Proposal Membuat Sistem Informasi

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					Sistem Informasi
Information System (IS)
    An information system (IS) is an
        arrangement of people, data,
   processes, and information technology
   that interact to collect, process, store,
   and provide as output the information
     needed to support an organization
Information Technology (IT)
       Information technology is a
   contemporary term that describes the
    combination of computer technology
        (hardware and software) with
   telecommunications technology (data,
         image, and voice networks).
A Framework for Systems Analysis and Design
 A transaction processing system (TPS) is an
 information system that captures and processes
 data about business transactions.
 A management information system (MIS) is an
 information system that provides for management-
 oriented (for top, middle, lower) reporting based on
 transaction processing and operations of the
 A decision support system (DSS) is an
 information system that either helps to identify
 decision making opportunities or provides
 information to help make decisions.
executive information system is an information
system that support the information requirements
of top-level managers & their need to make
unstructured decisions. (ex. Predict consumer
tastes and spending patterns for the next five to
ten years)
expert system is simulate human reasoning &
decision-making by combining the subject
knowledge of human experts (knowledge based &
inference rules)
office automation systems is an information
system that include local & wide area networking,
email,voice mail, fax,video conferencing, word
processing dll. Designed with client/server
architecture, that permits users to share corporate
data across the entire business enterprise
Systems Analyst
Systems analyst – a specialist who studies the problems
  and needs of an organization to determine how people,
  data, processes, and information technology can best
  accomplish improvements for the business.
   • A programmer/analyst (or analyst/programmer)
     includes the responsibilities of both the computer
     programmer and the systems analyst.
   • A business analyst focuses on only the nontechnical
     aspects of systems analysis and design.
Front- and Back-Office
 Information Systems
Front Office Information Systems
  Front-office information systems support
  business functions that extend out to the
  organization’s customers (or constituents).
    Customer management
Back Office Information Systems
  Back-office information systems support
  internal business operations of an organization, aw
  well as reach out to suppliers (of materials,
  equipment, supplies, and services).
     Human resources
     Financial management
     Inventory control
Information System
  Building Blocks
Knowledge — the raw material used to
create useful information.
Process — the activities (including
management) that carry out the mission of
the business.
Communication — how the system
interfaces with its users and other information
KNOWLEDGE Building Blocks
Views of KNOWLEDGE 1
 System owners’ view
   Interested not in raw data but in information that adds
   new business knowledge and information that help
   managers make intelligent decisions.
   Business entities and business rules.
 System users’ view
   View data as something recorded on forms, stored in file
   cabinets, recorded in books and binders, organized into
   spreadsheets, or stored in computer files and databases.
   Tend to focus on the business issues as they pertain to
   the data.
   Data requirement – a representation of users’ data in
   terms of entities, attributes, relationships, and rules
   independent of data technology.
Views of KNOWLEDGE 2
  System designers’ view
    Data structures, database schemas, fields, indexes, and
    constraints of particular database management system
  System builders’ view
    DBMS or other data technologies
PROCESS Building Blocks
Views of PROCESS 1
  System owners’ view
    Concerned with high-level processes called business
    Business function – a group of related processes that
    support the business. Functions can be decomposed into
    other subfunctions and eventually into processes that do
    specific tasks.
    A cross-functional information system – a system
    that supports relevant business processes from several
    business functions without regard to traditional
    organizational boundaries such as divisions, departments,
    centers, and offices.
Views of PROCESS 2
  System users’ view
    Concerned with work that must be performed to provide
    the appropriate responses to business events.
    Business processes – activities that respond to
    business events.
    Process requirements – a user’s expectation of the
    processing requirements for a business process and its
    information systems.
    Policy – a set of rules that govern a business process.
    Procedure – a step-by-step set of instructions and logic
    for accomplishing a business process.
    Work flow – the flow of transactions through business
    processes to ensure appropriate checks and approvals are
Views of PROCESS 3
 System designers’ view
   Concerned with which processes to automate and how to
   automate them
   Constrained by limitations of application development
   technologies being used
   Software specifications – the technical design of business
   processes to be automated or supported by computer
   programs to be written by system builders.
Views of PROCESS 4
  System builders’ view
    Concerned with programming logic that implements
    automated processes
    Application program – a language-based, machine-
    readable representation of what a software process is
    supposed to do, or how a software process is supposed
    to accomplish its task.
    Prototyping – a technique for quickly building a
    functioning, but incomplete model of the information
    system using rapid application development tools.
  System owners’ view
    Concerned with communications scope of an information
       Who (which business units, employees, customers,
       and partners) must interact with the system?
       Where are these business units, employees,
       customers, and partners located?
       What other information systems will the system have
       to interface with?

  System users’ view
    Concerned with the information system’s inputs and
  System designers’ view
    Concerned with the technical design of both the user and
    the system-to-system communication interfaces.
    Interface specifications – technical designs that
    document how system users are to interact with a
    system and how a system interacts with other systems.
    User dialogue – a specification of how the user moves
    from window to window or page to page, interacting with
    the application programs to perform useful work.
  System builders’ view
    Concerned with the construction, installation, testing and
    implementation of user and system-to-system interface
    Middleware – utility software that allows application
    software and systems software that utilize differing
    technologies to interoperate.
Network Technologies and the
     IS Building Blocks
Principles of System Development
          Get the system users involved              (melibatkan).

              Use a problem-solving approach.
       Establish   (membuat)   phases   (tahapan)   and activities.
              Document through development.
                       Establish standards.
              Manage the process and projects
           Justify systems as capital investments.
    Don’t be afraid to cancel or revise         (meninjau ulang)     scope.
                       Divide and conquer.
          Design systems for growth and change.
The PIECES Problem-Solving Framework
 P   the need to improve performance
 I   the need to improve information (and
 E   the need to improve economics, control
     costs, or increase profits
 C   the need to improve control or security
 E   the need to improve efficiency of people
           and processes
 S   the need to improve service to customers,
     suppliers, partners, employees, etc.
Building Blocks View of
 System Development
    System Development
Documentation, Repository, and
System Development Strategies
Model-Driven Development Strategy

  Model-driven development – a system
  development strategy that emphasizes the
  drawing of system models to help visualize and
  analyze problems, define business requirements,
  and design information systems.
    Process modeling – a process-centered technique
    popularized by the structured analysis and design
    methodology that used models of business process
    requirements to derive effective software designs for a
Data modeling – a data-centered technique used to
model business data requirements and design database
systems that fulfill those requirements.

Object modeling – a technique that attempts to merge
the data and process concerns into singular constructs
called objects. Object models are diagrams that
document a system in terms of its objects and their
To be continue ……… SDLC
Rapid Application Development Strategy
Rapid application development (RAD) – a
system development strategy that emphasizes
speed of development through extensive user
involvement in the rapid, iterative, and incremental
construction of series of functioning prototypes of a
system that eventually evolves into the final system.
  Prototype – a small-scale, representative, or working
  model of the users’ requirements or a proposed design
  for an information system.
  Time box – the imposition of a nonextendable period of
  time, usually 60-90 days, by which the first (or next)
  version of a system must be delivered into operation.
   Commercial Application Package
      Implementation Strategy
Commercial application package – a software
application that can be purchased and customized to
meet the business requirements of a large number of
organizations or a specific industry. A synonym is
commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) system.
  Request for proposal (RFP) – a formal document that
  communicates business, technical, and support
  requirements for an application software package to
  vendors that may wish to compete for the sale of that
  application package and services.
Request for quotation (RFQ) – a formal document
that communicates business, technical, and support
requirements for an application software package to a
single vendor that has been determined as being able to
supply that application package and services.
Gap analysis – a comparison of business and technical
requirements for a commercial application package
against the capabilities and features of a specific
commercial application package for the purpose of
defining the requirements that cannot be met.
Tool for System Development

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