the ultimate goal of having a higher yielding soybean
variety for Texas.


Development of red banded stink bug economic injury levels; M. O. Way
(Texas AgriLife Research and Extension Center, Beaumont, TX.); ($2,000).
(m-way@tamu.edu)

Key Words: Stink Bugs, Soybean Variety Testing, Soybean Insect Control

Stink bugs are important constraints to yield and quality. However, no economic injury
levels or thresholds have been developed for the most recent troublesome soybean stink
bug; the red banded stink bug (RBSB), Piezodoris guildinii. The project’s objective is to
determine the RBSB density/damage relationships specific to various soybean
developmental stages (R1-R7). Knowledge of these relationships will enable farmers to
apply insecticides based on specific red banded stink bug population densities
corresponding to various soybean reproductive stages.

In cooperation with other researchers, we will evaluate the comparative insect
resistance/tolerance of selected cultivars and genotypes including the cultivar Vernal
which possesses wide adaptability to soybean growing regions in Texas. Materials and
methods will be similar to those employed in past host plant resistance efforts funded by
the TSB.

We will also evaluate novel insecticides for insect control on MG IV and MG VII
soybeans. By using these 2 MGs, we ensure adequate populations of Lepidoptera
(caterpillars) and stink bug pests. These 2 groups of pests are the most damaging to
soybeans in Texas. We will include Endigo and other novel insecticides in our
assessments. We will employ standard materials and methods described in previous
reports submitted to the TSB.



Virginia Soybean Board
Virginia soybean research and extension program; David Holshouser (Eastern
Virginia Agricultural Research and Extension Center, Virginia Tech); ($37,000).
(dholshou@vt.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Variety Testing, Soybean Production Management,

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Soybean On-farm Research, Soybean Seed Treatments, Soybean Educational Activities

Continued funding will be used to: 1) Conduct the Official Soybean Variety Trials in
Virginia (5-full-season and 5-double crop); 2) Conduct research on remote sensing of
soybean leaf area that compares drills versus planters and seed treatments; and 3)
Cooperate with County Extension Agents and other researchers to conduct on-farm
research trials and field demonstrations.


Controlling and preventing further spread of Palmer Amaranth; David
Holshouser (Eastern Virginia Agricultural Research and Extension Center, Virginia
Tech); ($4,800). (dholshou@vt.edu)

Key Words: Weed Control, Herbicide Resistance

Palmer Amaranth is an increasing weed problem for soybean growers in Virginia. This
research will develop management recommendations for controlling this important weed.
Data developed will be used in Extension programs directed at controlling and reducing
the spread of Palmer Amaranth.


World Soybean Research Conference VIII; David Holshouser (Eastern Virginia
Agricultural Research and Extension Center, Virginia Tech); ($3,550).
(dholshou@vt.edu)

Key Word: Other Studies

Checkoff funding was approved for researcher participation in the World Soybean
Research Conference held in August in China.


Evaluating soybean production strategies-2009; David Moore (Middlesex
Extension, Virginia Tech); ($4,000). (damoore@vt.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Production Management, Soybean Educational Activities

This project will evaluate various soybean production systems that have application to
Virginia’s environmental conditions. The results of the studies will be used in
presentations to soybean growers and persons advising soybean farmers.


Nematode identification and control strategy evaluation in problem fields in
Virginia’s soybean growing region; David Moore (Middlesex Extension, Virginia
Tech); ($6,320). (dmoore@vt.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Cyst Nematode (SCN), SCN-Management, SCN-Surveys

Soybean cyst nematodes remain one of the largest problems for Virginia soybean
growers. This project will continue aggressive programs to identify problem fields and
suggest management options to minimizing the impact of soybean cyst nematodes.

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Reducing glyphosate applications in Roundup Ready and non-roundup
ready soybean; Henry Wilson (Eastern Shore Agricultural Research and Extension
Center, Virginia Tech); ($15,000). (hwilson@vt.edu)

Key Words: Weed Control, Herbicide Resistance

The project will evaluate weed control and develop management recommendations for
Virginia soybean growers. Of particular interest will be to develop weed management
recommendations that minimize glyphosate applications and the development of
herbicide resistant weeds.


Survey of frogeye leaf spot (FLS) in Virginia, evaluation of resistance of
FLS on soybean lines adapted to Virginia, and use of marker assisted
selection (MAS) for FLS resistance in soybean; Katy M. Rainey (Crop and Soil
Environmental Sciences Department, Virginia Tech); ($30,726). (kmrainey@vt.edu)

Key Words: Frogeye Leaf Spot, Marker Assisted Selection, Soybean Variety Testing

The goal of this research is to minimize frogeye leaf spot damage to soybeans in
Virginia. This foliar disease is increasing in severity in the state. This research program
is designed to evaluate the genetic component of frogeye leaf spot and using advanced
molecular techniques (marker assisted selection) to develop germplasm lines with
resistance to the disease.


Soybean production research support; Bob Pitman (Eastern Virginia Agricultural
Research and Extension Center, Virginia Tech); ($5,300). (rpitman@vt.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Production Management, Soybean Educational Activities

The funding will be used to partially support several soybean production research efforts
underway at the Eastern Virginia Agricultural Research and Extension Center.


Distribution of bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) in bean leaf beetles and
soybean varieties in Eastern Virginia; Thomas P. Kuhar (Eastern Shore AREC,
Virginia Tech); ($9,500). (tkuhar@vt.edu)

Key Words: Bean Pod Mottle Virus

This project involves determining the distribution of bean pod mottle virus in bean leaf
beetles and soybeans planted in eastern Virginia. Viral diseases are increasing and this
study is directed at finding out more about bean pod mottle viruses and how they may
impact soybean production in Virginia.


Soybean insect management program: Assessment of corn earworm,
Pyrethroid resistance, stink bug impact and control, and assessment of


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insecticide efficacy; D. Ames Herbert (Tidewater Agricultural Research and
Extension Center, Virginia Tech); ($10,480). (herbert@vt.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Insect Management, Stink Bug

The goal of this project is to address the concern that insect pests are causing
increasing economic losses to the Virginia soybean crop. The research group will: 1)
Evaluate the use of blacklight traps for monitoring stink bug populations in an effort to
improve timing of scouting and control measures; 2) Determine the relative toxicity of
selected conventional and organic insecticides for control of stink bug nymphs and
adults; and 3) Develop management options for minimizing insect damage to the Virginia
soybean crop.



Fungicide strategies for control of rust and other diseases of soybean; Pat
Phipps (Plant Pathology, Physiology and Weed Science Department, Virginia Tech);
($13,728). (pmphipps@vt.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Fungicide Studies, Asian Soybean Rust

The objective of this project is to conduct fungicidal evaluations for the control of fungal
diseases that could include Asian soybean rust if present in fields. The research will be
used to develop strategies for control of soybean rust in Virginia.


Agronomy career development event; G. Andrew Seibel (Virginia FFA
Association); ($1,600). Crops Judging Program; A. Ozzie Abaye (XXX); ($2,500).

Key Words: Other Studies

The Virginia Soybean Board supported these activities to show general support for
agricultural leader development.



Wisconsin Soybean Marketing Board
Identification of genes/loci for control of soybean cyst nematode; Andrew
Bent (Department of Plant Pathology, University of Wisconsin); ($59,797).
(afb@plantapth.wisc.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Cyst Nematode, SCN-Genetic Resistance,
Marker Assisted Selection

Soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is the most yield-reducing pathogen in the U.S. soybean
production. Over 95% of the SCN-resistant commercial varieties utilize the Rhg1 locus
derived from PI 88788, but there is extensive variation in the performance of these
varieties under SCN pressure. In addition, Rhg1 is not effective against all SCN field
populations and it is dangerous to rely solely on one resistance locus for SCN control.


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The objectives of this project are to:
   • Identify soybean loci that control in-field variation for effective SCN resistance by
       mapping loci that control SCN resistance; and
   • Test candidate soybean genes for their impact on SCN using a transgenic
       soybean root assay that carry gene-silencing constructs.

The ultimate goal of the project is to identify genetic markers for SCN resistance and
soybean genes that can be altered in infected soybean tissue to disrupt SCN
development.


Characterizing soybean yield response to Rhizobial inoculants; Shawn
Conley and Jean-Michel Ane (Department of Agronomy, University of Wisconsin);
($38,394). (spconley@wisc.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Inoculant Studies, Soybean Technologies,

The long-term goals of this project are to develop a technique to quickly quantify soil
rhizobia populations and to develop a prediction matrix from which growers can
accurately access the probability that an inoculant application will lead to increased
soybean yield and profitability. The project’s specific objectives are to:
    • Develop a quick and reliable quantitative PRC assay based on real-time PCR
        technology and compare its efficiency to the MPN-plant infection assay;
    • Determine if rhizobial inoculation is necessary after field flooding events;
    • Quantify the effect of crop rotation and tillage on inoculants efficacy; and
    • Quantify the yield response of inoculants over various environment conditions.


Long term efficacy and viability of Coniothyrium minitians (Contan®WG)
for white mold control in soybean; Shawn Conley (Department of Agronomy) and
Paul Esker (Department of Plant Pathology, University of Wisconsin); ($30,982).
(spconley@wisc.edu)

Key Words: Sclerotinia White Mold, Testing Commercial Products,
Soybean Fungicide Studies
Sclerotinia stem rot (SSR) of soybean remains an important yield-limiting disease of
soybean in Wisconsin. Host resistance is currently the best control method for SSR of
soybean. However, the sporadic nature of the disease and partial quantitative nature
has impeded breeding progress. The combination of the influence of environment on
disease development, the large inoculants potential of S. sclerotiorum and the lack of
complete resistance suggest that the effects aimed at targeting the pathogen may be an
effect mechanism for disease control. Therefore, the objectives of this study are to
quantify:
    • The effects of Contans (Coniothyrium minitans) on white mold (Sclerotinia
        sclerotiorum) in soybeans;
    • The effect of new foliar applied fungicides on white mold development; and
    • The long-term impact of C. minitans on white mold management.




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Evaluation of stress tolerance of soybean varieties in Wisconsin; Shawn
Conley and Paul Esker (Department of Agronomy, University of Wisconsin); ($21,870).
(spconley@wisc.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Stress, Soybean Variety Testing,

The goal of this project is to develop an early season assessment tool to evaluate
soybean variety response to aboitic (water) and biotic (insect or disease) stresses. The
project is based on the fact that soybean variety selection is the number one mechanism
that growers can use to increase their chances for higher yield and crop profitability. In
Wisconsin, over 300 soybean varieties are annually tested at several locations and each
of the locations are subjected to at least one stress during the growing season. Often
these stresses are not readily apparent, and thus, greatly limit the ability to explain yield
differences between varieties in the test. The researchers in this study hope to
determine an improved procedure to evaluate the soybean variety’s response to these
natural stresses.


Methods to screen soybean lines for resistance to stem diseases; Craig Grau
(Department of Plant Pathology, University of Wisconsin); ($37,400).
(cg6@plantpath.wisc.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Screening Methods, Soybean Diseases, Soybean Technologies

The project’s goal is to provide long-term and stable protection against stress caused by
soybean pathogens. The approach will be to develop new techniques that characterize
the resistance to disease that cause premature plant death and reduced yields. The
focus of the project will be on brown stem rot, white mold and stem blight/stem canker
due to their importance in Wisconsin soybean production environment. Results of
research indicate that higher and more stable sources of resistance are needed to
consistently reduce stress caused by these diseases. It is his hope that new insight
developed by this project will lead to new methods to study the genetic and function of
resistance in these diseases.

The specific objectives of the study are to:
   • Develop improved methods for soybean breeders to use in disease resistance
      breeding programs;
   • Use molecular technologies to combine sources of resistance to enhance
      resistance to various soybean diseases; and
   • Determine the physiological mechanisms of resistance to soybean stem
      diseases.


Glyphosate effect on manganese availability and yield loss in glyphosate-
resistant soybeans; Shawn Conley (Department of Agronomy) and Carrie Labowski
(Department of Soil Science, University of Wisconsin); ($13,986). (spconley@wisc.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Production Management, Glyphosate-Manganese Studies




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Recent research in Indiana and Kansas have confirmed that one of the most limiting
factors to high yield in glyphosate resistant soybean systems is a suspected
micronutrient deficiency resulting from applications of glyphosate to soil, weed and
directly to glyphosate resistant soybeans. Manganese concentrations in soybean plants
are frequently lower than optimum, particularly in the week or two following post-
emergence glyphosate application. It has been identified that glyphosate reduces the
uptake and that glyphosate is toxic to soil microbes that reduce soil manganese into a
form that is available for plant uptake.

The objectives of this project are to quantify the effect of glyphosate on manganese
availability in glyphosate-resistant (Roundup Ready) soybean systems and to develop
new manganese management guidelines for glyphosate-resistant soybean production.


Pest status of root lesion nematode in soybean; Shawn Conley (Department of
Agronomy) and Ann MacGuidwin (Department of Plant Pathology, University of
Wisconsin); ($13,986). (spconley@wisc.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Nematodes, Root Lesion Nematode

The decreased reliance on soil applied insecticides in corn has led to increasing
prevalence of root lesion nematodes across the Midwest and in Wisconsin. Little
information is available regarding the impact of root lesion nematodes on soybeans.
This project will determine damage thresholds for root lesion nematodes in soybean
fields and compare the damage potential for two root lesion nematode species common
in Wisconsin (P. penetrans and P. scribneri).


Soybean cyst nematode testing and education; Shawn Conley (Department of
Agronomy) and Paul Esker (Department of Plant Pathology, University of Wisconsin);
($13,026). (spconley@wisc.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Educational Activities, Soybean Diseases, Soybean Insects,
Soybean Cyst Nematode, Soybean Research Websites

This continuing project’s goal is to provide soybean growers basic information to
enhance their general understanding of specific soybean health problems and to provide
the latest guidelines for soybean plant health management. The funding will be used to
expand, revise and update sections of the Soybean Plant Health Website for soybean
cyst nematode, brown stem rot, sudden death syndrome, white mold, stem canker, rust,
soybean viruses and insects important to Wisconsin. The effort will continue to establish
links to new and relevant Websites of interest to Wisconsin farmers.


Soybean Plant Health Website and Extension; Paul Esker and Craig Grau
(Department of Plant Pathology, University of Wisconsin); ( $12,500).
(pde@plantpath.wisc.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Educational Activities, Soybean Diseases, Soybean Insects,
Soybean Cyst Nematode, Soybean Research Websites


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This continuing project’s goal is to provide soybean growers basic information to
enhance their general understanding of specific soybean health problems and to provide
the latest guidelines for soybean plant health management. The funding will be used to
expand, revise and update sections of the Soybean Plant Health Website for soybean
cyst nematode, brown stem rot, sudden death syndrome, white mold, stem canker, rust,
soybean viruses and insects important to Wisconsin. The effort will continue to establish
links to new and relevant Websites of interest to Wisconsin farmers.


Foliar fungicides to study the epidemiology of Cercospora kikuchii; Paul
Esker and Craig Grau (Department of Plant Pathology, University of Wisconsin);
($30,000). (pde@plantpath.wisc.edu)

Key Words: Cercospora Leaf Blight, Purple Seed Stain, Soybean Fungicide Studies

Foliar fungicide applications on soybean have received much attention since the
discovery of Asian soybean rust in 2004 and this attention has also increased the
interest in determining under what situations and for which soybean diseases will
fungicide applications be cost-effective. Cercospora leaf blight and purple seed stain
caused by the same organism can lead to yield loss and dockage at the elevator. This is
a disease that is increasing in intensity in several soybean production areas in the U.S.

The objectives of this continuing project are to:
   • Study the etiology and epidemiology of Cercospora leaf blight using foliar
       fungicides and relate changes to disease development and soybean seed yield;
   • Determine thresholds for disease development and resistance to Cercospora leaf
       blight and purple seed stain; and
   • Work with the Wisconsin Soybean Association, University of Wisconsin-
       Extension and the private sector to deliver new information regarding Cercospora
       leaf blight and purple seed stain.


Interaction between soybean cyst nematode, brown stem rot and sudden
death syndrome; Paul Esker and Ann MacGuidwin (Department of Plant Pathology)
and Shawn Conley (Department of Agronomy, University of Wisconsin); ($42,024).
(pde@plantpath.wisc.edu)

Key Words: SCN-SDS Interaction, Brown Stem Rot, Soybean Variety Testing,
Soybean Yield Improvement

This continuing project addresses three major soybean yield-limiting diseases (Soybean
Cyst Nematode, Brown Stem Rot and Sudden Death Syndrome) that occur in
Wisconsin. Understanding how these three diseases interact is critical to improving
soybean disease management in Wisconsin. Little is known about how genes for SCN
and BSR react to SDS, nor do we understand the spatial distribution of these three
diseases in Wisconsin fields.

The difficulty with soil borne organisms, especially SCN, BSR and SDS is that once a
field is infected, complete removal of the disease organism is difficult. While rotation has
been shown to reduce SCN and BSR populations over time, there is no similar data for

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SDS. This research team believes that all three of these diseases could co-exist in
Wisconsin fields and work together to reduce soybean yields. In order to improve
soybean yields in Wisconsin it is important to understand how these three pathogens
interact. The following objectives are planned to study the interaction between SCN,
BSR and SDS:
    • Conduct greenhouse research trials that screen current soybean maturity groups
        grown in Wisconsin for their response to co-inoculations with SCN, BSR and
        SDS under controlled temperature and soil moisture conditions;
    • Conduct field micro plot studies that examine the effects of SCN-BSR-SDS
        inoculum levels on soybean productivity under field environmental conditions;
        and
    • Conduct soybean surveys using two methods for the SCB, BSR and SDS in
        Wisconsin. Soil samples will be assayed for the presence of the three
        pathogens. In the second survey method, fields documented to have had SDS
        and SCN will be intensively studied.

The research team will work with producers to obtain field yield maps that will be related
to disease levels. Hopefully, these studies will help to understand the interaction
between these three pathogens.


Yield response of soybean lines resistant to the soybean aphids and
viruses; Craig Grau (Department of Plant Pathology), David Hogg and Eileen Cullen
(Department of Entomology, University of Wisconsin); ($24,720).
(cg6@plantpath.wisc.edu)

Key Words: SA-Genetic Resistance, SA-Management, Soybean Mosaic Virus (SMV)

This continuing project is to validate the concept that genetic resistance plays an
important role in the development and implementation of management practices directed
at the control of soybean aphids and associated viruses. Soybean varieties with aphid
resistance will soon be available to soybean producers. Their availability will bring
questions related to the efficacy and durability of the sources of aphid resistance being
used by commercial soybean breeders. Other questions such as whether genetic
resistance levels can increase soybean yields as much as the use of insecticides?
Whether there are soybean aphid biotypes in Wisconsin that will defeat current sources
of genetic resistance? Will the importance of aphid transmitted viruses change with the
use of soybean varieties that are resistant to the soybean aphid? Can aphid resistance
and virus resistance be combined in a single soybean variety, and if so, will this
combination of traits result in increased yields? Some of these questions will be
addressed in the research that is planned.

The objectives of this project are to:
   • Develop soybean lines with resistance to soybean aphid and soybean mosaic
       virus;
   • Determine whether genetic resistance to soybean aphid can replace insecticides;
       and
   • Determine the frequency of soybean biotypes that can defeat current sources of
       resistance.


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The results of this project will be used to help define the genetic potential of soybean
cultivars to control the soybean aphid and associated viruses and reduce the impact of
these pests and pathogens in Wisconsin and the North Central States. This research is
directed at the goal of reducing the reliance on insecticides to control soybean aphids,
an option less desirable from an economic and environmental perspective.


Biological control of the soybean aphid in Wisconsin; David Hogg and Daniel
Mahr (Department of Entomology, University of Wisconsin); ($10,553).
(dhogg@cals.wics.edu)

Key Words: SA-Biocontrol

The goal of this continuing research project is to release and establish the parasitoid
Binodoxys communis, a tiny non-stinging wasp, for the biological control of the soybean
aphid. The University of Wisconsin is one of six Midwestern state universities that is
involved in releasing this parasitoid.

The objectives of this project are to:
Maintain a laboratory colony of B. communis with the ability to increase substantially the
numbers of the parasitoids;
   • Make field cage releases of B. communis at multiple locations in Wisconsin;
   • Make open field releases of B. communis at those same locations; and
   • Document the establishment and spread of B. communis in Wisconsin.

If the Wisconsin researchers are successful in establishing this parasitoid in Wisconsin,
it will eliminate, or at least reduce, the frequency of aphid outbreaks. The research
group is optimistic that biological control, in combination with genetic resistance of
soybean cultivars, will make managing the soybean aphid less burdensome and less
expensive for soybean farmers in Wisconsin.


Deploying the PI 88788 source of resistance to manage SCN; Ann
MacGuidwin (Department of Plant Pathology, University of Wisconsin); ($21,319).
(aem@plantpath.wisc.edu)

Key Words: SCN-Genetic Resistance, SCN-Management, SCN Educational Activities

Host plant resistance is the most effective and economical means to manage SCN and
there are many soybean varieties on the market with resistance derived from soybean
plant introduction PI 88788. This project will determine changes in SCN populations
when PI 88788 resistance is used one, two or three times in three consecutive soybean
crops, alone or in combination with a susceptible variety of one with “Peking” source of
resistance. Experiments will be conducted in the field and in growth chambers to test
the effectiveness of the sources of resistance. This project will add to the effort by
University of Wisconsin researchers to develop a recommendation about using the PI
88788 source of resistance that will help Wisconsin soybean producers increase yields
in fields infested with SCN.

North Central Soybean Research Program; ($120,000).

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North Central Soybean Research Program
Sentinel plots to monitor the spread of soybean rust in the U.S. soybean
production regions; Ed Sikora (Auburn University, Project Leader) Loren Giesler
(University of Nebraska), Don Hershman (University of Kentucky), Anne Dorrance (The
Ohio State University), Carl Bradley (University of Illinois), John Damicone (Oklahoma
State University), Kiersten Wise (Purdue University), X.B. Yang (Iowa State University),
Doug Jardine (Kansas State University), Allen Wrather (University of Missouri), Melvin
Newman (University of Tennessee), Erik Stromberg (VA Polytechnic Institute and State
University), John Mueller (Clemson University), Steve Koenning (North Carolina State
University), Gary Bergstrom (Cornell University), Sam Markell (North Dakota State
University), Lawrence Osborne (South Dakota State University), Norman Dart (West
Virginia Dept. of Ag), Paul Esker (University of Wisconsin), Arvydas Grybauskas
(University of Maryland), Scott Monfort (University of Arkansas), Scott Isard, (Penn State
University), Bob Mulrooney (University of Delaware), Anne Brooks Gould (Rutgers
University), Dean Malvick (University of Minnesota), and Ray Hammerschmidt (Michigan
State University); ($364,000). (lgiesler1@unl.edu)

Key Words: ASR-Sentinel Plots, Soybean Disease Survey

The project’s strategic goals are to continue the soybean rust sentinel plot monitoring
and early warning network established in 2005 in cooperation with USDA/ARS’s
ipmPIPE project. The specific activities include developing and monitoring sentinel plots
in all states; monitoring of foliar diseases during the growing season; and participating in
biweekly national conference calls on soybean rust which are being lead by Loren
Giesler and Don Hershman. All observations being made in the sentinel plots are being
entered into the USDA soybean rust web site for public viewing.


Population dynamics and epidemiology of Asian soybean rust in North
American soybean production systems; James J. Marois, David L. Wright and
Phil Harmon (University of Florida); ($200,000). (jmarois@ufl.edu)

Key Words: ASR-Management, ASR-Spore Traps, ASR-Educational Activities,
Phakopsora pachyrhizi

The primary goal of this continuing proposal is to develop relevant data and
management strategies for the control of ASR in North America. While Florida is not a
major soybean producing state, it has thousands of acres of kudzu, an alternative host of
the pathogen, and high soybean rust disease pressure. A secondary goal is to provide
facilities and support for soybean rust research with researchers throughout the U.S.

The specific objectives of this project are to:
   • Establish a multistate collaboration with scientists needing to work on soybean
      rust under high disease pressure conditions. In 2009, the research group
      provided field plots and research services for soybean rust experiments for seven
      public research groups and 12 different companies;
   • Develop field scale disease models based on temperature, relative humidity, and
      leaf wetness;


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   •   Conducted experiments to define cultivar resistance in terms of epidemiological
       parameters;
   •   Linked disease forecast and crop growth models that will tie early planted
       sentinel plot detections with commercial field management needs; and
   •   Present a class on ASR identification and management at NFREC Quincy, FL.
       for industry and researchers interested in learning more about soybean rust. The
       2009 class was held August 26-27 with over 100 people attending.

The Northern Florida Research and Educational Center also hosted the NCERA 208
meeting on September 23-24 where it was concluded that the soybean rust research
needs to continue and the NCERA 208 should be renewed after its present 2011 end
date. Jim Marois was elected Chair of NCERA 208 for 2010 and will lead the renewal
process.


Soybean aphid: Management, biocontrol, and host plant resistance; David
Ragsdale (Project Manager) and George Heimpel (University of Minnesota), Matt O’Neal
and Silvia Cianzio (Iowa State University), Chris DiFonzo and Dechun Wang (Michigan
State University), Christian Krupke (Purdue University), Mike Gray, Brian Diers and
David Voegtlin (University of Illinois), Kelley Tilmon (South Dakota State University),
John Reese, Brian McCornack and Bill Schapaugh (Kansas State University), Tom Hunt
and Tiffany Heng-Moss (University of Nebraska Lincoln), Dave Hogg and Eileen Cullen
(University of Wisconsin), Deirdre Prischmann and Janet Knodel (North Dakota State
University), Andy Michel and Rouf Mian (The Ohio State University), and Keith Hopper
and Kim Hoelmer (USDA/ARS/Newark, DE); ($439,778). (rags001@umn.edu)

Key Words: SA-Suction Traps, SA-Management, SA-Thresholds, SA-Resistance

The strategic goal is to conduct a coordinated regional soybean aphid research program
to gain insight on the management, implementation of classic biological control, and to
answer fundamental questions regarding the nature of host plant resistance soon to be
deployed commercially in 2010 to manage soybean aphid. The project provides for a
network of collaborating entomologists, plant breeders, and Extension specialists in
twelve states to develop answers to complex issues facing soybean growers in
managing the soybean aphid.

The project’s specific objectives are to:
   • Chemical control/resistant variety interactions: In 2009, researchers in ten states
       (MN, IA, SD, ND, WI, MI, OH, IL, KS, and NE) participated in a common
       experiment aimed at developing economic thresholds for use on RagI resistant
       soybean varieties. Besides developing resistant variety-appropriate thresholds,
       studies were conducted to refine thresholds for late R5 and R6 soybeans, aphid
       population modeling and sampling and screening of promising breeding lines.
   • Resistant varieties and the interaction with biocontrol agents: Aphid population
       growth rate is one of the primary underlying factors that determine economic
       thresholds, because it dictates how quickly an aphid population can be expected
       to reach economic injury levels. The presence of natural aphid enemies will slow
       the population growth rate and affect control strategies. This objective is to study
       the interaction between biocontrol agents and genetic resistant varieties. Seven
       states participated this summer in the experiment targeted at this sub-objective:

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       SD, ND, MN, KS, MI, IN, and WI. This experiment was designed to measure
       how natural enemies impact aphid population growth rate on resistant lines, and
       it served as a companion study to the objective to recalibrate thresholds for
       resistant lines.
   •   Another objective involves studying biological control: A field experiment was
       conducted in which three releases of B. communis were compared. Other
       parasitoids are being investigated with the anticipation of field release and testing
       in the near future.
   •   The last objective is to study the mechanisms of plant resistance, the plant’s
       response to aphid feeding and functional plant genomics related to host plant
       resistance.

The major unwritten benefit of this project is the effort by researchers involved in the
project to develop a coordinated approach to minimizing soybean damage due to the
soybean aphid. The researchers are working together with integrated studies to shorten
the time-lag from research results to field application to grower adaption.


The sudden death syndrome research alliance; Linda Kull (Project Manager),
Brian Diers, Terry Niblack, Glen Hartman and Steven Clough (University of Illinois),
Jason Bond, Ahmad Fakhoury and Michael Schmidt (Southern Illinois University), Silvia
Cianzio, Leonor Leandro and Madan Bhattacharyya (Iowa State University), Dean
Malvick (University of Minnesota) and George Bird (Michigan State University);
($275,698). (lkull@uiuc.edu)

Key Words: Sudden Death Syndrome SDS, Fusarium virguliforme,
SDS-SCN Interaction, SDS-Phytotoxins

Sudden death syndrome (SDS) was first observed in Arkansas in 1971 and is now
widespread across most major soybean producing areas in the United States. While the
incidence and severity of the disease varies by year and state, the annual soybean yield
losses rank SDS as a major soybean disease in soybean production areas. The primary
goal of this program is to increase soybean producer profitability by reducing yield losses
caused by SDS. This proposal will focus on four main research areas: 1) Breeding and
genetics; 2) Interactions between soybean cyst nematode (SCN) and SDS; 30
Improvements in greenhouse and field screening protocols; and 4) Production of
transgenic soybean plants with the ability to suppress the SDS pathogen toxin
movement from roots to leaves.

The project’s specific objectives are:
   • Improve the understanding of SDS resistance, especially through the
       identification of gene combinations that can increase the level of resistance in
       varieties.
   • Investigate the interaction between SCN and SDS: Because the SCN
       (Heterodera glycines) and the fungal pathogen that causes SDS (F. virguliforme)
       (Fv) are both widespread in the North Central Region and known to interact in
       the development of SDS, an improved understanding of the interaction in order to
       alleviate losses due to both pathogens. Researchers are increasing the number
       of genetic tools to answer the significance of the SDS/SCN interaction. These



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       genetic tools include developing resistant/susceptible isolines of soybean
       germplasm and pathogen isolates to decipher this interaction.
   •   Expand SDS disease screening of root versus foliar symptoms, Fv genetic
       variability, and commercial products. The main goal of this objective is to provide
       a more efficient means of germplasm evaluation for resistance to Fv. These
       studies will facilitate comparisons of various screening procedures and results
       that will elucidate areas of variation between and within laboratories. In addition,
       two screening assays will be developed that will focus on pathogen infection and
       subsequent root colonization. Additionally, root resistant versus plant resistance
       to the toxin will be investigated. This focus on root resistance is currently lacking
       in greenhouse and field assays which are primarily focused on the genetic
       resistance to the toxin.


Improving management of soybean cyst nematode through Extension
demonstration and outreach; Loren Giesler (University of Nebraska) and Carl
Bradley (University of Illinois) (Co-project leaders), Anne Dorrance (The Ohio State
University), Terry Niblack (University of Illinois), Greg Tylka (Iowa State University),
Doug Jardine (Kansas State University), Ray Hammerschmidt (Michigan State
University), Dean Malvick (University of Minnesota), Laura Sweets (University of
Missouri), Sam Markell (North Dakota State University), Lawrence Osborne (South
Dakota State University), Paul Esker (University of Wisconsin), George Bird (Michigan
State University), Jamal Faghihi (Purdue University), and Albert Tenuta (Ontario Ministry
of Agriculture, Food & Rural Affairs); ($292,000). (lgiesler1@unl.edu)

Key Words: SCN-Management, SCN-Educational Activities, SCN-HG Populations,
SCN-Genetic Resistance
The project’s goal is to improve soybean cyst nematode (SCN) management in the
North Central states. As part of this overall goal the researchers will conduct several
large scale on-farm demonstrations to provide information usable in all states which will
be summarized and distributed as fact sheets. In addition, the effects of different
resistant sources on SCN populations will be demonstrated.

In 2009, thirty-one large field plots were established in the twelve states and Ontario.
The participants tested multiple varieties containing the major SCN resistance genes. At
some locations several different soybean varieties contained the PI88788 source of
resistance.

The 2008 data were summarized and presented in a poster at the North Central
American Phytopathological Society meeting and used to develop a SCN management
fact sheet. The fact sheet was distributed to all states involved in this project and used
at many field days in the region.


Iron deficient chlorosis: Getting to the root of the problem; Phil McClean
(Project Leader) and Jay Goos (North Dakota State University), Carroll Vance and Seth
Naeve (University of Minnesota), and Randy Shoemaker and Silvia Cianzio (Iowa State
University); ($146,245). (phillip.mcclean@ndsu.edu)

Key Words: Iron Deficiency Chlorosis


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The project’s goal is to develop useful molecular markers that can identify IDC efficient
genotypes and use state of the art genomic technologies to identify genes involved in
IDC efficiency or inefficiency. The ultimate goal of the research is to isolate candidate
genes and develop markers for these genes that will aid the soybean breeder in
developing IDC resistant varieties.

Progress includes a whole genome-scan with over 250 advanced breeding lines that
was completed. These represent lines grown in 2005 and 2006. The genotypic data
from the scan was coupled with phenotypic data collected from the field, and an
association mapping analysis that was performed. The goal was to see if we could
identify regions of the soybean genome associated with iron deficiency chlorosis.
Association mapping results will be followed up by a search for a candidate gene(s) in
these regions that may be responsible for either increased or decreased IDC. Future
research will involve assaying germplasm with SNPs that are potentially associated with
iron efficiency/inefficiency based on IDC scores obtained under hydroponic conditions.


Screening for genetic resistance against soybean viruses; John H. Hill and
Steve Whitham (Iowa State University), Craig Grau (University of Wisconsin), Reza
Hajimorad (University of Tennessee), and Brian Diers (University of Illinois); ($130,000).
(johnhill@iastate.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Diseases, Bean Pod Mottle Virus, Alfalfa Mosaic Virus,
Soybean Stress-Genetic Resistance

Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV), principally transmitted by the bean leaf beetle, and has
caused a disease of major economic import in the North Central States. Alfalfa mosaic
virus (AMV), an aphid-borne virus is being detected with increasing frequency in
soybeans grown in commercial fields in the North Central States apparently because of
the introduction of the soybean aphid to these areas. As shown for aphid-transmitted
soybean mosaic virus (SMV), control of the aphid with foliar insecticide application is
unlikely to affect control of AMV. Research has suggested that foliar application of
insecticide sprays to control the beetle is also unlikely to consistently control disease
caused by BPMV. Genetic resistance is believed to constitute the most effective control
measure for disease caused by these viruses. However, until recently, research has
been unable to discover resistance to these viruses in soybean. Recently, research has
identified field tolerance to BPMV. Similarly, apparent immunity to one strain of AMV
also has been identified in soybeans. These results suggest that the search for genetic
resistance and for control of these diseases will be successful.

Specific objectives of this project include:
   • Identifying resistance to bean pod mottle (BPMV) and alfalfa mosaic (AMV)
        viruses--Breeding lines from a cross between Northrup King S19-90 and PI
        153.282 may have immunity/resistance to Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV). Seed
        from this cross is being screened for resistance to BPMV using a BPMV
        engineered to express the BAR gene for herbicide resistance as a selectable
        marker.    Preliminary screening results indicate that some lines express
        resistance to BPMV. Additional seed has been produced in the greenhouse
        studies and is being screened.


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   •   Complete development of antibody-based assay for detection and quantification
       of alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) and complete the analysis of soybean tissues from
       different plant parts to determine proper sampling for AMV detection. They have
       collected all the seeds from the soybean cultivars Colfax, Lee and Williams 82
       infected with five strains of the virus; they plan to germinate the seeds in the
       growth chamber; and screen the seedlings for the presence of AMV by
       symptoms and by ELISA. This will provide valuable information regarding the
       efficiency of AMV transmission by seed.
   •   Production of coat protein of the AMV strains in bacteria for antibody production--
       These experiments will compare the antibody protein produced in bacterium
       rather than in a plant to determine which is a better antigen to inject into the
       rabbits to produce high quality antiserum.


Construction of a DNA-based virus induced gene silencing system for
functional genomics of soybean seed development; Leslie L. Domier (USDA-
ARS, University of Illinois) and Said A. Ghabrial (Department of Plant Pathology
University of Kentucky); ($62,560). (ldomier@illinois.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Mosaic Virus (SMV), Tobacco Streak Virus (TSV),
Virus-Induced Gene Silencing

As one of the most important seed crops in the world, an understanding of the regulatory
networks that shape the biochemical properties of soybean seed are becoming
increasingly important. Virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a powerful tool for
functional genomics that permits inactivation of individual genes or closely related gene
families. Inactivation of genes through VIGS is most effective in cells where recombinant
viruses replicate. Tobacco streak virus (TSV), a virus that commonly infects soybean,
readily invades meristematic tissues and developing soybean embryos, which results in
high rates of seed transmission (often >50%). Consequently, VIGS vectors based on
TSV would permit the analysis of gene function in tissue types (e.g., shoot apical and
floral meristems) and developmental stages (e.g., developing seed) that would be very
difficult to affect using VIGS vectors currently available for soybean, which do not invade
and replicate within these tissues.

The objective of this project is to develop a DNA-based VIGS system that will facilitate
functional genomics of soybean genes involved in seed and meristem development by
taking advantage of the invasiveness of Tobacco streak virus. The specific objectives
are to:
    • Evaluate insert locations in TSV-based VIGS vectors;
    • Define factors controlling production of small interfering RNAs;
    • Enhance stability of TSV vector DNAs; and
    • Optimize delivery of TSV vector DNAs.


Development of high-throughput DNA-based gene silencing technology for
soybeans; John Hill, Steve Whitman, Leonor Leandro and Thomas Baum (Iowa State
University), Randy Shoemaker (USDA/ARS/Iowa State University), Kerry Pedley
(USDA/ARS/Fort Detrick), Craig Grau (University of Wisconsin) and Dean Malvick


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(University of Minnesota); ($125,000). (A project funded jointly with the United Soybean
Board). (johnhill@iastate.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Diseases, Bean Pod Mottle Virus (PBMV),
Virus-Induced Gene Silencing, Soybean Stress-Genetic Resistance

The project’s goal is to understand the genetic pathways involved in stress resistance to
enable the development of soybean germplasm with new defensive features that will
lead to the breeding of soybean varieties that respond less to the variation of growing
conditions. The specific objectives are to:
    • Optimize BPMV-DNA-based vector for developing of a virus-based high-
        throughput gene silencing system;
    • Use high-throughput gene silencing to identify soybean genes involved in
        resistance to biotic and abiotic stress; and
    • Select appropriate genes for development of soybean germplasm with new
        defensive features.

A meeting of all collaborators from multiple states/institutions was held in Ames, IA at
Iowa State University on June 24, 2009. Approximately 28 scientists were present to
review all data, discuss difficulties, suggest alternatives, coordinate studies and plan
further initiatives.


Managing frogeye leaf spot and charcoal rot in the North Central Region;
Jason Bond and Michael Schmidt (Southern Illinois University), Curtis Hill and Glen
Hartman (USDA/University of Illinois), X.B. Yang and Thomas Harrington (Iowa State
University), Doug Jardine and Charles Little (Kansas State University), Scott Abney
(USDA/Purdue University), A. Mengistu (USDA/ARS Jackson, TN), D. Phillips
(University of Georgia), Grover Shannon and Allen Wrather (University of Missouri), L.
Giesler (University of Nebraska), Roux Mian (USDA/The Ohio State University) and
Melvin Newman (University of Tennessee); ($190,000). (jbond@siu.edu)

Key Words: Frogeye Leaf Spot, Cercospora sojina, Charcoal Rot, Macrophomina
phaseolina, Soybean Disease Management

The goal of this nine state project is to develop management options for two soybean
diseases, frogeye leaf spot (FLS) and charcoal rot. Specifically, researchers are
evaluating genetic resistance to these diseases, developing techniques for assaying
resistance, characterizing prominent pathotypes of the pathogens, and updating
technical information on the incidence, severity and management. For both diseases,
host resistance is the focus of the group to deliver long-term management options for the
producer.

The specific objectives are to:
   • Evaluate resistance to frogeye leaf spot and charcoal rot in released varieties
      and elite germplasm;
   • Develop cultivars with resistance to frogeye leaf spot and charcoal rot;
   • Verify the greenhouse screening protocol for resistance to charcoal rot;



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   •   Characterize prominent pathotypes of C. sojina and M. phaseolina isolates
       collected in this region that are capable of producing symptoms on the cultivar
       Davis (Rcs3 gene).
   •   Review and update Plant Health Initiative Educational Materials: Information
       about FLS and CR on this web site was reviewed and appears suitable.
   •   Develop annual report on the impact of the diseases in each state: The impact of
       diseases on soybean yield in 2009 is being assessed.
   •   Develop chemical management strategies for frogeye leaf spot: Field trials at
       MU, SIU, UT are determining the effects of foliar applied fungicides on FLS. At
       SIU, an additional study is evaluating the impact of inoculation date (growth
       stage) and fungicide application date on disease severity and soybean yield.
   •   Identify northern cultivars and breeding lines carrying the Rcs3 gene using SNP
       markers; and
   •   Determine the role of drought stress, soil physical and biological properties and
       aggressiveness of M. phaseolina isolates on charcoal rot incidence and severity.


Enhancing disease resistance in soybean through the tools of
biotechnology; Tom Clemente, Jack Morris and Jim Alfano (University of Nebraska)
and Gray Stacey and Jim English (University of Missouri); ($90,000).
(tclement1@unl.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Disease Resistance, Soybean Bioengineering

The program will evaluate transgenic approaches to combat aphids, nematode, viral and
fungal pathogenesis. The resultant genetic material from this program can then be
evaluated as a component for the integrated pest management practices currently being
optimized through support of the NCSRP.

Project Objectives are designed to expand the understanding of the underlying
molecular cues of plant/parasite interactions. Specifically, the objectives are to:
   • Express zoospore encystment peptide in soybean as a means to block the life
       cycle of Phytophthora sojae;
   • Express a tobacco RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RDR6) in soybean as a
       means to maintain soybean’s virus surveillance mechanism;
   • Introduce two bacterial derived insect toxins into soybean as a means to combat
       nematode predation;
   • Evaluate an in planta RNAi strategy to perturb aphids feeding; and
   • Use a candidate gene approach to clone genes mapped to known QTLs
       associated with fungal resistance in soybeans.


QTLs for Phytophthora sojae, where are they and what are the mechanisms
that control this resistance? Anne Dorrance (Project Leader) and Steve St. Martin
(The Ohio State University), Rouf Mian (USDA/ARS/OARDC, Wooster, OH), Grover
Shannon and Henry Nguyen (University of Missouri); ($40,000). (dorrance.1@osu.edu)

Key Words: Phytophthora Root Rot, Soybean Disease Resistance


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Phytophthora sojae continue to plague parts of the North Central region, primarily due to
adaptions by this pathogen to the current resistance genes that are in today’s cultivars.
New sources of Rps genes have been identified, but their introgression into high yielding
elite lines has been slow primarily due to the “wild” nature of the sources of resistance.
Also, the levels of partial resistance have “eroded” over the past decade due to the
introduction of novel traits. As a result where P. sojae is a problem, late season
development of Phytophthora stem rot is becoming more common. Late season stand
loss, contributes substantially more to yield loss, since plants can not compensate as
well and replanting is no longer an option.

Partial resistance (also known as tolerance or field resistance) is a multi-gene resistance
trait in soybean. While this form of resistance to P. sojae has been studied for a long
time, only two QTLs have been published from the cultivar Conrad. The QTLs were
identified on soybean linkage group (LG) D1b and F. Numerous new sources of partial
resistance have been identified in the soybean germplasm collection and a number of
these segregating recombinant inbred populations developed from these sources are
ready for evaluation. The objectives of this project are to:
     • Identify quantitative traits loci (QLT) associated with partial resistance (tolerance)
         to P. sojae;
     • Identify the resistance mechanism associated with these QTL;
     • Evaluate a Conrad x Sloan recombinant inbred population via EcoTilling to
         identify specific transcription factors or other genes that are linked to this trait;
         and
     • Develop an assay based on genes or gene markers that control the expression
         for partial resistance.


Plant Health Initiative; David Wright (Iowa Soybean Association); ($273,797).
(dwright@iasoybeans.com)
Key Words: Soybean Educational Activities, Soybean Diseases, Soybean Insects,
Soybean Cyst Nematode, Soybean Websites

The goal of this project is to increase grower awareness of solutions for disease and
insect problems by transferring knowledge gained from checkoff-funded activities to
soybean producers through the electronic and print media. The project will continue to
position PHI as an authoritative resource of plant health information.

The specific objectives of the project are:
• Provide science-based information to soybean producers that can be used to reduce
   soybean yield loss from disease and insects;
• Sponsor conferences and workshops that highlight current soybean disease
   research topics
• Develop educational materials that will help soybean growers better manage
   soybean diseases and pests; and
• Facilitate and coordinate research and information transfer between industry,
   university, media and Midwest soybean growers.




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Compendium of Soybean Diseases; Glen Hartman (USDA/ARS/University of
Illinois); ($5,000). (ghartman@illinois.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Educational Activities, Soybean Diseases

The funding will be used to help published an updated edition of the Compendium.



Northeast Region
Soybean IPM educational program: On-farms in New York State; Kenneth
Wise and J. Keith Waldron (Cornell Cooperative Extension, Integrated Pest
Management, Cornell University); ($16,148). (klw24@cornell.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Production Management, Soybean Educational Programs,
Integrated Pest Management

Soybean pests in New York State have been generally restricted to weeds, and minor
insects, diseases and pests that affect emergence, vegetative and reproductive stages
of crop development. Given the limited nature of the pest in the Northeastern U.S.,
many pests have been controlled, or voided, through an integrated approach based on
selecting varieties for the maturity group, disease resistance and commercial commodity
attributes and timely implementation of sound agronomic practices including crop
rotation. Scouting programs for pests and crop condition voided many potential
problems.

With the potential new threat of Asian Soybean Rust, new infestations of bean leaf
beetles in New York State, occasional severe pest outbreaks and continued weed
management challenges, the researchers involved in this project believe an integrated
pest management (IPM) and integrated crop management (ICP) outreach programs are
crucial for soybean growers.     New pest challenges and questions from soybean
producers about better management solutions have led to expanded programs to
provide IPM and ICM information.

The objectives of this project are to:
       • Conduct on-farm season-long IPM education programs for soybean
           producers across New York State. This program will feature all agronomic
           and economic aspects of soybean production with emphasis on pest
           identification, biology and management of critical pests including Asian
           soybean rust and soybean aphid.
       • Increase soybean IPM awareness for producers where soybean production is
           new and acreage is limited through strategically timed IPM and ICM-targeted
           grower field meetings; and
       • Evaluate the impact of education programs by measuring the level of
           adoption of IPM and ICP practices by participating soybean producers.




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Enhancing soybean seed yield by prolonging the photosynthetic longevity
of leaves; Susheng Gan (Horticulture Department, Cornell University); ($29,490).
(sg288@cornell.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Leaf Senescence, Induce Gene Silencing

This is a continuing research project that is showing leaf senescence limits soybean
yield. The research group has identified a master regulator of leaf senescence in
soybean called GmNAP. They have produced transgenic soybean plants that display
delayed leaf senescence, increased seed yield and biomass.

The overall goal of this project is to evaluate these soybean lines for agronomic traits
including seed yield, oil levels and nutritional and other chemical components of the
seed growth. The specific objective of this year’s efforts is to make sure the high yield
soybean plants do not have altered gene components expected for the master regular
gene for leaf senescence which will impact regulatory approval. The researcher will use
RNA gel bot analyses and real time polymerase chain reaction to monitor the expression
of GmNAP and its closely related homologous genes in different tissues at different
development stages (e.g., young, expanding leaves, fully expanded mature leaves,
early, mid and late senescence leaves).


Establishment of soybean rust sentinel plots in Florida; James Marois and
David Wright (North Florida Research & Education Center, University of Florida);
($10,000). (jmarois@ufl.edu)

Key Words: Asian Soybean Rust (ASR), ASR-Sentinel Plots

The goal of the state-based components of the ipmPIPE is to provide useful information
for integrated pest management (IPM) through a national network with information
associated with IPM for pests, which includes soybean rust. The research team will
monitor five over-wintering plots for ten weeks during the winter and 38 weeks during the
growing season. At each observation, 100 leaves are collected randomly, incubated for
at least 24 hours, and then examined with a dissecting microscope for soybean rust
pustules.



Southern Soybean Research Program
Rust resistant Roundup Ready 2 Yield™ soybean varieties that produce
superior protein meal; H. Roger Boerma (Crop and Soil Sciences, University of
Georgia) and Vince Pantalone (Plant and Soil Science, University of Tennessee);
($50,000). (rboerma@uga.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Breeding-Composition; Soybean Composition-Improving Protein,
Soybean Composition-Reducing Phytate Phosphorus,

In June of 2008 Monsanto provided the research team with populations they had created
by crossing elite, high yielding University of Georgia (MG VII and VIII) and University of

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Tennessee (MG V) lines with a Monsanto line containing their new glyphosate herbicide
tolerance transgene (referred to as Roundup Ready 2 Yield™ or RR2Y™). Monsanto’s
new RR2Y™ technology provides both glyphosate tolerance and a reported 8 to 12%
increase in seed yield. This will be our new platform for the development of superior
yielding, multiple pest resistant varieties with traits that enhance soybean’s value in
poultry and swine rations.

Seed from maturity group (MG) V-VIII varieties currently available in the Southeast
contain an average 20% oil and 41% protein on a dry-weight basis, but manufacturers of
livestock and poultry feeds would prefer a somewhat higher protein variety with
improved levels of sulfur containing amino acids for the production of a soybean meal.
Although increasing protein levels in soybean seeds is straightforward, the strong
negative correlation between protein concentration and both oil and yield has been a
major obstacle. Soybean researchers at the University of Tennessee and the University
of Georgia have identified regions of the soybean genome harboring genes for increased
protein and improved levels of sulfur-containing amino acids. For example, a single
gene from ‘Danbaekkong’, a South Korean tofu variety, was shown to increased protein
content by 3.5% (46.0% vs. 42.5%) when it was transferred into the MG VII variety
Benning.

The project’s objective is to improve the value of Southeastern-produced soybean seed
by increasing protein content and quality, decreasing phytic acid levels, and
incorporating Asian rust resistance or SCN resistance into RR2Y® varieties. The
breeding effort will concentrate on improving maturity group (MG) V to early MG VIII.

A combination of phenotypic and DNA marker screening will be used to detect the
presence of single genes conditioning traits for RR2Y™, seed protein, phytate, SCN
resistance, and Asian soybean rust resistance among progeny lines. This will facilitate
the creation of new forward crosses, backcrosses, and convergent crosses for targeted
development of a new MG V and early MG VI varieties for Southeastern producers.

Southeastern soybean growers will be the primary beneficiaries of this research through
their reduced production costs and higher seed yields of new Asian soybean rust
resistant, glyphosate tolerant soybean varieties that are of greater value to the poultry
and swine industries. A higher quality protein meal will better suit the requirements of
feed manufacturers and poultry and swine producers, while reduction of phosphorus
contamination in the environment will benefit communities in the vicinity of poultry and
swine production areas.



United Soybean Board
Coordination of regional soybean cyst nematode (SCN) test; Brian Diers
(University of Illinois-Urbana/Champaign); ($57,949). (bdiers@illinois.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Variety Testing, SCN-Genetic Resistance, SCN-HG Populations,
Soybean Breeding




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The funds are requested to support the coordination of regional testing of maturity group
(MG) 0-IV SCN resistant breeding lines developed by the public sector. The activities
involved in this project include:
    • Communicating with soybean breeders to solicit entries for the tests;
    • Coordinating the distribution of seed for the tests;
    • Evaluating breeding lines for resistance to two SCN populations in centralized
       greenhouse environments;
    • Evaluating soil samples from each test location to determine the HG type of the
       nematodes; and
    • Summarizing, publishing, and distributing the test data to public and private
       soybean breeders.


Application of biotechnology to control of the soybean cyst nematode:
SCN parasitism genes; Thomas Baum (Iowa State University), Eric Davis (North
Carolina State University) and Melissa Goellner Mitchum (University of Missouri);
($272,000). (tbaum@iastate.ent)

Key Words: SCN-Genetic Resistance, Induced Gene Silencing

This proposal is to fund a well-organized and productive team of collaborative
researchers that has as its main goal to develop unique and durable resistance to SCN
in soybean. The researchers will continue to identify and characterize the genes in SCN
that promote its parasitism of soybean and are developing technologies to inhibit these
genes and disrupt the infection process. With previous USB support, their research has
progressed to the level that some novel synthetic SCN resistance genes are already
being incorporated into soybean germplasm for testing in collaboration with the USB-
funded Soybean Tissue Culture and Genetic Engineering Center. Along with the
screening of soybean lines from for SCN resistance, the researchers will conduct a
series of experiments to optimize the efficacy of the synthetic SCN resistance genes.


Compile estimates of soybean yield suppression due to diseases in the
USA during 2009; Allen Wrather (University of Missouri); ($18,000).
(wratherj@missouri.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Disease Survey

Soybean has been and continues to be a very valuable crop in the United States.
Unfortunately, diseases suppress soybean yields in the USA each year, and therefore,
reduce farmer income. In 2008, diseases suppressed U.S. soybean production an
estimated 458.5 million bushels. Research must focus on management of diseases that
cause extensive losses, especially when funds for research are limited. Clearly,
knowledge of the losses caused by various soybean diseases is essential when
prioritizing research objectives and budgets. Our objective is to determine the major
soybean disease problems in the United States during 1996 to 2009 and to provide this
information to help agencies that fund research and scientists focus and coordinate
research efforts.



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The specific objective of this project is to collect estimates of soybean yields suppressed
by diseases for the United States during 2009. These estimates will be solicited from
scientists within each state. The results of this project will be submitted for farm press
publication, published on the World Wide Web, and presented at scientific meetings.
Summaries will be submitted for publication in scientific journals. Companies such as
Monsanto and Pioneer, magazines such as Progressive Farmer, and scientific
organizations such as the North American Soybean Breeders and Southern Soybean
Disease Workers have requested summaries of these data. These requests indicate that
the data are in demand. This project is important to the USA soybean industry. As a
result of more research on diseases that have the greatest impact on soybean
production in the USA, scientists will be able to more quickly develop management
strategies for control of soybean diseases.


Quality traits regional test; George Graef (University of Nebraska); ($76,796).
(ggraef@uninotes.uni.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Composition, Better Bean Initiative

This project coordinates and facilitates cooperative evaluation of soybean strains from
state, USDA, and commercial soybean breeding programs throughout the USA that are
improving compositional quality of the soybean. All programs with advanced material
that is ready for wide-area testing will be encouraged to participate. The cooperative
regional testing will interface with the Better Bean Initiative (BBI) breeding programs to
provide centralized data analysis and summary for agronomic performance and quality
traits. All entries in the cooperative regional tests will be evaluated for basic composition
traits at the Grain Quality Laboratory at Iowa State University. Additional quality trait
information from BBI participants will be incorporated into the data summaries. Regional
performance information will be summarized in printed and electronic formats. The
cooperative, multiple-location testing also allows us to obtain important information on
stability and genotype-environment interaction effects for agronomic and quality traits,
which is essential if we are going to meet minimum specifications for certain market
needs.

Anticipated benefits from this project include improved precision in data for important
agronomic and quality traits, and better and timely access to information for all
cooperators. Improved access to information and germplasm for soybean breeding
programs will enhance genetic gain and progress in development of soybean varieties
that enhance productivity, compositional quality, and profitability for soybean producers.


USB/AOCS soybean quality traits (SQT) program; Richard Cantrill (American Oil
Chemists Society); ($490,828). (rcantril@socs.org)

Key Words: Soybean Composition, Soybean Quality Trait Program

The Soybean Quality Traits (SQT) Program was initiated in 2002 with the goal of
establishing a comprehensive system of quality assurance for methods of analysis used
to quantify the improvement of soybean quality constituents. AOCS methods were
established as the reference methods for the determination of oil and protein content,
moisture and fatty acid composition. Participants indicated that these were the industry

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standards and a proficiency scheme (the Analytical Standards Program (ASP) was
developed, analyzing oil and protein content and moisture and fatty acid composition via
wet chemistry. The Analytical Standards Program allows laboratories to have all the
necessary tools for accreditation for management programs such as ISO 17025.
However, other analytical techniques are in use and give a range of values for
secondary calibrations, so in FY07 two NIR series, whole soybeans and soybean meal,
were added to ASP and both series continue to gain participants. As interest increases,
the ASP will expand to include amino acids, sugars and phytate results reporting. The
SQT has also begun to explore wet chemistry amino acid methods. SQT is working with
government, industry and academic collaborators for a method with improved analytical
throughput.


Development of nematode resistant long-juvenile cultivars to enhance
soybean profitability; Emerson Shipe (Clemson University); ($18,345).
(eshipe@clemson.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Breeding, SCN-Genetic Resistance,
Soybean Breeding-Long Juvenile Trait

Initial crosses at Clemson University were made in 1992 to incorporate the long-juvenile
(LJ) trait into productive, nematode-resistant lines adapted to South Carolina and the
southeastern U.S. Beginning in 2003; hybridizations have been made        between       LJ
breeding lines and elite South Carolina glyphosate-tolerant lines. Current populations
are being advanced and lines will be selected for future seed yield, agronomic, and
nematode evaluations. This project will:
     • Evaluate this unique germplasm for resistance to two major pests, soybean cyst
         nematode and southern root-knot nematode, and identify agronomically superior
         genotypes for potential cultivar releases;
     • Incorporate the glyphosate resistance trait into nematode-resistant, high-yielding,
         long-juvenile lines; and
     • Determine economic advantages or disadvantages of LJ genotypes when
         planted very early or late as compared to a conventional, full-season soybean
         crop and double-cropped soybean.


Harnessing soybean innate immunity to reduce yield losses due to fungal
pathogens; Gary Stacey (University of Missouri); ($100,656). (staceyg@missouri.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Disease Resistance, Soybean Innate Immunity Response

Although individual fungal pathogens cause sporadic and regionally localized yield
losses, annual yield losses due to all fungal pathogens are estimated to exceed those
due to soybean cyst nematode infection. In 2006, the yield losses due to fungal diseases
were estimated to be 6.9 million tons (Wrather and Koenning, 2006). Hence, fungal
pathogens represent a major threat to US soybean production. Control of fungal
pathogens can be difficult, often requiring treatment with fungicides. Although effective,
the economic costs of fungicides and increasing concern about their environmental
effects suggest the need for alternative control methods.


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The deployment of resistant cultivars can be an effective means to control fungal
diseases. Resistant cultivars usually have a single gene, resistance (R) gene, that
confers resistance to a specific pathogen, usually only to a particular genotype (i.e.,
race) of the pathogen. However, in some cases, R gene-mediated resistance does not
provide sufficient resistance to reduce yield loss. In other cases, the pathogen often
evolves to overcome this resistance and ultimately regains the ability to infect resistant
cultivars. In the case of some priority pathogens (e.g., charcoal rot), no effective R-gene
mediated resistance is available. In the case of soybean rust (SBR), four resistance
genes (Rpp1 to Rpp4) were identified in soybean but their effectiveness in the field was
rapidly lost (Hartwig, 1986). However, some cultivars do show some resistance. Often
this is referred to as 'partial resistance' (leading to slow rusting in the case of SBR). In
these cases, in the absence of effective R-gene immunity, the innate immunity system of
the plant provides sufficient resistance to provide significant yield protection. However, in
the case of soybean, little has been done to harness this innate immunity system, which
can be effective against a broad range of fungal pathogens. This proposal seeks to:
    • Define quantitative trait loci (QTL) that control the soybean innate immunity
         response;
    • Identify those previously mapped QTLs that define innate immunity loci;
    • Identify markers for marker assisted selection of the beneficial alleles, and
    • Test the benefits of enhanced innate immunity in protecting soybean from yield
         losses due to a variety of fungal pathogens.


Identification and utilization of resistance to soybean rust; Brian Diers
(University of Illinois-Urbana/Champaign); ($543,568). (bdiers@illinois.edu)

Key Words: Asian Soybean rust (ASR), Soybean Germplasm Screening,
Soybean Gene Mapping

The research objectives for this project include:
   • Coordinating field-testing activities in the southern U.S. to test exotic germplasm
       and improved experimental lines for resistance to soybean rust;
   • Continuing an active program that started in 2006 to collect, purify, characterize,
       and maintain a collection of U.S. soybean rust isolates. This collection is needed
       so that the diversity of U.S. rust isolates can be  determined       based      on
       inoculations to resistant soybean genotypes. This collection will be important to
       soybean researchers and breeders as they study the genetics of resistance and
       develop resistant varieties; and
   • Mapping rust resistance genes and breed mapped genes into germplasm and
       varieties adapted to the northern, mid-southern, and southeastern soybean
       production regions.


A gene for insect resistance from soybean; Wayne Parrott (University of
Georgia); ($33,200). (wparrott@uga.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Insect Genetic Resistance

Insect resistance is becoming increasingly important in agriculture, particularly as the
use of insecticides increases production costs and is perceived as having negative

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environmental consequences. In the case of soybean, defoliating insects can cause
severe damage in some years. These        insects range from beetles (bean leaf,
Mexican bean, Japanese, and redheaded flea) in the Midwest, to caterpillars
(velvetbean, armyworms, soybean loopers, and corn earworms) in the South.

This project is to finalize a study that has been on-going for over ten years. Seed monies
were initially provided by the Georgia Agricultural Commodity Commission for Soybean,
and the bulk of the work was carried out with three cycles of funding from USDA NRI
Competitive Grants program. At this point, the NRI is more interested with genomic
approaches that target multiple genes, rather than with research on single genes.

There is a gene in soybean called QTL-M that helps give soybean resistance against a
broad range of defoliating insects. Although the mode of action of this gene remains
unknown, this gene is unique in that it gives resistance against defoliating beetles and
caterpillars, not just one or the other. Besides leading to a better understanding of this
gene, which could help conventional breeding approaches with it, there are many
opportunities to improve its function. For example, a better promoter could be added to
the gene to improve its expression, or a sap-specific promoter could be added to the
gene to provide resistance against sucking insects, such as aphids or stink bugs.
However, before any of this can be done, this gene must be identified and cloned.


Rapid development of environmentally stable mid-oleic soybeans; Andrea
Cardinal (North Carolina State University); ($98,718). (Andrea_Cardinal@nscu.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Winter Nursery, Soybean Composition, Modifying Oil,

With this project an off-season continuous breeding nursery will continued in Puerto Rico
to aid in breeding mid-oleic soybeans. Mobile lights (diesel powered) are being used to
extend the day length in fields where there are no stationary lights. This permits rotation
of the nursery to different fields. This program is associated with two molecular genetic
labs, one at the University of Georgia and one at the University of Missouri, which
provides the technology needed to conduct a marker assisted backcrossing program.


Identification of molecular genes that regulate soybean oil content through
soybean near-transcript analysis; Carroll Vance USDA/ARS-University of
Minnesota); ($43,251). (carroll.vance@ars.udsa.gov)

Key Words: Soybean Composition, Soybean Gene Expression, Modifying Oil

This project is part of a collaboration to discover the molecular basis of high oil content in
soybean through a genomic approach. It addresses specific goals outlined at the
Soybean Genomics Research Strategic Planning Meeting for 2008-2012 sponsored by
USB. Specifically, this project will identify gene expression differences between near-
isogenic soybean lines that contrast in seed oil content with regard to alternative of
soybean near-transcript variations and long non-protein coding transcripts. Analysis of
isogenic lines this high-throughput transcriptome sequencing data will also improve soy
genome annotation with coverage outside of the currently predicted gene models. The



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long-term goal is to enhance seed oil content in elite commercial germplasm through
genomic research.


Tagging Rag1 virulence in the soybean aphid with DNA markers; Curt Hill
(University of Illinois-Urbana/Champaign); ($59,918). (curthill@illinois.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Aphid (SA), SA-Genetic Resistance, SA-Biotypes

This proposal utilizes the information produced to date on soybean aphid resistance
genes and soybean aphid biotypes produced in a previous USB project. In that project,
two soybean resistance genes and three soybean aphid biotypes were identified. In
addition, this proposal utilizes information and aphid clones produced in a North Central
Regional IPM project that produced viable offspring in a cross between two aphid
biotypes, and will specifically determine the inheritance of virulence in biotype 2 towards
Rag1.

The primary objective of this proposed project is to tag the gene or genes responsible for
the virulence of soybean aphid biotype 2 on the soybean Rag1 resistance gene with
soybean aphid DNA markers closely associated with virulence. Soybean aphid clones
segregating for virulence on Rag1, derived from the cross between soybean aphid
biotypes 1 and 2, will be screened with simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers to find at
least one DNA marker closely associated with Rag1 virulence.

The potential for a soybean aphid population to colonize soybean cultivars with the Rag1
resistance gene could be estimated after screening aphids for markers closely
associated with virulence on Rag1. This information could conceivably be used to
develop a strategy for deployment of resistance genes that is part of a broad multi-state,
sustainable, integrated management program helping to minimize the adverse
environmental effects and producer input cost of insecticides applied to control soybean
aphid populations in the soybean crop.


Application of biotechnology to the control of soybean cyst nematode:
Genetic analysis of soybean cyst nematode; Kris Lambert (University of Illinois);
($150,800). (knlamber@illinois.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Cyst Nematode (SCN), SCN-Analysis, SCN-Virulence Genes

Currently, SCN virulence is assessed by growing a population of SCN taken from a field
on the seven SCN resistance indicator lines in a temperature-controlled greenhouse.
The Hg-Type test, while effective, requires numerous SCN eggs and takes one to two
months to conduct. If this Hg-Type test could be conducted faster, cheaper and on
smaller numbers of nematodes, personalized matching of field SCN to the most effective
source of SCN resistance could be conducted to reap the maximum benefits from the
SCN resistant soybean. This molecular Hg-Type test could be rapidly conducted if the
SCN virulence genes were identified. In summary, our ultimate vision for this project is
the ability to quickly and cost effectively monitors SCN populations for the buildup of
highly virulent biotypes, this will allow rotation strategies to be devised that will limit the
accumulation of these virulent nematodes. This type of SCN management will protect

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valuable nematode-resistant soybean germplasm and will provide a sustainable,
environmentally friendly method of SCN management.


Application of biotechnology to control of the soybean cyst nematode’
subgroup: Soybean resistance genes; Khalid Meksem (Southern Illinois
University-Carbondale); ($301,584). (meksemk@siu.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Cyst Nematode (SCN), SCN-Virulence Genes

Because the complex interaction between SCN and its soybean host is an essential
feature of the disease, the approaches most likely to be successful in controlling the
disease are those that consider both sides of the interaction. Over the course of the
project "Application of Biotechnology to the Control of Soybean Cyst Nematode", an
interdependency has developed among the investigators on both the plant and
nematode sides that reflect the disease interaction between SCN and soybean plants. In
order to enhance focus on the objectives of our research, we have identified the
following four research subgroups: 1) SCN parasitism genes 2) SCN genomics and
virulence genes 3) soybean resistance genes 4) the soybean response to SCN infection
Continued interaction of and collaboration between all subgroups is critical for successful
solution of the SCN problem. For example, the ability to determine the role of soybean
resistance genes against different populations of SCN will require the interaction of all
four subgroups. Many collaborative interactions have emerged between project
members over the previous funding periods and these collaborations are critical to the
success of this project.

The Soybean Resistance Genes Subgroup is working toward the identification of novel
genes for resistance to SCN, the development of friendly markers to help speed up the
introgression of SCN disease resistance genes into elite cultivars. In this period,
germplasm and markers will be released. Further, new genes for resistance will be
delimited and discovered.


Application of biotechnology to the control of soybean cyst nematode:
Group 4; Ben Matthews (USDA/ARS-Beltsville Agricultural Research Center);
($350,000). (ben.matthews@ars.usda.gov)

Key Words: Soybean Cyst Nematode (SCN), SCN-Virulence Genes

The project "Application of Biotechnology to the Control of Soybean Cyst Nematode" is
an interdependent project divided into four subgroups: (1) SCN parasitism genes; (2)
SCN genomics and virulence genes; (3) soybean resistance genes; and (4) the soybean
response to SCN infection.

This project has two major goals:
   • Identify, isolate and characterize genes and proteins to improve resistance of
       soybean to SCN.
   • Test candidate genes to broaden resistance of soybean to SCN using methods
       to enhance the expression of genes that increase resistance or to decrease
       expression of genes to determine their function in SCN resistance.

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Expanding the NIR Consortium; James Orf (University of Minnesota); ($50,000).
(orfxx001@umn.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Composition, Near Intra-red Spectrometry (NIR)

We have been developing a group of institutions (universities, companies and
organizations) interested in working together to develop NIR equations for the various
constituents in soybean seed and soybean meal. The initial objective was to develop
NIR equations for use in breeding and/or evaluation programs to be able to predict
relative differences in the composition of soybean seed. There has also been interest
expressed by processors to develop NIR equations for soybean meal. This aspect
received some attention in FY 2009 and will be the main thrust in FY 2010. This helps
get closer to the final end user of soybean meal (protein), the animal producer. In order
to develop equations that are as good as possible at predicting the composition of
soybean seed as well as soybean meal it is necessary to obtain and get wet lab analysis
on soybean samples that have the largest phenotypic variability for each constituent.
This means samples with large genetic variability, samples grown and processed in
different environments (different locations and different years), and samples from as
large a geographic area as possible where soybeans are grown and processed.


Developing soybean resistance to soybean rust using biotechnology; Ben
Matthews (USDA/ARS-Beltsville Agricultural Research Center); ($90,000).
(ben.matthews@ars.usda.gov)

Key Words: Asian Soybean Rust (ASR), ASR-Genetic Resistance

The specific goals of this project are to:
   • Identify candidate soybean rust genes expressed at certain stages of its life
      cycle;
   • Clone candidate genes of interest;
   • Initiate testing of candidate gene constructs; and
   • Continue to develop virus induced gene silencing and other tools so we can
      quickly test candidate gene constructs to determine if resistance against soybean
      rust is conferred.


Discovery and characteristics of candidate genes for resistance to soybean
cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) in soybean; Henry Nguyen (University of
Missouri); ($75,484). (nguyenhenry@missouri.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Gene Mapping, Soybean Gene Expression,
SCN-Genetic Resistance

The overall goals of this project are to fine-map important QTL regions for resistance to
multi-SCN races; to identify and clone candidate genes for functional characterization.
Candidate gene-based genetic markers will then be developed and used for marker-
assisted breeding and germplasm development.
The research objectives for this project are to:


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   •   Fine-map QTL regions and discover candidate genes in the confirmed QTL
       regions conditioning broad-based resistance to multi-race of SCN. These efforts
       include novel QTL and known QTL (the rhg1 and Rhg4 loci);
   •   Clone and characterize identified candidate genes using functional analysis and
       genetic transformation approaches to enhance the understanding and elucidation
       of the mechanism of host plant resistance to SCN;
   •   Develop gene-based genetic markers (SNP and Indels), which will be useful for
       the development of resistant soybean germplasm through marker-assisted
       breeding; and
   •   Continue the identification of new broad-based resistant sources for SCN.


Multiple disease resistant soybeans: Gene discovery and transfer of
disease resistance into soybean; Schuyler Korban (University of Illinois-
Urbana/Champaign); ($183,827). (Korban@express.cities.uiuc.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Disease Resistance, Soybean Gene Expression

This project will build on a current USB proposal and expand the efforts to identify genes
for resistance to various economically important diseases of soybean, including sudden
death syndrome (SDS), Sclerotinia stem rot, brown stem rot, Rhizoctonia root rot,
charcoal rot, Phytophthora rot, soybean aphid, and SCN.


Screening 18,000 experimental commerce soybean lines and development
of cultivars with tolerance to stink bugs in the Southern USA; Jim Heitholt
(Texas A&M University); ($18,000). (j-heitholt@tamu.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Germplasm Screening, Soybean Insect-Genetic Resistance

Stink bugs continue to create production problems for US soybean growers. During 2007
and 2008, our research group screened 35 experimental lines in the field and several
plant introductions under controlled conditions for tolerance to stink bugs. Using
environments in Arkansas, Louisiana, and Texas we identified four genotypes that had
less damage to stinkbug than the other 31 lines. In 2009, we are continuing to screen
lines and we are also developing progeny from crosses using these lines.

In 2010, we propose to grow populations of soybean derived from crosses between the
stink bug tolerant lines and high yielding experimental lines adapted to the Mid-South
USA.


Domestic crop survey component of AMMS; Nick Bajjalieh (Integrative Nutrition,
Inc.); ($97,140). (nlb@4ini.com)

Key Words: Soybean Composition, Soybean Market Studies

Defining the component-market opportunity for U.S. soybeans is the focus of this
proposal and the previous projects upon which it builds. The Component-Market
opportunity is a function of: 1) The extent to which those soybean components, most

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associated with end-use value, vary within the U.S. soybean crop; and 2) The ability of
the marketplace to capture value from these differences.

This project addresses the first issue through activities that focus on describing the
compositional profile of the U.S. soybean crop through NIR analysis of samples provided
by USDA-NASS from their annual objective yield survey, and using this information in
conjunction with proprietary models to develop estimates of economic value, a primary
driver of market behavior.


Enhancement of soybean somatic embryo development to improve
regeneration and transformation efficiency; Sharyn Perry (University of
Kentucky); ($74,284). (sperry2@uky.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Transformation

The project specifically addresses the need for publicly available transformation and
regeneration systems. Enhancing transformation in soybean impacts other opportunities
in the USB Action Plan including any genetic engineering to improve compositional traits
to increase value or augment yield, as well as the necessary basic research to identify
genes in target areas.

Molecular approaches to understanding gene function make use of transformation to
introduce new transgenes into plants and test for effect on the plant. However, in
soybean, this has been difficult to develop because Agrobacterium tumefaciens
mediated transformation is genotype dependent and relatively inefficient, and other
means for transformation are not inheritable or are also variable for success. Various
steps could be manipulated to enhance transformation, but research using 15 varieties
of soybean has demonstrated that transformation potential correlates directly with
somatic embryogenic potential. Somatic embryogenesis is a poorly understood
mechanism by which embryos develop on plant body (soma) parts. It is important
because any genetic manipulation using transformation to introduce genes for crop
improvement requires regeneration and somatic embryogenesis is one route for
recovery of plants. A means to promote somatic embryogenesis would be expected to
enhance transformation potential of soybean, providing an important tool for a broad
range of basic and applied research.


Enhancing disease resistance through the tools of biotechnology; David
Wright (North Central Soybean Research Program); ($40,000). (This project is jointly
funded with the NCSRP). (dwright@iasoybeans.com)

Key Words: Soybean Disease Resistance, Soybean Gene Expression,
Soybean Technologies

The program will evaluate transgenic approaches to combat aphids, nematode, viral and
fungal pathogenesis. The resultant genetic material from this program can then be
evaluated as a component for the integrated pest management practices currently being
optimized through support of the NCSRP. The project objectives are designed to expand
the understanding of the underlying molecular cues of plant/parasite interactions.


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Host-delivered siRNA for nematode resistance: Identification and
evaluation of fertility and fitness genes; Harold Trick (Kansas State University);
($67,368). (hnt@ksu.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Cyst Nematode, SCN-Genetic Resistance

Turning genes off by a process known as RNA interference (RNAi) has tremendous
potential as a new strategy towards nematode resistance. It is well established in the
free living nematode C. elegans researchers can turn off specific genes by either
injecting or feeding specific small interfering (si) RNA molecules. Depending upon the
function of these genes, nematodes can be affected in a number of ways including
reducing fertility, reducing overall fitness or disrupting the nematode's life cycle. For plant
parasitic nematodes, researchers have been focusing on expressing these RNAi
molecules in plants and deliver the molecules to the nematodes when nematodes feed
on the transgenic plants. Some investigators have focused on genes involved in the
parasitism process.

Our approach has been to evaluate the potential for genes likely to be important for
overall fitness of both the female nematodes and their offspring. With some genes
previously evaluated, we have demonstrated between a 65-85% reduction in the number
of cysts parasitizing our transgenic events. For this research we propose to identify
additional SCN target genes that are required for proper fertility and/or fitness based on
C. elegans phenotypic data. We will produce RNAi vectors, transiently express these
vectors in soybean roots, and perform bioassays to determine the effectiveness of the
constructions on SCN fertility and overall fitness. We expect this to be a two-year
project. Year one will focus on the identification of target genes and performing SCN
bioassays. Year two will focus on producing stable transgenic plants expressing the
strongest candidate vectors for nematode resistance.


Molecular dissection of new soybean aphid resistant genes and SNP
markers for marker assisted breeding; Rouf Mian (USDA/ARS-The Ohio State
University); ($145,000). (Rouf.Mian@ARS.USDA.GOV)

Key Words: Soybean Aphids (SA), SA-Genetic Resistance

Production of soybean aphid resistant cultivar is the most important component of
sustainable soybean production in soybean aphid infested regions. However, there is a
quick emergence of multiple soybean aphid (SA), Aphis glycines, and biotypes capable
of defeating the newly discovered single dominant gene (e.g. Rag1) for aphid resistance
in parts of USA. Several new genes - Rag2 in Ohio and Rag3 and Rag4 in Michigan
have been mapped. It is necessary to develop tightly linked SNP markers for these
genes to be used in marker assisted breeding and for pyramiding multiple aphid
resistance genes. Also, dissecting the mechanisms of aphid resistance of these genes is
important for deciding which genes should be pyramided.

Large recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations and near-isogenic lines (NILs) have
been developed with each of these genes. Using these genetic resources, we plan to
conduct fine mapping projects to develop SNP markers that are tightly linked to each
gene. We will use the Solexa or similar sequencing technology to identify SNPs in the

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vicinity of the Rag genes. Then map those genes using the Illumina SNP genotyping
platform to map the SNPs. The NILs will be used to conduct proteomics and
transcriptomics studies to identify the proteins and genes that might be responsible for
aphid resistance provided by Rag2 gene. Successful completion of this study will provide
the soybean community with valuable tools for marker assisted breeding for three new
aphid resistance genes (Rag2, Rag3, and Rag4), target proteins and candidate genes
responsible for aphid resistance mechanisms.


Fiskeby soybeans resistant to a broad spectrum of environmental stresses:
Genetic analysis and application to breeding; Kent Burkey (USDA/ARS-Beltsville
Agricultural Research Center); ($150,000). (Kent.Burkey@ars.usda.gov)

Key Words: Soybean Stress-Genetic Resistance, Iron Deficiency Chlorosis (IDC)
Through this study, we should be able to count and identify the major genes (QTL) that
control stress resistance and identify their position in the soybean genome. There is the
exciting possibility that we will discover one gene or several that convey multiple
resistances to environmental stresses. That is an important reason for examining all the
stresses proposed in this project. If a gene were discovered that offered multiple
resistances, then this would be a first and provide very valuable insight into the nature of
stress resistance. In the end, such results would translate into cost-saving short cuts for
breeder. If, for example, a resistance gene protected against both iron deficiency
chlorosis and ozone, breeders interested in improving iron deficiency chlorosis would get
ozone-resistant varieties at no extra cost. If a gene protected against both drought and
salt, then breeders selecting for drought resistance would get salt resistance at no added
cost. The few stress resistance genes discovered to date do not exhibit this cross
reactivity, which highlights the importance of the present project.


Maximizing soybean yield potential and profitability: Surpassing this recent
plateau; Trey Koger (Mississippi State University); ($45,000).
(tkoger@drec.msstate.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Yield Improvement, Soybean Production Management,
Soybean On-farm research

The project’s objective is to identify key components for optimizing soybean yields and
deciphering how much each component attributes to yield as well as incorporating all
identified components into one system in hopes of surpassing the perceived yield
plateau. This research will be conducted in the Midsouth region across multiple states to
encompass regional production systems and practices. Research trials will be conducted
in Arkansas, Louisiana, and Mississippi. Research is to be conducted either in small strip
plots or on grower farms to demonstrate the key components for maximizing soybean
yields and net returns. Treatments will include combinations of seeding rates, seed
treatments, inoculant rates, iron manganese foliar applications, fungicide and insecticide
applications, and irrigation regimes. A standard treatment as well as a treatment
including all inputs (elite) will be included.




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Identification of gene mutations causing alterations in soybean seed
composition; Robert Stupar (University of Minnesota); ($68,342).
(stup0004@umn.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Composition, Soybean Gene Expression

This project is part of an initiative to develop and characterize soybean mutant lines that
can be used for assessing gene function and generating novel variation. It addresses
specific goals outlined at the Soybean Genomics Research Strategic Planning Meeting
for 2008-2012 sponsored by USB. Specifically, this project will identify the fast neutron
gene deletions that cause a range of interesting phenotypic changes in soybean,
including genes that affect seed oil, protein and fatty acid composition. The long-term
goals of this project are to identify the genes controlling soybean trait variation, expand
the range of trait variation and enhance the utility of the soybean fast neutron mutant
population for the soybean research and breeding communities.
Dietary energy utilization of soybean meals originating from varieties
having altered sugar composition fed to broiler chick; William Dozier (Auburn
University); ($32,900). (bill.dozier@auburn.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Meal Use-Poultry, Soybean Composition

This research will evaluate soybean meals originating from varieties having altered
sugar composition fed to broiler chickens.


USDA/AOCS quality traits (SQT) Program; Richard Cantrill (American Oil Chemist
Society); ($245,414). (cantrill@aocs.org)

Key Words: Soybean Composition, Soybean Quality Traits Program

The Soybean Quality traits (SQT) Program was initiated in 2002 with a goal of
establishing a comprehensive system of quality assurance for methods of analysis used
to quantify the improvement quality constituents.


NIR variety data; Charles Hurburgh (Iowa State University); ($31,000).
(tatry@iastate.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Composition, Soybean Quality Traits Program

As new data sources become available it is important to analyze using standardized NIR
calibration curve or formally harmonized methodologies to ensure “fair” comparisons.
One of the objectives of the Soybean Quality Traits (SQT) and AMMS programs is the
harmonization of methodologies.


F.I.R.S.T soybean variety seed tests; Kevin Coey (Agronomic Seed Consulting);
($52,389). (kevincoey@agsci.com)

Key Words: Soybean Composition, Soybean Quality Traits Program

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F.I.R.S.T. program will plant, grow, harvest, ship samples for protein/oil analysis and
develop a database which will be provided to the United Soybean Board in support of
the Select Yield and Quality Initiative.


Soy intake and male fertility study; Janice Hilton (Loma Linda University);
($149,132). (jhilton@llu.edu)

Key Words: Soy Human Health Studies

This project will study soy intake during childhood and adolescence and its relationship
with fertility parameters in young adult males.


Biobased outreach by health associates organization; Karen Edwards (KCE
Public Affairs Associates); ($45,000). (Karen@kcegroup.com)

Key Words: Soy Human Health Studies, Biodiesel Studies

Karen Edwards will manage grants to the American Lung Association of the Upper
Midwest and the American Lung Association of the District of Columbia to increase
awareness about other biobased products benefits to air quality and human health.


Fuel Quality Compliance; Doug Whitehead (National Biodiesel Board); ($99,980).
(dwhitehead@biodiesel.org)

Key Words: Biodiesel Studies

The purpose of this project is to fund a program to encourage members of the National
Conference of Weights and Measures (NCWM) to test and actively enforce ASTM D
6751. The funding will be used to extend the financial resources currently being utilized
for this purpose.

Securing biodiesel blends in pipelines; Doug Whitehead (National Biodiesel
Board); ($100,000). (dwhitehead@biodiesel.org)

Key Words: Biodiesel Studies

This funding will be used as cooperative funds with other industry program and
government agencies to execute needed research and data for approvals of biodiesel in
pipeline.


Cold weather operability limits; Doug Whitehead (National Biodiesel Board);
($85,000). (dwhitehead@biodiesel.org)

Key Words: Biodiesel Studies
The funding will be used to procure fuels, perform the bench testing (Cold Filter Plug
Point, Low Temperature Filterability Test, Cold Soak Filtration Test), and compare these

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values to cold room testing with actual vehicles. The testing will help determine if fuels
spanning commercially available biodiesel and within the ASTM total glycerin limit (.24
percent) and cold soak filtration values of 200/360 seconds demonstrate adequate cold
weather,


OEM 2010 engine testing; Doug Whitehead (National Biodiesel Board); ($300,000).
(dwhitehead@biodiesel.org)

Key Words: Biodiesel Studies

This funding is to provide NBB’s portion for year three of the three year program began
in FY08 to test B20 with PM and NOx after treatment technology engines/vehicles.
These funds will be leveraged with funds provided by DOE, EPA, OEMs and other
industry partners.


A controlled environment, integrated approach to fish and plant production
in Alabama; Jesse Chappell (Auburn University); ($50,000). (chappj1@auburn.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Meal Use-Aquaculture

The objectives of this funding will be used to improve production methods and costs to
help U.S. producers compete with imports, and to offer opportunities to diversify to other
high value species such as shrimp, tilapia and others in controlled indoor production.


Use of glycerin for high value polymeric products; Zoran Petrovic (Kansas
Polymer Center, Pittsburg State University); ($70,000). (zpetrovi@pittstate.edy)

Key Words: Glycerol Use-Industrial Uses

The purpose of this project is to develop the technology for preparation of polyols from
crude glycerin resulting from bio-diesel production for applications in foams and other
polyurethane applications.


Chemically enhanced soy proteins for use in laundry products; Alison
Hudson (Surface Chemists of Florida); ($75,000). (alice@surfacechemists.com)

Key Words: Soy Product Development, Industrial Uses

Laboratory process development for a product that provides oily soil repellency, focusing
on the optimum product for the application, best economics, and the viability of scaling
up to pilot scale and full production volumes. Primary focus will be on the use of defatted
soy flour which has shown efficacy in our applications and provides the best economics.


Vinyl esters containing soybean oil and moieties there from; Hilberto Nava
(Reichold Inc.); ($85,000). (hildeberto.nava@reichhold.com)

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Key Words: Soy-based Resins, Industrial Uses

A two-year project is proposed to develop thermosetting vinyl ester resins containing
soybean oil moieties. The new approach consists on preparing vinyl ester resins with
various molecular weights containing soybean along the backbone. This approach will
allow having resins with improved mechanical properties and in particular increased
toughness. A variety of finished products that find applications in the wind energy,
marine, and infrastructure will benefit from this improvement.


Green soy-based urethane-acrylates (SUAs) for thermoset coatings and
composites; Zhigang Chen (North Dakota State University); ($85,000).
zhigang.chen@ndsu.edu)

Key Words: Soy-based Coatings

The accomplishment of this project will significantly promote the substitution of current
petroleum-based polymeric materials by soybean derived high performance materials in
the thermoset materials market.


Hybrid emulsions using chemically modified soybean oil; Al Fuchs
(Northampton Community College); ($51,250). (fushs@etctr.com)

Key Words: Soy-based Coatings

The ETAC/CIRI group has developed coatings for wood surfaces. They contain little or
no organic volatile solvent and because of the chemically modified soybean oil
component contain a large amount of sustainable raw material. A major push is being
undertaken to convert to sustainable materials in the energy curing (i.e. ultraviolet
curing) market.


A controlled environment, integrated approach to fish and plant production
in Alabama; Jesse Chappell (Auburn University); ($50,000). (chappj@auburn.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Meal Use-Aquaculture; Other Studies

This project proposes to continue efforts to employ intensive, thermally controlled,
energy and water efficient fish production strategies.


High soy content, high performance, thermoset polymers; Galen Suppes
(University of Missouri); ($70,941). (suppesg@missouri.edu)

Key Words: Soy-based Polyols

This project will develop urethane formulations with substantial portions of the polyol and
isocyanate replaced by soy-based epoxides such as bodied epoxy soybean oil.

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Preliminary data demonstrates that the concept works with good performance from
these polymers. This project will include development of catalyst packages and
formulations specific to formulations containing epoxide moieties.


Soy foam for automotive applications; Alan Argento (University of Michigan);
($70,117). (aargento@umich.edu)

Key Words: Soy-based Foams

The purpose of the proposed project is to pursue the use of soy based foams for three
automotive NVH and impact applications. Of interest are rigid and flexible foams of soy
blended polyol resins, some containing soy meal and oil.
Whole genome analysis of the soybean core germplasm collection and
applications for new gene discovery. Perry Cregan (ARS/USSDA-Beltsville
Agricultural Research Center); ($263,103). (creganp@ba.ars.usda.gov)

Key Words: Soybean Germplasm Screening, Soybean Genetic Diversity, Glycine soja,
Marker Assisted Selection,

The USDA Soybean Germplasm Collection housed at the University of Illinois, Urbana
consists of 17,000 soybean accessions collected from nearly 100 countries, but primarily
from Asia, over the past 111 years. The Collection has served U.S. soybean breeders,
geneticists and producers extremely well over the years as the source of accessions that
carry resistance to numerous diseases, environmental stresses such as iron deficiency
chlorosis and drought as well as seed quality traits including increased protein and oil
quantity and quality and other desirable chemical attributes.

Dr. R.L. Nelson, the curator of the Collection is developing a "Core Collection" that will
include approximately 1,500 accessions selected to represent the range of genetic
diversity in the complete collection of 17,000 accessions. Concurrently, the Soybean
Genomics and Improvement Lab at the USDA Beltsville, MD has discovered more than
16,500 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) DNA markers spread across the 20
soybean chromosomes. In addition, the Beltsville Lab has a new piece of equipment
manufactured by Illumina Inc. of San Diego, CA called the BeadStation 500 that can
analyze 1,536 SNP DNA markers in 96 DNA samples in less than one week. This
technology was developed as a result of the Human Genome Project that requires the
high throughput analysis of SNP DNA markers.

Using the Illumina BeadStation 500 we are planning to conduct an analysis of 1,536
SNP DNA markers in each of the 1,500 members of the Soybean Core Collection as
well as 500 additional soybean lines with known pest resistance, 100 commercial
varieties, and 300 accessions of the wild ancestor of soybean, Glycine soja. The 500
lines with known disease resistances will include 80-120 lines each with resistance to
soybean aphid, sudden death syndrome, soybean rust, soybean cyst nematode, or
brown stem rot. These lines are candidates to serve as donors of genes that can provide
pest resistance to be used by soybean breeders.

The objectives of this project are to:



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   •   Analyze each of 2100 cultivated and 300 wild soybean lines with 1536 SNP DNA
       markers using the Illumina BeadStation 500.
   •   Use the DNA marker data to define the "subpopulations" that exist in the
       soybean germplasm Core Collection and to determine which subpopulations are
       represented in the 100 commodity soybean varieties. Those subpopulations that
       are not represented in current commodity varieties will provide a pool of
       untapped genetic variability that can be exploited for genetic advance.
   •   Use the DNA marker data to identify those lines with pest resistance that are
       most likely to be genetically distinct for the genes controlling resistance. These
       germplasm lines, because they are distinct from the currently used sources of
       pest resistance are likely to identify new genes that control disease and aphid
       resistance; and
   •   Use the DNA marker data from the Core Collection, the disease resistance
       sources and the wild soybeans to initiate the application of "Association Analysis"
       in soybean. Association Analysis is the procedure that is being used by human
       geneticists to discover genes that control various human diseases.

The Soybean Germplasm Collection is an excellent source of diverse germplasm for the
application of Association Analysis for gene discovery. One of the very important
requirements for the successful application of Association Analysis is a knowledge of so-
called "population structure". Population structure is a function of the presence of distinct
sub-populations within the population as a whole. The SNP marker data will allow us to
determine the presence and degree of population structure in the 2400 soybean lines.


A strategy for responding to the whole genome shotgun sequence of the
soybean genome; Randy Shoemaker (USDA/ARS-Iowa State University);
($729,987). (rcsshoe@iastate.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Gene Map, Soybean Genomics, Soybean Bioinformatics

The recent announcement by the United States Department of Agriculture and the
Department of Energy that the whole genome of soybean is to be sequenced was a
pleasant surprise to the crop genomics community, but one coming to us as a double-
edged sword. Possessing the 1.1 billion base code of the sequence will change the face
of soybean genetics forever. But it will only be useful if we prepare ourselves in advance
to organize it, assemble it, and annotate it in the most efficient way.
The decision to sequence the soybean genome was made in part because of the strong
infrastructure the research community has established in recent years. The soybean has
one of the best genetic maps of all crops, possessing more than 2,000 markers and
populated with hundreds of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for dozens of agronomically
important traits. In addition, a physical map (an approximate ordering of large-insert DNA
clones, called “BACs”), initially funded by the United Soybean Board (USB) and now
funded by the National Science Foundation, has been developed and is currently under
extensive quality enhancement. The cultivar Williams 82 physical map is comprised of
BACs from three independent libraries, with “BAC end sequences” (BES) from each
BAC. The combination of the sequence-site genetic map and the physical map with
BESs for each clone in the map provides a high-quality framework upon which to
assemble the genome sequence.



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There are numerous steps to “complete” a genome. Some steps must be done
concurrently with others. Some of these steps include the bioinformatic assembly of the
DNA sequence, the connection of the sequence to the genetic and physical map, the
presentation of the data to the users in a useful manner, and the “annotation” of the DNA
sequence (identification of the genes’ strictures and regulatory sequences). The
importance of having a whole-genome sequence for any crop cannot be understated.
The critical need to deal with the sequence in a strategically organized manner is what
has prompted development of this document and proposal.

The products of these activities include:
   • Higher-order assembly and curation of the majority of genomic contigs;
   • Specialized mapping to anchor most of the remaining contigs;
   • Public dissemination of the integrated DNA sequence information, with the
       genetic map and correlation to agronomic traits; and
   • This proposal is a sister proposal to that of Chris Town entitled “A Strategy for
       Responding to the Whole Genome Shotgun Sequence of the Soybean Genome
       – Annotation”.


Development of USDA/ARS soybeans with mid-oleic, low-linolenic, low
saturated seed oil; Joe Burton (USDA/ARS-North Carolina State University);
($809,422). (joe_burton@ncsu.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Composition, Modifying Oil

The objectives of this project are to:
   • Develop breeding populations for agronomic northern and Mid-southern varieties
       with seed oil that has oleic acid >55%, linolenic acid <3%, Oleic, and saturated
       fatty acids <7% plus SCN and root-knot nematode resistance;
   • Develop DNA markers for alleles of fatty acid variant phenotypes; and 3) Identify
       new oil quality germplasm for use in breeding; and
   • Investigate the biochemical molecular genetic basis for fatty acid variation.


Identification and characterization metabolic factors affecting the oil
content of soybean seed; Salvatore Sparace (Clemson University); ($98,314).
(smsprc@clemson.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Composition, Modifying Oil,

Soybean oil provides as much as 90% of the biodiesel fuel currently made in the United
States. As the biodiesel industry grows, other oilseed crops like canola, with its higher
seed oil content and greater yield per acre, are likely to compete with soybean and thus
limit the use of soybean oil for this extremely important emerging market. One way to
offset this possibility is to plan for the future demands of the biodiesel industry by
conducting the basic research required to understand and eventually manipulate the
metabolic factors and processes that impact oil biosynthesis and accumulation in
soybean. The long term objective of this research project is to produce a new soybean
variety with higher seed oil content that is better able to compete with such high-oil


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seeds while maintaining or augmenting the content of the other desirable seed
components (protein & meal) of this valuable seed crop.

In the short term, this project proposes a detailed metabolomics approach towards
defining the metabolic, biochemical and enzymatic processes and factors occurring in a
key organelle (i.e. the plastid) in the developing soybean seed that has a major role in
allocating carbon and resources to oil biosynthesis. The aim of this work is to identify,
and eventually manipulate those reactions or enzymes of the developing soybean seed
in a manner that should enhance oil accumulation in an elite variety of soybean that is
better able to compete with other oilseeds as a raw material for the biodiesel industry
while maintaining its usefulness for other commercial applications.


Construction of proteome and metabolome maps of soybean to improve
yield and value-added traits; Henry Nguyen (University of Missouri-Columbia);
($369,961). (nguyhenry@missouri.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Gene Expression, Soybean Bioinformatics, Soybean Technologies

Although the genetic blueprint of soybean is represented by the genome, phenotype is a
product of that blueprint manifested as the production of proteins and metabolites
influencing growth characteristics, stress response and yield. Profiling soybean gene
products will provide a foundation for a systems biology approach to key processes in
soybeans such as seed development, which will lead to the genetic improvement of yield
and seed composition. Both the NSF-funded soybean workshop (2004) and the USB-
funded soybean genomics strategy workshops (2005, 2007) identified the importance of
the analysis of the regulation of protein and oil synthesis in soybean. A key outcome of
these meetings was a recommendation to identify proteins (i.e. proteome) and small
molecules (i.e. metabolome) important for soybean seed development.

The focus of the proposed project is the identification of proteins involved in basic
developmental and physiological responses in soybean, in addition to the survey of
metabolic factors involved or associated with these processes. It is well known that
environmental cues influence developmental phenotypes in plants. Various biotic
stresses such as fungal disease and abiotic stresses such as drought also elicit
phenotypic responses from the genome. Thus, by working outside of the genome and
studying the products of it instead, a direct correlation between response and molecule
can be made. Once this relationship is established, modification of it is possible, which
can lead to plant improvement either through breeding or transgenic efforts.

This proposal will build upon the past and current USB investments in genetic markers
and physical map development and the current DOE-JGI soybean genome sequencing
project. The outcome of this project will provide a foundation for an integrated functional
genomics resource for genetic improvement of soybean yield, stress tolerance and seed
traits.

The overall goals are to identify seed, leaf, and root proteins involved in developmental
and physiological responses to stress and to identify the metabolites related to similar
responses. The elucidation of fundamental processes of seed development and the
metabolic effects of biotic and abiotic stress conditions commonly found in natural


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environments will facilitate an understanding of soybean that transcends traditional
genetic analysis.

The specific research objectives of the project are:
   • Identify key soybean seed, leaf, and root proteins involved in development and
      biotic and abiotic stress responses.
   • Establish a comprehensive set of chemical standards for soybean metabolites
      moving toward construction of a metabolome map with a focus on seed and the
      drought effects on seed development.
   • Compile a database linking proteomic and metabolite information and associate
      this information to value-added soybean traits and markers for  assisted
      breeding.

QTLs for Phytophthora sojae: Where are they and what are the
mechanisms that control this resistance? Anne Dorrance (The Ohio State
University); ($241,819). (dorrance.a@osu.edu)

Key Words: Phytophthora Root Rot, Phytophthora sojae, Soybean Disease Resistance

Phytophthora sojae continues to plague parts of the north central region, primarily due to
adaptations by this pathogen to the current resistance genes that are in modern varieties
(Dorrance et al., NCSRP report). New sources of Rps genes have been identified, but
their introgression into high yielding elite lines has been slow primarily due to the wild
nature of the source of resistance (Rps8/PI399073). In addition, the level of partial
resistance in many of the commercial lines has eroded over the past decade due to the
introduction of novel traits. This is now a greater concern as new herbicide tolerant
genes are introduced into soybean varieties. As a result, in areas where P. sojae is a
problem, late season development of Phytophthora stem rot is becoming more common.
Late season stand loss, contributes substantially more to yield loss, since the plants can
not compensate as well and replanting is no longer an option. Identifying the QTLs which
are associated with partial resistance will provide a broader protection over more acres
as this resistance is effective against all races of the pathogen; but also will ensure that
this resistance does not get lost in the push to incorporate new traits (herbicide
tolerance, resistance to other pathogens) in new varieties.


Genetics and mapping of charcoal rot resistance; Jeffery Ray (USD/ARS-
Stoneville, MS); ($119,300). jary@ars.udsa.gov)

Key Words: Charcoal Rot, Macrophomina phaseolina, Soybean Disease Resistance

Charcoal rot is caused by a fungus, Macrophomina phaseolina. It is a major disease of
the Midsouth area, but has been found as far north as North Dakota. Yield losses are
frequently reported as 20-30% but can be as high as 70% in individual fields. There are
no known effective control measures, and only a few genotypes have been reported as
moderately resistant. Infection is highly dependent on both macro and micro
environments and phenotyping for resistance is complex and difficult. No information is
known regarding the genetics of resistance. In our current work we developed and
refined screening techniques (Crop Sci. 2007, 47: 2453-2461), identified a new
moderately resistant genotype (Crop Sci. 2006, 46:2324-2325), crossed it with a

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susceptible genotype, developed and phenotyped F2 and F3 populations, created an F2
molecular map (DNA Seq. 2007, 18:104-111) and developed a    recombinant     inbred
population (RIL, F5 derived).

The goal for the next 2-years is to phenotype the RIL populations in replicated, multi-
location, multi-year field tests, reconstitute the F2 molecular map in the RIL population,
determine the inheritance of resistance genes and identify molecular markers linked to
resistance loci. From this research we will provide plant geneticists and plant breeders
with the first information on the genetics of charcoal rot, provide the soybean industry
with the first charcoal rot molecular markers for use in marker assisted breeding
programs, and provide public and private soybean breeders with advanced germplasm
with charcoal rot resistance.


Whole genome analysis of the USDA soybean germplasm collection and
applications for new gene discovery; David Hyten (USDA/ARS-Beltsville
Agricultural Center); ($971,160). (david.hyten@ars.esda.gov)

Key Words: Soybean Gene Mapping, Marker Assisted Selection, Glycine soja,
Soybean Genetic Diversity

The US DA Soybean Germplasm Collection housed at the University of Illinois, Urbana
consists of 19,719 soybean accessions collected from nearly 100 countries, but primarily
from Asia, over the past 111 years. The Collection has served U.S. soybean breeders,
geneticists and producers extremely well as the source of accessions that carry
resistance to numerous diseases, environmental stresses such as iron deficiency
chlorosis and drought as well as seed quality traits including increased protein and oil
quantity and quality and other desirable chemical attributes.

The Soybean Genomics and Improvement Lab at the USDA Beltsville, MD has
discovered more than 20,000 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) DNA markers
spread across the 20 soybean chromosomes. In addition, the Beltsville Lab has a new
piece of equipment manufactured by Illumina Inc. of San Diego, CA called the Genome
analyzer which can perform high-throughput sequencing and help discover over 100,000
SNPs in a very short period of time as part of USB project 8212. The Beltsville Lab also
has the Illumina BeadStation 500 that can analyze up to 60,800 SNP DNA markers in
144 DNA samples in less than one week. This technology was developed as a result of
the Human Genome Project that requires the high-throughput analysis of SNP DNA
markers.

We propose to perform an analysis of 50,000 SNP DNA markers in each of the 19,719
members of the USDA Soybean Germplasm Collection. In addition, we will map the
50,000 SNP DNA markers in two high resolution mapping populations of 1,000
Recombinant Inbred Lines (RILs) each. These are derived from the parents Williams 82
x PI 468916 which is a Glycine max x Glycine soja (wild soybean) population which will
have a very high proportion of markers segregating and Essex x Williams 82 that has
produced many modern varieties.

The research group will:



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   •   Design a 50,000 SNP Illumina Infinium assay and use it to analyze each of the
       18,603 cultivated and 1116 wild soybean accessions from the USDA soybean
       germplasm collection and 1,000 RILs from each of the mapping populations of
       Williams 82 x PI468916 and Essex x Williams 82 with the Illumina BeadStation
       500. This will be the first publically available ultra-high resolution genetic maps of
       the soybean genome.
   •   Make these 50,000 SNP DNA markers accessible to the public which will provide
       an extensive set of markers for public and private breeders using marker
       assisted selection. This extensive set of markers will allow soybean researchers
       to fully utilize the whole genome sequence of soybean for any research
       application that would require the use of molecular markers including fine
       mapping and gene cloning, gene expression QTL analysis, association analysis
       or QTL mapping, to name a few.
   •   Define the "subpopulations" that exist in the entire soybean germplasm collection
       and to determine which subpopulations are represented in current commodity
       soybean varieties. Those subpopulations that are not represented in current
       commodity varieties will provide a pool of untapped genetic variability that can be
       exploited for genetic advance.
   •   Use the 50,000 SNPs to begin to characterize all the common molecular
       variation available to soybean breeders. This will give public and private breeders
       a genome fingerprint of every accession in the collection to allow them to fully
       utilize the germplasm collection for crop improvement. An opportunity such as
       this has never been available to breeders of any crop species including soybean.
   •   Use the analysis of the Collection and the wild soybeans to provide the basis of a
       system to initiate the application of "Association Analysis" in soybean.
       Association Analysis is the procedure that is now being used by human
       geneticists to discover genes that control various human diseases.

The Soybean Germplasm Collection is an excellent source of diverse germplasm for the
application of Association Analysis for gene discovery. One of the very important
requirements for the successful application of Association Analysis is a knowledge of so-
called "population structure". Population structure is a function of the presence of distinct
sub-populations within the population as a whole. The SNP marker data will allow us to
determine the presence and degree of population structure in the germplasm collection.


A strategy for responding to the whole genome shotgun sequence of the
soybean genome: Annotation; Chris Town (The J. Craig Venter Institute);
($276,350). (cdtwon@tigr.org)

Key Words: Soybean Gene Map, Soybean Genomics

This proposal continues the work begun under annotation involves the detailed analysis
of DNA sequence to identify coding regions, regulatory regions, introns, exons, etc., and
to predict the identity of a gene. In short, the purpose of annotation is to identify genes,
characterize their organization in detail, and determine their probable function (give them
a name). Often, it is during this detailed analysis that errors in assembly are detected.
Therefore, the assembly and annotation groups need to be closely aligned and
interactive.



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“Annotation” is a predictive process and is based upon what we know about genes and
gene structure. For example, we have some information on what the “front end” of a
gene looks like (start signals, regulatory sequences, etc.) as well as the back end. But
not all genes look alike and soybean likely has some unique style all of its own. More
importantly, once a gene code is “read” to make the initial message, it is often processed
in unique ways.

Therefore, the best way to define a gene is to compare the genome sequence with the
gene message. Although several computer programs have been created to aid in the
annotation of genomic sequence, each must be “trained” using the actual sequences
that are expressed from known genes (Expressed Sequence Tags: ESTs).

Luckily, we in the soybean community have a huge collection of gene messages - ESTs.
This will be a great benefit. However, largely due to less efficient technologies in use 10
- 15 years ago, not enough (only about 30%) of these ESTs represent the full-length of
the gene message.

It is therefore necessary to make a special effort to generate large numbers of full-length
cDNAs so they can be sequenced. The product of this portion of the project will be the
development of several cDNA libraries and the generation of 15,000 - 20,000 full-length
cDNA sequences. This proposal is sister to that of Randy Shoemaker, USB Project
#7267, "A Strategy for Responding to the Whole Genome Shotgun Sequence of the
Soybean Genome - Assembly".


Increasing soy levels in polyurethane foam for automotive use; Asad Ali
(Lear Corporation); ($250,000). (aali@lear.com)

Key Words: Soy-based Foam, Soy-based Polyol

The objective to this research project is to develop of a soy-based flexible foam system
that will replace up to 25% of petroleum based polyol in TDI based technology and up to
40% of petroleum based polyol in MDI based technology.


Impact of low phytic acid cultivars of soy on the environment and product
quality; Rick Barrows (USDA/ARS-Bozeman, MT.); ($85,808).
(rick.barrows@ars.usda.gov)

Key Words: Soybean Meal Use-Aquaculture

Trout fed a soy-based, (low phytic acid cultivars) diet will be compared to trout fed a
standard fish meal based diet in the following areas; growth, feed efficiency, phosphorus
retention, phosphorus released into the environment, and the sensory characteristics of
the final product.


Studies on the replacement of fish meal with soy in salmonid fish species
in an integrated nutritional model framework; Rick Barrows (USDA/ARS-
Bozeman, MT.); ($159,905). (rick.barrows@ars.usda.gov)

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Key Words: Soybean Meal Use-Aquaculture

The project will include a thorough review of literature on published studies on
replacement of fish meal by alternative protein sources in rainbow trout and Atlantic
salmon diets and the compilation of nutritional data from a sub-set of published studies
determined to be reliable.


Development of a standard line of rainbow trout; Ron Hardy (University of
Idaho); ($89,500). (rhardy@uidaho.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Meal Use-Aquaculture

Development of a standard line of rainbow trout to provide a uniform genetic background
available to all researchers could improve the ability to compare results across studies
and simplify interpretation of results.


Enhanced anaerobic biomediation using soy flour, soy concentrate and
lecithin; Bob Borden (North Carolina State University); ($60,000).
(rborden@eos.ncsu.edu)

Key Words: Industrial Uses, Biomediation

In this project, we will evaluate the use of soy flour, soy protein concentrate, and lecithin
as alternative materials for production of an emulsified soybean oil product for anaerobic
bioremediation.


Develop soy-based plastics for petrochemical market providing vibration
technologies; Mark Warren (Johnson Controls, Inc.); ($120,000).
(mark.a.warren@jci.com)

Key Words: Soy-based Plastics, Soy-based Foams

The purpose of this project is to increase soy content in formulations for vibration
technology foam and perform required testing to meet performance requirements.


Develop soy-based plastics for petrochemical market; Mark Warren (Johnson
Controls, Inc.); ($150,000). (mark.a.warren@jci.com)

Key Words: Soy-based Plastics, Soy-based Polyols

The purpose of this project is to improve soy polyol and soy polyester resin reactivity,
which will increase soy content in formulations with a goal of getting soy polyol seating at
30% weight development by 2011.




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Hyperbranched polyols for flexible foam from soybean oil fatty acids;
Kenlon Johannes (Kansas Soybean Commission); ($26,000).
(jahannes@kansassoybeans.org)

Key Words: Soy-based Polyols, Soy-based-Foams

Develop a new family of low viscosity, all bio-based polyols for flexible fotion
technologams starting from methyl esters of soybean oil (bio-diesel) using a new
concept of hyperbranching.


Nutrient requirement of fish and shrimp; Robin Schoen (National Academy of
Sciences); ($35,000). (rscheon@nas.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Meal Uses-Aquaculture

This project will develop a synthesis of the scientific literature on studies of fish and
shrimp nutrition in all stages of life.


Center for Soybean Tissue Culture and Genetic Engineering Soybean for
effective resistance to soybean nematode; Wayne Parrot (University of Georgia);
($370,559). (wparrott@uga.edu)

Key Words: Genetically Engineered Soybean, Soybean Bioengineering,
Soybean Tissue Culture, SCN-Genetic Resistance, Induced Gene Silencing

The original goal was to engineer eight SCN genes into soybean. At this point in time,
all eight SCN genes have been engineered into soybean. Of the eight SCN constructs,
seven have progressed to the greenhouse and seed is being collected from all seven.
The goal was to obtain ten independent events per gene construct. Of the total 80
transgenic events, we now have 62 and the rest are in progress.

Along the way, it was determined that the SCN transgenics needed to be advanced to
homozygosity before being tested for resistance. This means that the plants have had to
be advanced another generation prior to testing. Of the 62 events mentioned above, 29
are already at the homozygous stage.

In addition, to help with proof of concept, eight genes from root-knot nematodes, at ten
events per gene, were also scheduled to be engineered in soybean. At the moment, 56
events have been obtained, and 46 have already been tested in the greenhouse for
resistance.

Testing conducted by our USB-funded collaborators showed only a slight decrease in
gall number with RKN1, 2, 3 and 4 and no decrease was seen with RKN6. Twenty plants
were selected, and are being advanced to homozygosity, after which they will be tested
again.

The testing results have allowed us to obtain a greater understanding of the biology of
the system. RNAi has been successfully used to silence many plant traits. This is

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because the target mRNA is present in the plants, which serves as a primer for a key
step, the amplification of the specific RNAi. In contrast, the parasite genes are not
normally found in the plant, so there is no parasite gene mRNA for the amplification step.
In order to remedy the situation, we plan to add an additional component to our RNAi
vector. This will ensure the necessary mRNA is present in the plant, and thus more
closely mimic the natural situation. At this point, it is necessary to extend these findings
from root-knot nematodes to the soybean cyst nematode, and define the optimal
strategy for the use of these nematode genes.


Drought stress tolerances for the Midsouth and South: Soybean varieties
improvement; Tommy Carter (USDA/ARS-North Carolina State University);
($1,386,000). (tommy_carter@ncsu.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Drought Stress,

New varieties and breeding lines are the main products of the drought research. Such
materials can be grown either directly by the farmer or used as parents of new varieties,
to spread drought-protection genes throughout the nation. The release of new materials,
as important as it is, is not enough by itself. Unlike the case for many other traits, release
of drought-tolerant materials does not automatically guarantee good use. The reason is
that drought tolerance is a new trait with a short history. The first drought-tolerant
soybean was reported only in 1989. Most breeders and farmers are not experienced in
the benefits of drought tolerance, because this trait is just now making its way to the
market place. An additional complexity is that drought- tolerance is highly interactive with
the environment. It is both “hard to breed for” and difficult to understand.

Because of these factors, a second goal of the drought project is to develop a biological
instruction manual to accompany new genetic materials. These instructions explain how
they should be used. These instructions are principally: 1) DNA maps showing the
location of drought tolerance genes; 2) A physiological explanation of what tolerance
genes do, and 3) Knowledge of when and where the drought genes work.

A third goal is release of new genetic materials in at least three divergent maturity
groups, so that products are usable in all three major U.S. growing areas: the upper
Midwest, the central Midwest, and the South. It is difficult to move drought tolerance
across maturity groups because of large differences in variety requirements from one
geographical area to the next. It requires technical expertise. For example, if an advance
in drought tolerance in Group VI is to be employed by Midwestern farmers, then those
who are expert in drought tolerance must make a concerted effort to move drought
tolerance from Group VI to Group III or Group II maturities. As the list of genetic
resources for drought tolerance breeding has expanded, USB field programs from
Minnesota to Georgia have taken on the task of genetically transferring new drought
genes North and South.


Reducing the impact of Fusarium root rot on soybean production in the
U.S.; Berlin Nelson (North Dakota State University); ($123,014).
(berlin.neslon@ndsu.edu)



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Key Words: Fusarium Root Rot, Phytophthora Root Rot

Root rots and root infecting pathogens are some of the most diseases of soybean in the
north-central states. The effects of diseases such as Pythium and Phytophthora root rot,
Rhizoctonia root and stem rot, soybean cyst nematode, sudden death syndrome and
brown stem rot are well documented and disease development is fairly well understood.
However, there is another important root disease, Fusarium root rot, which has received
very little attention. As a result, its basic biology and its impact on yield of soybean are
poorly understood.

The three principal investigators on this proposal have observed this disease on
soybeans in IL, MN and ND and believe the disease plays an important role in yield
reductions, especially on plants under stress, and could be interacting with other root rot
pathogens in a root rot complex. In some cases Fusarium root rot will kill plants in the
middle of the growing season, but more often it seems to weaken plants by damaging
lateral and tap roots, which can lead to plant death later during periods of stress.
Research is needed on Fusarium root rot of soybean in order to understand its impact
and reduce its effects on soybean yields.


Application of new genetic and genomic resources to the improved control
of soybean sudden death syndrome; Silvia Cianzio (Iowa State University);
($295,870). (scianzio@iastate.edu)

Key Words: Sudden Death Syndrome (SDS)

This is a new proposal on the application of novel genetic and genomic resources to the
improved control of soybean Sudden Death Syndrome (SDS). The causal organism is
Fusarium virguliforme, referred as Fv in the narrative. Funding requested for the first
stage is for three years (2009-2011). It is anticipated the work will continue for at least
the following next three years, unraveling the interaction between soybean and fungus.
Findings from the first proposal (if funded) will be the beginning point of the 2nd
generation proposal that will be submitted at the completion of the first three years.

The proposal will focus on the two sides of the disease equation: breeding and genetics
of new cultivars and germplasm lines for the Southern and Northern US regions, and on
understanding Fv mechanisms causing disease and symptoms. This latter relevant
portion will provide tools and new resistance genes to increase breeding efficiency for
high-yield SDS resistant lines.

SDS is a relatively new disorder of soybeans, which has become a major soybean
disease in Illinois, Indiana, Arkansas, Iowa and other soybean production states. The
name sudden death syndrome is descriptive in that normal-appearing plants turn yellow
and die rather quickly. Yield losses range from 20-80% or more, depending on variety
and stage of crop development when symptoms first appear. Appearance of SDS at
early pod fill is reportedly more damaging than its appearance at a later stage of plant
development. Yield reduction results from reduction of photosynthetic area, defoliation,
flower and pod abortion, and reduced seed size.




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Development of soybeans with high seed protein, low phytate and
enhanced feed efficiency; Joe Burton (USDA/ARS-North Carolina State University);
($1,420,278). (joe_burton@ncsu.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Composition, Improving Protein, Reducing Phytate Phosphorus,
Better Bean Initiative

This research implements long and short-term priorities of the Better Bean Initiative. The
strategies are addressed by 12 subprojects conducted by 16 outstanding scientists from
MN, SD, IL, IN, OH, MD, MO, AR, TN, NC, and GA. The combined expertise of this team
in plant breeding, biology, genetics, pathology, and biochemistry will provide genetic
resources, genomic tools, and fundamental information needed to expedite
development, evaluation, and commercial production of agronomic soybean varieties
exhibiting superior meal attributes that include increased total metabolizable energy,
improved essential amino acid balance, enhanced digestibility for feed applications, and
enhanced functionality for food applications.


Development of maturity I-IV varieties for the Better Bean Initiative; Walter
Fehr (Iowa State University); ($582,400). (wfehr@iastate.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Composition, Soybean Breeding-Composition,
Better Bean Initiative

During the previous three-year grant from the United Soybean Board, the Maturity I-IV
soybean breeding program at Iowa State University (ISU) developed and released 29
varieties with altered fatty acid composition that are playing a key role in meeting the
need of the food industry for reduction of saturated fat and trans-fatty acids in the human
diet. The ISU varieties are the only public ones with altered fatty acid composition in
commercial production today. The varieties demonstrate the success of the ISU program
in utilizing the USB funds for the benefit of the soybean industry. The research described
in this three-year proposal for FY2009, FY2010, and FY2011 will continue to provide
soybean farmers with improved varieties that have seed composition traits identified in
the Better Bean Initiative as important to end users.


Development of varieties with increased protein concentration; Brian Diers
(University of Illinois); ($24,207). (bdiers@illinois.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Composition, Improving Protein, Glycine soja

During 2009, we will complete a second year of tests of the BC1 population that
segregates for the LG I Danbaekkong high protein allele and we will test an Illinois
adapted population that is segregating for both the LG I Danbaekkong high protein allele
and the LG I high protein allele from G. soja. We hope these experiments will give a
final answer on whether the LG I protein allele from Danbaekkong is different, and
possibly better than the allele from G. soja. We will complete a second year of testing
the population pair that differs for maturity, but segregates for the LG I protein allele from
G. soja. We also will complete a second year of testing of the backcross populations
segregating for the LG I high protein allele from G. soja in diverse environment. We hope

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these tests will shed some light on the influence of the environment on how this gene
controls protein and influences yield. This could provide some basic information on why
protein levels in the southern US are greater than in the north.


Further development of soybean with higher levels of improved oil and
enhanced fugal resistance; David Hildebrand (University of Kentucky); ($59,910).
(dhild@pop.uky.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Composition, Modifying Oil

The demand for soybean oil as a renewable fuel and industrial chemical feedstock is
expected to increase in the future as global demand for such resources expands and
petroleum production cannot keep up with such increasing demand. A major new aspect
of this USB proposal is new and expanded work on increasing soybean oil levels with no
reduction in protein. This includes moving hydrocarbon and energy from synthesis of
undesirable seed components such as the inositol backbone of phytate and
oligosaccharides into oil rather than directing hydrocarbon and energy from protein into
oil which often happens with the existing genetic diversity available to soybean breeding.
We now have a sufficient understanding of the biosynthesis of major seed components
and soybean genetic engineering has now reached a stage to allow us to progress
toward this important goal in a timely fashion (2-3 years). We have already
demonstrated some esaturase transgenic soybeans we have produced have
reproducible 2 - 3% increases in oil levels in field trials with no protein reduction. We are
producing new desaturase transgenics that also should show increases in oil contents.

Additionally we have discovered new oil synthesis genes with uniquely high oil synthesis
activity and will genetically engineer soybeans with these new high oil synthesis genes.
The new high oil soybean lines will be crossed with new low phytate mutants that have
good germination and yield to see if the extra carbon freed from undesirable seed
components can be “pulled” into oil synthesis in these combined enhanced soybeans.
We are continuing research on the major objective of the development of low sat,
palmitoleic accumulating soybeans and combining the best of these with low saturated
fatty acid breeding lines. This is in progress with new, more marketable microsomal CoA
delta-9 desaturases. In case these desaturases with normal subcellular targeting are not
sufficient to achieve 50% or more conversion of the saturated fatty acids in soybean oil,
palmitic and stearic acids, into palmitoleic and oleic acids we are investigating this
process in plants that naturally convert more than 50% of their oil into palmitoleic acid.
This process will be studied at the biochemical level in developing seeds of very high
palmitoleic acid accumulators and the genes needed will be cloned and transferred into
soybeans.

We previously developed soybeans with enhanced fungal resistance transformed with
desaturases driven with a seed-specific promoter. New lines have been produced with
high expression of such genes in leaves for enhanced Asian rust resistance. These are
being regenerated and will be evaluated for their potential in development of rust
resistant soybean cultivars and additional lines that have been developed for rust
resistance will be further evaluated with David Wright in Quincy, FL.




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Use of genomics to improve soybean meal digestibility and food quality;
Saghai Maroof (Virginia Tech); ($124,000). (msaroof@vt.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Composition, Soybean Meal Use, Improving Digestibilities,

This project is based on the discovery of the soybean line V99-5089, which contains low
stachyose, low phytate and high sucrose. The major objective of the proposed project is
to develop DNA molecular markers for genes controlling sugar (sucrose, stachyose, and
raffinose) content in soybean seeds. The project will integrate molecular and
conventional breeding methods with the ultimate goal of developing soybeans with low
stachyose, low raffinose, high sucrose and high yield suitable for human food and animal
feed. Reducing stachyose and raffinose while increasing sucrose will result in more
digestible carbohydrates for animal feed. Higher sucrose levels should improve flavor of
soy foods for human consumption.

Enhancing oil content of soybean; Tom Clemente (University of Nebraska);
($43,700). (tclemente@unl.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Composition, Modifying Oil

Traditionally soybeans have been valued for their protein content. The corn ethanol
market is producing growing amounts of distiller’s grain that will likely compete with
soybean meal, possibly decreasing the value of the meal. Additionally, the growing value
of biofuels and specialty oils is increasing the value of soybean oil. These trends are
likely to change soybeans to be valued more for their oil content.

Soybeans are normally 18% to 22% total oil, while oilseeds such as canola can be 45 to
50% total oil. The higher oil content of other oilseeds indicates there is not a
fundamental biological barrier to increasing soybean seed oil content to greater than
30%. Current soybean germplasm does not have genotypes with this level of oil in their
seeds. Therefore, it is likely that genetic engineering methods will be required to
increase soybean seeds to greater than 30% total oil.

Partitioning of carbon towards either lipids or protein during seed development is not
clearly understood. Our proposal uses a targeted engineering approach of some of the
structural and regulatory genes known to control oil biosynthesis in other organisms.
Part of our strength of our proposal relies on the University of Nebraska’s leadership role
in the development and evaluation of transgenic soybean with novel oil characteristics,
including high oleic acid (>85%), production of high omega-3 fatty acids (>60%) and the
production of industrial oils (ricinoleic acid, >15%).

The evaluation of these novel oil traits is facilitated by the University’s unique
infrastructure that includes the Plant Biotechnology Field and Processing Facilities.
These facilities permit growth and processing of regulated seed under strict identity
preservation.


Harnessing soybean innate immunity to reduce yield losses due to fungal
pathogens; Gary Stacey (University of Missouri-Columbia); ($97,803).
(staceyg@missouri.edu)

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Key Words: Soybean Disease Resistance,

Although individual fungal pathogens cause sporadic and regionally localized yield
losses, annual yield losses due to all fungal pathogens are estimated to exceed those
due to soybean cyst nematode infection. In 2006, the yield losses due to fungal diseases
were estimated to be 6.9 million tons (Wrather and Koenning, 2006). Hence, fungal
pathogens represent a major threat to US soybean production.

Control of fungal pathogens can be difficult, often requiring treatment with fungicides.
Although effective, the economic costs of fungicides and increasing concern about their
environmental effects suggest the need for alternative control methods.

The deployment of resistant cultivars can be an effective means to control fungal
diseases. Resistant cultivars usually have a single gene, resistance (R) gene, that
confers resistance to a specific pathogen, usually only to a particular genotype (i.e.,
race) of the pathogen. In some cases, R gene-mediated resistance does not provide
sufficient resistance to reduce yield loss. The pathogen often evolves to overcome this
resistance and ultimately regains the ability to infect resistant cultivars. In the case of
some priority pathogens (e.g., charcoal rot), no effective R-gene mediated resistance is
available. In the case of soybean rust (SBR), four resistance genes (Rpp1 to Rpp4) were
identified in soybean but their effectiveness in the field was rapidly lost (Hartwig, 1986).
However, some cultivars do show some resistance. Often this is referred to as 'partial
resistance' (leading to slow rusting in the case of SBR). In these cases, in the absence
of effective R-gene immunity, the innate immunity system of the plant provides sufficient
resistance to provide significant yield protection. However, in the case of soybean, little
has been done to harness this innate immunity system, which can be effective against a
broad range of fungal pathogens. This proposal seeks to (i) define quantitative trait loci
(QTL) that control the soybean innate immunity response, (ii) identify those previously
mapped QTLs that define innate immunity loci, (iii) identify markers for marker assisted
selection of the beneficial alleles, and (iv) test the benefits of enhanced innate immunity
in protecting soybean from yield losses due to a variety of fungal pathogens.


Identification and utilization of exotic germplasm to improve soybean
productivity; Randall Nelson (USDA/ARS-University of Illinois); ($519,848).
(rlnelson@uiuc.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Gene Diversity, Soybean Breeding

Our previous project focused on increasing soybean yield by expanding the genetic base
of U.S. soybean production and mapping the genes that are responsible for those yield
increases. These two objectives are highly complementary. Our breeding efforts will
immediately make available to U.S. soybean breeders high-yielding, genetically diverse
experimental lines that can be used to develop new varieties while our efforts to locate
specific yield genes will assist plant breeders in more effectively managing the available
diversity and eventually will provide a better understanding of the genetically and
physiologically important processes for increasing yield. During the past three years we
have made enormous progress in both of these objectives.



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Development of low phytate soybeans using genomic tools; Saghai Maroof
(Virginia Tech); ($115,000). (smaroof@vt.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Composition, Reducing Phytate Phosphorus,
Better Bean Initiative

Much of the phosphorus in soybeans is in the form of phytate which is not digestible, so
feedstuffs containing soybean meal are frequently supplemented with inorganic
phosphorus. A large proportion of this phosphorus remains in the manure and
contributes to phosphorus overloading in the soils to which it is applied. Genetically
reducing the level of phytate in soybeans and the concomitant increase in inorganic
phosphorus will improve the feeding value of soybean meal, because it will reduce the
need for supplemental phosphorus in animal diets. This in turn will reduce the
phosphorus overloading of the environment. We have determined that our newly
discovered soybean line, V99-5089 with low stachyose, also has a lower phytate level.
The project proposed here will determine whether the genes from V99-5089, in
combination with the other low phytate genes from CX1834 and M766, might be capable
of reducing phytate to even lower levels than previously reported for any soybean line.

In addition, germplasm is being developed that will be valuable for breeding low phytate
varieties and for assessing the nutritional and environmental contributions of the low
phytate trait. The germplasm can be used in incorporating the trait into varieties adapted
for all regions of the country. The low phytate trait, together with the low stachyose
characteristic, have the potential to significantly improve the value of U.S. produced
soybean meal and thus make it more competitive with imported soybeans. Therefore,
this project is directly addressing the Composition Target Area of the Better Bean
Initiative. The germplasm and molecular markers that are developed will be directly
usable by any U.S. soybean breeding program.


Agronomic limitations of soybean yield and seed quality in U.S.; Palle
Pedersen (Iowa State University); ($516,388). (palle@iastate.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Production Management, Soybean Yield Improvement,
Soybean Composition, Soybean Fertility Studies, Soybean Verification Program

This project supports the USB Production Committee’s long-range strategic plan dealing
with best management practices. The research team will:
    • Measure the yield response to specific management factors (planting date, row
       spacing, seed treatment, and foliar fungicide treatments) to determine which
       treatments add more yield benefit and economic return that others especially
       when they are in combination with each other;
    • Determine the response to phosphorus, potassium, sulfur and micronutrient
       fertilization prior to corn vs. prior to soybeans in a corn-soybean rotation;
    • Measure the yield response to increasing seeding rates and determine the plant
       population required at harvest to achieve the optimal balance of yield and
       profitability;
    • Evaluate geographically seed quality responses. They will complete a thorough
       analysis for seed quality traits including protein, oil, amino acid and fatty acid
       balances; and

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   •   Measure the yield response to increasing seeding rates and determine the
       seeding rate required to achieve harvest plant populations that produce the
       optimal balance of yield and profitability for all soybean producers in the U.S.

The goal of these practical research and demonstration trials is to develop best
management practices that can be communicated to soybean growers in the form of
revised management recommendations, presentations at scientific meetings and in
scientific journals, and at various winter meetings where the recommendations will be
tailored to the specific state(s) or region.


Identification of genes that regulate soybean oil content: Part II; Carroll
Vance (USDSA/ARS-University of Minnesota); ($80,600). (carroll.vance@ars.udsa.gov)

Key Words: Soybean Composition, Modifying Oil, Soybean Gene Expression

This project is part of a multi-state collaboration to discover the basis of high oil or
protein content in soybean through a molecular biology approach. It addresses specific
goals outlined at the Soybean Genomics Research Strategic Planning Meeting for 2008-
2012 sponsored by USB. From gene expression studies supported by funding from USB
in FY08, we identified four potential candidate genes for regulation of soybean seed oil
content by sequencing >2,000,000,000 bp of transcripts from the developing seed of a
pair of near isogenic soybean lines contrasting in oil and protein. This sequencing
project also contributed 13,000 gene exon regions found in the soybean transcripts to
the soybean genome annotation.

For FY09, this project will characterize two of the genes identified as differentially
expressed as candidates for genes involved in regulation of soybean oil content. The
long-term goal is to facilitate targeting of regulatory genes that will enhance seed oil
content in U.S. soybeans.


Nested association mapping to identify yield QTLs in diverse high yielding
elite soybean lines; Perry Cregan (USDA/ARS-Beltsville Agricultural Research
Center); ($280,000). (creganp@ba.ars.usda.gov)

Key Words: Soybean Gene Expression, Soybean Genomics, Marker Assisted Selection,
Soybean Yield Improvement

The most cost-effective way to stay ahead of international competitors and to optimize
the profitability of U.S. soybean production is to continue to make available to the U.S.
soybean producer varieties that have ever-greater yield potential in normal and stress
environments; more comprehensive resistance to the usual and newly emerging pests,
and a high quality seed that exceeds the desires of the national and international
purchasers of US soybean seed, meal, and oil.

This project is aimed specifically at increasing the yield per se of the soybean varieties
grown by U.S. producers. The two long term objectives of the project are: 1) The
identification of genes or Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs) that positively impact soybean
yield, and 2) The identification of DNA markers that will allow plant breeders to combine


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these genes or QTLs into new varieties much more rapidly than is now possible, thereby
enhancing the annual rate of yield improvement gain in soybean.

The activities of the first year represent the first steps in the development of the
experimental breeding lines (recombinant inbred lines or RILs) required completing this
project. These RILs will be phenotypically evaluated for yield and will be genotypically
analyzed for their genomic variability using the 50,000 SNPs that will be developed as
part of USB Projects 8212 and 8265. The yield testing and DNA marker analysis of the
RILs will allow the application of the new approach for gene/QTL discovery that is
referred to as Nested Association Mapping (NAM). This NAM procedure promises to
identify the genome positions of the numerous yield genes/QTLs that are present in elite
U.S. soybean cultivars and simultaneously provide DNA markers that breeders can use
to rapidly and efficiently combine these genes/QTLs into higher yielding varieties.

The objectives of this project are to:
   • Selection of a final optimized set of 1536 SNP markers, which will become the
       so-called Universal 1536 Soy Linkage Panel 2.0. The 1536 best SNPs will be
       selected from a larger set of 50,000 SNPs based upon: the genetic mapping in
       an ultra-high resolution mapping population comprised of 1000 Recombinant
       Inbred Lines (RILs) derived from the mating Williams 82 x Glycine soja PI
       468916, and the analysis of a set of diverse soybean varieties and germplasm
       lines from the USDA Germplasm Collection;
   • Planting of between 700 to 1000 F2 plants from matings between IA3023 (a very
       high yielding Iowa State variety often used as a check variety) and 30 high
       yielding elite and exotic soybean lines selected by plant breeder collaborators in
       AR, IL, IA, IN, IL, KS, MI, MO, NE, OH, TN and VA.
   • Selection of about 500 F2 plants from each of those 30 matings whose plant
       maturity is as similar as possible to the common Maturity Group III “hub parent”
       IA3023 (30 matings x 500 F2 plants = 15,000 F2 plants); and
   • Planting of one F3 seed from each of the 15,000 F2 plants in a winter nursery to
       initiate a two-generation advance from F3 plant to F4 seed, then from F4 plant to
       F5 seed using the single-seed-descent procedure.


Inheritance of resistance, map locations, and genetic relationships of
multiple sources of resistance to the soybean aphids; Curt Hill (University of
Illinois); ($58,500). (curthill@illinois.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Aphid, SA-Genetic Resistance

This proposal is for the third year of a three year project. In this project, the genetic
relationships of soybean aphid resistance genes in new sources of aphid resistance with
Rag1 and Rag2 (the tentative name for the gene in PI200538), and the yet unnamed
gene in Jackson, studied in USB project #4243, are being determined to identify new,
unique resistance genes. It is important to work out the genetic relationships in order to
avoid redundancy in breeding for soybean aphid resistance and to identify additional
resistance genes to use to respond to the ability of the soybean aphid to adapt to
resistance genes, and that can be “stacked” in resistant cultivars to produce more
durable resistance.



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Enhancing soybean yield by manipulating the expression of seed trait-
determining genes; Aardra Kachroo (University of Kentucky); ($130,617).
(apkach2@uky.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Gene Expression, Soybean Breeding, Soybean Bioengineering

Crop loss due to plant diseases combined with increased use of soy diesel as an
alternative fuel source, demands the development of strategies to increase soybean
yield. However, soybean yield is often limited by diseases induced by a variety of
pathogens, as well as abiotic stresses such as heat and drought. One approach would
involve the development of varieties capable of enduring these various stresses. Another
more general approach, would involve the development of high yielding varieties.
Indeed, improving seed yield has been a major goal for soybean breeding programs all
across North America.


Charcoal rot cultivar evaluation using adapted and exotic sources of
resistance; John Rupe (University of Arkansas); ($376,533). (jrupe@uark.edu)

Key Words: Charcoal Rot

This project will identify resistance to charcoal rot through a multi-state evaluation
program and refine and develop effective field and greenhouse screening methods for
this disease. This work is needed because charcoal rot is one of the most yield limiting
soybean diseases in the US and there are no resistant varieties. Progress in identifying
charcoal rot resistance has been slow because the disease is sporadic from year to
year, results from individual states are difficult to compare because of differences in
experimental approaches, and the reaction of resistant cultivars identified in greenhouse
assays are often not confirmed under field conditions. To solve this, we propose
standardized multi-state field and greenhouse trials.

Our overall objectives are to:
   • Evaluate cultivars thought to be resistant to charcoal rot in a standardized multi-
      state screening program;
   • Refine current and develop new field and greenhouse screening methods to
      identify charcoal rot resistance;
   • Evaluate adapted and exotic soybean germplasm for charcoal rot resistance; and
   • Determine the effects of charcoal rot and drought on soybean in inoculated tests.

This project will maximize the likelihood of identifying effective sources of charcoal rot
resistance by testing over a range of environments with the expectation of providing
growers with reliable charcoal rot ratings for current varieties. It will also establish the
effectiveness of current greenhouse testing procedures and the feasibility of using
remote sensing to assess charcoal rot severity. If successful, this research will provide
soybean breeders with reliable field and greenhouse screening procedures necessary
for incorporation of resistance into soybean breeding lines.




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Functional analysis of soybean genes through transposon mutagenesis;
Tom Clemente (University of Nebraska); ($269,961). (tclemente1@unlnotes.unl.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Transposons, Soybean Gene Expression, Soybean Genomics

Our long-term goal is to develop functional genomics resources, to complement ongoing
genomics efforts, as a means to identify novel and useful genes in soybeans. Our target
is to develop a large repository of   soybean events in which the majority of soybean
genes have been “tagged”. The various genomics tools (microarrays, genetic and
physical maps, genome sequence etc) rapidly generate data that permit the formulation
of hypotheses regarding gene function on a genomic scale. However, the limitation of
these tools is that they do not offer the ability to experimentally test such hypotheses,
whereas a “tagged” gene can effectively be used for hypothesis testing for gene
function.


A SURE database; John Finer (The Ohio State University); ($50,000).
(finer.1@osu.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Genomics, Soybean Bioengineering, Soybean Gene Expression

Funds are requested for the further development and functional validation of the SURE
(Soybean Upstream Regulatory Elements) database. “SURE” refers University Research
to the promoter regions of soybean genes, which largely control gene expression and
are physically located in front of the DNA coding region. Promoters dictate the intensity,
timing, and location of gene expression. Although soybean promoters are needed for
basic research on gene expression in soybean and for production of useful soybean
transgenics, few soybean promoters are known or available. The recent release of the
soybean genome sequence provides an exciting opportunity to identify and provide large
numbers of useful soybean promoters to the soybean biotechnology community.

Our aims for this project are two-fold. First, we want to expand and improve our virtual
library of soybean promoters (The SURE database) and make it available to the
soybean community. Secondly, we propose to perform rapid characterization of over 100
soybean promoters that drive desirable expression characteristics (such as constitutive
expression, pathogen-inducible expression, seed-specific expression and drought-
inducible expression) and make them available both for basic soybean research and
research aimed at producing improved soybean varieties.


Supplement to the University of Georgia Center for Soybean Tissue Culture
Engineering; Wayne Parrott (University of Georgia); ($121,285). (wparrott@uga.edu)

Key Words: Genetically Engineered Soybean, Soybean Bioengineering,
SCN-Genetic Resistance, Induced Gene Silencing, Soybean Tissue Culture

One-time only funds are being sought to supplement an on-going collaborative research
project between the Center for Soybean Genetic Engineering and the USB-sponsored
Nematode Parasitism Gene Group. The goal of this collaboration is to obtain effective,
broad and durable resistance to soybean cyst nematodes. The overall plan is to have a

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‘pipeline’ going, whereby a steady stream of genes enters the pipeline on one end and
comes out as plants tested in the greenhouse at the other end. Those events that show
promise under greenhouse conditions will be increased for field testing.

The development of resistant soybean varieties is complicated because there are many
nematode strains and many genes for resistance. These difficulties can be overcome by
engineering soybean with cyst-nematode-derived genes that make soybean broadly
resistant in a non-strain-specific way. The Nematode Team has more gene targets to
evaluate than our Center has funding to transform into soybean. One-time only,
supplementary funds are being sought to accelerate the overall project. This would be
accomplished by increasing the number of candidate genes that will be screened for
their effectiveness against cyst nematodes in soybean, and to increase the capacity for
evaluation and analysis of the engineered plants.


Confirmation of quantitative trait, loci and gene-based molecular marker
development for broad septurm resistance to SCN; Henry Nguyen (University of
Missouri-Columbia); ($74,076). (nguyenhenry@missouri.edu)
Key Words: Soybean Technologies, Marker Assisted Selection, Soybean Gene Mapping

During 2009, we anticipate the following achievements:
   • Completion of the confirmation study for novel QTL mapped on LGs G and O
       using F7 RILs mapping population and preparation of a manuscript;
   • Development and validation of additional SSR and SNP markers for the novel
       QTL regions. These markers will be utilized for fine-mapping of the QTL;
   • Following the completion of the QTL confirmation, development of RHLs from F5
       RILs. These RHLs will be subsequently utilized for fine-mapping work; and
   • Continuation of the marker-assisted backcrossing to develop near-isogenic lines
       (NILs) for the SCN resistant QTL. These NILs will be used for gene-based
       cloning.


Screening germplasm and breeding lines for resistance to Phomopsis seed
decay in soybean; Shuxian Li (USDA/ARS); ($125,500); (Shuxian.Li@ars.usda.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Germplasm Screening. Phomopsis spp., Phomopsis seed decay

This is a new proposal on screening germplasm and breeding for resistance to
Phomopsis seed decay (PSD) in soybean. This disease is caused primarily by
Phomopsis longicolla, and other Diaporthe, Phomopsis spp. and (Diaporthe/Phomopsis
complex). Funding requested for the first stage is for three years (2009-2012). It is
anticipated the work will continue for the following next three years, unraveling the
interaction between soybean and fungus. Findings from the first proposal (if funded) will
be the beginning point of the 2nd stage proposal that will be submitted at the completion
of the first three years.

The proposal will focus on the two sides of the disease equation:
   • Screening untapped (not yet tested for PSD resistance) 123 MG 3-5 germplasm
       lines collected from 28 countries, and


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   •   Breeding lines and cultivars from Southern US with resistance to PSD. This
       research will provide tools and potential new resistance genes to increase
       breeding efficiency for high-yield PSD resistant lines.

Phomopsis seed decay of soybean is a major cause of poor quality and poor
germination of soybean seeds in the United States, especially in the mid-southern US.
Expectations of the proposed project will be that at the end of the first three-year period,
diverse germplasm with potentially new resistance genes will be identified and the new
source of resistance will be incorporated in adapted cultivars and breeding lines.


Towards developing rust-resistant soybeans: Identifying genes for rust
resistance; Schuyler Korban (University of Illinois-Urbana/Champaign); ($156,484).
(korban@illinois.edu)

Key Words: Virus-Inducted Gene Silencing, ASR-Genetic Resistance

We plan to develop new constructs carrying candidate rust resistance genes for VIGS
screening. All silenced G. tomentella and soybean genotypes will be then evaluated for
their reaction to inoculation with the rust pathogen. We will investigate the response of
silenced soybean genotypes to repeated inoculations with different strains of the rust
pathogen in order to determine their durability. This will be done using detached leaves
and in the greenhouse at the University of Illinois. We will also conduct microarray
experiments to study the transcriptome of rust-resistant and rust-susceptible soybean
genotypes, with or without inoculation with the rust pathogen to develop a better
understanding of the regulatory gene controls under these conditions. We will conduct
soybean transformations using only those genes that have shown promise as playing a
role in rust resistance, based on VIGS screening and evaluation. We will generate
transgenic soybean lines, over expressing and silencing those rust resistant genes, and
evaluate their performance following challenge with the rust pathogen.


Monitoring aerial transport of Phakopsora packyrhizi spores; Les Szabo
(USDA/ ARS-University of Minnesota); ($155,000). (lszabo@umn.edu)

Key Words: Asian Soybean Rust (ASR), ASR-Spore Traps, Phakopsora packyrhizi

This project expands the spore trap collection network. This is particularly important in
light of potential reductions in sentinel plot funding which will impact the quality of IAMS
predictions since IAMS is highly dependent on knowing where SBR infections are in the
southern U.S. There are important gaps in the NADP rain collection network, with
respect to monitoring SBR.

The specific objectives of the proposal are:
   • Monitor spore deposition at 26 sites using three different types of spore traps;
   • Compare spore trap data with IAMS predictions;
   • Continued partial support for national monitoring of rain using NADP/NTN
      network system; and
   • Test revised model of SEM active spore traps at several sites.


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The soybean sudden death alliance; David Wright (North Central Soybean
Research Program); ($149,856). (dwright@iasoybeans.com) (This project is jointly
funded with NCSRP).

Key Words: Sudden Death Syndrome

Sudden death syndrome (SDS) was first observed in Arkansas in 1971 and is now
widespread across most major soybean producing areas in the United States. While the
incidence and severity of the disease varies by year and state, the annual soybean yield
losses rank SDS as a major soybean disease in soybean production areas. The primary
goal of this program is to increase soybean producer profitability by reducing yield losses
caused by SDS.

This proposal will focus on four main research areas:
   • Breeding and genetics;
   • Interactions between soybean cyst nematode (SCN) and SDS;
   • Improvements in greenhouse and field screening protocols; and
   • Production of transgenic soybean plants with the ability to suppress the SDS
       pathogen toxin movement from roots to leaves.


Sentinel plots to monitor the spread of soybean rust in the US soybean
production region; David Wright (North Central Soybean Research Program);
($250,000). (dwright@iasoybeans.com) (The project is jointly funded with NCSRP).

Key Words: Asian Soybean Rust (ASR), ASR-Sentinel Plots

The project’s strategic goals are to continue the soybean rust sentinel plot monitoring
and early warning network established in 2005 in cooperation with USDA/ARS’s
ipmPIPE project. The specific activities include developing and monitoring sentinel plots
in all states; monitoring of foliar diseases during the growing season; and participating in
biweekly national conference calls on soybean rust which are being lead by Loren
Giesler and Don Hershman. All observations being made in the sentinel plots are being
entered into the USDA soybean rust web site for public viewing.



Coupling high-throughput genetic and phenotypic information for yield
enhancement; Felix Fritschi (University of Missouri); ($151,814).
(fritschif@missouri.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Germplasm Screening, Soybean Drought Stress,
Soybean Gene Expression
Tremendous strides have been made in characterizing and analyzing genetic diversity in
soybean at the molecular level. The techniques are readily available to conduct high-
throughput molecular genetic analysis of soybean.

While extraordinarily useful, these molecular techniques have presented new
challenges, particularly coupling this genetic information to plant-processes and
agronomic traits (phenotyping). Simply, the ability to measure traits that impact yield has


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not kept pace with the tremendous volume of molecular genetic information and this has
resulted in a research bottleneck.

Our goals in the proposed research are to investigate and develop large-scale high-
throughput screening methods for important agronomic traits. Phenotypic screening and
analyses require large investments in time, space, and labor. Consequently, if the
phenotyping bottleneck is to be alleviated, effective approaches need to be developed
for high-throughput screening under field conditions. New approaches which allow
accurate, rapid, and economical characterization of phenotypes need to be developed in
order to increase the number of entries as well as the breath of phenotypes that can be
characterized. In addition, field-screening formats need to be developed that match
genotyping platforms and facilitate integration of field screening with genetic analyses.
Increasing the capacity for screening of large numbers of plants will allow
characterization of a greater number of soybean genotypes for potentially beneficial
traits and/or characterization of selected entries under more environments. In this project
we propose to phenotypically and genotypically characterize 384 MG IV genotypes from
the USDA-ARS Soybean Germplasm Collection focusing on drought related traits. The
number of entries will be capped at 384 which will allow us to determine the value of the
high-throughput methods in a cost-effective manner. Important traits that will be
evaluated include demonstrable high-throughput measurements such as wilting, isotope
discrimination, ureide concentration, and examination of remote sensing strategies that
may be associated with drought stress. Molecular characterization will include the
application of a large number of well-distributed genomic molecular markers on all 384
genotypes. The coupling of high-throughput molecular genetic information and high-
throughput trait based information is a new approach that ties together research
disciplines with the direct benefit of allowing the identification of plant introductions that
have genes not present in commercial cultivars and that could be valuable as parental
lines to increase soybean yield. This project should lead to more efficient field-screening
methods for drought-related traits and identify traits and parental lines that can be used
in applied breeding programs for increasing dryland soybean yields.


Evaluation of soybean varieties and exotic germplasm for tolerance to
drought; Grover Shannon (University of Missouri); ($26,037).
(shonnong@missouri.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Germplasm Screening, Soybean Drought Stress

It is important to minimize hazards soybean growers face. Drought flooding cause more
yield loss than insects, weeds or diseases worldwide. The largest problem growers’ face
is too little or too much water. Growers nearly always have losses to drought each year.
Growers who receive heavy rain after irrigation or in low areas or poorly drained fields
often face excess water problems and crop injury. Little is known today s varieties and
their ability to withstand drought. Exotic plant introductions could offer breeding material
higher tolerance to limited water than is shown in current varieties. Identification of
soybean varieties with greater tolerance to drought will provide growers options to
reduce field losses to conditions where rainfall is inadequate.

Combining information from the same varieties in this project with a Southern Soybean
Research Program (SSRP) funded project to identify varieties with flooding tolerance will
provide growers information on which varieties are best to grow where drought, flooding

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or both stress problems occur. Tolerant germplasm can be used in breeding programs to
improve varieties for higher drought tolerance and water logging tolerance.

The purpose of this project is to:
   • Evaluate soybean cultivars in maturity groups III, IV and V for tolerance to
      drought and provide information to farmers to select varieties for better
              performance where water is limited;
   • Evaluate up to 500 Group IV plant introductions (PIs) for tolerance to drought to
      identify soybean germplasm for development of soybeans with greater
      productivity under conditions where moisture is limited;
   • Couple results of an SSRP project that will identify the most flood tolerant
      varieties with this project to evaluate the same material for drought to identify
      those varieties; and germplasm lines that may have the best tolerance under
      both drought and flooding; and
   • Provide information to growers.


The contribution of small RNAs toward modulating genes networks for
protein and oil composition in soybean; Lila Vodkin (University of Illinois-
Urbana/Champaign); ($193,275). (l-vodkin@illiniis.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Composition, Soybean Gene Expression

The researcher will conduct study using a novel approach to elucidate the role played by
endogenous small RNAs in the developing soybean seed that may modulate
compositional traits in soybean, including protein and oil content. The RNAi (RNA
interference) pathway and the small RNAs, classes of biologically active 21-nucleotide
RNAs that are central to this novel pathway, were discovered less than nine years ago.
Since that time an explosion of research on small RNAs has occurred in many
organisms demonstrating that they regulate hundreds of important biological and
developmental pathways including promoting or preventing cancer development in
humans.

The 2006 Nobel Prize was awarded to the scientists who discovered the central role of
this pathway. As part of our recent research, we have used state-of-the-art, ultra high-
throughput sequencing technologies to determine the population of small RNAs found in
various tissues of soybean including the developing seeds, seed coats, leaves, and
several other tissues. Soon, we will have over 20 million small RNA sequence reads.

This research is sponsored by seed grants from several non-checkoff sources including
the Critical Research Initiative program of the University of Illinois campus, the Illinois
Council on Food and Agriculture Research, and the federal Soybean Disease
Biotechnology Research Center to PI Vodkin and collaborators. In total, over $500,000
has been allocated from these various non-checkoff sources to explore the role of small
RNAs in soybean. These grants recognize the importance of small RNAs in modern
biotechnological research as well as the importance of soybean. We will leverage the
proposed USB funds to exploit this unprecedented and unique at these small RNAs in
soybean. To our knowledge, no other USB-sponsored research project addresses the
contribution of naturally occurring soybean small RNAs to plant traits. Specific outcomes



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would be to find molecules and networks that would shift pathways to produce different
protein and oil ratios or specific oil types or improve overall yield.


Concept paper: Improvement of soybean protein content via storage in
protein bodies; Diane Bassham (Iowa State University); ($66,687).
(basshan@iastate.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Composition, Improving Protein

While soybean seeds have the highest protein content of the major crop plants, plant
proteins can be lacking essential amino acids, which need to be added to feed, thus
increasing cost. Breakdown of protein during seed maturation is one factor limiting the
introduction of proteins with improved amino acid composition into elite germplasm. The
aim of this project is to test a system for targeting proteins to protein bodies, which lack
the enzymes for protein degradation, as a way to increase protein content and improve
seed composition.

Rust resistance Roundup Ready 2 Yield™ soybean varieties that produce
superior protein meal; Debbie Ellis (Southern Soybean Research Center);
($25,000). (dellis@kysoy.org)

Key Words: Soybean Composition, Soybean Breeding-Composition

In June of 2008, Monsanto provided us with populations they had created by crossing
our elite, high yielding University of Georgia (MG VII and VIII) and University of
Tennessee (MG V) lines with a Monsanto line containing new glyphosate herbicide
tolerance transgene (referred to as Roundup Ready 2 Yield™ or RR2Y™). Monsanto’s
new RR2Y™ technology provides both glyphosate tolerance and a reported 8 to 12%
increase in seed yield.

This will be our new platform for the development of superior yielding, multiple pest
resistant varieties with traits that enhance soybean’s value in poultry and swine rations.
Soybean meal is a major component of poultry and swine feed, and its composition
affects both the meal’s nutrition value and the impact of poultry and swine production on
the environment. The volume of Southeastern soybean production does not meet the
high demand for soybean meal by the broiler and swine industries in the region, so tens
of thousands of tons are imported annually into the Southeast. Without supplemental
irrigation, Southeastern soybean producers cannot compete with Midwestern growers for
yield, but the climate of the Southeast favors the production of soybean meal better
suited to the specific demands of the poultry feed and broiler industries. Oil and protein
levels average slightly higher than those of soybean grown further north. We are
planning to improve the value of Southeastern-produced soybean seed by increasing
protein content and quality and decreasing phytic acid levels, and incorporating Asian
rust resistance or SCN resistance into RR2Y® varieties.


Compositional analysis of whole soybean grain by transmission Raman
spectroscopy: A pilot study; Linda Sue Kull (University of Illinois-Urbana/
Champaign); ($155,504). (lkull@illinois.edu)

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Key Words: Soybean Composition

In this first year study, the main goal is to determine if Raman spectroscopy can predict
soybean grain protein and oil content in single and small multi-seed samples with
greater accuracy and/or precision than can conventional near infrared reflectance (NIR)
spectroscopy.

The specific research objectives are:
   • Build the instrumentation necessary to achieve Raman transmission
      measurements on whole soybean grain;
   • Develop a calibration model for soybean protein and oil; and
   • Study the impact of water in transmission Raman spectroscopy of soybeans.


Increasing metabolizable energy in soybean meal; Mian Riaz (Texas
Engineering Experiment Station); ($50,000). (mnriaz@tamu.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Meal Use, Soybean Composition, Improving Digestibilities

This project will focus to increase the availability of metabolized energy to monogastric
animals from soybean by using the alpha-galactosidase enzyme during extrusion.


Evaluation of the potential reproductive and development effects of soy
isoflavones; David Bechtel (Cantox US, Inc.); ($50,000). (dbechtel@cantox.edu)

Key Words: Soy Isoflavones, Soy Human Health Studies

Review and critically evaluate preclinical references examining the potential reproductive
and developmental effects of soy isoflavones.


Assessing the nutritional energy value of stacked trait low phytate/low
oligosaccharide soybean in animal feeding applications; Philip Lobo (Direct
managed); ($100,000). (plobo@smithbucklin.com)

Key Words: Soybean Meal Use, Reducing Phytate Phosphorus, Improving Digestibilities

The objective of this research proposal is to pursue an expanded version of the originally
proposed animal feeding trial evaluations of the low phytate/low oligosaccharide (test)
soybeans grown at Virginia Tech.


Recycling of polyurethanes based on soy polyols; Vahid Sendijarevic (Trey
Polymers); ($79,900). (vsendijarevic@troypolymers.com)

Key Words: Soy-based Foams

As part of this project, flexible polyurethane (PUR) foams based on soy polyols will be
evaluated in recycling processes with the near term commercial potential.

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Soy-based        resistance       polyurethane        pultruded       composite;        K.
Chandrashekhara (Missouri University of Science and Technology); ($ 50,000).
(chandra@mst.edu)

Key Words: Soy-based Resin, Soy-based Polyol

We will investigate pultrudable PU resin systems with aromatic and isocyanates, and
soy-polyol. Bayer is currently developing a two-component pultrudable PU resin system
with increased soy content.


Preparation of soy-based aliphatic isocyanates from soy meal; Ken Farminer
(BioPlastic Polymers); ($99,500). (kwfarmin@chartermi.net)

Key Words: Soybean Meal-Industrial Uses, Soy-based Chemicals
Our overall objective in this proposal is to prepare aliphatic isocyanates soy meal using a
“green” process that does not utilize phosgene. This new monomer could then be used
as a platform to produce new polyurethane and polyurea type polymers.


Soy-based water-blown pour-in-place insulation foam; Niel Nodelman
(Biobased Technologies); ($70,000). (nnodelman@biobased.net)

Key Words: Soy-based Foams, Soy-based Polyols

This project emphasizes the use of commercially-available Agrol® polyols for the
formulation development in cooler applications. Successful development of this thermal
insulation PIP product will able to meet the demands of the domestic market.


High soy content half-pound spray polyurethane foam; Neil Nodelman
(Biobased Technologies); ($50,000). (nnodelman@biobased.net)

Key Words: Soy-based Polyols

The goal of this proposed study is to develop an SPF product with a 0.5 pcf density,
using water as the sole blowing agent, comprising high soy content and having good
spray processing for wall insulation applications.


Replacing current petroleum-based polyols with soy-based polyols in
polyurethane gel products; Richard Fox (PolyWorks, LLC.); ($55,000).
(dfox@polyworksscorp.com)

Key Words: Soy-based Polyols




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With encouragement from Dow Chemical, PolyWorks - a manufacturer of a wide-range
of consumer and industrial gel cushioning products - is interested in replacing its current
petroleum-based polyol with soy-based polyol.


Soy-based polyols with flame retardant function; Ning Luo (Biobased
Technologies); ($100,000). (nluo@biobased.net)

Key Words: Soy-based Polyols

BioBased Technologies® LLC would like to develop a new soy-based polyols that could
also function as a flame retardant. The essence of the proposal is to attach the halogen-
containing moieties and the fatty structures from soybean oil into polyol backbone.


Developing a soybean meal or flour based particulate filler for
thermosetting polymer products; Rujul Mehta (National Composite); ($46,500).
(rmehta@compositecenter.org)

Key Words: Soy-based Polymers, Soybean Meal-Industrial Uses

We propose to develop a soybean meal and soybean flour based particulate filler for
thermosetting and thermoplastic polymer products, which can effectively replace calcium
carbonate or other mineral fillers with the “green” agri/bio-mass material.


Feedstock characteristics for commercial petrolatum from soybean oil via
metathesis; Del Craig (Elevance Renewable); ( $109,500). Del.Craig@Elevance.com)

Key Words: Industrial Uses

Elevance has developed soy bean oil (SBO)-based petrolatum which a smoother and
non-greasy feel and better slip properties while preserving essential characteristics of
petroleum-derived petrolatum. The key to the product breakthrough is a process called
olefin metathesis of SBO. In order to increase the market penetration of this renewable
and natural personal care product, impurities in SBO needs to be characterized so that
catalyst poisoning issues can be minimized and the loading of the expensive catalyst
significantly reduced.


Soy flakes and soy oil in automotive thermoplastic applications; Cynthia
Flanigan (Ford Motor Company); ($124,500). (cflanig2@ford.com)

Key Words: Soy-based Polymers

Since soy meal is an abundant and low cost material, it has potential to become an
alternative to traditional carbon black and talc fillers for automotive plastics. This new
proposal includes work to incorporate soy flakes and soy oil into thermoplastic parts.




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Development of cost-effective flake-based fiber; James Bruening (Marvin
Technology); ($142,700). jimbruening@carolina.rr.com)

Key Words: Soy-based Fibers

The goal of the research project will be to develop a commercially-viable, cost-effective
soy fiber designed for the non-woven and textile markets.


Development of a soy-based asphalt cement; Sheldon Chesky (BioSpan
Technologies); ($88,000). (shelchesky@sbcglobal.net)

Key Words: Soy-based Polymers, Industry Uses

This is the third year of a project to develop a soy-based asphalt cement formulation that
is domestically produced, and can be priced significantly lower than the petroleum
cement, thus providing great benefit to the soybean farmer by increased demand for
soybean oil.

Producing arabitol and/or xylitol from biodiesel glycerol; Lu-Kwang Ju
(University of Akron); ($80,742). (ju@uakron.edu)

Key Words: Glycerol-Industrial Uses

This project aims at converting biodiesel glycerol to value-added products, arabitol
and/or xylitol, using effective fermentation processes.


Soy acrylic resin for a platform of interior/exterior finishes; John Schierlmann
(Rustoleum Corporation); ($74,500). (jschierlmann@rustoleum.com)

Key Words: Soy-based Resin

The purpose of this project is to develop a soy acrylic resin for a platform of interior and
exterior finishes.


Development of high performance soy-based UV curable coatings; Zhigang
Chan (North Dakota State University); ($98,210). (Zhigang.chen@ndsu.edy)

Key Words: Soy-based Coatings

This proposed research and development project targets at significant performance
enhancement of the acrylated soybean oil based UV curable coatings by adapting a new
formulation approach that incorporates biorenewable toughening monomers.


Economical engineered soy compositions for partial phenol replacement in
PF wood resins; Darlene Benzick (Prometheus Industries); ($60,500).
(dbenzick@prometheusindustries.com)

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Key Words: Soy-based Composites

Continuation of project 8446 to complete the soy based composite product and process
definition to achieve the defined functional and economic requirements for a 20% phenol
replacement. Final functionality testing and production level testing will be completed in
partnership with Georgia Pacific.


Improved performance for heat resistant soy adhesives; Chares Frihart (Forest
Products Laboratories); ($98,500). (cfrihat@fs.fed.us)

Key Words: Soy-based Adhesives

We will convincingly demonstrate that structural soy adhesives can be made that will not
soften a fire and also show how particular structures in soy effect adhesive performance.


Soy-based alkyd latex traffic paint; Jennifer Hall (Reichold); ($62,500).
(jennifer.hall@reichhold.com)

Key Words: Soy-based Coatings

The project team will investigate several methodologies to enable waterborne alkyd
paints to obtain “no track” times of less than 10 minutes as required for Type 1952D
traffic paint.


Research and development of polyamines from glycerin; Kaichang Li (Oregon
State University); ($76,700). (kaichang.li@oregonstate.edu)

Key Words: Glycerol Use-Industrial Uses

In this project we will investigate the relationship between polyamine properties
(chemical structures and molecular weight) and strengths/water resistance of plywood
panels bonded with the polyamine-soy flour.


Development and commercialization of soy oil polymers for use as roofing
and insulation adhesives; Lance Niemann (Niemann & Associates); ($78,000).
(niemannlab@aol.com)

Key Words: Soy-based Adhesive, Soy-based Polymers

We plan to use soy oil in the form of ARSO as well as polymerized structures in
combination with various monomers to increase molecular weight and produce an
adhesive that would exhibit the proper bond strength to pass relevant ASTM test
methods. Our main objective is to utilize soy oil but we also have significant experience
using glycerin (1,2,3 propanetriol) or the byproduct of biodiesel production.



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Production of fumaric acid and ethanol from soybean meal by Rhizopus
oryzas; Shang-Tian Yang (Ohio State University); ($109,324). (ynag.15@osu.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Meal Use-Industrial Use

The goal of this project is to develop a novel fermentation process with metabolically
engineered Rhizopus oryzae for economical production of fumaric acid and ethanol from
soybean meal containing protein, fibers, starch, and oligosaccharides.


Cost-effective soy protein fiber; Michael Jaffe (New Jersey Institute of
Technologies); ($127,746). (jaffe@adm.njit.edu)

Key Words: Soy-based Fiber

Jaffe and Kaplan will team to explore, define and develop a family of cost-effective soy
protein (glycinin) based fiber products ranging from competitive textiles to high
performance industrial yarns and improved products for the medical device industry.


Bondaflex Soythane PUR sealant and adhesives; Doug Walker (Bondaflex
Technologies); ($50,000). (walkerd@bondaflex.com)

Key Words: Soy-based Adhesives

Replace Petroleum based polyols used in adhesives and sealants for construction and
OEM applications.


Developing a cost effective environmentally begin technique for soy
protein fiber (SPF) spinning; Jinwan Zhang (Washington State University);
($88,763). (jwzhang@wsu.edu)

Key Words: Soy-based Fibers

It is anticipated that after the second year, we are able to master the technology of the
wet-spinning of soy protein fiber based on soy flour. The resulting fiber will be more
economically competitive than the soy protein fibers produced using purified soy protein.


Soy-in-aquaculture research; John Campen (Direct Managed); ($917,028).
(john_campen@sba.org)

Key Words: Soybean Meal Use-Aquaculture

This research project will support the Soy-in Aquaculture Managed Program, a
coordinated program of the United Soybean Board and the United States Soybean
Export Council, designed to remove the barriers to the use of soybean meal and soy
protein concentrate in diets fed to aquaculture species.

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Soy protein plastics formulation development for enhanced mechanical
strength and reduced water solubility; David Grewell (Iowa State University);
($61,887). (dgrewell@iastate.edu)

Key Words: Soy-based Plastics

The goal of this research program is to develop and commercialize soybean protein
based plastics for various applications, ranging from planting pots, to wood and fiber
based composites.


Development of bio-renewable plasticizers and stabilizers in plastic
materials; Dharma Kodali (University of Minnesota); ($145,087). (dkodali@umn.edu)

Key Words: Soy-based Plastics

In the second year we plan to finalize the selection of commercializable candidate(s)
based on structure-functionality relationship. Optimization of production of lab and pilot
scale quantities with preliminary estimates of cost will be completed.


Low-cost modifications of soybean oil and glycerin to achieve high polyols
reactivity; Barry McGraw (Battelle Memorial Institute); ($100,000).
(mcgrawd@battelle.org)

Key Words: Glycerol Use-Industrial Uses

We intend to prepare flexible and rigid foams, coatings, and adhesives using our
solvent-less processes when using both pure and crude-2 glycerin and submit these
samples for testing. Foams will be prepared and tested at an outside laboratory and
coatings and adhesives will be prepared and tested at Battelle Memorial Institute.


Developing foamed soy protein-based bioplastic alternatives                            to
polystryrene foams; Jiwan Zhang (Washington State University); ($78,789).
(jzhang@wsu.edu)

Key Words: Soy-based Foams

In the second year of this project, we intend to (1) Complete the investigation of the
composition-morphology-property relationship for SP blends; (2) University develop the
technology of extrusion foaming of SP blends using supercritical carbon dioxide; (3)
Determine the effects of several critical parameters, e.g., pressure (gradient),
temperature (gradient), carbon dioxide content, and flow rate, on the properties of SP
foams; (4) Optimize the SP blend formulation for extrusion foaming using supercritical
carbon dioxide.


Waterborne soy latex emulsion; Madhukar Rao (Sherwin Williams); ($90,000).
(mkroa@sherwin.com)

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Key Words: Soy-based Coatings

Waterborne Soy latex technology will be developed to meet the unmet needs of
Architectural and Industrial coatings. At least 30 % will be incorporated in the latex
emulsion for coatings applications.


Polyol samples for evaluation; Barry McGraw (Battelle Memorial Institute);
($37,500). (mcgrawb@battelle.org)

Key Words: Soy-based Polyols

The major goal of this proposed project is to prepare a fully acceptable prototype coated
SMC panel at Ashley.


Continuous calendaring-extrusion route for melt-processing of ribbo-fiber
based nonwovens and films derived from soy proteins; Amod Ogale (Clemson
University); ($115,260). ogale@clemon.edu)

Key Words: Soy-based Fibers

This project seeks to develop a continuous, melt-process for converting soy-based
feedstock into non-food, value-added products, viz. ribbon-fiber based nonwovens and
films.


Development of process finishes and surface modifiers to support the
commercialization of soy fiber; Thomas Theyson (Tens Tech, Inc.); ($70,000).
(tenstech@earthline.net)

Key Words: Soy-based Fibers

The primary objective of this project will be to understand the classes finish components
that can be used in finish formulations for soy protein based fibers, to determine the
inherent frictional and static generation properties of the soy protein based fibers and
then supply finishes that will support both the initial extrusion studies and the early
stages of commercial production.


Development of a high energy density glycerol biobattery; Shelley Minteer (St.
Louis University); ($35,596). (minters@slu.edu)

Key Words: Glycerol Uses-Industrial Uses

If successful, this would provide a new use for glycerol as a fuel for biofuel cells or
biobatteries for portable electronics.



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Isocyanate-free packaging foam of high bio-based content; Peter Frenkel
(Sealed Air Corporation); ($150,000). (PeterFrenkel@aol.com)

Key Words: Soy-based foams

The goal of this project is to optimize both the composition and the process on the
pilot/prototype scale for making semi-rigid and rigid foams, suitable for packaging
applications, via free-radical polymerization of acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO),
where carbon dioxide is used as a blowing.


Water-blown polyurethane spray roofing foam; Neil Nodelman (Biobased
Technologies); ($15,000). (nnodelman@biobased.net)

Key Words: Soy-based Foams, Soy-based Polyols

This study will continue to focus on Agrol® polyols, especially with high-crosslink density
polyol of relatively low viscosity. Agrol 7.0, a higher functional polyol than Agrol 5.6 but
with much higher viscosity, will be explored.


Soy-based polyols for technologies polyurethane flexible molded foams;
Ning Luo (Biobased Technologies); ($150,000). (nluo@biobased.net)

Key Words: Soy-based Foams, Soy-based Polyols

The goals of this continuation work are to:
   • Optimize the raw material composition for a soy-based polyol with high soy-
      content and excellent performance based on cost/performance criteria;
   • Improve the synthetic process based on energy consumption and production
      output criteria;
   • Improve the compatibility of the new soy-based polyol with petroleum-based
      polyether polyols; and
   • Evaluate the new soy-based polyol in flexible molded foams with focus on
      maximizing soy content.


Efficient acrolein production from crude glycerin using supercritical water
technology: Phase II- Development and test of continuous reaction system;
X. Philip Ye (University of Tennessee); ($127,110). (xye2@utk.edu)

Key Words: Glycerol Use-Industrial Uses

The objective of Phase II project is to achieve high acrolein selectivity and glycerin
conversion as well as on-line organic/inorganic impurities separation. Stability of the
continuous system with long time operation will be assessed to provide essential data for
industrial process design and sale-up.




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Production of succinate from soybean carbohydrates; George Bennett (William
Marsh Rice University); ($57,376). (gbennett@rice.edu)

Key Words: Industrial Uses

This two year project is targeted to developing value-added, cost effective industrial
products derived from carbohydrate components of attractively priced U.S. soybeans.


Glycerol adducts for use as bio-based cross-linkers and wax components:
Part 2; Barry McGraw (Battelle Memorial Institute); ($50,000). (mcgrawb@battelle.org)

Key Words: Glycerol Uses-Industrial Uses

The objective for FY09 is to synthesize intermediate and large-scale batches of
candidates from purified glycerol and crude glycerol.


Development of high-throughput DNA-based gene silencing technology for
soybeans; John Hill (Iowa State University); ($125,000). (jhill@iastate.edu) (This is a
jointly-funded project with NCSRP).

Key Words: Virus-Induced Gene Silencing, Soybean Gene Expression

Assigning function to genes identified by the whole genome sequence information will
require the development and use of efficient reverse genetic tools, such as an efficient
soybean virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) vector. This is an important new approach,
the expression of a known gene or gene sequence is altered and the plant appearance
resulting from the altered gene expression is investigated. This study will continue to
use the VIGS technique to characterize gene function in soybean plants.


Fine mapping, identification of gene candidates and commercialization of
yield enhancing alleles from a Japanese germplasm line; H.R. Boerma
(University of Georgia); ($146,909). (rboerma@arches.uga.edu)

Key Words: Soybean Gene Expression, Soybean Gene Mapping

In this project, the researcher plans to:
    • Continue on the path of refining the genomic regions harboring two yield genes;
    • Development of soybean breeder friendly SNP assays for their detection;
    • Determine the impact of these genes on seed yield in several genetic
         backgrounds; and
    • Identification of the gene candidates for both genes.

The recent association of these genes with increased seed size provides informant
direction in the efforts to identify candidate genes by the use of micro-assay technology.
This funding provides important clues of which tissue to sample and which specific
soybean growth stages are critical to begin the search of differentially expressed genes.


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A searchable database of soybean checkoff-funded research; Keith Smith
(Keith Smith and Associates); ($18,900). (keith.smith@wildblue.net)

Key Words; Soybean Research Database, Soybean Research Coordination,
Soybean Research Funding

This project has funded the development an annual database of about 550 research and
educational projects funded by state, regional, or national checkoff programs. The
proposed will create a searchable database www.soybeancheckoffresearch.org) that will
be linked to the USB Website.


Technical support for bio-modification and promotion of soybeans with oil
and protein content; Richard Wilson (Oilseeds & Bioacience Consulting); ($21,500).
(rfwilson@mindspring.com)

Key Words: Soybean Coordination, Soybean Composition


North Central Soybean Research Program administrative expenses; David
Wright (Iowa Soybean Association); ($63,550). (dwright@iasoybeans.com)

Key Words: Soybean Research Coordination

Southern Soybean Research Program; Debbie Ellis (Kentucky Soybean Board);
($25,175). (delis@kysoy.org)

Key Words: Soybean Research Coordination


Research Coordination; Direct Managed; ($200,000).

Key Words: Soybean Research Coordination


Evaluation of global soybean production opportunities; Edgar Ready III
(Smith, Bucklin & Associates, LLC); ($275,000). (Ed_Ready@SBA.com)

Key Words: Soybean Research Coordination




                                                                                 296
297
Researchers involved in Checkoff-funded Projects
A                                     Bilyeu, Kristin-175
Abele, Ezra-190                       Bird, George-146, 147, 233, 234
Abney, Scott-238                      Birkey, Ned-150
Adamchuk, Viachestlav-182             Bisek, Ray-165
Ajuwon, Kola-94                       Blackmer, Tracy-120
Alavi, Sajid-124                      Blaine, Alan-166
Alfano, Jim-238                       Blessitt, Brewer-167, 169, 171, 172
Ali, Asad-267                         Bluhm, Burton-103
All, John-77                          Boerma, H. Roger-78, 242, 296
Allee, Gary-175                       Bond, Jason-79, 80, 82, 83, 85, 87, 88,
Allen, Tom-168, 169, 170, 172         89, 91, 92, 100, 233, 237
Alms, Jill-208                        Bond, Robin-172
Ames, Keith-79, 84                    Bonning, Bryony C.-118
Anderson, John-173                    Boquet, Donald-133
Anderson, Vern-188                    Borden, Bob-268
Andrews, Gordon-168                   Boring, Tin-152
Ane, Jean-Michel-225                  Bowen, Roger-79, 84, 99
Apple, Bill-68                        Boyse, John 153
Arelli, Prakash-110, 211, 214         Bradley, Carl-79, 80, 82, 83, 84, 85, 88,
Argento, Alan-155, 259                89, 234
Armel, Greg-217                       Bradshaw, Jeff-114
Avendano, Felicitas-111               Breitenbach, Fitz-164
Ayres, William-125                    Broadbeck, Christian-62
                                      Brooks Gould, Anne Brooks-231
B                                     Brown, Blake-212
Bajjalieh, Nick-252                   Bruening, James-290
Baker, Blain-152                      Buckley, Blair-137
Balbalian, Clarissa-172               Burkey, Kent-254
Balkcom, K.-63                        Burmesteir, Charles-61
Banz, William-93. 94, 102             Burton, Joseph-185, 262, 272
Barbosa, Roberto-130                  Buschman, Lawrent-121
Barrows, Rick-267
Bassham, Diane-286                    C
Batchelor, Rick-220                   Cadwallader, Keith-93, 96
Baum, Thomas-114, 236, 243            Cahoon, EdGAR-175, 183
Beaty, J.D.-69                        Camberato, Jim-106
Bechtel, David-287                    Campen, John-101, 292
Behnken, Lisa-164                     Canaday, Craig-214, 220
Bellum, Robert-88                     Cantrill, Richard-245, 256
Bennett, George-296                   Cardinal, Andrea-184, 185, 248
Bent, Andrew-225                      Carlson, Gregg-207
Benzick, Darlene-290                  Carter, Catherine-208
Bergstrom, Gary-231                   Carter, Tommy-270
Bernards, Mrk-183                     Cartwright, Richard-69, 73,
Beuhring, Normie-167                  Cassman, Kenneth-181
Beyrouty, Craig-108                   Catchot, Angus-167, 168
Bhattacharyya, Madan-103, 112, 119,   Chandrashekhara, K.-175, 288
234                                   Chang, Sam-195

                                                                           298
Chapman-Novakofski, Karen-94               Diaz, Dorivar Ruiz-123
Chappell, Jesse-258, 259                   Diers, Brian-91, 97, 98, 100, 232, 233,
Chase, Tim-209                             235, 243, 247, 272
Chen, Hiraigu-154                          DiFonzo, Chris-147, 153, 232
Chen, Hong-94                              Dillard, Brandon-61, 62, 65
Chen, Pengyin-68, 69, 70, 160, 165         Dillard, Chris-61
Chen, Senyu-160                            Dively, Galen-142
Chen, Zhigang-258, 290                     Domier, Leslie-79, 80, 84, 236
Chen, Zhi-Yuan-134                         Donald, Pat-211, 214, 220
Cheng, Enzhi Michael-124                   Donovan, Sharon M.-95
Cheng, Jianlin-177                         Dorrance, Anne-115, 198, 231, 234,
Chesky, Sheldon-289                        238, 264
Christoffers, Mike-165                     Driever, George-201
Cianzio, Silvia-109, 110, 111, 232, 233,   Duncan, Stu-122
271                                        Dunphy, James-185, 186, 187, 188
Clawson, Ernie-138
Clay, David-207, 208                       E
Clay, Sharon-207                           Eastburn, Darin-79, 86
Clemente, Tom-180, 238, 274, 280           Ebelhar, Stephen-100
Clough, Steven-233                         Ebelhar. Wayne-167
Coey, Kevin-257                            Edwards, Jeff-201
Conatser, Matt-71                          Edwards, Karen-257
Conley, Shawn-225, 226, 227, 228, 229      Elias, Ruan-205
Cook, Don-167, 168, 170                    Ellis, Debbie-286, 297
Cooke, Paul S.-95                          Emadipour, Henry-125
Coupland, John-203                         Endres, Greg-197
Craig, Del-289                             English, Jim-175, 176, 239
Cregan, Perry-260, 277                     Enright, Frederick-134
Croft, J.-206                              Esker, Paul-226, 227, 228, 229, 231,
Cullen, Eileen-229, 232                    234
Cunningham, Brian-102                      Estes, Ron-79, 80, 81
                                           Eubank, Tom-167, 169, 171, 172
D
Damicone, John-200, 201, 202, 231          F
Dart, Norman-231                           Faghihi, Jamal-234
Davenport, John-147                        Fahoury, Ahmad-79, 82, 83, 91, 103,
Davis, Adam-89                             233
Davis, Eric-243                            Farminer, Ken-287
Davis, Jeffrey-131                         Farrior, Buck-63
Davis, Jeremiah-170                        Fehr, Walter-110, 272
Davis, Jeremy-94                           Fen, Chen-217
Davis, Keith-130                           Feng, Yucheng-61
de Mejia, Elvira-95                        Ferguson, Dan-130
DeBoer, Lawrence-108                       Finer, John-280
DeJong,-Hughes, Jodi-165                   Flanigan, Cynthia-155, 289
Delaney, Dennis-61, 62, 63, 65             Flanigan, Virgil-175
Delaney, Mary-65                           Foster, Neal-208
Deneke, Darrell-208                        Fox, Richard-287
Derrick, David-62, 65                      Frenkel, Peter-295
DeVillez, Phil-108                         Frihart, Charles-291
Diaz, Dorivar Ruiz                         Fritschi, Felix-176, 283

                                                                                1
Fuchs, Al-259                          Hammerschmidt, Ray-148, 154, 231,
Fulton, John-63                        234
                                       Hao, Jianjun-148
G                                      Hardy, Ron-268
Galvez, Alfredo-178                    Harmon, Phil-2321
Gan, Susheng-241                       Harri, Ardian-173
Garvey, James-102                      Harrington, Thomas-237
Gassman, Aaron-115                     Hart, Tina-68
Ghabrial, Said A.-129, 236             Hartman, Glen-79 80, 84, 86, 88, 89, 91,
Gibson, Sue-162, 163                   97, 99, 234, 237
Giesler, Loren-182, 231, 235, 237      Hartzler, Robert-118
Glazebrook, Jane-162                   Haudenshield, James-79, 86
Glogoza, Phil-165                      Hayes, Scott-68
Godsey, Chad-201, 202                  Heber, Albert-108
Goldsmith, Pete-97                     Heimpel, George-158, 232
Gonzales, Jose-208                     Heiniger, R.W.-185
Goodman, Bob-62                        Heitholt, Jim-220, 221, 225
Goos, T. Jay-196, 234                  Helms, Ted-190, 191, 192
Gordon, Barney-122                     Henderson, Rodney-133
Gordon, Eddie-68                       Heng-Moss, Tfiffany-232
Gore, Jeffrey-167, 168, 170            Herbek, Jim-128
Goswami, Ribella-196                   Herbel, Kevin-125
Gou, Xing-You-208                      Herbert, D. Ames-224
Gould, Frankie-131                     Hershman, Don-129, 130, 231
Graef, George-180, 244                 Hettiararchchy, Navam-69
Graham, Michelle-114                   Hildebrand, David-273
Graiver, Dan-156, 157                  Hill, Curt-79, 84, 86, 237, 248, 278
Grau, Craig-226, 227, 228, 230, 235,   Hill, John-114, 235, 236, 296
236                                    Hilton, Janice-256
Gray, Caroline-68                      Hobbs, Houston-79, 84, 99
Gray, Mike-232                         Hochstetler, Harlan-140
Green, Marci-208                       Hodgson, Erin-115, 116, 119
Green, Steven-71                       Hoelmer, Kim-232
Greene, Jeremy-205                     Hogg, David-229, 232
Grewell, David-293                     Holen, Carlyle-164
Grey, Mike-79, 80, 81                  Holen, Doug-165
Grey, Timothy-77                       Hollingsworth, Charla-165
Grichar, W. James-220                  Holshouser, David-222
Griffith, Warren-61, 62, 64, 65, 132   Holt, Jonathan-101
Grimes, Chris-71                       Hoogenboom, Gerrot-78
Gross, Paul-150                        Hooks, Cerruti-143
Grove, John H.-126, 127                Hoover, Ronald-204
Gruner, Daniel-143                     Hopper, Keith-232
Grybauskas, Arvydas-142, 231           Howell, Steve-157
                                       Hudson, Alison-258
H                                      Hunt, Thomas-181, 232
Hager, Aaron-89, 90, 103               Hurburgh, Charles-256
Hajimorad, Reza-218, 235               Hyten, David-265
Hall, Jennifer-291
Hall, Mark-62                          I
Hall, Robert-207, 208                  Ilse, Breanne-188

                                                                             2
Isard,Scott-231                        Kratochvil, Robert-138, 139
Ishibashi, Tet-68                      Krawczyk, Stacey-96
                                       Krishnan, Hari-174, 177
J                                      Krul, Elaine-94
Jaffe, Michael-292                     Krupke, Christian-106, 232
Janak,Joe-220                          Kuhar, Thomas P.-224
Janssen, Larry-207                     Kull, Linda-79, 80, 87, 88, 89, 97, 99,
Jardine, Doug-122, 231, 234, 237       101, 233, 286
Javni, Ivan-126                        Kumar, Rajesh-175, 177
Johannes, Kenlon-269                   Kumudini, Karatha-127
Johnson, Bill-196                      Kurle, James-159, 163
Johnson, Burtin-197                    Kuykendall, Leonard-61, 64, 65
Johnson, Donald-75
Johnson, Doug-126                      L
Jones, Doug-79, 81, 87                 Labowski, Carrie-227
Joost, Richard-217                     Lamb, John-158
Ju, Lu-Kwang-290                       Lambert, Joshua D.-205
                                       Lambert, Kris-91, 92, 216, 249
K                                      Langemeier, Michael-125
Kaatz, Phil-150                        Langham, Marie-209
Kachroo, Aardra-279                    Lawrence, Gary-171,172
Kaiser, Daniel-158                     Lawrence, Kathy-62, 63, 65,
Kandel, Hans-194, 197                  Leandro, Leonor-111, 113, 116, 233,
Kantartzi, Steela-92, 97, 98, 100      236
Kapila, Shubhen-175                    Lee, Chard-128
Katagiri, Furniaki-162                 Lee, D.K.-197
Kaufman, Lon-93                        Lee, Soo-Y-95
Kelley, Ken-63                         Lee, Youngsoo-95
Kells, Jim-144                         Leonard, B. Roger-136, 137
Kelly, Steve-71                        Levy, Ronald-134, 135
Kemerait, Jr., Robert-78, 79           Lewis, Les-117
Kendle, Tom-147                        Li, Kaichang-291
Kenworthy, Bill-139                    Li, Shuxian-281
Kerley, Monty-174, 177, 170            Li, Wanglong-208
Kim, Jae-Ho-202                        Little, Charles-237
Kim, W.-155                            Little, Christopher R.-121
Kirk, Vincent-172                      Lo, Y. Martin-143
Kirkpatrick, Terry-69, 72              Lobo, Philip-288
Klein, Barbara-96                      Lochmann, Rebecca-72
Klubek, Brian-102                      Long, Jim-122
Knap, Halina-205                       Losordo, Tom-186
Knodel, Janet-193, 198, 232            Losso, Jack-138
Koch, Robert 165                       Lubahn, Dennis-176, 178
Kodali, Dharma-293                     Lubben, Bradley-182
Koenning, Steve-185, 186, 187, 231     Luo, Ning-289, 295
Koger, Clifford-171                    Luo, Ying-154
Koger, Trey-166, 167, 168, 169, 170,
172, 255
Kohler, Christopher-103, 104           M
Koide, Roger-204                       Ma, Jianxin-107
Korban, Schuyler-251, 282

                                                                            3
MacGuidwin, Ann-227, 228, 231            Mullenix, Daniel-62
MacIntosh, Gustavo-111, 118              Mulrooney, Bob-76, 231
MacKellar, Bruce-150                     Munkvold, Gary-111, 114
MacRae, Ian-159, 164                     Murdock, Lloyd-127, 128
Madl, Ron-123                            Murphy, John-63, 65
Mahr, Daniel-230                         Musser, Fred-168
Mallarino, Antonio-118
Malvick, Dean-159, 160, 163, 231, 233,   N
234, 236                                 Naeve, Seth-158, 162, 165, 235
Markell, Sam-196, 231, 234               Nafziger, Emerson-89, 91, 99, 100
Marois, James-231, 241                   Nam, Pual-175
Maroof, Saghai-274, 276                  Nandula, Vijay-171, 172
Marshall. Michael-206                    Narayan, Ramani-156, 157
Martin, Steve-167, 169                   Nash, Marilyn-96
Mascagni, Rick-133                       Nava, Hilberto-258
Mask, Paul-61                            Nelson, Berin-193, 194, 196, 270
Matthews, Ben-250, 251                   Nelson, Randy-97, 98, 165, 275
Maxwell, Doug-90                         Newman, Melvin-211, 212, 216, 218,
Mazarei, Mitra-215                       231, 237
McClean, Phil-234                        Nguyen, Henry-173, 174, 175, 176, 177,
McClure, Angela-218, 219                 179, 239, 251, 263, 281
McCornack, Brian-232                     Niblack, Terry-79, 82, 85, 91, 92, 93,
McCoy, Jonathan-68                       100, 233, 234
McGrath, Clarke-118                      Nicolai, David-164
McGraw, Barry-294, 296                   Niemann, Lance-291
McHale, Leah-199                         Nodelman. Neil-288, 295
Mehta, Rujul-289                         Norbeck, Don-70
Meksem, Khalid-91, 92, 250               Norwood, Shannon-63, 66
Mengel, David B.-122, 123                Nutter Jr., Forrest-116
Mengistu, Alemu-214, 215, 219, 237
Metzger, Stephen-189                     O
Meyer, Susan-143                         O’Brien, Dan-123
Mian, Rouf-232, 237, 238, 254,           O’Neal, Matthew-111, 114, 115, 116,
Michel, Andy-199, 223                    233
Miller, Donnie Keith-136                 Oard, Svetlana-134
Miller, Ryan-164                         Ogale, Arnod-294
Miller, W. Allen-118                     Olatinwo, Rabio O.-78
Minteer, Shelley-294                     Orf, James-159, 160, 161, 162, 163,
Mitchell, Charles-63                     251
Mitchum, Melissa-174, 244                Ortiz, Brenda-61, 63, 66
Moechnig, Michael-208                    Ortiz-Ribbing, Loretta-89
Monfort Scott-67, 69, 74, 231            Osborne, Lawrence-208, 209, 231, 234
Monfort, Debby-73                        Osmond, D.L.-187
Monks, Dale-61                           Ostlie, Ken-164
Moore, David-223                         Owen, Bridget-96, 99, 103
Morris, Jack-238                         Ownley, Bonnie-218
Muehlbauer, Gary-162                     Ozzie, A.-225
Mueller, Daren-116, 118
Mueller, John-206, 231                   P
Mueller, Jonegg-206                      Padgett, Boyd-135
Mueller, Thomas-210, 214

                                                                             4
Pantalone, Vince-210, 211, 214, 217,      Riaz, Mian-287
242                                       Riechers, Dean-89, 90
Parcell, Joe-178                          Riley, John Michael-173
Parrot, Wayne-270                         Ritter, Ronald-140
Parrott, Wayne-247, 269, 279, 280         Robertson, Alison-111, 114, 115, 116
Pataky, Nancy-88                          Rodekohr, Don-66
Paz, Joel-78                              Rohila, Jai-208
Pedersen, Palle-111, 114, 117, 119, 276   Roozeboom, Kraig-122, 124
Pedersen, Sharon-104                      Roskamp, Gordon-89, 90
Pedersen, Wayne-79, 86                    Ross, Jeremy-67, 69, 70, 71
Pedley, Kerry-236                         Rossman, Dan-150
Penner, Don-144                           Roth, Gregory-203, 204
Perry, Sharyn-252                         Rupe, John-70, 74, 279
Person, Howard-165                        Rushton, Paul-208
Petcher, Richard-61, 62, 63, 64, 65
Petrovic, Zoran-125, 258                  S
Phillips, Dan-237                         Sababadzovic, Sead-166, 169
Phipps, Pat-224                           Sabliov, Cristina-131
Pitman, Bob-224                           Sardanelli, Sandra-143
Posten, Daniel-166, 171                   Sayler, Ron-72
Potter, Bruce-158, 159, 169, 164          Schaefer, Kristine-118
Prasad, P.V. Vara-121                     Schapaugh William-121, 122, 232
Pratt, Dave-149, 150                      Schatz, Blaine-190
Presley, Deann-121                        Schavey, Eric-65
Prischmann-Voldseth, Deirdre-193, 198,    Schierlmann, John-290
232                                       Schillinger, John-76, 140
Prostko, Eric-77                          Schmidt, Cathy-100
Proctor, Andrew-71                        Schmidt, Michael-91, 233, 237
Purcell, Larry-66, 70                     Schmidt, Monica-179
                                          Schmidt, Ryan-178
Q                                         Schmidt; F.-176
Qu, Feng-200                              Schneider, Raymond-133
                                          Schoelz, Jim-175
R                                         Schoen, Robin-269
Ragsdale, David-158, 223                  Schurle, Bryan-125
Rainey, Katy M.-223                       Schwab, Greg-127, 128
Rajzer, Dan-150                           Sciumbato, Gabe-166, 169, 170
Randall, Gyles-160                        Scrimger, Joe-147
Rao, Madhukar-293                         Seames, Wayne-188
Ratliff, Bob-173                          Seibel, G. Andrew-225
Ray, Jeffery-264                          Sendijarevic, Vahid-287
Ready III, Edgar-297                      Severson, Russ-165
Reaper, Trey-69                           Sexton, Peter-207
Reberg-Horton, Chris-187                  Shafer, Joe-68
Reed, Tim-64, 65                          Shang-Tian-292
Reese, John-232                           Shannon, Grover-173, 174, 176, 177,
Rethwishch, Michael-182                   238, 241, 284
Reynolds, Bob-73                          Sharp, Bob-174
Rhodes, William-76, 140, 141              Shaw, Joey-66
Rhykerd, Rob-103                          Shay, Neil-94
                                          Shearer, Scott-129

                                                                                 5
Shipe, Emerson-205, 206, 246            Thompson, Angela-210, 213, 215, 217
Shirley, William-126                    Tilmon, Kelley-209, 232
Shoemaker, Randy-114, 234, 236, 261     Todd, Jim-63
Shuai, Bin-123                          Todd, Tim-121, 122
Sikora, Edward-62, 63, 65, 231          Tooker, John T.-205
Silva, George-150                       Town, Chris-266
Singh, Ram-97                           Tran, Son-177
Slaminko, T.-99                         Tranel, Pat-89, 90, 103
Sleper, David-174, 175, 176             Trick, Harold-121, 122, 254
Sloderbeck, Phillip E.-121              Trostle, Calvin-220
Small, Brian-102                        Trushenski, Jesse-103, 104
Smith, C. Michael-121                   Tubana, Brenda-133
Smith, David-184                        Turano, M.J.-186
Smith, Keith-297                        Tylka, Gregory-110, 111, 118, 234
Smith, Ken-73                           Tzanetakis, Loannis-74
Sparace, Salvatore-262                  Tzanetakis, Yannis-218
Specht, James-180
Sprague, Christy-144, 145, 146          U
St. Martin, Steve-238                   Uniatowski, Bob-75
Stacey, Gary-175, 176, 177, 238, 246,
274                                     V
Stachler, Jeff-165                      Vadlani, Praveen-123
Stahl, Elizabeth-164                    Valliyodan, Babu-177
Stark, Robert-74                        Valverde, Rodrigo-133
Staton, Mike-150, 151                   Vance, Carroll-161, 234, 248, 277
Steckel, Larry-210, 214, 219            VanWagner, Tom-152
Steffey, Kevin-79, 80, 81               Varma, Arvind-106
Stephenson, Daniel-138                  Varn, J.-206
Stevens, Jr., J. Cheston-133            Vetsch, Jeff-160
Stewart, Neal-214, 217                  Vodkin, Lila-102, 285
Steward, Scott-219                      Voegtlin, David-79, 81, 232
Stordahl, Jim-165                       Voight, Dell-204
Strader, April-94                       Voronov, Andriy-189
Stromberg, Ericl-231                    Vos. David-208
Stupar, Robert-161, 256                 Vyn, Tony-106
Stutzman, Tim-152
Subramanian, Senthil-208                W
Sun, Xiuzhi Susan-123                   Waldron, J. Keith-240
Suppes, Galen-259                       Walker, David-88
Sweets, Laura-234                       Walker, Doug-292
Szabo, Les-282                          Walker, Eric-215,218, 219
                                        Wan, Jinrong-175
T                                       Wang, Koon-Hui-143
Tao, Berard Y.-105, 106                 Wang, Dechun-147, 148, 153, 154, 232
Taylor, Randy-201                       Wang, Donghai-123
Teng Teeh-108                           Wang, Jim Jian-133
Tenuta, Albert-234                      Ward, Jason-170
Thelen, Kurt-152                        Wardlow, G.W.-75
Thelen, Mayilyn-150                     Warner, Fred-146
Theyson, Thomas-294                     Warren, Jason-201
                                        Warren, Mark-268

                                                                              6
Waters, Brian-183
Way, M.O.-221
Weaver, David-66
Webster, Dean-192
Weiss, Jason-105
Whalen, Joanne-75
Whitaker, Jared-79
White, Bernie-165, 166, 171
Whitehead, Doug-257, 258
Whitham, Steven-114, 235, 236
Wiatrak, P.-207
Wiebold, Bill-176
Williams, Bob-212, 213
Wilson, Henry-223
Wilson, Richard-297
Wilund, Ken-95
Winstead, Amy-63, 65, 66
Winters, Tood-102
Wise, Kenneth-240
Wise, Kiersten-106, 107, 231
Wolf, Roger-119
Wood, Jeffery-103
Woods, Bob-201
Wortmann, Charles-181
Wrather, Allen-231, 237, 244
Wright, David L.-231, 241
Wright, David-240, 253, 283, 297

X
Xiaoqiu-103
Xu, Dong-175, 177
Xu, Zhimin-132

Y
Yang, X.B.-231, 237
Yates, Rudy-61, 82, 64, 65
Ye, X. Philip-295
Yin, Frank-217
Young, Bryan-89, 90
Young, Nevin-163
Yu, Lianglu-142
Yu, Oliver-179

Z
Zhang, Jinwan-292, 293
Zhang, Lingxiao-166
Zhang, Zhanyuam-174
Zollinger, Rich-189




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