ON FLYING A KITH by jizhen1947

VIEWS: 112 PAGES: 163

CALL it hope. Or confidence. Or even, "The Green Revolution."

Separated from rhetoric, it is now reality. Divorced
from hyperbole, it is a self-evident fact. And the fact is that
India is sweeping Into a new era in which she can realistically
expect her own agriculture to support the nation's future.

Paced by unprecedented increases in cereal grains and
other principal crops, India's food production Is expected to
reach a record 100 million tons this year. Only three years
ago, it was 72 million tons.

To all this a "revolution" cannot be questioned. And
behind it, undeniably, is the attention given by India and her
foreign friends to agricultural development.

"Indian agriculture has heaved itself out of the ruts of
traditional agronomic practices and is increasingly a, simulating

 the most modern and scientific techniques for stepping up

Only about four years ago, notes the Food Minister,
there was Such skepticism both here and abroad about the
possibility of and even attaining self-sufficiency in food re-

The breakthrough Is the result of India's adoption of
new strategy which focuses on combining high-yielding'
cereal grains with a "package" of agricultural requirements
fertilizers, , improved farm equipment, credit and
-storage facilities.

The Quilted States has taken a keen Interest In helping
India progress in these efforts. Over the years, American specialists

have worked with Indian agricultural experts In breeding,

 testing and demonstration of new varieties of what. rice
pulses: it) soil and water management programmers; in
/length agricultural universities;
rural electrification cooperatives. '
But the most encouraging development has been the
enthusiasm and the competence shown by Indian farmers in
using new varieties and new techniques.

Three years ago, only a few hundred thousand acres
were planted to hybrid strains of maize, lower and Baja.
High-yielding varieties of wheat and rice were being tried primarily

at research institutions.

New seeds cover 20 million acres

In 1968·69, the new seeds were sown on more than
20 million acres.

The enthusiasm is a direct result or the high yields of
these varieties.

Some farmers have harvested more than 10,000 pounds
of rice from one acre planted with IR-S.

Dwarf Mexican wheat strains have yielded as much as
8,200 pounds to the acre. Hybrid Baja often gives three
times the yield of the ordinary Baja. Similar experiences
have greeted farmers using hybrid varietals of maize and

The possibility of year-round planting and earlier maturity

of the new varieties, permit some farmers to have two or
three crops of the same kind per year. Farmers In many
parts of India now have two rice crops per year, and some-
times three where water supplies are sufficient.

The National Seeds Corporation, a semi-autonomous
organization, is responsible for raising and distributing foundation

seeds, fostering a seeds industry, and encouraging a
sound national programmed of seeds control and certification.

Rice is India's most Important grain. High-yielding
varieties such as Taichung Native 1 and IR-8 (developed by the
International Rice Research Institute in Manila) and ADT 27
(developed by Indian scientists largely in Tamil Nadu) are
proving their value In increasing production.

And to help increase rice yields even further, the Indian
Council of Agricultural Research has launched the All India
Coordinated Rice Improvement Programmed to develop varieties
for use in differing areas.
Another factor has been the growing awareness
among Indian farmers of how chemical fertilizers applied
properly and in sufficient quantities, phenomena expand

In the past five years, the amount of fertilizers used
by Indian farmers has gone up (In terms of audients) from
6 lakh tons to 15 lakh toads.

Meeting this growing demand for fertilizers are ten
factories currently in production or India. Of these, two
plants were constructed with U.S. assistance. They are the
Trombay fertilizer plant in Mabarashtra, operated by the
Fertilizer Corporation of India; and the factory at Visakhapatnam

in Andhra Pradesh, constructed by Coromande
Fertilizers Ltd., a joint Indian-American private firm.

Together these plants now produce fertilizer sufficient
to Increase India's annual food production by a total of 13.S
lakh tons. Three more projects with Amrican cooperation are
being built In Madras, Goa and Gujarat ..

The introduction of high-yielding seed varieties and the
improved fertilizers that go with them, cauls for corresponding
action to deal effectively with new pests and diseases. Here
too there has been remarkable progress. Indian farmers quickly
 are learning techniques of timely application of pesticides,
Insecticides and herbicides.

Constant research studies

To keep up the tempo of the Green Revolution, agricultural

 scientists throughout India are carrying out research in
such fields as development of new or extended uses of agricultural

 products, marketing, economics, human nutrition, and all
aspects of farm and forest research.

Research performed by Indian scientists on these projects
has also been of value to the worldwide development of

agricultural sciences.

All in all, the current Green Revolution has helped
India to look to greater achievements in the years to come.
Indian authorities are well aware of this.

"What is essential to sustain the agricultural revolution
now underway is the coordinated efforts of our scientists working

 in various disciplines to anticipate problems and be ready
with remedies," declared Food Minister In New Delhi


BAPU once wrote; 1 would say that, if the village perishes,

 India will perish too. India will be no more India.
Her own mission in the world will get lost. The revival of the
village is possible only when It Is no more exploited". That Is
Rosalinda, my India", he said. He also desired that "Every
,village has to become a self-sufficient republic, This does not
require brave resolutions. It requires brave, corporate, Intelligent

 wake". In the Gandh! Centenary Year It Is, therefore,
.natural for us to review what has been done for the benefit of
the rural people, particularly in our programmed of ctr1ficadon

of the villages. '

In the last few years there has been a risil!8 demand for
,electricity In the villages, The progress of rural electrification
-,was Insignificant before Independence. Realisi!1.g the economic
::and social benefits derived by the community, tile rural electrification

 was given special attention after 1947. From a mere
3623 villages electrified till 1951, the total number of villages
, electrified by March 1969 rose to 10.000 and number of pump sets

energized has increased 60 times,- from 18,709 in 19'51

 to 10.88 Iakhs,

Up to 1965-66: 'in the rural electrification - programme
the -embellish was on the number of villages electrified. In
September, 1965, It was decided to give priority to irrigation
.and 'agricultural producing, and the programme was, there-
fore, orientated to sub serve the agricultural needs mainly by
energizing tubewells pump sets.

Rural Areas Benefit

Rural electrification in recent years has changed the face
of the entire countryside. It has offered the villagers various
a mantles ; provided them with more mechanical power replacing

bulk of the animal power, and given them opportunities of
gainful employment during the slack season. All these factors
have contributed in raising the standard of living in the rural
areas; it fact, revolutionizing the pattern of their Irving and

During the first, second and third plan periods, the
General Government spent about Rs. 30 crores, Rs, 75 crores
and Rs. 153 crores, respectively. During the three years period

1966.69, loans to the tune of Rs, 150 crores were advanced
to the States.

In the Draft Fourth Plan, Rs, 318 crores have been pro-
vided for rural electrification. This will be mainly for energizing

7.4 lakh pump sets, In addition, a Rural Electrification
Corporation has been set up with an outlay of Rs, 150 crores
(Rs. 45 crores by the Government of India and Rs, 105 crores
by the US AID) to finance selected schemes in States. These
funds would also be available for energizing an additional 5
lakh pump sets. Thus a total of 12.5 Iakh pump sets are likely
to be in operation during the next five years.

Rural Electric Cooperatives

In order to extend the rural electrification programme
and to encourage consumer participation, it bas been decided
to encourage formation of Rural Electric Cooperatives. Five
pilot cooperatives, one each in the States of Maharashtra,
Mysore, Gujarat, U.P. and Andbra Pradesh are being set up.
These will provide the necessary experience for a large scale
programme. The objective is to generate a cooperative spirit
among the people in the distribution and utilization of electricity

in rural areas.

The implementation of these projects will not only create
confidence in the rural population as projects are to be owned
and managed by the beneficiaries themselves, hut will also
provide better opportunities for their self-employment. Small
industries, particularly those relating to agricultural needs, will
be encouraged.

The level of rural electrification Is below the all-India
average In a few States. Numerous factors have been responsible

for this slow progress. A Committee of Members of
Parliament constituted in 1968, has made some recommendations

aimed at reviewing the imbalance.

Electricity At Cheaper Rates

The Government would no doubt like to do much more
than what has been done so far. But apart from the constraint

 on programme, the difficulty lies in 'the need for meeting
. the losses during the gestation period. To cut down the losses
to the minimum a continuous process of research to reduce
the cost of rural electrification is on hand. Standards and Construction

Manuals for distribution lines have been formulated
and issued. Recommendations have also been made for effecting

 economy in various other fields. Various measures have
been initiated to cut down losses and to provide electricity at
cheaper rates.

Compared to other developed countries. our per capita
consumption of electricity is very low. Electricity, is a vita!
resource to give a new direction not only to the economic but
also the socio-cultural life of a country. In spite of the limitations,

 rural electrification has silently transformed the country-
side. That is why the changes brought about in our rural social

structures are smooth and peaceful, but at the same time
revolutionary in essence. Rural electrification has virtually
shaken the roots of the static rural life and has given it a purposeful

 direction. This has made the planners to accord a high
priority to extend the rural electrification programme on a
fairly extensive scale.

All India Power Grid

Our vast country Is linked (room one end to the other by
net works or telecommunications, railways and national high-
ways. We are now going a step further by constructing nation-
al power grid, State Electricity Boards and other sillier
organtsations are developing the power potential and its
distribution 10 various States and regions. Work on Interlinking of
transmission lines on regional basis has already made considerable

 progress. This will help In strengthening the transmission
lines and will ultimately result in providing uniformly cheaper
electricity all over the country. Our final step will be the formation

of a national power grid. The Government of India has
undertaken to provide financial assistance for accelerating the
pace of national power grid. With the completion of the national

power grid, we should certainly be able to electrify the
maximum number of villages in the shortest possible period.

To sum up, thanks to the Impact of rural electrification
on the countryside, tangible benefits to the rural people are
already Visible-benefits in line with the dreams of Gandhiji-
the uplift of the common man. We are confident that with
the extension of power supply to the entire countryside, we
shall soon be able to build a new India of Gandhiji's dreams.


A perfect example of how a leisure. filling hobby interest can
be transformed into a foreign currency- earning trade is
provided by the wife of the famous Indian artist, Mr. Jehangir

She Is Mrs. Shirin Sabavala, who, one afternoon, was
discussing with a lady friend the desirability of spending
leisure time with some useful occupation.

One of their brightest ideas concerned gift wrapping
paper. Now, while supply of wrappings is a fairly sizeable
business in America and Europe, in India it is still in its in-
fancy. The two enterprising ladies saw a marvelous chance
to combine the opportunities of this line of business with the
traditional artistic designs for which India is famous.

In the four years since they devised this promising
business, they have built up an Improving trade with India's
largest cities, and with several big stores in America, notably
In San Francisco.

Mrs. Sabavala Is now in Europe, trying to Interest the
bigger stores there in this delightfully rich and artistic way of
enhancing gifts.

The hand-printed wrapping paper, tie ribbons and greet-
ting cards that are produced in Mrs. Sabavala's small work-
shop in Bombay are on the expensive side, compared with
much of the wrappings now available here, but their price is
commensurate with tuber quality, for each piece is veritably
a work of art.

The finished product is a combination of two of India’s
oldest arts. One is that of designing intricate patterns to
decorate temples and other buildings and for use on the sari.
The other is that of hand carving, a craft which produces the
wooden blocks used in the textile printing process.

Said Mrs. Sabavala : "We examine ancient temples for
suitable pieces of design, and go through old sari patterns
and select those which we consider could be used on gift
wrapping paper. The design is drawn on paper, and then
transferred to a simple block; of wood. At this stage the
craftsman takes over."

With only a rough outline to guide him, he chips out
the most delicate patterns with simple tools, and the finished
product is a work of art in itself. For each colour In the
design, a separate wood block has to be made and it Is a
tribute to the craftsmen's skill that they can match them perfectly

despite their rudimentary way of working.

Once made, the blocks are passed on to the printers in
Miss. Sabavala's workroom. They lay a piece of paper carefully

on a table. Then they dip a wooden block into the required

 ink and press it Into the paper. At each bloc~ Is no
more than seven Inches square, several "presses" are needed
to fill each piece of wrapping paper. If the blocks were
made any bigger, they would be too cumbersome to handle.

One printer uses one colour. Where a design calls for
two colours to be used, the second colour is applied by a
second printer. The paper itself is tinted so this gives an
added colour.

At each application, the block has to be aligned exactly
with previous "pressing;' and two printers working on a two-
colour design can only produce 110 sheets in a day. Some
of the more intricate patterns bring this down to 80 a day.
Each printed sheet has to be laid out separately to dry.

This slow rate if production and the costs of transporting

 the heavy-weighing paper across the world account for
its price. In Britain it might sell at about 1/6d a sheet. This
is three times the retail price in India. With the greater distance

 to travel, the selling price in America Is about five times
that of India.

Mrs. Saliavala explained: "We use a lot of gold coloring
powder ail our designs, and the expense of buying that
outside India, plus the slow rate of production with hand
craftsmanship, makes our papers a little more expensive, but
we feel that people of discernment will be willing to pay the

"The first export order for a sample supply was secured
three years ago with the Nieman Marcus store In Texas.
We have had repeat orders from a store in Georgia, and
we have sent supplies to a big store in San Francisco. We
are looking forward to earning more valuable dollars for

                    P.C. Sekhri

          General Secretary, All India Harijan League (Regd.)

IT is the hundredth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi's birth.
- day. All the causes for which he labored was that of the
suppressed classes of India-sun-doubted one of the foretold.

In one of hi. later days, Gandhiji wrote an article in
the "Harijan" entitled "Caste must 80". By this he meant
specifically that the hierarchy of status associated with
caste must dis-appear. It was his desire that the practice of
un-touch ability which is the greatest blot on Hinduism should
be abolished at the earliest. Under article 17 of the Constitution,

un-touchable has been abolished. The unsociability

(offences) Act 1955 has made the practice of unsociability

 a cognizable offence. It Is unfortunate that
practice of un-touch ability is a cognizable offence whereas
preaching of un-touch ability is no offence under the Act. Al-
though the law is there, un-touch ability continues to exist
some times in open and sometimes in a concealed manner.
Atrocities on Harijan communities in various parts of the
countries are continued.

The following cases of un-touch ability and harassment
were brought to the notice of this Association during the
past year.

(I) In a village near Delhi the Caste Hindus objected
to the use of band and fireworks along with the bridegrooms
riding on the horseback during the marriage procession of a
Harijan, On refusal of the Scheduled Caste persons to accede
to their demand, except stopping the fireworks, the Caste
Hindus attacked the Scheduled Castes.

(2) An upper caste person employed as a Lower Division
Clerk in a post office, New Delhi, observed untouchables
and harassed a Scheduled Caste family residing in the neighborhood

in a Government colony in New Delhi.

(3) Some students of a school in Delhi were discriminated

 by students and staff belonging to upper Castes and
that they were not allowed to drink water from the pot kept
for the purpose in the school. One of the Scheduled Caste
students tried to take water from that pot and he was beaten
by the caste Hindu students. He complained to his teacher
about the incident, he also beat him along with other Scheduled
 Caste students and warned them not to take water from
the pot.

(4) A Scheduled Caste employee of Delhi Electric
Supply Undertaking New Delhi was Insulted by the Caste
Hindu employee by using derogatory remarks against him with
reference to his caste In the office.

(5) A Scheduled Caste member of the Municipal Corporation

 Delhi was beaten by four upper caste persons of his
village. who came to his house and beat him mercilessly.
These persons were taken into custody by the police on his
report and cases under section 52 of I.P.C. were registered
against them. Being annoyed by this action they again
attacked him and blocked the passage used by the Scheduled
Caste. When the passage was thrown open with the help of
the police these persons threatened to murder him.

(6) A Scheduled Caste girl aged 14 years resident of
Jullundur, Punjab was raped and killed in September, 1967
and efforts were being made to hush up the case and to set
free the culprits arrested.

(7) A Scheduled Caste resident of a village in the
district of Kangra, HIMACHAL PRADESH, was harassed
by some upper caste persons of the village because he was
allotted land on reserved price on the face of heavy opposition
put up by those persons. He was also beaten mercilessly
by the village jats, and the local Police, when approached,
refused to register the case.

(8) The Scheduled Caste residents of a village In the
district of Karnal, HAR Y ANA, were being subjected to humiliation

 by influential village landlords, their womenfolk: insulted
while they went out Into their fields for cutting grass, etc., and
attempts were being made to grab the lands allotted to 200
Scheduled Caste residents of the village during consolidation

(9) A marriage party of Scheduled Caste persons was
attacked by Caste Hindu shopkeepers of a village in district
Bulandshahr in UTTAR PRADE-SH on the ground that the
former were proceedings in a procession accompanied by a
band. An attached case containing the bride's jewellery was
snatched from them during the attack. A complaint was
lodged with the police who are said to have taken prompt
action in the matter. But in retaliation, five Scheduled Caste
persons were also arrested in an allegedly false case, the report
of which was lodged by the Caste Hindu shopkeepers,
 (10) A Scheduled Caste person of a village In Meerut
district In UTTAR PRADESH complaint to the District
Magistrate about his harassment by the Policy, he and his
family members were further harassed by the policy officers
against whom the complaint was lodged and they even tried to
implicate him in a criminal case. District Magistrate concerned

 got the enquiries conducted into the case through the
Deputy Superintendent of Police (Anti-corruption) whose report
found a sub- inspector and a constable guilty of the charges
leveled against them.

(11) A Scheduled Caste person of the district Etah
in UTTAR PRADESH complained that his younger brother
had been murdered and the opposite parties were threatening
to kill the applicant's son also, who was present at the time of
murder. They also harassed other members of the family.

(12) A Scheduled Caste person who had done some
construction work of a Caste Hindu in a village in District
Meerut of UTTARPRADESH was Insulted when he demanded

labour charges which were refused.

(13) A Junior Vice-President of a Municipal Board of
a town in the district of Agra of UTTAR PRADESH who
belongs to the Balmiki community was being discriminated
by the staff of the Municipal Board and that they did not
submit papers to him whenever required. Once when he sent
for the official in the room of the Senior Vice-President they
refused to comply with his orders, saying that they could
never consider a Balmiki as their Vice-President. Some of
the members of the staff in Municipal Board were not giving
due respect to him as Junior Vice-President and were discriminating

Against him because be belonged to the Balmiki community;

 While It appeared that the orders of the previous
Junior Vice-President belonging to non-Scheduled Caste,
were expeditiously complied with by the members of the

(14) A Scheduled Caste resident of a village in Bulandshahar

 district of UTTAR PRADESH was called to a policy
station and on reaching there the S.H.O. concerned beat him
mercilessly, abused him and also used abusive language about
his family members and community, and later on be
was sent to the lock up where he was not provided with food

(I5) In a village In District Gulberga of MYSORE
State some Influential persons belonging to a high caste committing

atrocities on the people of other castes and communities,

 the Scheduled Caste persons being particularly ill treated.
An incident was cited when a Matha of a Harljan Tyagi was
desecrated, the deity defiled and thrown out, the holy articles
destroyed and trampled upon and the devotees bclaboured
mercilessly and dragged out of the Matha. The report
of the incident was lodged with the Policy but Influential
Hindus succeeded in rendering the complaint Ineffective, . -

(16) There were disturbances In certain vi1lage~ of
Muneli Tehsil, Bilaspur district, MADHYA PRADESH, Involving

Hindus Satnamis who belong to Scheduled Caste. On
the 15th January, 1968 a Satnami went to realize a loan of
Rs. 10/- from an upper caste person that resulted In exchange
of hot words. Finally leading to an attack by the Caste Hindus
on the Scheduled Caste persons and in the death of 5 Scheduled:
 Caste persons. in different villages. The State Government
ordered a judicial enquiry and appointed Justice R.G, Bbave
of the Madhya Pradesh High Court as Commission of

(17) On 14th July, 1968 some Scheduled Caste persons
'and Meenas of Bidarkha village, RAJSTHAN quarreled
over the raising of a mud wall by the Meenas to prevent rain
water entering Into their fields. The Scheduled Caste persons
did not like the rain water to accumulate on their side and
wanted to demolish the mud wall. A number of persons were
injured during this quarrel and two Meenas died in the hospital.

 In a meeting on 22nd July, 1968, the Meenas residing
in the neighbouring villages decided 10 take revenge op the
Scheduled Castes. On 24th July, 1968 while returning from 1:1
'fair, a group of Meenas, who armed with gandasas and lath~.
preceded towards the village of Siya Ka Bas, and assaulted
six Scheduled caste persons, killing two of them. One more
. scheduled caste person was killed In village Sondarh on the

same day by a group of Meenas. The prompt action taken
'by ,the local authorities after the first two incidents, prevented

'-   ~-   ",--- . . .

Further loss of life and property. The Members of Parliament

discussed the situation with the Chief Minister,
RAJASTHAN and suggested that the village Panchayats and
leaders of the majority community should ensure protection
to the minority communities.

(18) Five Scheduled Caste residents of a colony in a
Taluka in North Arcot district of MADRAS were invaded by
Caste Hindus of the surrounding villages. Their colony was
ransacked, looted their property and cattle and In1Iicted grievous

 injuries on women and old people. The police did not
come to their assistance. The case was referred to the concerned

 authorities and It was reported that some Scheduled
Caste boys of the colony, who were witnessing a drama in a
nearby village, were scolded and asked to keep quite. AU
the boys reportedly left the village before the drama was over
and were chased out of the groundnut fields by some caste
Hindu people on the plea that they were stealing groundnuts.
It was further reported that on the next day some of the caste
Hindus who were passing through that colony were waylaid
and beaten by the Scheduled Caste residents of the colony.
There after, there was a scuffle between the two parties and
persons from both sides received injuries.

(19) In a village in Thanjavur district of MADRAS,
the local Scheduled caste persons were not allowed a dead
body to be carried to the cremation ground along a public
road. They were beaten by the upper caste people, and when
the Collector ate and the local police were approached, no help
was given.

(20) A Scheduled Caste resident of a village in the
district of Tiruchirappalli of MADRAS, employed as a farm-
servant by a Caste Hindu landlord, was accused of a minor
theft of three eggs and the landlord instead of reporting the
matter to the police, have given a severe beating to the man
and caused fire to be set to his bands resulting in the Imputation

of his fingers.

(21) Scheduled Caste persons of a township In Erna-
kulam district of KERALA were being oppressed by the mem-
bers of another community. A Scheduled caste boy and a
girl belonging to II non-scheduled caste community were In
love and eloped from their homes. Soon after this incident
there were clashes between the two communities and the police
took necessary preventive action.

(22) Last but not the least and most shameful case Is
that in a village of Dhenkarnal District o( ORRISSA two
scheduled caste persons were murdered, a scheduled caste
child of 21 days mercilessly thrown into a khad, houses of
scheduled caste set on fire and a scheduled caste lady made
naked, taken in a procession round the village and raped by
eight caste Hindus in Nov. 1966.


IN a political democracy, citizens cast their votes once every

five years to elect representatives to make laws and to run
the Government. Political democracy Is Incomplete without
economic democracy, which means every day citizens, as consumers,

 cast their ballots when they buy something. Millions of
these consumer votes decide two things I (a) Direction to the
economy by indicating what Is to be produced. For instance,
If a consumer buys a fan Instead of a sewing machine, It .Ia a
vote In favors of fans. (b) By buying a particular brand, the
consumer casts ballot (or a particular producer who will be

Encouraged to produce more.         .

Just as political democracy In India suffers from many
drawbacks, so also our economic democracy is deficient In
many respects.

Planning Strategy Fall

It is necessary to affirm that while planning Is good and
desirable- for the Indian economy, the strategy of plannlo8
chosen since 1956, i.e.; the Second Plan, bas worked against
the consumer, economic growth and social Justice. This has
happened In three ways :

1. The Planning Commission has chosen wrong priori.
ties of development. It has concentrated on heavy Industries
with the result that agriculture and consumer goods sectors
have been deprived of the necessary resources. The neglect
of agriculture was graphically highlighted during the famine
of 1966 and 1967. In the last 13 years, food imports have
cost the country over Rs, 3,000 crores. . At one time, over
half the population of the country was under informal and
statutory rationing. Even today Bombay and Calcutta are
under statutory rationing. All this could have been avoided
by giving priority to agriculture. Similarly consumers goods
scarcity could also have been avoided by giving it due atten-
tion. The Indian consumer was, therefore, put to unnecessary
suffering because of wrong planning priorities.

2. For an effective functioning of economic democracy,

 the consumer must have spending powers in his hands.
This has been progressively reduced In two ways by our

(a) There is heavy taxation, direct and Indirect, on
citizens. . This has resulted In transferring purchasing power
from the people to the Government. This is done under the
philosophy that t1tq Government knows how to spend our
money better than we ourselves do, Unfortunately, experience
of the last several years has shown that there has been a gross
over-estimate in the capacity and wisdom of the Government
 spend public funds. Wastage, corruption and inefficiency
are hall marks of many Government projects. The public:

Sector industries of the Central Government have lost Rs. 35
crores on a capital employed of Rs. 3200 crore in running

Undertakings during 1967·68.                          '

(b) The second power in which the purchasing power is
reduced Is through inflation. Inflation has arisen from govern
mental policies. For instance, between 1956 and 1906 the
price level went up by 80 per cent. From 1~6p 1i!!IYlW, It
has risen ·by another 75 per cent

(c)The third way in which present planning adver-
sely affected the consumer Is by Imposing numerous controls
on the economy. While wise regulations are necessary In
any modem society, Intricate controls which have been Imposed

in our country affect greater production and productivity
and come In the way of consumer welfare. New producers
are prevented from entering the fields of production because
of licensing policies, Business men instead of running after
the consumers in order to please them, tent to run after the
Government to get licenses. The creation of sheltered markets,
under planning policies has affected efficiency and quality in
many industries. The consumer has no control over producers.

Way for Economic Growth

Unless the consumer becomes sovereign and makes the
producers his prisoners, there can be no rapid economic growth
nor socical justice,

Looking at the current economic situation, the sacrifice
of consumer interests can be illustrated as follows :

Rationing: For two years past, the country has had a
good crop of about 95 million tonnes. Rationing, which
is a form of price and distribution control, cannot be justified
In such circumstances. Rationing Is all right only during
times of acute scarcity or abnormal times like war. When
rationing becomes a permanent feature of an economy even In
times of surplus, the poor consumer has td suffer. So also
does the producer. Unfortunately, it is continued to help
vested interests to exploit the consumer and the producer.


State Governments which have taken to trading in food-
grains, marketing co-operatives and the Food Corporation of
India, which are entrusted with monopoly procurement and sale
of food grains. make huge profits at the cost of the consumer
and producer because of rationing. For instance, the Food
Corporation of India buys rice from the mills in West Bengal
at Rs. 106 per quintal, and sells it at. Rs. 128/- to consumers.
After allowing Rs, 13/- for retailer's commission, the Corpora-
tion makes a profit of Rs. 19/- per quintal, or about 17 per
cent a margin which could never have been dreamt of by any
private trader.

Under monopoly procurement, as in Maharashtra, the
poor farmer is forced to sell his grains at prices which are
less than what he would have got in an open market. The
monopoly purchasing agent, a co-operative, makes huge profit
at the cost of farmers and the consumers.

Derationing In Delhi has proved the benefit of such a
step to the consumer. Retail price of rice fell immediately
from Rs. 3/ a kilo to Rs, 2/- to RI. 2.30 when rationing was
abolished in February 1961. Within a short time, the price
in the open market was some 10 paisa less than the price In
ration shops.

Sugar affords another example of gross neglect of consumer

 Interests. The sugar policy has been an ad hoc one.
At one time, it was weighed In favour of Industry. When
cane growers became well organised, the policy was weighed
in their favour also. Now in a situation of plenty, with the
removal of all controls the result would be a drastic fall in
sugar price to the benefit of consumers. But such a step Is
not taken mainly because the sugar co-operatives, dominated
as they arc by politicians, do not want complete decontrol.
The figures given In Maharashtra Assembly show why they are
so eager for continuation of controls. Between November
1967 when sugar was partially de-controlled till May, 1969,
the co-operatives in the State made profits of Rs, 48.18 crores,
Obviously, the poor consumer has been made to pay through
his nose.

Bank nationalization offers another field for study of
government's anti-consumer policy. TiI119th July, 1969 about
25 per cent of banking sector was In Government hands.
There was effective competition between various banks which
worked to the advantage of depositors and borrowers. Now,
about 90 per cent of the banking Industry belongs to the State
sector. The area of choice. instead of widening. has contracted
considerably. Yet, with 'the queer logic of politicians, the
Prime Minister claims that bank nationalisation was done In
the Interests of depositors !

Consumers in India suffer because they are unorganised.

Their role has been usurped by professional politicians and
Government officials who think that they mow better what Is
good (or the consumers than the consumers themselves know.

It Is time that the consumers organised themselves and
took back; the control of the economy in their own hands.

THE bhoodan movement has been a "fiasco", in several
areas. This Is the view, based on personal experience of
Samyukta Socialist Party's former chairman S. M. Joshi •

. Giving an Instance, he said the entire Purnea district
in Bihar was supposed to have been donated to the move-
ment. Despite this "ziladan," things were moving exactly as
they were before.

"I asked Acharya Vinoba Bhave and Mr. Jaya Prakash
Narayan if Gopal (Lord Krishna) has become the owner of all
land. how Is that the old landlords continue to reap the har-
vest ?" Mr. Joshi said.

Purnea, with a population of 20 lakhs, has 4,000 villages.

The SSP leader demanded that an ordinance be Issued
to provide security of tenure to the actual tillers Orland In
Purnea, Champaran and other strategic border areas where
It was even more necessary to secure the people's involvement.
Amendment urged

His party would launch an agitation at the harvest time
next month, he said. He had taken up the matter with Prime
Minister Indira Gandhi also. Since Mrs. Gandhi had been
talking about land reforms, she should show her' sympathy in
positive terms.

The survey Act was faulty In Bihar where the cases
about the rights or the tillers had to, be settled in civil courts,
he added. It took an unusually long time. The Act should
be amended so that the cases could be decided by revenue
tribunals as in Maharashtra. In Purnea district alone, there
were 60.000 title suits pending, and of them nearly 2.200 were
against the Government,

Mr. Joshi announced that landless workers would take
over the Government's fallow land in a peaceful manner. If
the police used force, his party should not be held responsible
for any consequent violence in "self- defence."

A Press release issued by the SSP central office said. "In
Champaran district of Bihar the SSP launched the struggle of
the landless people to forcibly occupy Government fallow lands
on Oct. 1. About 200 landless people occupied 900 acres of
Government fallow land in Kumar Bagh village of Champaran
district. The police arrested them and also burnt about 40
huts which had been put up there. Some of the arrested
people. including an SSP lady worker, were badly beaten.

Over 800 landless people have been arrested for forcibly
occupying Government fallow land in Bihar, Uttar Pradesh,
Madhya Pradesh and Mysore.

The . SSP "intensified its agitation for lam! for the
landless people in the Gandhi Centenary year" and landless
people occupied over 11,000 acres of land In Bihar and

According to an SSP hand out, nearly 4.000 acres or
land has been occupied and named Lohia Nagar in Shikarpur
taluka of Shimoga district of Mysore and "in another area in
the same taluka, a plan to occupy another stretch of land and
name It Gandhi Nagar is under way."

A MIDST reports of public sector undertakings piling up loss-
es year after year, the performance of the State Trading
Corporation during the year 1968·69 comes as a pleasant

This Impressive showing may be "pleasant" to us all.

But to suffix it with the word "surprise" may not be proper.
For, all those who knew Mr. P.L. Tandon's calibre were sure
right at the time of his appointment as Chairman of the STC
that the Corporation would certainly put up a better show
after he took over.

Statistically speaking, the turnover of the: STC increas-
ed to Rs, 1,672 million from Rs. 1,412 million a year earlier.
No wonder the profit before tax has virtually trebled Itself
from Rs, 40,000,000 to Rs. 121,000,000, enabling the STC
to give the Government a handsome dividend of 20 per cent
on its equity capital.

The balance-sheet of the SIC this year has a significance
far greater than what the figures of turnover and profit return-
ed by it would warrant. The figures, in fact, seem to point
out that if experts are appointed and given the necessary attitude

to function unhindered, the results would be spectacular.

It is this moral that ought to be neatly digested by the
people presiding over the destiny or our economic affairs.
But it is very likely that the champions of "Statesman" might
just refuse to draw appropriate lessons from the working of
the STC. On the contrary, the spirited performance of the
STC might be used as an excuse to encroach upon the sphere
of activity that should be properly left to private trade and

The danger that the basic concept of regulated freedom
within the framework of a Welfare State might be trifled with
lightly has, of late, tremendously increased.

\              After bank nationalisation, the private sector has been

Virtually pushed to the wall. Immediately following the
natlonalisatlon of banks, the Government bas already taken
a decision to canalize the import of cotton through the
STC from 1970-71 onwards and also to nationals the import
trade-"progrc88Ively" though.

Restricting the discussion mainly to the S Te, let us see
what would be the consequences of Its multi-dimensional

Right at this time, the STG Is handling the trade In
over 100 items. To this would soon be added the import of
cotton. In terms of value, the Import of cotton would be
around Rs, 1,000 million a year. In other words by the ends
of next year, the State Trading Corporation would be called
upon to handle a turnover exceeding &s. 3,000 million.

While not In any way doubting the ability of the SIO
to handle the additional business so far as its volume Is concerned,

this writer feels that the highly specialized nature of
the technique of buying cotton is lithely to pose problems.
Those with some knowledge of cotton would tell us that one
has to exercise extreme caution and selectivity in deals of this
nature. Private cotton buyers have a personal stake In such
deals. Hence they are obliged to act with caution, depending

entirely on their expert knowledge.

What would be the Individual Involvement of the Cot-
ton Officer or some such dignitary who might be called upon
to conclude the deals on behalf of the STC? Each failure
has a justification of its own, and a mistake by such an officer
would be vehemently justified-and blamed on some extraneous


But a failure in a deal of this nature would spell a virtual

 disaster for the textile industry and all those depending
on it. If due to delayed arrival or due to the receipt of
sub-standard stuff, textile mills are obliged to run below
their capacity, the overall cost or production Is bound to
rise. That would make Indian textiles manufactured out of
such imported cotton less competitive ill the home and ex-
port markets.

On the domestic front too, an Involuntary closure or
shifts by mills engaged in producing high-Class textiles could
mean 50 much less employment and loss of wages to workers.
The reported decision of the Government progressively
to take over the import of almost the Important industrial

 raw materials might multiply manifold the dreadful
possibilities indicated in the earlier paragraph. If monopolies

 in the private sector arc a taboo, monopolies In the State
sector are equally so. It Is neither good nor correct to dis-
jingoish between the two by arguing that, unlike a monopoly
in the private sector, a government monopoly Is not Interested
In profiteering and hence it Is more desirable, The reason
for this assertion Is that the waste of resources resulting from
a gigantic government monopoly very often far exceeds the
monetary profits a private monopoly Is supposed to be

All those sold on the idea of raising the Sat to "commanding

heights" had better give a dispassionate consideration

 to the experiences gained elsewhere of huge monolithic
corporations working under State control. Bat in the existing
 political atmosphere this appears Improbable.

That being the case, efforts must now be concentrated
on making the operations of the STC as efficient and prompt
as possible. In this context, the recommendations of the com-
matte headed by Mr. P.L. Tandon himself should be adopted
for quick implementation.

The Tondon Committee has recommended a transformation

 of the STC Into Item (International Trade Corporation of

The Item would serve as the parent body ("Holding
Company," as they call It In corporate parlance). Around
it would be evolved a network of subsidiary companies-each
in charge of one or more specific sectors of foreign trade. This
has been successfully done in other countries, and if a proven
model Is ready, there Is no reason why we should not adopt

It after adjustments to suit our needs,      -


A CCORDING to the National Commission on Labour increases
    in money wages of industrial workers since independence

 have not been associate:!-with a rise In real wages nor
have real wage increases been commensurate with

Improvements in productivity,

Simultaneously, wage costs as proportion to total costs
of manufacture have registered a decline and the same is true
of workers' share In value added by manufacture.

Wage disputes under these conditions have continued
to be the single most important cause of all industrial disputes.

The Commission believes that on an overall plane Issues
concerning wage policy are interrelated with broader economic
decisions on the one hand and on the other hand with the
goals set for socialist policy.

A democratic society with Ideals of social justice will
have to reconcile consideration of equity and fairness with
economic compulsions.

The Commission adds that the wage policy has to be
pragmatic but it does not follow that it has to be unscientific
and remain simply a matter of expediency.

According to the Commission, the main aim o( wage
policy as envisaged by it is to bring wages into conformity
with the expectations of the working class and In the process,
seek to maxims wage employment,

The Commission, however, points out that any sustained
Improvement In real wages cannot be brought about without
Increasing productivity.

The Commission has, therefore, recommended that the
objective of Increasing productivity must be raised to a high
national purpose.


Some other observations/recommendations made by the
Commission in the context of a wage policy are as under:-
Wage differentials due to the simultaneous existence of
the modern capital Intensive sectors including agriculture arc
both inevitable and desire blew,
But this does not necessarily mean that all existing
differentials are based on differences in productivity.

Steps should, therefore, he taken to standardize job
classifications and reduce differentials wherever necessary to
suitable limits on a scientific basis.

Inter-regional wage differentials may be due to market
limitations or on account of inter-regional disparities In productivity

 due to differences in technology, capital per worker
or organization.

The Commission expects that with the industries competing

for skill in the country as a whole, these will soon he

Inter-industry differentials are likewise unjustified except
on grounds of local differences In technology and capital per

The workers' claim for a basic minimum wage has to
he met Irrespective of any other consideration.

Beyond this, however. in the determination of wage
differentials the capacity to pay becomes relevant.

Holding of the price line, particularly of the cost of
living is a condition for preventing increases in money wage
payments that are not related to Increases in productivity.

Hence the policy (or holding down the living costs
should form an integral part of the wage policy.

The Commission feels that different institutional
arrangements for wage fixation may be needed for different

In the unorganised sector, Governmental or quasi Governmental

 machinery may be necessary to provide for mini.
mum. wage regulation according to conditions In different
areas and industries but more specifically to protect the
workers In a weak position.

In other cases. the following alternatives could be
availed c-e-

(I) Commissions/Boards for framing wage awards and
suitable administrative arrangements lord supervising their im-'
 (2) Bipartite arrangements/collective bargaining between
workers and employers both for reaching wage decisions and
. (or enforcing them.

(3) Tripartite machinery •

. Minimum Wage

Considering the various terms which have acquired
currency In discussing wage problems since 1948, the Commission

hills made the following observations :-

Statutory minimum wage : The statutory minimum wage
Is the wage determined according to the procedure laid down
In the Minimum Wages Act, 1948. It Is an obligation of the
employer to pay this wage Irrespective of the capacity to pay.

What applies to establishments Included under the schedule

to the Minimum Wages Act must, on principles of special

justice, apply with equal force to industrial establishments
not Included In the schedule.

The need based minimum wage : The Commission is of
the view that In fixing the need based minimum wage, the
capacity to pay wl11 have to be taken into account,

The Commission has observed that the need-based minimum

 wage Is also a level of fair wage and represents a wage
higher than the minimum obtaining at present in many Industries,

though it is only in the lower reaches of the fair wage.

The onus of proving that the Industry does not have
the capacity to pay the nee d based minimum wage should lie
on the employer.

The Commission recognizes that the need-based mini·
mum wage and the wages at the higher level of fair wage may
and can be introduced by convenient and just phasing keeping
In mind the extent of the capacity of the employer to pay.

The fair wage and the Jiving wage : The Commission
has referred to the. definitions of fair wage and living wage
enunciated by the Committee on Fair Wages.

According to the Commission, the Committee on Fair
Wages recognized that the minimum wage as described by It
formed part of the fair wage though at Its lower level.

In regard to the levels above the minimum wage which
would fall under the category of fair wage, the Committee on
Fair Wages made the capacity to pay a condition precedent
(or the prescription of such a wage.

The living wage, according to the Committee, represent-
ed the highest level of the wage and, naturally, it would In-
clued all amenities which a citizen living in a modem civilized
society was entitled to expect when the economy of the
country was sufficiently advanced and the employer was able
to meet the expanding aspirations of his workers.

Erosion of Real Wage

The Commission has recommended that keeping living
costs under check! should form an Integral part of wage

Proceeding further the Commission says that "social
considerations do cast an obligation to mitigate through some
adjustment mechanism the hardships caused by price increases
at least in respect of the vulnerable sections of labour."

In this connection, the Commission has considered the
system of dearness allowance and made the following

observations recommendations :-

The reason (or disproportionately high D.A. Is the
fixation of basic wage on a date far remote from the present.

In view of the Increasing tendency In favour of computing

 benefits taking into account basic wage and dearness
allowance, retention of the old basic wage is an anomaly which
requires to be removed; the earlier the better.

If the basic wage In all cases Is adjusted to a common
base year and the D.A. is Linked to changes In the Index over
such a base year, the wage patterns in different centers would
achieve a desired measure of uniformity.

D.A. should be merged with the basic wage at a reasonable

point of time.

Since prices are not likely to settle below the level of
1968, there can be a strong case for merging dearness

allowance with basic wage at the 1968 price level.

This should not be construed to Imply ipso facto any
basic change In real wages or conferment of any additional

All future wage claims should be dealt with on tile
'basis of 1968 price levels and the ground should be prepared
for Introducing a consolidated wage (basic plus D.A.) as at
the base period of the proposed revised series of consumer
price index numbers.

Compensations against decline in the purchasing power
of money is necessary for employees in the lower income
brackets; employees in higher income brackets have to make
a sacrifice in common with other sections of the population

who do not get compensated for price rises.                   '

The D.A. Commission (1967) which went into this
question in respect of Central Government employees felt
that in deciding the level at which additional D.A. should
cease to be admissible, the following three considerations
should be taken into account :- .

The Level

    (i)     The level should be a little above but not substantially
    (ii)    above the subsistence level;

(ii) the level should be determined in relation 10 the
current price level ; and

(iii) it may have to be determined afresh in future If
price levels went up substantially higher than the current

These considerations should be applied to the workers
covered by the Compression’s terms of reference.

A large body of evidence, particularly from industries
and services which are spread throughout the country, favors
the use of all India Index for making adjustments in dearness.

Many State Governments prefer regional index numbers.

By and large, the workers' choice is for the local index. .

The Commission, however, feels that it would be best
to leave it to the wage fixing authorities to choose the index
(Local or all. India) they consider suitable for the purpose
of Linking dearness allowance,

Workers' organizations have unanimously voiced the
demand for cent per cent neutralization, some without indicating

the wage limit, others confining it to persons at the lowest

The existing practice varies from place to place and
from industry to industry. While In some centers and industries

 the percentage of neutralization is cent per cent at
the lowest level in others it is less.

The Commission is of the view that on principle those
who get a minimum wage will be entitled to have full neutralization

against a rise In the cost of living.

There are, however, certain imponderables like natural
calamities. famine and external relations which have to be
taken into account in deciding what allowance should be
made for them in working out fuel neutralization.

The Commission recommends that 95% neutralization
should be granted against a rise In the cost of living to those
drawing the minimum wage in non-scheduled employments.

However, a higher rate of neutralization already achieved
should be protected.

The amount of dearness allowance to be paid to employees

 having emolument higher than the minimum wage
should be the same as given to employees at the minimum.

Employees who are getting dearness allowance at pre-
sent higher than what is admissible on the basis now suggested
will not be deprived of it ; though for any additional Increase
in the cost of living they will be entitled only to that amount
of dearness allowance as is given to persons receiving the
minimum wage.

The Commission recommends linkage of D.A. to a S
points slab' (with reference to the consumer price index base
1960= 100) on the basis of the current all India series or the
current (1960) Centre series,

However, this recommendation should not affect employees

who are at present getting point -to-point neutralization.

The Commission feels that the paying capacity Is not a
relevant condition (or payment of D.A. at the minimum level.·
It, however, feels that where D.A. Is fixed on the basis
of collective bargaining or other methods, the capacity to pay
will have a bearing.


The Commission bas made the (following observations
recommendations :-

The application of Incentive schemes has generally to be
selective and limited to industries and occupations In which It
Is possible to measure, on an agreed basis, the output of
workers or a group of workers concerned and In which it Is
pollen to maintain a fair degree of control over the quality

A careful selection of occupations should be made for
introduction of Incentive schemes with the assistance of work;
study teams, the personnel of which command the confidence
of both sides.

Incentive schemes should cover as many employees of
an undertaking as possible and need not be confined only
to operatives or direct workers.

The Inclusion of supervisory personnel as beneficiaries
o( incentive schemes can have a vital roll in Improving

The scheme should be simple so that workers are able
to understand Its full Implications.

Managements should take steps to guard against the
Impact on Incentive schemes of certain unfavorable external
factors such as non-availability of raw materials, components.
transport difficulties and accumulation of stocks.

Production should not be org8nised in a madder which
will give an Incentive wage on one day and unemployment on
the next.

A fellable wage can be a safeguard against It.

THE question of nationalization of Banks has been under
discussion since the beginning from three different angles.

There are In the first place those who disbelieve that human
being as a part of a class cannot be relied upon to do justice
to the cause of equitable distribution. This approach Is based
upon the Marxist notion that the society even . at its best is
not free (room class motivations and has to be rigorously regimented.

The Socialists who believe In democratic approaches
feel too that the Banking Is a strategic area from the point of
view of public finance and cannot be left Into private hands
beyond a stage or level. At the opposite end are the business
Interests who believe that the banking is a trade and involves
a fiduciary relationship between the depositor and the hanker
which can best prosper in private hands.

I am neither a Marxist nor a theoretician. When I
supported the ten-point programme in the Delhi AIGG in 1965
I had in my mind hard facts and realities of the Indian situation.

One of the signal facts of Indian situation is that Indian.
conditions are Intrinsically different from the conditions in the
West where the apparatus of democracy governs the economy,
They arc different from conditions In Soviet Russia too. At
every stage it is necessary, therefore, to consider on a pragmatic

but humane hasps as to what Is vital In the Interest of

India though it may be stepping Into the thresholds
of Industrial Revolution has primary to depend upon Its agriculture

What Is country's contribution in terms of credit to this
sector which adds nearly II per cent to the gross national pro-
duct or to the wealth of India annually. There are some telling
figures that will show where we stand. Agricultural credit
has never gone beyond the limit of Rs, 500 crores at the maxi·'
mum for a production of Rs. 6,000 to 7,000 crores, whereas
the credit to the large-scale sector has some times exceeded
its total contribution to the national economy. I am talking
of the Bank; credit, which is more or less for working capital. .
By itself this means not much of a preference. A banker
looks at the most secure clientele. He has a duty to his depositors

to do so. He would not like to extend his business
unless it squares with his budget on overheads. All this is there.
But what happens to those away in the interior areas who can
offer equally sound security and who look for a share in the
savings of which a big chunk are the deposits in the banks of
the nation for their working capital needs. Ids the common
experience that the villager is as trustworthy a client as anyone
else. Is It his fault that his work keeps him in the
countryside? Apart from tbis there is another equally
potent fact of the situation. Country's population is Increasing
rapidly. There is scarcity of food yet, onsite of the green
volition. I saw In the Times of India editorial a review of
Dr. Venkatapplah's Report on Rural Credit. The Committee

estimates a need of Rs. 2,000 crores credit even to maintain

the present tempo of production.

There are two approaches to the problem of security.

One is in the individual sense as the bankers view It. The other
is the question of security in the larger national context. Both
are important. Can private banking ever take on the responsibility

 If it has to operate keeping both these aspects In
view ?

The picture is even more critical so far as the need for
public finance for the decentralized sector goes.

We are talking of concentrating on agriculture. There
are two or three aspects of it which are vital. First comes irrigation.

We spent Rs. 514 crores out of the total Plan expenditure

 of 3360 crores during the first Plan. The share of invest-
ment on irrigation was Rs, 430 crores in the Second Plan ; 650
crores in the Third and is Rs. 960 crores in the Fourth. In
absolute terms this is a good show. But what are the relative
per cent ages ? Whereas it was 15% in the first Plan period.
It was 7% In the Second Plan, 6% in the Third Plan and will
be 4 to 5% in the Fourth Plan.

The share of the private sector investment in Agriculture
was Rs. 625 crores in a total expenditure on agriculture of Rs.
835 crores in the Second Plan. It was Rs, 800 crores out or
the total expenditure on agriculture of Rs. 1460 crores in the
Third Plan and is only Rs. 1800 crores out of Rs, 3467 crores,
in the Fourth Plan. Animal husbandry accounts for an allocation

of Rs. 136 crores out of a total Plan of Rs, 22252 crores,

In the same way while in absolute terms the small scale
sector is registering a growth in relation to the total Plan in-
vestment, the investments on them have fallen from 8 per cent
in the First Plan to 3 per cent in the 4th Plan.

It is imperative in terms of time and speed to infuse
enthusiasm in the rural sector as much as in the urban sector.

This can be done only if some incentives are provided
related to the effort the rural sector makes in concentrating on
greater deposits. These incentives will, of course, be in the
nature of providing minimum infra-structure facilities to this
sector. This includes facilities for credit on reasonable terms
consistent with the interest of the depositors to the rural
customers in all these fields on a scale as bankers have

attempted thus far.;

As the Infra-structure facilities in the shape of institutional

 finance increases the retaliate will become more thrifty
or economy minded. This is our experience in Mabarashtra,
Gujarat and Tamil Nadu. The commensurate gain to the
national economy, of which the private sector economy is
an important part, will be significant.

There is a fear expressed that we are going in the
direction of regimentation. It is a plain fact of history that
regimentation is never the outcome of popular vote. In
every case a minority, armed and informed about the ways
of the authoritarian rules whether of the right or left variety.
usurps the authority. But it is also a plain fact of history
in every case that there are fundamental reasons or grievances
which this minority exploits. It cannot be denied that in
India there is enough and more of the material for it to do
so. Our exercise should Dot, therefore, end by crying
'Wolf Wolf'. We have to isolate the factors which provide
such material and find out remedies for it, however, drastic
they may be. The Bank: nationalisation will assist us in the
process of rectifying a grievous situation viz., starvation of the
.rurally,or in the matter of its credit needs On a rational basis,
. for its three wings : agriculture, animal husbandry and rural
industries and works. We should be thankful for the bold
step rather than be derisive. We owe a duty to assist the

Apart from the Bank nationalisation or land reforms
or administrative reforms there is need for change in the
fundamental motivations of those who have to deal with the
country's economy-whether as businessman or bureaucrats.

First and foremost Our economy is not an affluent
economy. It is a marginal economy. If 10% of those who
operate upon this economy. whether in the administration or
the business world. do not do their duty, the harmful effects
upon the national' economy are bound to be greater than
in the case of a self-sufficient or a self-reliant economy. The
misbehavior may be of a few; a large majority may be unaware
of it or may be free from such misbehavior; but in the
case of a hand to mouth economy the distortions that ensue
are bound to produce serious imbalances. Tax dodging,
smuggling or black-marketing or unfair trade practices may
not be more in India than In other countries. But one distinguishing

feature is missed. We are people living from hand
to mouth yet. To emphasize individual freedom without
thought of multitudes of poor people living under sub normal
conditions will be tantamount to advancing a dogma which
cannot cloud the real intention to make hay for oneself.

The reality of the Indian situation Is that India can save
itself from regimentation If It can think of a decentralized
economy to the maximum extent possible. With every effort
at centrallsation, in production India can only go In the direction

 of more and more controls, not because one likes them;
but centrallsation creates problems and the solution of these
problems demands controls.

It Is fortunate that India has still self-employment in the
farming sector, cattle breeding and small crafts and trade.
Nearly 80 per cent of the people are engaged: in these activities.

 But if as in Telangana the richer farmers begin to move
In the land of the small farmers' or the gains of the green revolution

 help only the richer farmers very soon the green co-
lour will begin to jar on the . minds of the people. There are
politicians ready to take advantage of popular anger or
frustrations. We can prevent this only by drastic land reo

It is fortunate that in India ninety per cent of the cattle
wealth is in the hands of the private and small cattle breeders.
If we turn it into a liability by continuously diverting the cat-
tle feeds and fodder without thinking about the effect of these
measures on the cattle breeder he has perforce to turn to other
avocations and there is nowhere he can go except to the city

It is fortunate that the small scale and village sector yet
provide some employment to the village crafts man a few days
in a month. A few millions who supplement their incomes
through these. If we remain indifferent to their needs under the
notion that these trades are anachronistic or non-viable •.
'heaven help us' is all I can say.

Rural works programmers and programmers to utilize man-
power and material resources demand a self imposed restraint
on the part of the administration and the business community
to study industries or operations that can be left to the rural
people even as Japan did before the Second World War.

If they do It and help the people to develop this decentralized

 sector with their rich resources, with their business and
technical know-how, they will have helped the country to save
itself from going In the direction of regimentation.

The fear of regimentation is not out of place. The Bank!
national station may be used by those who think! in those
terms, But the real remedy lies in trying to appreciate the real
causes that make our economy vulnerable to such approaches
and find out appropriate alternatives for it. It will serve no
purpose If we go on beating our chests or breasts when what
is needed Is self correction in terms of values and approaches.
FORTY years the world population was increasing by
. about 20 million a year. Now global population IS growing

about 72 million annually.

And in the years ahead, this tremendous rate of population

gain is sure to expand even more.

The Population Reference Bureau of Washington, D.C.,
recently released a World Population Data Sheet for 1969,
containing a nation-by-nation survey of current population
statistics for 137 countries and territories compiled mainly
from United Nations sources.

The 1969 statistics are illuminating :

-On an average, 3.9 babies are born every second.

-Just under 1.7 persons die every second.

- This amounts to a population gain of 2.2 persons per

second, 132 per minute, 190,000 per day, and more than 1.3
million a week.

- World population is expected to pass the 4,000 million
mark by 1975. It will probably total 7,000 million by the
year 2000.

Currently, world -population is growing at about two
per cent a year with regional growth rates ranging from less
than one per cent for Europe to over three per cent for Latin
America, the bureau said.

The world's fastest growing country is Costa Rica in
Central America, whose population bas dour bled in 18 years.
Costa Rica's birth rate is recorded as 45 and her death rate as
seven (births and deaths per 1,000 population per year).

Slowest population. gaining countries are Luxembourg,
Belgium and East Germany.

The highest birth rates in the world are in three African
countries-the Ivory Coast with 56, and Togo and Guinea
with 35 each. Hungary has the lowest birth rate of any
country -only 14.6. This distinction was formerly claimed by

Demographers estimate It took 600.000 years for the
world's human population to reach the first 1OOO- million
mark about the year 1800. The 2,OO)-million mark was
passed about 1930. The acceleration in the rate of human
population gains has continued since then at what bureau
officials call "an alarming rate."


THE IUCN, or International Union for the Conservation
of Nature and Natural Resources-to give it Its full
name-is an independent organization which was set up some
years ago. The parent body existed even from 1928, when
an office for the International Protection of Nature was open-
ed in Brussels. In 1948, following an international conference
at Fontainebleau sponsored by UNESCO and the Government
of France 'The International Union for protection of Nature'
was founded. In 1965, at the Edinburgh Assembly. the objective

designation was changed to 'Conservation' of Nature
. and Natural Resources,' the concept of 'conservation' as wise

use as going far beyond mere protection and the concept of
wildlife resources, both plant and animal, as an integral
part of renewable natural resources as a whole, being I recognized

. The membership of the lUCN comprises States,
Governmental and private organizations, International groups
and individuals. It is not a United Nations organization but
it enjoys the support of and consultative status with United
Nations agencies such as UNESCO, the FAO and the Exeo·
SCO (The Economic and Social Council of the United

Main Purpose

The main purpose of the IUCN is to promote or sup-
port action that will ensure the perpetuation of wild nature
and natural resources on a world wide basis, not only far'
their intrinsic cultural or scientific value but also for the
long term economic and social welfare of mankind. The best
definition of conservation is the "rational use of the earth's
resources to achieve the highest quality of living for man-
kind." In furtherance of these objectives the IUCN promotes
awareness through education of the value and importance of
renewable natural resources and the appreciation of the need
to use them wisely; research to discover the best measures
for conservation and the advancement of the study of ecology,
on which all practical conservation depends ; assistance in providing

advice based on ecological considerations, scientific and

technical data, source material and references etc. for practical

conservation programmers and action on national and international

 scales by enlisting Governments and agencies in
support of conservation programmers and In strengthening legislation

and Improving its enforcement.

The IUCN operates through a number of Commissions
and Committees each of which specializes in different aspects
of the Union's work. The main Commissions or the IUCN
are: the Survival Services Commission, formed in 1949 to
prevent the extermination of threatened species of wildlife, the
Commission on Education, the Commission of Ecology, the
International Commission on Natural Parks, the Commission
on Legislation and the Commission on Landscape Planning.
There is an executive body consisting of 80 leading conservationists

to whom the Commissions are responsible. Pulley is carried

out by the secretariat consisting of a small staff of protest,
signal officers.

The man works closely with the World Wildlife Fund
which receives requests for financial assistance from all over
the world. The World Wildlife Fund has been operating in
India (or some time in supporting ecological surveys conducted
by foreign specialists, on animals such as the tiger in Kahn
and the lion in the Girl as well as some lesser, but nonetheless

important, enquiries carried out by persons like the late
E. P. Gee into the status of endangered species ,the Kashmir

stag or Hangul and the rhinoceros in Nepal.

Special Projects

The IUCN carries out special projects, examples be
an ecological study undertaken In 1955 in the Middle East and
Southern Asia to save several threatened species of wild animates

, the steps taken in 1958 to safeguard the remarkable animals

and plants of the Galapagos Islands-made famous by
Charles Darwin as the basis of his theory of evolution -and
the spectacular African special projects of the 60s meant to
halt the accelerating destruction of wildlife and wild lands In

.Proceedings of the General Assemblies and the reports

and conferences are, of course, published, but in addition there
are a number of spell publications. The IUCN publishes a
quarterly bulletin in English and French on current conservation

topics of international interest as also ~annual reports.

Large-scale Destruction

While this. briefly. Is the description of what the IUGN
is and what it stands for. it Is a pertinent question as to how
It can serve India. The condition of India's wild life and its
natural setting, the land and what grows on it Is parlous. The
holding of the 10th general meeting and the lath technical
meeting of this international body in Delhi offers some hope
to the endangered Indian environment and its various species
-plant, bird and animal-as well as encouragement to the
small band of nature conservationists, and wildlife protectionists

 in particular, who have been carrying on a losing battle
for the last 20 years since Independence to preserve India's
heritage In these respects.

There Is not much time left before the tide destruction
of natural habitats and what they contain, as the result of the
galloping population and the spread of cultivation and habitation,

 reduces the originally bountiful wildlife of the country to
a shadow of Its former self, confined mostly to the reserved and
protected forests of the country of the various States. These
In turn have been under severe pressure as a result of the development

programmers under the several Five-Year Plans,
which have on the one hand been pressing for more production

 and on the other for more creation of 'man-made forests'
or plantations of commercial species. Both these processes
have been responsible for disturbing and destroying the natural
habitual of birds and animals. The growth of the cattle population

of India has also been a formidable threat to wildlife
habitat, both in the removal of vegetative growth, which is
consumed as fodder or trampled by animals. as well as by

interference with the natural herbivores, such as pig, deer and
antelope, that form the food of carnivores like the tiger and
the lion. Unrestricted use of crop-protection guns to slaughter

the 'meat' animals and birds has also contributed in bringing

about a dangerous fall in the population of most wild
species. The lion of Gir has sunk to the dangerously low
level of a couple of hundred animals and this number is likely

 to be further reduced by the other decimating factors which
exist, mainly the natural retaliation by the mandarins or grazers

 who live in the Gir santuary and whose animals are prey-
ed upon by the lion, in the form of poisoning of carcasses of
kills with herbicides and insecticides such as Folderol and DOT.
This deflationary action is also at work on the tiger population

 where the use of these exterminates, which are now freely
available to the rural population, is becoming more prevalent.


The discussions on the sanctuaries which are being visited

 as pre-conference tours will be of particular significance to
the Indian delegates, as giving an indication of the true struts
of their wild life and an objective assessment of the efforts
that are being put into its preservation. Anything that will
dissipate complacency is to be welcomed, and if the criticisms
are couched in sufficiently realistic terms and the remedies pro-
posed are such as can be readily assimilated and implemented,
the long term effects of the IUCN meeting will outlive the
euphoria that will undoubtedly be generated by that body's
presence, though brief, on Indian soil.


ON August IS this year, the people of India celebrated the
22nd anniversary of their country's independence. During
these years India has registered considerable successes in the
development of her national industry, agriculture and culture.
Soviet-Indian economic and technical cooperation is of great
importance for the accomplishment of the tasks for achieving

    and consolidating the country's economic ill dependence.

During its entire history the Soviet Union has considered
It Its internationalist duty to render practical aid to other
peoples fighting for their national liberation. The economic
relations of the Soviet Union with the newly-Independent states
are based on the Leninist ideas of peace and friendship among
nations, on principles of full equality, non-interference ill the
internal affairs and support to the peoples fighting against
imperialism and colonialism.

The economic cooperation with India occupies an
important place ill the economic contacts of the Soviet Union
with developing countries. India's share is nearly one-third
of the total volume of economic aid given to the developing

The Soviet assistance has played a decisive role in the
formation and consolidation of the state sector in a number of
key branches of India's industry and led 10 the building in
the state sector of India of large iron and steel, machine-
building and oil-extracting plants, as well as ell-refineries, coal-
mines, electric-power stations, medical industry enterprises and
other projects.


Take the case of the Bhilai Steel Plant. Having an
annual capacity of 2.5 million tons of steel, it is called a
genuine symbol of Soviet-Indian friendship and cooperation
In India. The output of the Bhllai Plant ill 1968 amounted
to 2& per cent of total volume of the country's steel production
and 29 per cent of rolled metal.
Since Its commissioning, the Bhilal Plant has produced
for the country about 12 million tons of steel and 10 million
tons or rolled metal which have enabled India to save hundreds
of millions of rupees in foreign exchange. Besides, the Bhllai
Plant has the lowest cost of production in the country, thanks
to the highly efficient functioning of the machinery and the
rational organization of labour.

The Bbilal Plant was India's first metallurgical enterprise

to export its output in large quantities to foreign countries.

 The plant has already exported to Japan, the USSR,
Ceylon and other countries nearly two million tons of its pro-
ducts, earning nearly Rs. 850 million In foreign exchange. In
1968-1969 the share of Bhilai In the total exports of ferrous
metals from India was 80 per cent.

The Bhilal Plant is not only the country's biggest metallurgical

 enterprise, but is also a centre for training national
cadres for the steel industry. Nearly 4,500 skilled specialists

 have been trained at the technical centre set up at
the plant. Ceylon and Burma have sent cadres for training
at Bhilal, and a large group of trainees from Iran will soon be

The Soviet Union Is also rendering assistance in the
construction of another of India's giants of ferrous metallurgy
-the Bokaro Steel plant-which will have an initial capacity
of 1.7 million tons of steel a year and an eventual total capacity

of four million tons.

The construction and assembly work is in full saving at
the site of this plant. With the first stage of this plant completed,

 India will receive annually 1.5 million tons of sheet steel
for the import of which huge amounts in foreign exchange arc
being spent at present. In her speech at the foundation-
stone laying ceremony of the first blast furnace, Prime
Minister Mrs. Indira Gandhi described Bokaro "as a
symbol of India's determination to overcome poverty and

Heavy Engineering

Of great importance for the country's industrial station
are also the up-to-date machine-building plants built with
Soviet assistance. These include the Heavy Machine Building

Plant in Ranchi with a capacity of producing 80,000 tons
of marbles a year, the Heavy Electrical Bqulpmenrs Plant
in Hardwar which can annually manufacture hydraulic turbines
and generators with a total capacity of 2.7 million kilowatts.
With these enterprises attaining their rated capacity, India
will be able 10 meet beer requirements for many types of industrial

 equipment, Including metallurgical, mining, oil- drilling,
power and other equipment. Broad vistas are opening up
for the export of industrial equipment to the countries of the
"third world".


Before independence, the country's requirements in 011
and oil products were almost entirely met from abroad, for
which hinge amounts of bard currency were spent. Western
experts even put forward the theory that there were no oil
deposits In the country, However, with the aid of Soviet
specialists and Soviet equipment the country's Oil and Natural
Gas Commission carried out, beginning with 1956, an extensive

programme of prospecting work in the country on a scientific

basis, which resulted In the discovery of much oil and gas.
During the period of Soviet-Indian cooperation in this field,
the Oil and Natural Gas Commission has extracted more than
12 million tons of oil, enabling the country to save over
1,000 million rupees In foreign exchange.

As a result of research conducted on the Soviet seismic
ship "Academician Arkhangelsk" wide prospects have open-
ed for oil prospecting at the Bay of Cambay. The Soviet
and Indian technicians will start work on this early next

To process the extracted oil, modern large oil refineries
have been built with Soviet technical assistance in Baraunl and
Koyali with a capacity of three million tons a year each. India
now produces petrol, diesel oil, kerosene, bitumen, coke, gas,
jet fuel, etc.

Efforts to Increase Eminency

Soviet-Indian economic and technical assistance is very
broad and many. sided. About 65 Industrial and other pro,
jests, are being built with Soviet assistance of which nearly 30
have already been fully or partly commissioned. Besides
cooperation In the construction, assembling and commissioning

of projects, the Soviet Union also renders assistance in
training Indian personnel to master complicated production
processes and in achieving the rated capacities. 'Together with
Indian specialists Soviet experts are working out and putting
into practice a wide-range of measures to reduce production
costs, to increase labour productivity, to make economical use
of raw and other materials, fuels, electric power and to reduce
other expenditures, These measures contribute to raising the
profitability and economic efficiency of the enterprises.

At the end of 1968 a Soviet delegation headed by the
Chairman of the State Committee of the Council of Ministers
of the USSR for Foreign Economic Relations, S, A. Skachkov,
visited India. As a result of the talks a joint protocol was
signed which envisages the carrying out of a number of measures

 to increase the economic efficiency of these projects. At
present India and Soviet specialists are carrying out appropriate

 measures for the implementation of the above-mentioned


The Soviet Union will continue to render assistance to
India during the 4tb Five- Year Plan in the development of
main branches of heavy industry including the construction of
Bokaro Steel Plant, the further expansion of the Bhilai Steel
Plant, the construction of a large aluminum plant, 011 and gas
prospecting and extraction, the development of mining Industry
and in the sphere of training qualified technical personnel,

On the occasion of India's Independence Day-tbis
great national holiday of the Indian people - I would like to
extend to our Indian colleagues-managers, engineers, technicians

and workers - good wishes for further successes in their
noble work of building key branches of industry in the state
sector of India. I would like to express my conviction that
the economic contacts between India and the USSR will continue

to develop successfully and will contribute to the further
strengthening of friendship and cooperation between our
              preservation and consolidation of peace in Asia
peoples, to the
and throughout the world.

IN .1967.68 India harvested the largest food-grain crop in her
hlstorY-96 million tones, Even though weather conditions

 have been un favorable this year, Indian farmers have :
produced a bumper crop almost as large.

Qualified observers have described the remarkable
increase In India's food production -from a low of 72
million tonnes in drought-stricken 1965·66-as a "Green
Revolution ."

India's highly successful new agricultural strategy is
focused on com binning high-yielding varieties of cereal grains
with a "package" of agricultural requirements-fertilizers,
pesticides, improved farm equipment, credit and grain.
storage facilities - in areas assured of sufficient water for

At the request of thin Government of India, the Uoited
States is providing support to vital segments of the new
agricultural strategy. The first technical- cooperation agree-
ment concluded by the United States with India-in 1953-
related to agriculture. The United States has always taken a
keen Interest in helping India to progress in this important
sector. U. S. assistance has, however, received a new emphasis
in the past three years. Agriculture now accounts for 40
per cent of the technical-assistance expenditures of - the'
United States Agency for International Development [USAID]
Mission in India. Five years ago the figure was only 24 per

 cent.                                                            I

U.S. ·foreign .exchange assistance for Indian agricultural
development since 1952 exceeds ,700 million [Rs. 525 crores].
This amount includes fertilizers valued at several hundred
million dollars, supplied through no project loans. In addition,

 agricultural development in India has received U.S. loans
and grants totaling Rs. 583 crores in Indian currency from the
sales proceeds of commodities supplied under Public Law 480.
Some 125 American agricultural specialists are now serving In
India with the USAID Mission.

American Government assistance to India's agricultural
development includes :

*specialist assistance in the breeding, testing and demonstration

of the new high-yielding varieties of cereals;

"assistance in rice research ;

*agricultural production teams which help solve problems
faced by farmers planting the high-yielding varieties ;

'assistance in research on pulses;

"loans to construct two large fertilizer factories, and
facilitating the construction of a third by insuring American

*Large fertilizer imports financed by the U.S. aid pro-
gram me;

"loans to import pesticides and purchase aircraft for

aerial spraying;

*rural electrification cooperatives;
·soil and water management ;

·establishment of eight new agricultural universities;
"advanced training In the United Stales for Indian

agricultural scientists, agricultural-university teachers and
government officials.

Details of U.S. assistance (or India's agricultural develop-

ment (allow :                                                   .

The New Seeds

Indian farmer have taken enthusiastically to the new
high-yielding varieties of cereal grains. Three years 8go, only
a few hundred thousand acres were planted to hybrid strains
of maize, jowar, and bajra, High-yielding varieties of where
and rice were being tried primer" at research institutions.;
In 1968·69 the new seeds were sown on more than 20 million

The reasons for the farmers' enthusiasm lie In the high
yields of these varieties. For instance, some farmers have
harvested more than 10,000 lb. on one acre planted to IR·8
rice. This Is much higher than the yield of the old rice
varieties. The dwarf Mexican wheat strains have yielded as
much 8,200 lb. to the acre. Hybrid bafra often gives three times
the yield of ordinary bafra. Similar profitable experiences have
greeted farmers who have switched to hybrid varieties of maize

The National Seeds Corporation, a semi-autonomous
government organization, Is responsible for raising and distributing

 foundation seeds, fostering a seeds Industry. and
encouraging a sound national programme of seed control and
certification. At the request of the Government of India,
US AID. which has been assisting the National Seeds Corporation

since Its Inception, has agreed to provide more aid.
USAID has concluded a contract with Mississippi State University

 to send a four-man team of seed specialists to work; with
the National Seeds Corporation.

The specialists will assist the National Seeds Corporation
In producing. certifying and distributing the seeds. They
will also help arrange demonstrations to popularize the seeds,
Another aspect of development will be seed processing and
storage. Special attention will be paid to problems of seed

Rice Research

Another U.S. - assisted project concerns rice research.

Rice is India’s most important grain. High- yelling varieties
such as Taichung Native 1 and IR·S (developed In Manila)
and ADT-27 (developed by Indian relentless largely in Madras
state) are proving their value In Increasing production. How.
ever. these, Like all varieties, have their limitations. especially
in adaptation to differing environments and resistance to In·
sects and diseases.

The Indian Council of Agricultural Research has launched

the AII· India Coordinated Rice Improvement Programme
to develop improved varieties and cultural practices so that rice
yields might be increased even further in the future. USAID has
a contract with the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI).
Manila, which developed IR·S, the so-called "miracle rice".
(or the services of four experienced scientists to be made available

 to the All-India Coordinated Rice Improvement Program-
me. . In addition, a number of consultants from the Manila
Institute will visit India from time to time, and Indian scientists
will receive advanced training in rice research at IRRI.

The Indian rice improvement programme, headquartered
at Hyderabad, has already registered progress in several fields.
lR·8 was tested and released for general cultivation in India
within 12 months of Its original Introduction to this country.
More than 300 cultures from Manila have been received at
Hyderabad, and more than 100 new crosses involving these
cultures and tall varieties native to India have been developed
and are currently being tested for quality and resistance to in-
sects and diseases. From these, two new varieties. Padma
and Jaya, were released to farmers this year. Both give very
heavy yields.

Research is under way to develop more efficient methods
of using water, fertilizers, nutrients, and sunlight. From a
U.S. non-project loan, the Government of India has set aside
$121,000 (Rs. 9.5 lakhs) to import specialized rice-research
equipment not available In India.

Agricultural Production Teams

Introducing a new plant variety in any area raises several
problems. The high-yielding cereal seeds are no exception:

They are highly productive, but at the same time they may be
more susceptible to certain pests than are indigenous varieties,
which have developed resistance because they have been planted

for so long. Tb e new strains call for increased expenditure

 by the farmer because they require large quantities of
fertilizers to give best results. To protect his increased invest-
ment, the farmer has to be especially careful about pests. If
the crop is lost, it is a bigger loss than if he had planted n
local strain.

To help the farmer effectively. steps are being taken to
coordinate research and extension services more closely.'
the request of the Government of India, USAID has arranged
for teams of agricultural specialists to serve in seven stated
Known as Agricultural Production Teams, each group has
been provided by an American university or the U.S. Depart-
ment (Ministry) of Agriculture. The states where tie teams
are serving (cooperating American institution in panjotlieses
are And bra Pradesh (Kansas State University] ; Bihar (University

of Missouri) ; Gujarat (U.S. Department of Agriculture);
Madras (University of Tennessee) ; Maharashtra (Pennsylvania
State University); Mysore (University of Tennessee); an

Orissa (University of Missouri).                          .

The teams, which normally consist of four the six special-
Lists, have helped Indian scientists and extension workers to
Identify and solve several problems encountered by farmers.
and to develop more productive techniques. For instance. in
Madras state, field research on IR-8 has revealed that (lie
plant can use larger amounts of nitrogen then recommended,
and that the resulting Increased yield will more than pay the
frieze costs.


                        '"                              ..    ;

THE popularity gained 6y the Lottery tickets In the course

of past few months shows how perceptible the mind of the
people is. Lottery tickets are1 being sold at every street corner
of the country, and people appear fattier very anxious (0' set
possession of the "WHITE MONEY".

The prize of Rs. 2,50,000 has created dreams ant' visions,
Lotteries under State's management are not confined to one
State only, but all States like UP, Kerala, Punjab; Hartline
have taken to this method of raising money and· to 'Us State
business spread throughout the length and breadth of tile

Economical Innovation

The running of Lotteries if Slide levels a i'liOiig'h prattled
t for the first time In India, is in fact a blind follow-up of
the western civilization. The credit of this innovation goes
to the West, where it was first introduced in the 16th century.

"The first money lottery was probably established in
Florence in 1530 for the benefit of the State,"

Encyclopedia of Social Sciences (New York) Vol.
"Lotteries soon spread from Italy and Holland to France

Spain, ,Germany and Australia."

"In 1569 the Lottery was introduced into England by
Queen Elizabeth lies a State Lottery and was utilized by
England as a source of State Revenue until 1826."

The’ Showdown

Having found, after bitter experience that the Lottery
System was adversely affecting the moral and economic conditions

 of the masses, severe agitations to end the Lotteries were
launched in these countries and the State Lotteries had to be

"After the French Revolution the Lottery was opposed
by liberals as a disreputable source of State Revenue. This led
to the abolition of State Lotteries In England in 1826 and in

France In 1836."

"As ii' result of growing oppositions Lotteries were prohibited

by New York and Massachusetts in 1833."

"Like the United States, Japan forbade all Lotteries. In
,the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics all Lotteries were for-

bidden on July 24, 1923."

These are the experiences of the western countries-our
leaders, Instead of learning a lesson repeat the same follies.
.The. desire of the people to earn easy money is being exploited
by .the .State Governments with the covetous intention of profiteering .. -

Perditions of Lotteries

~ Lotteries have been morally coned inked all along on the
ground that they nourish unrighteous' mentality. The desire
"to earn without toil" and to covet undeserved wealth creates
In one the 'take easy' mentality. If the Government and a few
people are benefited by Lotteries at the cost of millions. will
this be called fair? How ignominious will a gain be which is
achieved by causing loss to Innumerable others. The writer
of the Encyclopedia of Social Science rightly comments:

"Aside from these considerations of financial and economic

policy the social harm resulting from excessive punctuation

by the people In Lottery play and the principal justification

 for the penal measures against It lie in its threat to
economic morals ... Its tendency to accustom the masses to
expect improvement in their economic situation through luck
rather than through their own labour and ability or through.
some form of social action." .' '

Likewise the Provincial Assembly of the United States
of America realizing the fatal consequences resulting from,
lotteries, banned them.

"In 1162 the Pennsylvania Provincial Assembly denounced

 lotteries declaring they were responsible for vice and:
idleness and were injurious to trade".

Grounds of Justification
It is said in favour of the lotteries that the people have.
become habituated to playing stakes, particularly "MATKA"
a form of gambling, very popular in Maharashtra, and it is.
claimed that MATKA will be ousted by 'the Lotteries: -What
a queer argument and how deceptive I They want Tajo away
with one evil by installing another.

The Lotteries beget monetary benefit to the Government.'
No denying, the State income through the lotteries is definitely

huge. Recent budget presented to the Assail of,
Maharashtra shows an increase in income by over R;. 7 corneal
But is this the right criteria for judging the validity-and
morality of an action. If this is to be-accepted the prostitution

 and adultery may- as well be legalized because through'
them the Slate Governments can have enormous Income
If the lotteries are justifiable for the Government, then
why do the Government forbid Maika, stake and gambling
for the people? If they are bad, they must necessarily be bad
for the Government too, and if they are fair, what is the sense
In penalizing them.

The Government is indulging in these vices, leaving the
society to face the consequences.

Islam and Lotteries

Gambling in every form is condemned by Islam.
The Holy Quran reveals :

"0 Ye who believe! strong drink and Games of Chance
(gambling) and Idols and divining arrows are only an infamy
of Satan's handiwork, leave it aside in order that ye may succeed".

(Surah Maidah)

The present lottery tickets are only a developed form of
gambling, because herein also the matter is decided on chance.
The amount paid off by millions of people fill the coffers of a:
few; only because their ticket numbers happen to be lucky
numbers. The purchase of lottery tickets are thus synonymous
to playing at stakes.

It is no matter of pride or pleasure for the Muslims if
the prize goes to one of them; it is to be condemned on the
other band, because the amount has been unlawfully gained.

The saying of the Prophet (peace be upon him) is "The
flesh. nourished on Haram will not see paradise,"

"A time will come on the people, when men win] cease
thinking whether he has earned his livelihood lawfully or un-

It is not only harem to purchase such tickets but association

 with this business in any form or shape is not permissible
Ill. shariah.

We exhort Muslims to completely refrain from lotteries,
gambling and other Satan's acts, in obedience to the explicit
command fir Islam.
It Is also desirable for them to pinpoint its evils to
others, so that they may also abstain from such immoral acts.


THE United States Government released two bequest
for a total value of Rs. 173.43 crores to the Government
of India to help finance development activities for 1968·69.
The amount has been made available out of the rupees paid
to the United States (or agricultural commodities supplied to
India under Title I of the Public Law 480 (Food for Peace)·

Mr. John H. Funari, Acting Director, United States
Agency for International Development [U.S.A.lD.] Mission.
delivered the cherubs to Mr. Ashok Bambawale, Joint Secretary.

Ministry of Finance.

The larger cheque represents a loan of Rs. 171.4 crores
to provide financing for a number of economic development
activities related to agriculture, transportation, .labour, health,
education and community development.

The second cheque is a grant of Rs 2.03 crores and
comes out of the amount which had been originally earmarked
for U.S. uses in India. The Government of India has a
nationwide programme for speeding up construction of rodent
proof storage for food .grain stocks. The present grant
will assist this programme and will finance the building
of 135,000 tons' capacity of food-grain storage In the

country.                                         .

Of the loan, agriculture absorbs the largest spare.

Among agricultural activities to be assisted are rural electrification

 minor irrigation, agricultural production, forest and
soil conservation, and flood control.
,   '   ,

The importance of education In India at the higher

technical as well as the elementary level is, indicated 'by
the fact that both receive substantial assistance from the loan.

• Other sectors of development which are recipients of the
loan are:

-health and sanitation _ (urban and rural water supply
and drainage, well construction, malaria and smallpox eradication) ;

-transportation (development of major ports) ;

- community development (indulge national extension

.schemes, urban redevelopment and slum clearance) ; and

- labour. (craftsman training, rural works, rural Industrialization ).


,THIRTY years ago, 00 September I, 1939 German troops
crossed the Polis border and thus began the Second World
War which lasted for 6 years. It took the toll of more than
50 million lives.

The first thing that catches the eye of an objective historian

 making an unbiased study of all the details of inter-
national, relations on the eve of the Second World War, is the
,irresponsible policy of the leading capitalist powers. The
lulling circles of Britain and France. as well as the United
States of America, disregarded the idea of creating a system
of collective European security advanced by the Soviet Union
'several, years before the outbreak of the war. Instead of
'organizing a collective rebuff to the aggressor, the ruling circles
'Of Britain and France refused to conclude an agreement with
the USSR. They, as a matter of fact, aimed at setting the
Soviet Union against Hitler's Germany and remain standing!

Neither can the historian overlook the attitude towards
Poland, the first war victim. Despite definite commitments to
defend Poland in case of an attack, neither Britain nor France
helped the country, and actually left her to the mercy. of the

German aggressors.'                                               .

This was done (or the sake of directing Germany's
expansion eastward, against the USSR. The very existence
of Poland did not mean anything at all for - the British and
French politicians. The weakness of Western "guarantees"
to Poland was, by the way, pointed out by Liddell Hart, a
British historian, who wrote that these "guarantees" evoked in.
Hitler an almost Irresistible desire to attack Poland,

No better was the so-called British-French system of
"guarantees" for the smaller European countries.

However, the main point for a historian studying the
period immediately preceding the Second World War Is the
attitude of the leading capitalist powers of the West towards
the aggressor himself, i.e., towards Hitler's Germany. It is.
surprising how the British and French ruling circles trusted
the bosses of Hitler's Germany would never attack the Western'
Powers and that its aim was to win "living space" in the
East, i.e., to fight against the Soviet Union. Britain, French,
as well as the USA concluded a direct deal with fascist Ger-
many for the sake of fulfilling their anti-Soviet schemes. The
ruling circles of Britain and France also trusted Hitler in
conneetlon with the Munich Agreement splitting up Czecho-
slovakia, believing that Germany would satisfy Itself with the
Sudetenland and not demand anything else. British Premier
Chamberlain's words that Munich had saved European peace
(or long, thus turned into a senseless political anecdote.

In a conversation with Hungary's fascist Foreign Minis-
ter, Hitler frankly admitted that the unheard-of had been
achieved. He said, "Do you think that only six months
ago I would ever have thought It possible that my frlends'
would bring me Czechoslovakia on a platter 7 What has
happen only once in history and we can
congratulate each other on It from all our hearts,"

These words were said more than 30 years ago. How-
ever, !he wgrl4 is still surprised at the political short-slighted

and insolvency of the Vestry politicians who had pro-
1Jl9ted the unleashing of the Second World War which had
finally also thrown the Western world into the abyss of war.
Winston Churchill later on bitterly admitted in his memoirs
on the Second World War the self satisfying foolishness and
helplessness of the British.

This ceded in national catastrophe for Poland.

In the tense pre-war situation the Soviet Union alone
undertook concrete steps trying to avert the world-wide mass

lucre and was the main factor of European peace.

In our days, when all these facts are known to many
people, deliberate falsifications of historical events that are
30 years old and are connected with the outbreak of the
Second World War keep emanating from West Germany. The
ruling circles in that country do not want to reconcile them-
selves with the destructive defeat suffered by fascist Germany
and for the sake of their revanchlst schemes, count on eliminating

 the results of the Second World War and to revising them
Intel favour.

Now that the correlation of forces has changed in favour
of peace and socialism, this political aim is utterly utopian and
auper ·apvcnturist, - However, the West German revanchlsts do
not gullet down. West German historians are doing their
iii' most to misinterpret the historical truth regarding the Second
World War and to present everything in a Eight desirable for
Item. 1';,. Tueppelskirch, for example, writes that Hitler
allegedly did not want the war and that the Soviet Union was
the only country that wanted It. Defying all historical facts,
V. Hoefer writes about Chamberlain's and, of course, Hitler's
allegedly "peaceful" policy on the eve of the Second World
War. Franz losef Strauss, one of the present political leaders
in West Germany and a leading figure of West German reaches

, upholds similar views In his recently published book!
entitled "Challenge and Answer. A programme for Europe,"
In the heat of his reaches strivings Strauss suggested several
years ago that the Soviet Union be altogether erased from the
geographical map. Today, Strauss sets forth in full voice the
FRG's reaches claims in Europe, the FRG's "right" to
possess nuclear weapons and to be the sole representative of
all Germans.

The peoples cannot but be vigilant towards similar statements

 and practical deeds of the revanchists. Too dear was
the price they had to pay for their victory over fascism in the
Second World War and too fresh are their memories of the
events of the pre-war period, a period thirty years away from
today, when the rulers of imperialist powers concocted plots
against peace and the peoples' security.

The events of the not too distant past call upon all the
people to be vigilant over the Intrigues of the enemies of peace.
They can upon everyone to take careful account of the lessons
of history.

ON 24 September 1909, while looking through his morning
mail, Leo Tolstoy had a pleasant surprise. He found a
letter from London written by a young Indian lawyer named
Mobandas Karamchand Gandhi. A stranger to Tolstoy, he
described the deplorable plight of the Indian workers in South
Africa and the grim strllggle they were waging against
persecutions and racial discrimination. Drawing Tolstoy’s
attention to the events that had been taking place in Transvaal
(South Africa) for about three years, Gandhi wrote that some
13,000 people of Britlsb India living in that colony had many
restrictions imposed upon them. Prejudice against the colored
people, and in some cases, against the Asians in general, was
very strong in that country.

Gandhi informed Tolstoy that a special law had been
passed against Indians, aimed at subjecting them to
discriminatory and humiliating treatment. However, 2,500
Indian workers preferred prison to subjection to the "black"
law. Without resorting to any violence or coercion, they
refused to obey the authorities. The struggle, Gandhi wrote,
was still continuing, and it was hard to tell when it would end.
But it showed, some of them at least, that passive resistance
can and must win where crude coercion is ineffectual.

This letter from tbe unknown correspondent excited
Tolstoy's interest. Civil disobedience and passive resistance
were the methods of struggle he repeatedly advocated in his
articles. And no wonder that he made the following entry
in his diary: "Received a nice letter from a Hindu from

Two days later, on 26 September, Tolstoy replied to
Gandhi's letter expressing his sympathy with the oppressed
Indians and wishing them success in their struggle for human

Gandhi was in London on behalf of the Indians in South
Africa trying to persuade the British Government to intervene
in the conflict in South Africa. Tolstoy’s letter arrived on
the day Gandhi finally realized the fruitlessness of his mission.
He gave vent to his despair in another letter to Tolstoy.

On 10 November 1909 Gandhi wrote that in his opinion
the Indians in Transvaal were waging the greatest struggle in
the history of their day, since it was ideal from the point of
view both of its alms, and the method of achieving that aim.
He did not know of any struggle in which Its participants,
without seeking any personal advantages cheerfully went
through trials and tribulations for the sake of the triumph of
idea and Gandhi wrote further that his mission in London had
failed. He was returning to Johannesburg where. prison was
awaiting him.
Together with this letter Tolstoy received the book, M.K.
Gandhi=Indian Patriot in South Africa by a British clergyman
Joseph I. Down. Gandhi wrote they the book touched on his
life and shed light on the struggle to which he had dedicated
his life. He expressed the hope that Tolstoy would not regard
the sending of the book as an act of importunity.

Tolstoy became even more interested in Gandhi and the
book about him. Tbis can be seen from the fact that he laid
aside all other books, and read it very carefully, making notes
on the margin. With the intention of replying to Gandhi's
letter the following day, he slipped it into one of the English
magazines lying on his desk. But that day he fell ill, and the
magazine was removed from his study room without his know-
ledge. The letter was discovered after 50 years, in i956. That is
why it remained unanswered.

The correspondence was resumed five months later, In
April 1910, when Gandhi wrote to Tolstoy his third letter, and
sent along with it his book in English, Self-Government of India.
Gandhi asked Tolstoy to read the book and give his opinion
about it.

Gandhi's new letter, and particularly the book on the
colonial regime in India, focused Tolstoy's attention still
more on the destiny of the Indian people. Even during illness
he spent several days reading Self-Government of India and the
earlier book on Gandhi by Down. He noted down his
Impression In his diary. "This. evening I read Gandhi's book
on civilization Very good." "Read the hook about Gandhi.
Very important. I must write to him."

Due to his illness, however, he was unable to carry out
his intention, but scoot a small note expressing his appreciation
of the book. "I have read your book with the greatest
interest," he wrote. "As soon as I am better, I shall write to

The last letters exchanged between Gandhi and Tolstoy
date back to the summer and autumn of 1910. At that time
the situation in South Africa had become still worse. Hundreds
of Indian families which refused 10 obey the racist authorities
were ruined and rendered homeless. In order to save the most
Indigent among them from starvation, Gandhi and his comrade-
in-a rids Herman Kelenbach, an architect, set up an agricultural
colony near Johannesburg which they called the "Tolstoy
Farm". Gandhi and Kallenbach wrote about all this to Tolstoy
on 15 August 1910.

Tolstoy was upset by the news about the situation in
South Africa. At the same time he deemed it necessary to'
give his opinion about the most vital question of the method
of passive resistance. On 6 September he wrote Gandhi a long
letter about his favorite method of "teaching through love".
Mankind's all injustices and troubles, be maintained, originated
from the fact that people rejected the law of love and replaced
it by the law of coercion.

In conclusion, Tolstoy touched on the questions stirring
his mind during the vast few years-predatory wars and
colonial brigandage. He noted the crying contradiction
between the Christian doctrine of mercy preached by the
powers that be and "the acknowledgement, at the same time,
of the necessity of troops and arms in wars for the widest
possible extermination."

This was his last letter to Gandhi. Two and a half
months later Tolstoy passed away.

To the end of his life Gandhi regarded Tolstoy as his
teacher. In his article, "Asia's reply to Tolstoy", Romain
Rolland wrote: "Gandhi, the young Indian, took from the
hands of the dying Tolstoy the divine light which the old
Russian apostle had borne in his heart; warming it with his
love and rearing it with his grief, he made of it the torch which
illumined India; the reflections of this light have penetrated
every part of the globe."

(Abridged from an article in Sovte) Land, No. 19)


THERE is ample evidence to show that Nadir Shah, who at-
. tacked Delhi from Persia in 1739, never took the famous
Peacock Throne from Delhi. The throne had been dismantled
in October 1720 to meet the cost of the wars of succession
following the death of Aurangzeb in 1707, and what the invader

took away was only a skeleton of the throne, denuded of
all precious stones and the famous 12 gold pillars which sup-
ported It.

India has always been famous for her thrones. We have
read about the thrones of justice and the thrones of splendor
and glory.

The most famous throne before Takht-i-Taus (the Pea-
cock Throne) was built came to be known as Takht-i-Firuza,
made by Krishna Nayaka, the ruler of Warangal, in 1354. In
English it is called the Throne of Turquoise. "It was six
cubits long and two broad, with the frame of ebony covered
with gold, inlaid with the precious stones and jewels,," the
record says.

Original Cost

The cost of the throne came to about Rs. 8 crores. Its
original name was achal singhasan, (Takbt-j-Piruza) when the
BalIamini kings acquired it after conquest. It was dismantled
and looted in the 15th century.

The Peacock Throne, costing about Rs. 9 crores, was
built in Agra and brought to Delhlin 1656. Its installation
In Diwan-i-Kbas in the Red Fort was celebrated with great
pomp and show, However, all those who sat on it were
destined to lose it, as conditions continued to deteriorate in
the Mughal empire.

Taxes were rising in India, both in the north and south,
as the Mughals bad decided to conquer the Deccan. Both
Jehangir and Shah Jahan had adopted a policy of remaining
in the twin capitals of Delhi and Agra to meet the cost of
these wars and to reali2c revenues to doleful.
Aurangzeb Will
Aurangzeb's adopted the fatal. policy of moving to the
Deccan himself bent on the conquest of the Shiva kingdoms of
Bijapur and Golcanda, and remained there for 25 years (1682
to 1707). His absence from the seat of government, Delhi,
proved costly. While the cost of the wars increased in the
south, the realization of the revenues continued. to fall in- arrears.

In 1707, in his last will Aurangzeb wrote: "There is a
sum of Rs. 57,382 in my private treasury and Rs, 1,000 out of
it may be given to the poor. A grave like that of a dervish
may be made over me."

In 1707, the total revenue of the 21 sub has of the Mug.
hall empire came to about Rs, 370 crores,

During the wars of succession, which followed the death
of Aurangzeb, the revenues which could be realized by the
rulers of Diehl fell from Rs, 370 crores to Rs 37 crores, as the
sub has fell apart and either refused to transmit the revenue to
Delhi or failed to realize it at all.

At the same time, the wars of succession In which some
400,000 troops took part under the royal princes, Azam,
Muazam and Kambux, cost about Rs. 800 crores to the rulers,
by way of payments to the soldiers, distribution of jaguars under
proprietary rights, prizes to the supporters and recruitment of
new armies to preserve the positions gained. It was an age of
"kill or be killed," and the amounts required were simply not
Invariable through direct or indirect taxation and realization of

Thus, in this period of great anarchy, villages, palaces,
forts with what they contained and the cities came to be stripped

of all that they had accumulated during the years of peace.
Between 1707 and 1720, all silver and gold railings, silver and
gold ceilings, jewels and cash, elephants and horses not required

for Immediate use, silver and gold and jeweled utensils
were sold off and the forts of Delhi and Agra retained only
their bare walls. "Gold Is tested by fire and man is tested by
gold," and In Delhi, every character faked so far as gold was
Tbe Saied brothers of Baraha, Hussain AU Khan and
Abdullah Khan, had become the so- called "king-makers" in
Delhi. They had murdered Farrukh Salr on February 16, 1719,
took out a new prince, Ram Dirjat, then imprisoned in the
fort of Salim Garh, and killed him after three months. In 1720,
they Installed Mohammad Shah as the head of the Mughal
empire. A ruse was planned to murder Stayed brothers and
to save the ruling dynasty out of their clutches.

In November 1720, Emperor Mohammad Shah declared
that he had decided to march to the Deccan to defeat Nizam-ul-Mulk

who had become powerful and independent of Delhi.
A force of 150,000 was collected. Mohammad Amin Khan,
Hyder Kuli Khan, master of the ordnance, Khan Doran and
Mohammed Amin Khan were made commanders. They marched

1 miles on the first day and then halted.

Mohammad Shah, the Emperor called a council and
then retired. The commanders drew their swords and killed
Sayiad Hussain, the elder of the Sayiad brothers, and the forces'
marched back to Delhi. As soon as Sayiad Abdullah who had
remained behind in the Red Fort, Delhi, came to know of the
murder of his elder brother, he decided to close the gates of
use city and recruit 60,000 troops immediately to fight I for the
possession of Delhi.

Abdullah was at hi. wit's end how to procure the money
to raise a new army to oppose the Mughal forces. He searched
every part of the Red Fort for the money. But except for the
Peacock Throne, there was nothing of value left. James
Fraser, who had collected records and information regarding
the invasion of Nadir, Shah, writes in his History of Nadir
Shah published in 1742.

"Polio tbis, Mohammed Shah laid aside the expedition
and turned towards Delhi, in order 10 cut off Say/ad Abdullah
Khan the other brother who was in the capital, with a great
force; and who hearing of his brother's murder, had taken
out Sultan Abraham, and proclaimed him Emperor. Gathering
together what treasures he could, and having broken to pieces
the famous throne, which cost Shah Johan nine crores of rupees
(£11,250,000) In order to pay his soldiers. he soon completed
on army of 50;000 and marched out to engage Mohammad

Death Demanded 1

Abdullah was defeated "and severely wounded in the
battle. In his trial held in Delhi, the mother of Farrukh
Salr demanded that the wounded soldier should be sentenced
to death.

Emperor Mohammad Shah ruled that "two men cannot
be killed for the murder of one, and Sayiad Hussain had al-
ready been killed in punishment." He spared the life of
Abdullah, and permitted him a grant of Rs. 3;000.

Three months later, Abdullah died of his wounds.

Portative women of the family of the Sayiads of Baraha collected

 his corpse closed themselves in a room 10 the Safdarjang
of Delhi, known as the Madarsa and set fire to the room,
committing sail, a custom which also prevailed amongst the
noble families of the Pantheist and Sayiads in Oudh,

Thus died the man who had dismantled the famous
Tight-I- Tagus, the Peacock! Throne of Shah lean.

The Impression that the famous throne was taken by
Nadir Shah of Persia along with coins and jewels worth crores
of rupees seems to be an exaggeration of history-a false Imp·
reason which has continued to prevail for the last 200 years.
He ordered a general massacre in Delhi not because a few
hundred Persians had been killed In the" grain market of Paragon

but because the amounts he could realize after con-
quest of Delhi fell far short of his expectations. He paid three
months salary In gratuity to about 50,000 soldiers who had
come with him from Persia, and remitted taxes In Persia for a
period of three ears.

I      THINK I'm not wrong to say that the Ganges played and
still plays an important role in the life of the Indian people
as the Volga does in Russia. Even the ties between India and
. Russia are In many Instances are connected with the two great

Russian epic brought down to us information of strange
goods of Indian and Persian origin that were marketed in
Russia by "Indian guests". On the other side, medieval Indian.
literature mentioned about the Bulgarian and Slav settlements
of 12-tath century.

Afanasi Nlkitin, a native of the Volga region, who travel-
led to India, made no mention of the Ganges in his Voyage
Beyond Three Seas, since he had not visited the banks of the
great river, but certain historical facts testify that large consignments

 of goods and slaves were shipped (room Italy and
Bulgar down the Volga via the Caspian Sea and Central Asia
to India as far back as at the turn of the first millennium.
Indian researcher Shrl Suren Roy affirms that the ancient trade
route from India to Russia extended from Patallputra (present.
day Patna) to TakshaslIa (Taxlla), then down the Amu Darya
and via the Caspian Sea to the Caucasus and the Volga. "This
route", he writes, "links our people nurtured by the great
Ganges with the people fostered by the; mighty Volga."

.. ,   .

European travelers of the 16th century foully Russians'
at the court of Emperor Akbar. Italian publicist Giovanni
Bolero himself saw. how, at the close or the 16th century,·
Indian merchants made their way via the Volga to Yaroslavl,
Moscow and Tver. 1623 saw the establishments of an Indian
caravanserai In Astrakhan from where a colony of Indian merchants

 carried on for more than 200 years a lively and extensive

 trade in various regions of Russia, Including Moscow and
young St. Petersburg, dolling in goods brought In tromp Delhi
and Banaras and from southern India. Though most of the
merchants of the Astrakhan colony came from Rasputin and
the Punjab, and not from the banks of the Ganges, still it was
in that direction that they set out (10m the mouth of ,the Volga
on their Buddhist pilgrimages.

Russian travelers appeared on the Ganges in the second
half of the 18th century, Well-known Calcutta cartoonist
from the Hindustan Standard, - Shri Chandi Lahirl, who is
collecting material for a book on Russian-Bengali cultural
contacts, told U8 that he bad discovered formerly unknown
materials in the library of the Royal Asiatic Society in Calcutta.

He succeeded in ascertain log that in the early part of
February, 1763, on orders of Lord Halifax of the East India
Company, six Russians set out on a voyage on the Talbot,
British King and Speaker for practical training, and arrived in
Calcutta afterwards. .

The talented Russian musician Gerasim Lebedev, one of
the founders of Russian Ideology, who arrived in India in
1785, spent more than 12 years In Calcutta. His notes show
that he also sailed the Ganges to Banaras. Some time later
the Ganges was visited by Rafall Danibegashvlll, a Georgian,.
who spent almost 23 years In the country "wandering through
India and the sprawling lands around it".

1774 Flip Yefremov, son of an attorney of an ecclesiastical

 court, and a corporal of the Nizhegorodsky Regiment,
having escaped from Bukhara, where he had been 8014 Into
bondage, reached India via Tibet and Kashmir. He sales.
down the Ganges to Calcutta and (room there via London
finally arrived In St. Petersburg in 1782. An interesting
account of all this appeared In a book entitled Russian Non-
Commissioned Officer Fillip Yefremov, His Ten Years' Travels
and Adventures in Bokhara, Kuiva, Persia and India and His
Return to Russia via England, Written by Himself. which was
published in St. Petersburg In 1786 and went through three
elations in a very short time.

Gambardella Amirov, a Tatar, traveled for more than 30
years all over India, repeatedly sailed on the Ganges, and left
most interesting and amazingly accurate descriptions of what
he saw. Of prominence among those writings was a practical
guide titled Road from Russia to Calcutta via Bokhara •

. The great Russian scientist Mikhail Laminose
dreamed of a sea route from Russia to India via the Arctic
and Pacific Oceans. Almost 33 years later Russian Admiral
Adam Johann von Kruse stern reached India via the Atlantic
and Indian Oceans. Connections' with India were simplified when
the Suez Canal was opened In 1869. The Russian Navigation and
Trade Society immediately commissioned its special representative,

Y. I. Baranov sky, to India. Among other things he was to
find out about the availability of "chandlery" In Calcutta; ascertain

 the possibilities of establishing steamship communication
with Bombay and Calcutta and enlist agents and correspondents.
The First Russian consulate was opened in Bombay In 1900,
and 1908 marked the beginning of a regular steamship service
between Vladivostok! and Calcutta. There were also several
projects for railway communication between the two countries,
hut none or them ever emerged from the Install outline stage.
Russla's main import from India was tea and its principal ex-
port at first was kerosene.

Russia's progressives always showed great respect for the
India people and followed their liberation struggle with deep
sympathy and compassion. Aleksandr Radlshchev, a revolutionary

thinker of the 18th century, more than once exposed
the expansionist policy of the East India Company in Bengal.
A contemporary of his, Nikolai Novikov, enlightener and rounder

of Russian journalism, publicly condemned colonial exploitation

 in India, publishing in the magazine he edited articles
-on the subject, such as On the Profits other than from Trade
Netted by the English East India Company and its Officers in
Bengal/room 1757 to 1771.

Ideologist Gerasim Lebedev accused "the self-conceited
arrogant invaders" of robbery, of corrupting the Indians and
of spreading Infectious diseases. Geraslm Lebedev's remark-
able. book An Impartial Observation of the Systems of Eastern
India, published in 1805, was Russia's first extensive scientific
and very accurate description of India, particularly of Calcutta,
compiled by an eye witness.

Championing the cause of the Indians, 19th century
'Russian journalism accounted for a great deal of strongly
. denunciatory material. Among those who contributed to the
latter were writer IInd translator A. G. Rotchev, critic N. A.
Dobrolynbov, Ideologist I. P. Minaev, art-critic V.V. Stasov,
writer and journalist S. S. Sbasbkov and others. There were
articles devoted to Raja Ram Mohan Roy (1772-1833)-an
outstanding Indian public figure and enlightener, The 1857-
1859 national Indian uprising was given extensive coverage in
the newspapers St. Peterburskie Vedomosti (St. Petersburg
Gazette) and Russky Invalid (The Russian Veteran), and the
.magazines Sovremennik (The Contemporary) and Otechestvenaye

Zapiskl (Notes of the Fatherland). A review carried by
Otechestvennye Zapiski in 1878 of a book by I. P. Mlnaev contained

 the (allowing notable lines: "Mr. Minaev is firmly
convinced that the English will eventually have to pay dearly
for their order of things and activities in India"

Indulges A. Y. Snesarev, who visited India several
times in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, asserted that
the most striking and most terrible consequence' of "English
administration" In that country was the recurrent famine that
periodically gripped regions mainly along the Ganges. Partl-
cularlY trying was the year 1896. The newspaper Vovoye
Vremya (The New Times), appealing to the "Russian people's
kindheartedness" and their "passionate responsIveness to human
distress". called upon them to organlse aid for the starving
Indians. Peasants from many Russian villages, regions and
cdlstricts, Russian intellectuals and artistes or metropolitan thea-
tres writers and officials-all joIned in a drive (or funds which
.lasted up to 1900. The charitable committees of Odessa, Mos-
,cow..an!! st. Petersburg sent large sums of money to Galcutta,

Leo Tolstoy malntalned a correspondence with the yonng
GandhI, who was destined to become the Father o( the Indian
nation, and with Taraknath Das, a progressive editor, whom
he rendered considerable moral support. The great Russian
,writer .considered Mahatma Gandhi, "the Indian thinker and
,champion against English rule", \0 be his friend and a man of
.kindred spirit.. Later Maxim Gorky also came forward in
defence of fighting India. He wrote that "the Indians must
take sccialand political matters Into their own hands" and
that "Englrsh rule on the shores of Ganges has become obso-
lete". That was in 1912. The friendly ties of the' peoples
living on the Ganges and tbe Volga are thus deeply rooted In
the past.


ONE of the interesting aspects of the population explosion
is that the railway, that hallmark of the Victorian Age,
is about to come back Into its own.

Tbe simple explanation is that engineers, town planners

, sociologists and other groups agree that there Is no
other way of carrying 80 many people in such comparative
safety at such low capital cost.

As city after city around the world strives-and fails-«
to cope with the growing congestion caused by the motor
car, it seems the railway may be the answer.

A single track of railway can carry up to 60,000 people
an hour, whereas even the most developed six-lane motor-
way carries only about 9,000.

We shall not, of course, return to tbe stately and
beautiful locomotives of the Victorian era. Steam is out and
cheap electrification wilt its comparatively low running costs
is tbe answer.

Advanced engineering techniques will give us trains
traveling inter-city at up to 300 miles an hour, though it is
still undecided whether or not they will even run on rails.
The latest theory is that they might operate over air cushions
in an advanced state of hovercraft techniques.

There are even suggestions that the railway will erode
air transport as the chosen medium of the masses.

Professor Barwell, chairman of Swansea University's
School of Engineering, has pointed out: "The difficulty of
finding suitable sites for airports in densely-populated countries

 is likely to impose a limit on the amount of airline
capacity that can be provided on most internal routes carrying
heavy traffic."

New railway development is already going on. Indian
Railways, for example, are attracting increasing attention
among railway enthusiasts the world over. Japan, perhaps
the first country in the world to really tackle the coming
reality of population expansion, has already created in the
Totaled Line a railway which has transported 230,000,000
passengers without a single casualty or serious mechanical
problems. Some of these trains travel at 210 kilometers an
hour. '

The West Germans are now linking their major cities
with train services traveling at high speeds pioneered between
Munich and Augsburg ; and the French are plotting a new
2S0-mile Paris to Lyon rail track which will carry 234 passengers

 every half hour and cut traveling time between the
two cities to two hours.

The French planners here claim that such a rail-track
will cost £ 200.000 per mile cheaper than would a motorway
over the same route,

Neither Is BritaIn unmindful of this new development.

Electrified lines are growing, and faster intercity special
trains are _helping to overcome the British obsession (or the
motor car.

Indeed some sociologists believe that the motor car
will have a comparatively limited life. It is argued that It
began as a rich man's status symbol. Then as living standards

 developed in certain countries the motor car "become
a symbol of many people's escape from the working class.
But now that cars are widely available they have become less
attractive as an aristocratic social symbol.
SINCE people began to use plastics, mostly as substitutes,
its progress has been spectacular.

Today, every known product-from children's toys to
atomic plants and the soaring rockets-makes use of plastics
in one form or another.

Research on plastic compounds continues at a (act
pace to enlarge and diversify its uses in Industry and In the

One such research, which may give a fillip to the plastics

Industry is now underway at the Indian Institute of
Science, Bangalore.

The five-year study seeks to Investigate posslblutles or
making plastics and similar materials from vegetable oils:

It is supported by a U.S. grant of R a, 2,10,960.

According to Dr. M. V. Bhatt, principal investigator
of the Bangalore project, the purpose of the study is to con-
vet nonfunctional long chain fatty acids in oils and fats to
dysfunctional derivatives suitable for conversion to plastics,
Dr. Bhatt is associate professor of organic chemistry at lies.

Dr. Bhatt, in a recent interview, said that vegetable
oils consist mostly of fatty acids, which essentially are long
chain compounds. They are so-called because of the logo
chains of carbon atoms present in their chemical make-up.

Dr. Bhatt and his colleagues are carrying out experiments

to bring about transformations in fatty acids in their
search (or better polymers.

The 44.years·old Indian scientist looked a picture of
confidence as he sat amidst the familiar test- tubes and
beakers and talked about the unique nature of the project.

The study Is of a fundamental nature. The new in-
formation it develops may also be applicable to other long-
chain compounds available from sources other than vegetable

Discussing the project, Dr. Bhatt observed that the
type of chemical transformations they propose to achieve
has not been accomplished anywhere else till now.
The plastics prepared from these dicarboxylic acids, he
pointed out, may have Interesting physical properties different
from or superior to some of the known polymers.

Dr. Bhatt, however, said it would be too early to assess
the impact of the research on the Indian plastics Industry •.
But the study will add new characteristics to raw materials
like plastics, plasticlsers, polyesters and polymers and make
them more useful in the Industry.

Dr. Bhatt pointed that the research experience will
benefit young scientists, who will receive adequate training
to face problems generated by the plastics and other allied

Dr. Bhatt •. who holds a doctorate in organic chemistry
from the Indian Institute of Science, spent two years in post-
doctoral research at Washington University, St. Louis,

Later, he was research associate for a year at Purdue
University, Lafayette, Indiana, where he worked with Dr.
Herbert C. Brown, a leading world authority in this field.

The research grant to the Bangalore Institute. made by
the Agricultural Research Service of the U.S. Department of
Agriculture, is financed with rupees derived from the sale of
farm products supplied to India under the U.S. Public Law
480 programme.


RESEARCH which could be helpful In preventing the deaths

of many prematurely born babies has been undertaken
by the Safdarjang Hospital, New Delhi. The United States
Government has authorized Rs. 6.5 lakhs to finance the

A study of prematurely born babies In several countries
has suggested a connection between the weight of the infant
and its survival. About two-thirds of infant deaths in the
United States occur in babies whose weight at birth Is less than
five and a half pounds. Indian babies tend to be smaller than
American, and some studies in India have suggested that the
critical weight in this country is 4 pounds.

At the Safdarjang Hospital, a team of doctors headed by
Dr. Shantl Ghosh will study prematurely born babies and
babies whose births apparently took place after the full term
of pregnancy but which still weigh less than 4 pounds. The-
doctors will keep the progress of such children under close
scrutiny over several years. The health of the mothers also
will be studied.

Babies whose weights are low at birth are more
susceptible to certain illnesses, particularly those affecting the
lungs and the blood circulatory system. The Safdarjang team
will gather data which could be helpful in preventing or
mitigating such conditions. The doctors will also study the
Impact of premature births on parents' response to the family-
planning programme.

The financing for this research project has been provided
by the Public Health Service of the U.S. Department of Health
Education and Welfare from rupees arising from the sale of
American agricultural commodities supplied under the Public
Law 480 programme.

BESIDES unlimited animal resources and potential mineral
and 011 supplies, the oceans of the world could be used to
cure many of mankind's ills.

Medical science could undoubtedly benefit enormously
from the wider use of marine drug extraction, the president
of efficient exploitation," he said. "The rapidity of advances
is almost bewildering.

"But with these advances go frightening problems of
over development, waste and pollution, to name the more
obvious. These are the particular responsibilities of marine
scientists in co-operation with Governments."


A LTHOUGH many key questions about tbe moon remain
unanswered, lunar scientists have accumulated an Impressive

store of basic facts. Here are some of them:

The moon is a nearly spherical body with a diameter
of about 2,160 miles (3,478 kilometers), roughly one-fourth
that of earth. It has one-sixth tbe gravity and one-eightieth
the mass of earth, Its density is 3.3 times that of water
compared to 5.5 for the earth's density,

All of this means that the moon Is rather small and
light in weight, and explains its lacily of atmosphere-there Is
not enough gravity to hold one.

The moon rotates on its axis once every 27 and one-
third days as It circles the earth in exactly tbe same length of
time. As a result, it keeps the same face (actually up to 59
per cent of Its total surface) pointed perpetually toward earth.

On Its elliptical path around the earth, the moon comes
as close as 221,460 miles (356,650 kilometers) and moves as
far away as 252,710 miles (406,863 kilometers), Its mean or
average distance is roughly 239,000 miles (384,790 kilometers).

Like the earth, the moon has no light of its own, receiving

all from tbe sun or' reflected from earth, Its day and
night each last about 14 earth days.

Absence of I\Il atmosphere produce fearsome tempera-
tares, as high as 250 degree F. (120 degrees C.) during the
lunar day and as low as minus 280 degrees F. (minus 172
degrees C.) at night.

Lunar experts generally agree that there is no water on
the surface, but some believe It could exist as ice below the

The chances of any form of organic life on the moon-
even the most primitive-are very remote. As one leading
lunar scientist once observed. "The moon Is the kind of
place where you would put things to sterilize them."


ON July 21, 1969 an American astronaut stepped on the
surface of the moon, marking the dawn of a new era and
the culmination of an ageless dream. It was mankind's first
contact with another celestial body after millions of earthbound

"One small step for a man," said Astronaut Neil Arm-
strong to a waiting-and watching-world some 400,000
kilometers away as he gingerly stepped on the lunar surface,
"one giant leap for mankind."

It was Indeed an epochal step. It was man's hour of
greatest triumph, shading Into insignificance the great adventures

of the past.

The Journey to the moon and the safe return to earth a
scant decade ago was a dream that did not go beyond the
frightful fancies of science fiction writers. It took a young
president, the late John F. Kennedy, to transform the ageless
dream into an American goal. "I believe this nation should
commit Itself to achieving the goal, before this decade Is out,
of landing a man on the moon and returning him safely to
earth," said President Kennedy on May 25, 1961.
The President described the man-on-the-moon programme

as a "great new American enterprise," but added that
"no single project in this period will be more Impressive to
mankind or more Important to the long-range exploration of
space, and none so difficult or expensive to accomplish."

President Kennedy was right on all counts, but he got
the American people moving. Prior to that, the United States
had made some significant contributions to space technology.
As early as March 16, 1926, Dr. Robert H. Goddard had
launched the world's first liquid fuel rocket. In 1958 the U.S.
launched its first satellite, Explorer I. In the next three
years several other unmanned satellites were successfully
launched, Then came the sub-orbital flight on May 5, 1961,
of Astronaut Alan B. Shepard, From that time there was no
looking back.

"Space Is open to us now," said President Kennedy. On
Feb. 20, 1962, John H. Glenn, in a historic four and one-
half-hour flight, orbited the earth three times. Three more
increasingly complex Mercury flights followed and on the
last of these Astronaut L. Gordon Cooper completed 22 orbits
in 94 hours.

With the experience of these missIons, U.S. space plan-
ners were ready for bigger steps. In quick succession ten two-
man Gemini flIghts were completed in 20 months, in a step-
by-step programme of successfully more sophisticated. flights •
. Inter·spersed with the manned flIghts were scores of unmanned
satellites which provided links for the ImmedIate goal of
landing a man on the moon and bringing him safely baeb to

The United States launched its first three-man spacecraft,
Apollo- 7. on Oetber 11. 1968. Three months later Apollo'S
flew to within 70 miles of the moon. Apollo-to launched on
May is was the final dress rehearsal for the moon landing as
the craft flew to within nine miles of the lunar surface, opening
the way for Apollo·n.

The history-making 1IIght of Apollo-ll began from sandy
sun swept beaches of Cape Kennedy, Florida,' on Iuly 16. The
,Apollo-ll/Satum V vehicle, towering 36 stories hJgh rested In
splendid isolation on Its launch pad just before It launched the
three men on the most momentous voyage of all time. Time
of voyage: 8 days. Distance: Approximately 800,000 kilometers.

Port of Call : The Moon.

With a roar of incredible fury, the five engines of the
.first stage, the most powerful ever built, generated an Incomprehensible

3,400,000 kilograms of thrust, Consuming fuel
at the rate or 13,600 kilograms per second, the Saturn V
rocket propelled the craft to more than 160 kilometres above
the earth, accelerating it to a speed of about 28,000 kllometres
an-hour. -

Two hours after lift. off, the tiled stage was re-ignited to
boost the craft out of earth orbit Into a "trans-lunar trajectory"

-a path to the moon.

Apollo-If’s speed dropped to about 7, 600 kllometres
an hour when the craft was about 128,000 kilometres from
earth ; at the 320,000 kllometre mark, it reached Its minimum
speed of 3,400 kilometres an hour, At this point, the spacecraft

 entered the moon's gravitational field and the effect
on velocity was reversed, the moon pulled the craft, accelerating It.

The requirement for entry Into lunar orbit Is the same as
that of (or earth orbit; a balance must be created between
centrifugal force and the gravity of the moon, requiring a
reduction of speed from 9,000 kilometres an hour to about
5,800 kilometers an hour.

For this manoevure, the astronauts turned their space-
craft around so that, service module engine's exhaust nozzle
pointed forward, reversing the line of thrust and using the
,engine's power to act as a brake.

Two of the astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin ,Aldrin
crept through a tunnel Into the lunar module, called "Eagle,"
detached it from the main craft and descended to the lunar
surface, while their colleague, AslronBnt Michael Collins, remained

In moon orbit in the main craft.

The two astronauts set the Eagle landing machine down
,:In the southeast corner of the great lunar Sea of Tranquility.
The historic touchdown came at 1 : 48 am, July 21, (1ST) 102
hours and 46 minutes after lift-off.

"The Eagle bas landed," Astronaut Armstrong announced
to the world 400,000 kllometres away.

-. The landing was the start of an epic exploration in
which the astronauts walked the lunar surface, collected rock
and soil samples and deployed scientific instruments to fathom

the moon's secrets.                                        .

After spending a total of 21 hours, 36 minutes and 17
seconds on the lunar surface, the two astronauts fired the
ascent engine of the lunar landing craft to join the mother
ship, Columbia, orbiting 70 miles above. The long flight back
was routine and uneventful providing the three men time to
share some of their thoughts as an anxious world awaited
them to give them a hero's welcome. The three astronauts
stressed' their feeling that Armstrong's first step was indeed
"a giant step for mankind." Michael Collins called the voyage
"a symbol of the Insatiable curiosity of all mankind to explore
the unknown."

On July 24, after belong away from earth for 195 bours
and 18 minutes, the three astronauts were safely back on earth,
after a perfect landing in the Pacific Ocean.

Return to earth· meant three weeks of strict isolation in
a specially constructed van. The quarantine applied not only
to the three trail-blazing men but to the specimens they
brought back to earth. The quarantine was applied to avoid
possible contamination of the earth by any harmful germ or
material from the moon. The chances that - such agents exist
on the moon, however, arc almost negligible,

-Wile on the moon the astronauts deployed scientific
Instruments on the moon. The key Instrument was a seismometer

 to detect moonquakes. More than 30 quakes have so
far been recorded and the instrument has already sent back an
exciting find indicating the moon to have an outer crust about
-15 kilometres thick and an active, Inner centre, like the earth,

Another scientific Instrument they set up was the laser
.reflector on moon which was used successfully August i lily the
University of California to measure the earth-mood distance at
365,192.2 kilometres. A laser gun mounted on an observatory's
'telescope beamed laser light, which bounced off the moon
reflector back to earth to make the calculation. The measure-
ment was the most accurate ever made.

Physical, chemical and biochemical studies of the 20.5
kilograms of lunar rocks and soil indicate the rocks were
formed of solidified molten material thrown out by the moon's

What does all the new information mean? No one
knows for sure. But seems to fit nicely with the theory that
the moon was formed about the same time as earth, but Independently,

 from flaming debris and gases thrown off' by the
rapidly rotating primitive sun. The new information suggests
the earth and moon are at about the same stage of cooling.

However, the grand question of the origin and age of
the moon remains' unanswered. To help fathom the mystery
of the universe, the United States has already planned another
moon flight in November, and several more arc scheduled
In the next year. Wilt these moon flights and the unmanned

flights to Mars and other celestial bodies, it should not be
long before the grand question can also be answered •

SCIENTISTS said the moon would be a good place to go
prospecting for titanium but there is no gol4, sliver or
platinum In the lunar plants,

"We looked hard but didn't find" any of the classic
precious metals In tbe lunar rocks brought back by America's
Apollo-all astronauts, reported Dr. Robin Brett of the Manned
Spacecraft Centre, Houston, Texas. .

However, he said, one might find a good-sized titanium
mine in any of the moon's great dry seas.
Titanium Is rather rare earth element, light in
weight but tough, used widely in the manufacture of airplanes
and spacecraft. .

Dr. Brett was on a panel of scientists reporting at the
first formal "lunar rock conference" at the Smithsonian
Institution's Museum of Natural History.

At the conference also, a piece of moon rock brought
back by astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrln from the

lunar Sea of Tranquility was put on display for the first time.

Dr. P. R. Bell, manager of the Lunar Receiving
Laboratory. said the rock is typical of the 22 kilograms of
material brought back, It is, he said, the largest piece left. It
was broken off a 1.8 kilogram rock-from the lunar material.
Technically It Is known as breccias-formed of lunar dust and
fragments compacted together hundreds of millions of years

It is igneous In origin; that Is,. solidified by heat. Dr.

Paul Gast of Columbia University, who summarized the
findings, said the unusual abundance of titanium (and
chromium and yttrium) suggests the moon was born with a
higher concentration of these metals than earth, It helps -to
destroy the myth that the moon was "tom out of tbe Pacific
Ocean," he said.

It would appear, he said, the moon was formed like
earth from material thrown out by the sun at the same then,
but independently, about 4,500 million years ago.

However, he stressed, this theory of moon origin is pure
speculation, for the facts discovered from the lunar samples
cannot readily be extrapolated back! over eons of time.

What science has learned definitely, he said, is that The
"chemical composition of the Tranquility Base rocks is unlike
those of any known terrestrial rock or meteorite."

nr, Gast said the lunar rocks "compare broadly Jo
earth basalt reeks, but with Important difference." How they
came to be formed "we just don't know," he said. The
possibilities are volcanism (volcanic eruption).
the moon's surface by huge meteors early ID Its
combination of both, or other unknown heat processes
within the moon's core.

Dr. Brett said the high percentage of glass (50 per cent}
in the lunar dust and rocks means "stock and impact has
played a very important role" in their formation.

He reported that extensive testing at the laboratory for
any signs of water in the rocks was negative. "There Is no
surface water on the moon and there has been none since the
rocks were there," he said.

Dr. Gast said there are "no rocks on earth that have as
little water as those" on the moon. This means he explained.
that life had no chance to develop at any time In the moon's
lon8 history.

Dr. Don Bogard of the Manned Spacecraft Centre
reported that sophisticated potassium-argon dating indicates
the moon rocks are 2,500 million to 3,000 million years old.

Further, he said, those brought back by the astronauts
have been "lying around 20 to 200 million years" on the
surface, pretty much in the same place the astronauts found

. Dr. Gast said tbe extreme antiquity of the rocks, which
was a surprise to most lunar experts, is very good news.

It means the older IUDar highlands may contain rocks as
old as the moon itself. Most significantly, he said, the
relatively untouched and unchanged lunar surface gives science
a natural laboratory to study the early history of the moon,
earth and other planets.

For. tbis read SO!! he called the antiquity of the lunar
surface "the most exciting find" of the entire two-month
investigation at the laboratory.

          ,                                                      ,
With· that investigation completed, distribution of the
Apollo-l l moon rocks and dust to scientific Investigators
around the world began.

Thirty-six sinuses Kind scientific groups in AustralIa,
. Belgium, Britain, Scotland, Cad ad, Finland, the Federal
.Republic of Germany, 1apan and_ Switzerland are among. the
106 principal Investigators receiving the precious moon
material (or marc intense analysis in home laboratories, .

Dr. Gast said these sophisticated and highly specialized
studies should add Immeasurably to man's knowledge of his
nearest neighbor, perhaps tell him at long range things about
his home planet that escape man's close-up scrutiny.


CAREFUL analysis of the samples of Moon rock and dust

brought back by tbe American lunarnauts bave shown that
the silvery looking planet could be an agronomists' dreamland,

. Even with tbe extremely limited amount of Moon dust
at his disposal, one American plant pathologist has succeeded
In germinating an ordinary lettuce seed and braving the amazed
satisfaction of watching it quickly produce a plant of over one-
and-a-half inches. :;

Dr. Charles Walking -haw, who is on the staff of the
Manned Spacecraft Centre at Houston, Texas, grew the lettuce
on a sheet of bare cotton which was sprinkled with a small
quantity of Moon dust.

. The resultant lettuce plants were much greener and alai
taller than a controlled number of seeds germinated on- bare
cotton not sprinkled with the lunar dust. _ ~', 1

Revealing his analysis findings, Dr. Walkinshaw said-:

"I really and honestly believe that if you could grow plants on
the Moon they would be terrific-much taller and stronger
than anything we know."

It has been found that when the Moon rock; Is crushed
down into a dust it forms a marvelous base material for vegetation

It does not seem to have any harmful effect on plant
life from the Earth, just the opposite in fact if the young .Lettuce
plants are typical.

There is also a complete absence of any germs which
could produce plant diseases. Moon dust seems to be capable
of increasing agricultural productivity to an extent which would
have seemed impossible before the lunar landing.

The remedial effect this prolificacy could have on the
Earth's food shortages would be truly amazing. -

There is, however, one great and possibly Insurmountable

 snag to all this euphoria : how to combine sufficient Moon
dust with sufficient water.

Conveyance of massive amounts of Moon dust down
to Earth Is impracticable to the Point of being ludicrous.

The transportation of water to the Moon, or the develop-
ment of the capability of producing it on the Moon, are nearly
as unlikely, and so it seems that the Moon's astounding fertilely

will never be of direct benefit to the Earth.

But it could be used to support human life on the Moon.

U suitable buildings were constructed on the Moon, the amount
of water they would need, thanks to the controlled atmosphere
Inside them, might well be within the capabilities of a succession

of future spaceships.

Vegetables grown In these buildings would support a
small colony of Earthmen and would also help to create the
conditions necessary for their survival,

The green leaves would lessen the task of the air purifying

machines because they would convert the carbon dioxide
produced by humans when they breath out into oxygen which,
of course, they breath in, and complete a life-supporting cycle
In the confined atmosphere.

EARTH (ram 500 miles up is a vast, curving expanse

of rich blues surrounding pale, slate- gray-and. brown, continents,

decorated with swirling white splotches of cloud and framed

 against the eerie, Infinite blackness of outer space. Within
the next few years, sensitive, unblinking electronic eyes will
focus on the planet from an orbital vista point at this altitude
-recording the depths of new snow fields In the Himalayas,
the rising rush of rivers in Northern Europe, the ripening progress

of a sea or wheat across the plains of Kansas.

Such worldwide data, collected ceaselessly and relayed
swiftly, may one day enable man, (or the first time in history,
to properly manage his munificent resources. Through the development

 of fully instrumental, unmanned satellites will come
a great technological revolution In the sciences of oceanography
geology, agriculture, forestry, geography and other related
fields. This will lead to the discovery of new mineral, water
and food storehouses. It will allow man to better manage
crop growth and water usage; to detect, almost instantaneous-
forest fires, flood conditions, earthquakes and crop diseases
and Infections; to survey and catalogue a portion of the virtually

untapped bounties of the sea; and to systematically map
the world with almost unimaginable preciseness.

U.S. Congressman Joseph E. Karth, second ranking
majority member of the House Science and Astronautics Com.
matte, says economic benefits to be derived (ram such an
operational system-in weather, food, resources of the ocean,
and mineral and water resources-could add up to more than
£36 thousand million a year in America alone.

Potential gains may be far greater than economic, how-
ever. They could spell survival itself.

The United Nations' Food and Agriculture Organization
has predicted that to provide a decent level of nutrition for the
world's people, the production of food will have to be doubled
by 1980 and trebled by 2000.

Against the background of such gloomy forecasts, a
highly skilled U. S. Government-industry task force is channeling
  well-stocked arsenal of technological expertise toward
the research and development of a broad Earth Resources
Satellite Programme, North American Rockwell is one of
'several! major aerospace companies working on this In concert
.with Government agencies.

Officials agree that such a project, no matter now success-
,full, cannot alone solve all of man's most imminent problems.
;there is starvation and waste in even the most affluent nations
and perhaps there always will be. But no one can question the
enormous good that could be fostered.

"Certainly we can make more efficient use of our en-
vlronment," says Leonard Jaffe, Director of Space Applications
Programmers for the National Aeronautics and Space Admlnlsation

(NASA). "The problems are so important we can't
neglect any tool to help make earth more plentiful."

Cooperating with NASA are the Departments of Interior
and Agriculture, the Environmental Science Services Administration

 (ESSA), and the Naval Oceanographic Office. All have
Interests in the programme, and it is likely they will share
space for specialized equipment on the first experimental satellite,

which may be launched within the next two years. An

operational system, similar to the weather and communication
net works now active, would follow.

The Department of the Interior is deeply Involved in the
planning for such a system. Via satellite, known resource
areas could be charted and new ones would undoubtedly be
discovered in remote areas of the world as a result of such
space-age prospecting.

Maps, compiled annually and updated when necessary.
would point the way to an unlimited harvest. Their use would
Improve agricultural management, crop yield predictions and
land use planning, with special interest on urban problem s,
Maps could show the distribution of water and snow-data
much sought by hydroelectric, irrigation and waterfowl managers.

Potential applications being surveyed by the Department
o(Agriculture are equally momentous. Former Secretary of
Agriculture Orville Freeman has predicted what the farmer of
the future can expect.

"Space satellite sensors are able to detect differences In
soil identify specific crops and kinds of forest trees . deter-
mine damage by diseases, insects and drought. . and assess crop'
stands and vigor to predict production.

"Information gathered from throughout the world Is
transmitted to computers for analysis and Immediate use, The
oils of the world have been inventoried, and each crop Is
grown either on the soil best suited for It, or on soil chemically

modified (or maximum productivity. We have a running
inventory of acreage and output of all crops, and we use ac-
curate predictions to guide marketing and distribution to avoid
waste and local shortages and surpluses."

The feasibility or mapping sea surface temperatures by
satellite is one important research project under way for the
thermal structure of the oceans is fundamentally related to all
marine processes, including tbe migration of marine life.

Scientists have long sought a method of measuring sea
state-the roughness of the sea surface-in all kinds of weather

 on an ocean wide basis. Sensitive equipment aboard an
orbiting spacecraft, ESSA officials feel, could do this, greatly
aiding the shipping industry and weather forecasters.

A third area being examined involve the mapping of sea
lee distribution. Repeated coverage of all-weather information
on ice and icebergs In remote areas would have direct applications

 for meteorological services, international ice patrols and
the shipping industry.

Definitive study by satellite of the sea-which makes up
71 per cent of the earth's surface-Is viewed with great pro-
mise by the Naval Oceanographic Office and by other related.
agencies. By supplementing data now obtained from surface
platforms with continuous observations from space, man will
obtain a fresh and penetrating view of tbe oceans, and may be
able to effectively exploits tuber virtually unlimited riches.

There is accumulating evidence, for example, that under
favorable conditions direct detection of largo fish schools may
be possible from space, Migratory habits of sea life can be
traced, and 011 and mineral deposits below the water's surface
may be discovered. Oceanic currents and conditions will be
measured, monitored and mapped with almost unbelievable
degrees of accuracy.

The extraordinary potential of an Earih Resources Satellite

Programme in so many varying areas i8 obvious to an involved

 In present research and technology on the subject.
Exactly when the first Bight will be made depends on a number
of factors, Including funding, the determination of what type of
equipment should be Installed, what missions It should perform
and how the data accumulated will be analyzed and used. To
coordinate efforts, a special committee of represent lives from
all participating agencies has been formed.

AMERICA'S present attempt to land a man on the Moon
- has justifiably captured worldwide attention, but an the
jubilation has eclipsed another branch of the great voyage
Into space.

While the Moon is the most immediate target for man's
first halting steps away from the Mother planet, his eyes are
now set on Mars, legendary home of mysterious creatures
who, In science fiction, are credited with the ability to travel
around Space as man is just leering to do.

So, while the Apollo Moon shots have received all the
publicity they deserved, only a small amount of space has

been devoted to the Mars probe.                      -

_ Right back In February of that year, the first of two
Mariner rockets took off on a 156-day voyage to Mars. The
second Mariner was launched in March.
Even now they are plunging on through Space and
nearing the end of their Journey of over 40,000,000 miles.
They will fly past the mysterious planet and make observations

over both the polar and equatorial regions so that
surface and atmospheric data over a wide area may be studied.
By the first week of August, their missions will have been

The aim of these two Mariner probes is not so much
to establish whether life exists on Mars as to determine the
suitability of the atmosphere to support life. They will send
television pictures back to Earth. Although the space craft
will not approach Mars closer than 2,000 miles, the effect of
their cameras using long focus lenses will be to give a view
of the surface from an optical distance of only 900 feet.

This Information will be analyzed to give useful appreciation

of the surface of Mars and anything that might be
on It.

Then In 1971, two more MarIner probes will be dispatched

with the Intention of going Into orbit round Mars for at
least three months.

They will relay a continuous television picture of Mars
back to Earth which should prove Invaluable to scientists who
are eager to know more about the surface conditions,

By 1973, the way should have been prepared (or the
most ambitious unmanned space flight ever undertaken. This
will be the soft-landing on Mars of instrument packages de-
signed to carry out a series of experiments. Two Viking space-
craft will be rocketed to Mars In June 1973.

They are scheduled to arrive there in January and February

 1974. Once In orbit around the planet, they will each
detach a landing capsule and parachute it on to the surface.

The actual landing devices will be about 11 feet across,
roughly resembling a table top with a leg at each corner.
Each lender will be able to detect the presence of water and
of biological activity and will remain active for 90 days.

In fact, the prime purpose of the experiment will be
to detect signs or life and this will be achieved by scooping
up samples of soil, dropping it Into a small container of
water lug which any organisms will multiply, and then measuring

the growth rata.

Observations by space probes (ram greater distances
and by ground observatories have shown that, like Earth, the
poles of Mars are frozen during winter. Large areas of the
surface which appear to be a blue-grey colour are thought to
be areas where vegetation grows, although this has not yet
been confirmed.


A us. space chemist said he had detected the first possible
Indications of life on Mars but one of his colleagues cautioned

that If life did exist there it could be no bigger than

Dr. George Pimentel Professor of Chemistry at the
University of California, told a Press conference that he based
his conjecture on the discovery of methane and ammonia gases
In the Martian atmosphere above the south polar rim.

The gases were detected by Mariner-7 spacecraft which
flew 2,000 miles above the south polar cap last Monday.

Prof. Pimentel described the discovery of the gases
both associated with the origins of life on earth, as "very

"One cannot restrain the speculation that It may be of
biological origin," he said.

Biological origin would mean that there    ,S a primitive
life cycle on the red planet.

But Norman Harold, of the California Institute of
Technology, who presided over the Press Conference on Marl-
ner-7s' scientific results, cautioned that "methane and ammonal

 can be produced biologically and are very common
components of our cosmos,"
Scientists explained that an example of non-biological
productions would be the gases leaking from volcanoes.

Horowitz said all indications from Marlner and Its
twin Meriner-ti, whIch flew over the Martian equatorial resort
five days before Mariner-7, were that Mars was a hostile desert
bombarded by destructive ultra- violet rays from the sun.

"Certainly no terrestrial species could live on Mars," he

"If there are Inhabitants on Mars then those inhabitants
must be microbes," he said.

Prof. Pimentel painted a picture of the south polar rim
"hospitable" with an icy carbon dolled cloud protecting
a water ice polar rim and giving cover from ultra-violet rays
for the formation of molecules.

His assertion that the polar rim was water Ice brought
him Into a direct clash with Dr. Jerry Neugebauer, In
charge of experiments testing the temperature of the planets

Dr. Neugebauer said he was fairly confident from his
temperature readings that the cap was made of frozen carbon
dioxide, which Is the commonest component of the Martian

He admitted an upward error of 10 degrees (F) would
change his conclusion but he thought his temperature reading
was correct.

Hurwitz told the Press Conference there was no way
of definitely detecting small life from a spacecraft flying 2,000
miles above a planet's surface,

He said after the Press Conference he did not feel Dr.

PImentel had "jumped the gun" by suggesting life could exist
but definite findings would have to wait until the planned
touchdown by an unmanned spacecraft on Mars in 1973.

"I BELIEVE that some day, when we fall ill from some
unknown cause we well trust ourselves to phylclsts
who, without questioning us, will take samples of our blood,
analyze them to obtain some figures and, consulting the table
of logarithms, cure us with some pill." So wrote Antoine
de St. Exupery,

"However, should I fall sick, I would rather go to the
old country doctor who will squint at me, prod my belly,
sound my chest, and. with a slight cough, light his pipe,

scratch his beard, and, to hasten the cure. smile at me

Naturally I worship science. Bull I also venerate wisdom,"
he concluded.

I am not against engineering and mathematics interns
the field of medicine, but I understand what the French
writer meant all too well.

Advances in mathematics, physics and cybernetics have
speeded up the progress of medical science without a doubt.
They have completely changed the look of our clinics and
hospitals. A modern clinic Is inconceivable without the
many modern aids to Isolate and treat diseases. And some-
times doctors have to deal more with charts and figures and
diagrams of affected organs than witb the patient himself.

Diagnostic accuracy has increased but so has the barrier
between doctor and patient. The patient's need for a warm
buman relationship with the doctor has not diminished. On
tbe contrary, thIs age of machines bas made It even more

Of course, we must strive for greater technical progress
in medicine but In the process we must not lose one of the
most valuable qualities of a doctor-bis warmtb and hls love
for bis fellow man. For medicine, no matter how advanced
the techniques become, will never cease to be the doctoring
of individual people and the doctor who neglects his patient's
personality might just as well be a vet.
Every doctor would subscribe to these ideas but not
everyone of them by any means practices them.

In recent years there has been heightened interest in
quantitative physical aspects of medicine. especially among
young doctors, at the expense of the quantitative, psychology,
cal side. No matter how important the rational element in
doctors' work may be we must never underestimate the significance

of human emotions In the doctor-patient relationship.

It would be a gr088 error to think that the complex
field of man's personality could be reduced to the analyses
and formulate of which St. Exupery speaks.

"If a talk with the doctor fails to make the patient
feel better the doctor Is no good," wrote the outstanding
Russian psychiatrist Dr. Vladimir Bekhterev.

I am not suggesting that the modem doctor should be
a quack and treat people by exorcism-tbe power of medicine

 does not lie in pious talk but In scientific and technical
methods. "If a patient with a ruptured spleen Is brought to
the doctor," as Professor A. Gulyaev, a surgeon, told the con-
ferrous, "he will not be saved by words. He wily only be
,saved by action-an Immediate and skilful operation."

This Is perfectly true. But the doctor must do more
than just use the knife and prescribe medicine. The final
success of the treatment also depends-on the patient's psycho-
logical environment,

Words can cure but they can also wound. Real trauma
can be Inflicted by a doctor's cold and indifferent 'attitude to
his patent. Careless remarks made In the hearing of the
patient may cause him to doubt the .doctor's abilities or make
him over-anxious about his own condition and so ,Inhibit his

Doctors do not have the right to display antipathy to-
wards people. They must not be irritable, intolerant or forgetful.

Carefully planned screening of applicants to medical
colleges Is just as important as a good system of training, and
medical colleges must teach the Importance of kindness and
understanding as well III medical science,
It bas been suggested that a new subject be added to
our medical curricula, deontology, the science of duty. I
believe that this Is an urgent necessity.

As Goethe said, "I bow my head before a great mind
but I bend my knee before a great heart." The great poet's
words are more applicable to the medical profession than to
any other.

Doctors, more than anyone else, must be humanitarians
and see each patient as an individual •


THE successful voyage of man to the moon adds a third
momentous technological advance to two others made
within a generation.

Taken together, the three are bound to have a colossal
influence on the direction which human development is likely
to follow In coming centuries.

The first of this trio of truly history shaping discoveries
was the demonstration of a sustained atomic chain reaction
at the University of Ghicallo, which marked the beginning of
the age of the atom.

Three years later, the first detonation of an atomic
bomb at Alamogordo, New Mexico, generated a mushroom-
shaped cloud that became the symbol of the discovery's
implications (or good or evil, and the shadow of that symbol
bas hung over world affairs ever since.

The second of these discoveries was the breaking or

the genetic code earlier In this decade.                       .

After long, painstaking research, scientists found-deep
In the nucleus of the living cell-an encyclopedia of
instructions for reproduction of identical cells. '

. These Instructions-in the form of chemical components
making up a chemical alphabet In tbe cell-make it possible
for living entitles to reproduce themselves.

Step Outward.

The journey to the moon is a minute step "outward"
into what scientists call tbe "microcosm," the vast region of
the universe so stupendous in its dimensions as to defy
comprehension, let alone full exploration.

In contrast, the expeditions into the intricate marvels of
the nucleus of the cell and Into the almost Incredibly small
nucleus of the atom are journeys "inward" into the "microcosm."

These are efforts to learn what is at the very core of
matter, and what Is the' ultimate basis of life.

The nucleus of the atom, by its original definition the
most elemental building block of all objects in the universe,
has recently been shown to be itself a conglomerate of sub-
atomic particles.

Thus, to get at this core, scientists have been forced to
probe for ever smaller and smaller objects until today the
search inward and the exploration outward appear to be
equally Infinite.

Giant Breakthrough

Great scientific and technological leaps have been scarce
in history, Usually they only come centuries apart.

Yet, all three of these giant breakthroughs-though built
on contributions by scientists of many nations and of many
generations-have culminated in the United States within
Utley more than 25 years, roughly within one human

Perhaps this should not be surprising. As President
John F. Kennedy once pointed out when he was explaining
his programme for sending men to the moon, "most of the
scientists that the world has ever known are alive and working

AU three of these advances are still in their early is fancy,
Their full impact, pending their advanced development, may
not be felt for decades or even centuries.

Atomic Energy for Peace

The knowledge of how to harness the power of the
splitting atom, though its first use projected a destructive
image, lends itself ideally to constructive objectives. Present
applications in power generation mind and Industrial purposes
are only a small beginning.

Atomic technology, if properly harnessed, could bring
to mankind a life of abundance and leisure that would virtually
wipe out the ancient curse of poverty and the burden of hard

physical labour.                                          (,

Understanding how heredity Is transmitted could lead
to the prevention and cure of hereditary and numerous other
diseases and, ultimately, all but erase affliction and physical
suffering from earth.

The Apollo-Lal journey to the moon-the ability to es-
cape from earth-could open whole new worlds for man's
peaceful settlement.

That apart, the vast expenditure of time, energy and
money in U.S. space research culminating in the Apollo project
is not only resulting in exploration of the universe, but In a
steadily growing list of by-products and stile that will ultimately
enrich Use on earth.

Already the knowledge gained has resulted in rooftop
paints that absorb heat, less expensive artificial teeth, Improved
ways of preserving foods in hot climates and other benefits.

These by-products known as the "spin of" or "(all out"
of the space programme, are in addition to the direct and
better known benefit of space technology such as those derived

from weather, communications and navigation satellites.

Benefits for Cannon Man

To make sure that the "spin off" of space technology
not lost In the dramatic race to reach distant planets, the U.S.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
established a special working group to see that space-generated
Ideas and innovations were transferred to private industry (or
non-space use,
This working group ferrets out Items and Ideas with non-
space commercial promise ado sees that there is a smooth flow
of these new advances (ram space to non-space uses.

This process, called "technology transfer" has resulted
In commercial applications of new photographic techniques;'
better ways of bonding metal to metal, and improved methods
of food sterilization».

Sharing with lie Nations

Moreover, the American policy of sharing its techno:
logical and scientific breakthroughs with other countries
around the world, means the spin off will ultimately benefit
millions of more persons.

The spin off is already making vital contributions 19
industry, medicine, transponauon, scientific research and IJI
the home,

For example, shock-absorbing aluminum tubes, originally
designed to soften lunar landings; have been Installed at the
bottom of elevator shafts as safety devices, the tubes are
being tested on helicopters and airplanes to curb injury and

damage in the emergency landings.                        '

LIghtweight plastics developed for rockets arc being
used to build railway coaches that weigh half as much as steel

Thus tbe journey Into space, as well as the scrutiny of
the cell and of the atom will change man's life for generations
to come. All are essentially searches Into man's orlgin a1t4
his place in the scheme of the universal order.

As the final three' decades of tbe 26th century are about
to begin, full -ecleutlfic answers are nowhere in sight. Each
step In this endeavour is like a waIljl towards the horizon,
Men are forever reaching, never grasping.

The search into the beginning apes to have no end, ' _
JAWAHARLAL NEHRU'S name is very popular in the
USSR. For the Soviet people it is associated with the
struggle of the Indian people for freedom and for the resurgence

of their country, with the peaceful foreign policy of the
Republic of India, with the strengthening and development of
friendship between our two countries The public in our
country strives to learn more about Nehru's life and work.

Many prominent Soviet statesmen, public figures, men
of letters and others have written about Nehru. And an
exhibition about his life and work, shown in Moscow and
other Soviet towns, met extensive response in the Soviet
Union. Millions of Soviet readers could learn about Nehru
from such mass-scale Soviet publications as, for instance,
"Soviet Encyclopedia of History," "Political Dictionary," etc.

Russian Translations of Nebrn's Works

Russian translations of Nehru's books published In the
Soviet Union 'Include, first of all, his two major works-
"Autobiography" and "The Discovery of India." There Is
also a collection of his speeches on the problems of India's
foreign policy and international relations. Some of his
articles and speeches have been featured in Soviet periodicals. ,

In his foreword to the Russian edition of "The Discov-
elY of IndIa," Nehru said: "I'm happy that my hook 'The
Discovery of India' Is being translated Into Russian." He
expressed the hope that this book would make, it easier for
Soviet readers to understand India's historical past, and that
It would give an Idea of events that influenced India's' present
generation, '

These hopes were fully justffled, Nehru's works, publi-
shed in the Soviet Union, played an important part In, bring-
ing our two countries nearer and In really helping the
SovIet people to understand better, the ways of historical
development and the current problems of the great Indian
A substantial contribution to the study of Nehru's world
outlook and activities has been made by Soviet Ideologists.
They devoted great attention to his activities and views In their
study of the history of the Indian national-liberation move-
ments. This is easy to understand. For Nehru was in the
focus, of Indian events of the period, especially since he became
the head of the Left-wing movement in the Indian National
Congress and declared his loyalty to the Ideas of socialism.
His views and activities as India's first Prime Minister are
descrlbed qulte comprehenslvely also in many works of Soviet
authors, analysing the political, cultural and soclo-economic
development of independent India. Yet, it was quite clear to
Soviet scientists that the scope of Nehru's personality, his
role in India's history and his theoretical heritage are so enor-

. mous that no individual research worker can deal singlehanded
with such a vast subject.

Outstanding International Figure and Humanist

First attempts to analyze Nehru's views and activities
were made by some veteran Soviet Ideologists. Thus, for
instance, the article V.V. Balabushevlch and A.M. Dyakov
dealing with "The Discovery of India" emphasized Nehru's
great. contribution to the development of India's historical
thought and the progressive nature of his historical concep-
tions Nehru is something more than a politician, say the
authors, he is also a major historian and columnist. The key
note of his "The Discovery of India" is his faith in his people
and their bright future, and the exposure of the reactionary
role of the imperialists ... Speaking further on of Nehru's ana»
lysis of the acute problems of international relations, the
authors say in part: "These parts (of the book) are extre-
mely interesting, and they characterise the author as an out-
standing international figure and humanist, as an ardent sup-
porter of the idea or cooperation of nations .

Among the works specially devoted to the analysis of
Nehru's views and activities, mention should be made of a
brief biographical essay printed as a foreword to his book
"India's foreign policy". "Selected Speeches and Statements,
1946-1964" (Moscow, 1966). Nikolai Smirnov, who wrote
this essay, makes high appraisal of Nehru's personality and his

.   ,-
role in India's history and in the solution of vital international
problems. Smirnov describes Nebru in the following way:

"He was an outstanding statesman and ardent peace fighter,
gifted scientist, talented speaker and columnist, great specialist
in the history and culture of his people, a man of great intellect
and heart-such was the first Prime Minister of Independent

The study of Nehru's world outlook and activities Is
being Intensively continued now in the Soviet Union. The
Institute of Oriental Studies, USSR Academy of Sciences, Is
preparing for publication, in connection with the coming
birth anniversary of Nehru, some research works analyzing

his philosophical views, the formation of his socialist
outlook, and his understanding of the problems of culture
and of the historical process. These and other works will
certainly be helpful in understanding better the role of Jawahar-
lal Nehru, India's great son.


JAW AHARLAL NEHRU was rightly called "tbe architect of
Indo-Soviet friendship". His contribution to the strengthen
Ins and development of friendly ties between tbe peoples of
our two countries can hardly be overestimated. He was one of
those who laid the foundations for these ties, and took en
active part in building up the wonderful edifice that has come
up since; then. The three visits that Jawaharlal Nehru paid to
the Soviet Union are striking proof that he was quite correctly
Called "the architect of Indo-Soviet friendship". On tbe eve of
the 5211d anniversary of the October Revolution and also of
Nehru's 80tb anniversary we would like to remind our readers
of the great importance of these three visits.

just Visit

As Is well known, Jawaharlal Nehru made his· first visit
to the USSR in 1927. He came with his father, his wife an4
younger sister, to Moscow for the celebrations of the 10th anniversary

 of the Great October Socialist Revolution, and sped
only a few days there. "But we were glad we went, for even
that glimpse was worthwhile. It did not, and could not, teach
us much about the new Russia, but it did give us a background.
for our reading."

However, even In those few days Jawaharlal Nehru man·
aged to see and learn quite a lot. From the very moment.
that the train from Berlin, which was carrying him and his
companions, arrived at the very first Soviet railroad station,
an entirely new and unusual life began to unfold itself before
Nehru's eyes. He studied keenly the faces of the first Soviet
people he had ever seen, and attentively looked at the festive,
decorations put up on the station. In Moscow the range of his
Impressions and reflections extended greatly. He passed many.
churches, saw people praying in them, and meditated on the
solution of the problem of religion, of the freedom of belief
and atheistic propaganda In the country. With great pleasure
he heard the word "comrade" with which people addressed
one another, and thought of the absence of contrasts between-
luxury and poverty, of the absence of the hierarchy of castes
and classes. He saw shops and factories (mostly state-owned,
rarely private), and reflected on the problems of state; and"
private property. He saw men and women very plainly, often
poorly dressed, and thought of the difficulties that had to be
overcome when building up a new society. He visited the,
opera and saw films, and commented not only on the revolt-,
toiling nature of Soviet art, but also on the entirely new.
nature of the audience. Nehru saw a great deal in a short.
time. And he was able to do that because everything he saw
stirred him deeply. He viewed everything around him with
the eyes of a thoughtful and kindly observer, with the eyes of:
a man searching for an answer to vital problems, a man en.'
grossed by a lofty passion and purpose. Perhaps. that Is why.
certain uncoordinated observations in his mind took! the form
of grand generallsatlons.

What made the great son of India study the Soviet
country so attentively at that time and in the future, too? A
true patriot, Jawaharlal Nehru looked passionately for new

ways to rejuvenate and develop India, the social and moral
progress of Its people who, at that time, were groaning under
the yoke of the colonialists and rising in arms against their oppression.

 And his gaze naturally turned to the Soviet Union,
to the great changes that had occurred here. It would not be
an exaggeration to say that Nehru's first visit to the Soviet
Union played a significant role in the development of radical
tendencies In his outlook, helped him to comprehend in an
entirely new way the Ideals and aims of the struggle that this
countrymen were then leading. On his ret n home Nehru
told of his Impressions and meditations, and that greatly facilitated

the rapprochement of the two peoples.

Second Visit

Twenty-eight years went by before Jawaharlal Nehru
made his second trip to the USSR. A great deal had
changed in those years. India had won its political independence

 and had become a sovereign state. In 1955, the Soviet
people welcomed Nehru as the Pirelli Minister of a friendly
country. These years, however, had not changed Nehru's interest

 in the Soviet Union, in its experience and historical role.
They, In fact, hardened his conviction that the development and
strengthening of friendly ties between our countries is an important

factor of progress and peace.

Speaking of the alms of his visit, Nehru wrote: "Both
countries can benefit from friendship and trust in each other.
I am Impatiently looking forward to meeting Soviet people. I
would like to know what they have achieved, to see everything
for myself. I am going there In order to learn"

The programme of this visit was an extensive one, and
Nehru, who came here with his daughter, Indira Gandhi •. was
given a chance to see the various spheres of Info in our country.
They visited Volgograd, the Crimea, Tbilisi, Ashkhabad, Tashkent,

 Samarkand, Alma-Ata, Rubtsovsk, Sverdlovsk, Leningrad.
Jawaharlal Nehru and Indira Gandhi went to see plants and
factories, collective and state farms, educational, scientific
and cultural institutions, and exhibitions, construction
sites, schools and young pioneer camps. The Moscow University

conferred on Nehru the degree of honorary Doctor of
Law. Later on Indira Gandhi commented warmly on the cor-
dlality and friendliness with whIch all Soviet people had greet-
ed JawaharIal Nehru. Of great significance were the negotiations

 which Nehru had with the leaders of the Soviet
Government. As a result of these negotiations a joint state-
ment was signed,' whIch expressed their common point of view
on a number of important international problems. The state-
ment stressed the necessity of developing and expanding the
cooperation between the Soviet Union and India.

Speaking at a meeting in Moscow dedicated to the
friendship between the two countries, Jawaharlal Nehru especially

 emphasized India's wish to cooperate with the Soviet
Union. Dwelling on the impressions gained during his trip
over our country, Nehru said: "I have seen the transformation
of this vast land through the Industry of Its people and the
great urge that drives them forward to better their own con-

Third Visit
Jawaharlal Nehru made his third visit to the Soviet
Union in 1961. This one was an official visit. As last time,
Nehru's purpose was to see the progress achieved by the
Soviet Union, to search for ways and means of strengthening
peace and lessening International tension, to further the development

of friendship and all-round cooperation between our
two countries.

The Soviet people once again gave Nehru a warm and
hearty welcome. He went to see the USSR Exhibition or
Economic Achievement and, on viewing it, called the Solve'
Union "a land or progress". He was taken all over Moscow,
and inspected closely one of its new dwelling areas, where he
commented on the rapid rates of the capital's growth.

During this visit of Nehru negotiations were held bet-
ween him and the Leaders of the Soviet Union. A broad
discussion took; place on the most urgent problems of the

international situation, on the further development of Soviet-
Indian cooperation. A joint communiqué was adopted as a
result of the negotiations, which noted that the guaranteeing
of peace Is the principal common aim of our two countries.

_ and stressed that the friendly relations between them are pro-
'greas1ng successfully In the Interests of the peoples of both
'This and the Soviet Union.

In one of his speeches made during this last visit in 1961
Nehru said : "I came here last time six years ago. We all
know ... that the friendly contacts between our countries developed

 greatly In the course of these years, as did our economic
and cultural contacts

.. "We have received very many presents from you, but
.the most valuable of them all Is your friendship. I sincerely
,trust that this friendship will develop and grow stronger."


MIRACLES do happen, even If all too rarely. A true
miracle happened in India's recent history. Two men
'of world stature, two men whose greatness was timeless,
stood together in the framework of virtually the same epoch,

Gandhi was born eight years after Rabindranath Tagore,

, And he outlived "Tagore by nearly the same measure of Time.

The best work of their life took parallel lines. One of those
lines, however, remained invisible over a long period. Tagore
,sprang Into fame as early as the thirties of his life. He was

born great and by continuous striving he grew greater and
greater. Gandhi, on the contrary, was born as one built of
common clay. But behind that was a steel-hard spirit. That

, steel- hard spirit took hold of the stuff of clay and began to

mould It In accord with a pattern of its own. The process
. involved a heart-breaking struggle. The struggle led to a great
,victory. An unparalleled victory, The Gandhi an image that
. evolved In consequence is perhaps the most meaningful Instance

in history of a man's own self re-creation.

- .', In the first decade of the current century, Tagore wrote
some of his most exquisite poems, and in 1913, they brought
bam the Nobel Prize. In the same decade, Gandhi in South
Africa was slowly building up a new philosophy of life
which was to find expression in a revolutionary technique
of struggle. Satyagraha was born in the same years as
Gitanjali. A handful of men were vowed to a new kind of
resistance movement which committed them to fearlessness
and total self-suffering. Been up to death. Blood had to
flow, but not a drop of the adversary's blood; It was all to
be the Satyagrahi's own blood.

The experiment that began in South Africa had an ideological

 basis that could truly be called revolutionary. How-
ever, many years had to pass before the world came to understand

the experiment-the experiment with Truth as
Gandbl phrased it vividly-which had been tried with
remarkable fruitfulness on the South African soil. And It was
a well-known story how that experiment took a mighty form
later when Gandhi returned to India after 20 years' absence.

First Meeting

Gandhi's direct relations with Tagore began In 1915,
when be returned from South Africa with a group of his
followers. They found temporary abode in Shantiniketan at
the Poet's Invitation. Tagore had closely followed the Satyagraha

 movement in South Africa. In a letter to Gandhi he
had called that struggle "the steep ascent of manhood, not
through the bloody path of violence but that of heroic self-
renunciation ,"

The first meeting of the two greatest Indians of all time
was a memorable movement In the cultural history of India.
Tbelr next meeting was in the Calcutta session of the Indian
National Congress, in 1917. On the first day of the ses-
sion Tagore recited his- famous poem, "India's Prayer." In a
letter to C.F. Andrews next year, Gandhi wrote; "You and
Gurudev are doing the finest work of your lives. You are
writing real poems. They are living poems.

An emotional moment of great interest knit them toge-
ther when In 1932 Gandhi was about to begin In Yeravda
Prison his Fast Unto Death on the issue of the Communal
Award. Before he began the fast he wrote to Tagore and
sought his blessing. "It will sustain me, "he said. And he
added that if Tagore disapproved of this act Lou, "I am not too
proud to make an open confession of my blunder, whatever
the cost." But even before tbis letter was mailed, a telegram
came from the Poet: "It Is worth sacrificing precious life
for the sake of India's unity and her social integrity. Our
sorrowing hearts will follow your sublime penance with re-
variance and love." A few days later, the Poet undertook; the
long journey to Poona to be at Gandhi's beside. He sang to
him a poem from Gitanjali : "When the heart Is dried and
parched up, come with your shower of mercy." This was
one of Tagore's poems that Gandhi loved.

Visva-Bhartl was several times in serious financial
trouble and Gandhi raised funds for it on every occasion.
His last visit to Shantinlketan took! place after Tagore bad
passed away. In an address to the ashram inmates he said :

"Gurudev has glorified the name of India throughout the world.
We all miss the warmth 'of his protecting wings. But we
must not grieve. True monument to the great are not
statues of marble, bronze, or gold. The best monument to
them is to adorn and enlarge their legacy."

Differences in Outlook

Yet, It has to be recorded that the two men were separated

by a gulf of difference In their Ideas and ouzo. C.F.
Andrews has expressed this as a "difference of temperament
80 wide that it was extremely difficult to arrive at a common
intellectual understanding, though the moral ties or friendship
remained entirely unbroken." A luminous comment came
from the distinguished American, John Haynes Holmes, He
said: "As different as Erasmus and Luther, these two men,
each in his own distinctive way, labour to bring In that new
period of world history which must mark 'an epoch in the
annals of mankind."

The difference burst out suddenly. In 1919, both had
protested vehemently against tbe atrocities at Jalian-walla bagh,
Renouncing his knighthood, Tagore had written to the Vice-
roy describing those atrocities as "without parallel in the
history of civilized governments." Before he wrote to the
Viceroy he had expressed his great faith in Gandhi in a letter:

 "You, as a great leader of men, have stood among us
to proclaim your faith in the ideal which you know to be that
of India. You have said, as Buddha had done in his time
and for all time to come: 'Conquer anger by the power of
non-anger and evil by the power of good.' Those who be-
live in spiritual life know that to stand against wrong which
has overwhelming material power behind it Is victory by It-
self." At the same time he had issued a word of warning.
"I pray most fervently that martyrdom may never degenerate
Into fanaticism."

And what he had feared had become a reality, Tagore
thought, just two years later. The first Satyagraba movement
In India had been launched. Tagore was then away In
Europe and America on a long tour lasting for fourteen
months. His mission was to seek! co-operation In building up
Visva.Bharatl, the World University. At first he had been
thrilled by the advent of Satyagraha In India. In March, 1921,
he wrote In a letter: "Wonderful news I This is the true
freedom. That moral force if II higher power than brute
force will be proved. It is in the fitness of things that
Mahatma Gandhi, frail in body and devoid of all material reo
sources, should call up the Immense power of the meek,"

But as more news began to reach him 'from Inlaid, he
grew disenchanted. He felt stunned by the new turn In the
popular upsurge. It was, he thought, an irony of fate that
he was preaching co-operation of cultures between East and
West beyond the seas just at a time when India proclaimed
complete rejection of the West, including Western education.

Gandhiji's Answer
Gandhi's answer came in an article in Young India title
"The Poet's anxiety." With cool patience he tried to remove
Tagore's misgivings: Non-cooperation seemed to Tagore a
doctrine of negation, narrowness and exclusiveness. But such
fears were baseless. Far from erecting a Chinese wall bet-
ween India and the West, non-cooperation would bring about
"honorable and voluntary co-operation based on mutual
respect and trusts," "An India prostrate at the feet of Europe
can give no hope to humanity."

The Poet's answer was an article In The Modern Review
titled "The Call of Truth." He recognized the greatness of
the Satyagraha movement. So far, there had been no mass
awakening. Then "Mahatma Gandhi came and stood at the
cottage door of the destitute millions, clad as one of them-
selves, and talking to them in their own language’s., The
name of Mahatma, whIch has been given to him, is his true
name. Who else has felt that all Indians are his own flesh
and blood? Truth has awakened truth.

News of this wonderful awakening of India had reached
him across the seas, Tagore continued, and. he had rejoiced in
the thought that the true Saltti of India's spirit would at
last find expression. But then, deep depression began to
come upon him. He found with a shock that here was the
fanaticism he had feared. Blind obedience was the stern
demand. Freedom of the mind was gone. The art of building

up swear had been over-simplified. The urge of the
future age was towards the ninety of man. The dust of angry
passion would obscure the greater world from our view.

Gandhi's answer was the famous article titled "The
Great Sentinel," the name he himself had given to the Poet.
He agreed with Tagore that reason must have precedence
over blind obedience. He wrote: "Blind surrender to Jove
is often more mischievous than a forced surrender to the lash
of the tyrant." He went on to say that hunger was the
argument that was driving India to the spinning wheel. What
had India to share with the world save her degradation, her
pauperism and her plagues? It was no use sending our,
Shasta’s to the world, since we the heirs and custodians did
not live them. Indian nationalism was not exclusive, nor des-
detective. "1 have found it impossible," said Gandhi, "to
soothe suffering patients with a song from Kalb, The hungry
millions ask for one poem-invigorating food."

Right Context

This interlude in the life of Gandhi and Tagore must be
seen In the right context. "No two persons could be so diffe:
rent from one another In their make-up or temperament,"
Nebru bas written. But he has added: "They seemed to
represent different but harmonious aspects of India and to
complement one another. Both of them, though vastly different

and yet so alike."

That was the crux of the matter. And that explained
why nothing stood between them in their personal relationship.
Even If, in a way, they represented two extremes, the extremes
met and fused together. And that was Indeed as much of
a miracle. as their advent in the same country. in the same


I    don't think there was anyone in India's public Use who

wielded an influences on Gandhiji's political views more than
Sir Tej Bahadur Sapru. Go hale, of course, stood apart, a
king of political guru for Gandbiji, but it was tore a brief
perched ; he died In 1915 before he was 50 and Gandbiji
assumed the leaders of India's freedom movement four
years later at tbe end of tbe first world war.

Sapru, too, was a Liberal politician nurtured In the
Gokbale tradition. Montagu was quick to recognize his
outstanding ability and his unquestionable Integrity. When
Indians were being selected for tbe Viceroy's Bxecutlve Council
under bins reforms scheme at the end of the I World War,
Sapru was an obvious choice.

Those were somewhat stormy limes after the Jallianwala
bash massacre and Gandhlji resorted to non-co-operation as a
-mass movement as the nations response to British military
insolence. He didn't stop there. . The Prince of Wales' visit
to India In ·1921, he decided, should be boycotted; as a nation
In mourning was In no mood for gaiety and entertainment.
Motiial Nehru and C. R. Da8, deeply disturbed by the
turn of events, loyally obeyed the Mahatma's call to actions.
For Sapru, this was a crisis in the nation's affairs which called
for bold remedial action. As Lord Reading's Law Member,
he sought a way out: a big step forward Immediately towards
complete provincial autonomy and hastening the introduction
of responsible government at the Centre. In return, Gandhijl
was to call off the boycott of the Prince's visit to India.

The Viceroy seemed sympathetic, bots Pandlt Motllal
and C. R. Das were attracted by the offer and Sapru felt
an effort was called for to persuade Gandhijl to see the
advantage of such an advance considerably beyond the
Montagu scheme of reforms. Early one morning in December,
1921, he suddenly arrived without warning at Kanpur to
consult Sir Abraham Rahimtoolah, the Chairman of the Fiscal
Commission. He was a young man of 40 but mature In his
judgment. Rahlmtoolah heartily endorsed the plan and it
was decided that Pandit Kunzru and Jamnagar Dwarkadas
should persuade Gandhijl, then living at Sabarmati, to accept
the offer.

It was promising beginning; Gandhlji was at first
Impressed-with the terms, but later, after an Interview with
Lord Reading, be made fresh demands which were unaccep-
table to the Viceroy. A little later came Gandhljl's prosecution.
Sapru resisted the suggestion as strongly as he could from
within the Government. But Montagu had gone out of
office in London, and the tide of reaction against India was
running strong in BritaIn. Sapru felt he was a misfit In the
Viceroy's Executive Council, and after Gandhlji's conviction
for six years, he sent in his resignation-not only as a protest
against the conviction, but more for the creation o( a
constructive-movement in the country to bring India freedom
as a self-governing Dominion.

Gandnlji respected a man of that type-transparently
honest in all his moves and seeking nothing for himself at any
time, Sapru struck! him as a statesman who bad Imbibed
Go hale’s principles. All through the twenties, until Pandit
MotilaJ's death In 1931, Sapru was content to help from
behind the scenes in giving Legal shape to India's constitutional
demand. Pandit Motllal knew Spare’s sound grasp of
constitutional law and relied a good deal on his legal
knowledge. It was Sapru who had given concrete form to
Mrs. Besant's conception of a Constitution framed in India
on the basis of Dominion status-the Commonwealth of India
Bill as it was described. Then he worked with Pandit Motiva
on the Nehru Committee fortified by his earlier experience as
Mrs. Besant's collaborator. He, perhaps more than any other
man In our public life, was on excellent terms with Muslim
leaders including Jinnah and with the princely rulers. His
complete freedom from communal bias was, of course, an
enormous asset.

At the first Round Table Conference in London in 1930,
from whIch the Congress was absent, Sapru was easily the
most outstanding representative from India. His one anxiety
was to secure from Ramsay MacDonald, the British Prime
Minister, a statement t of policy radical enough to bring
Gandhijl and the Codgers Into later sessions of the
Conference. Successful In the effort, he returned to India to
persuade Gandhiji to participate in the second session of the
Round Table Conference. Pandit Motilal would have been of
great help at tbis juncture, but his death at a critical point
in the nation's affairs was a terrible blow. In forging the
Gandhi-Irwin Pact, Sapru was a decisive factor. Deprived of
Pandit Motilal's advice, Gandhiji turned to Sapru more and
-more for guidance In difficult situations. He welcomed the
·advice of a man who was not only sure of his facts and
singularly free from preset ambition, but had no hesitation
in expressing his views with the utmost candor, whether they
were In approval or In disagreement.

Of this characteristic of Sapru's, Gandhiji had evidence
at the Round Table Conference in London. At one stage
Gandhlji, for reasons he never fully explained, was In favour
'of limiting the deliberations to the provincial field, leaving the
Centre, with Its perplexing Issue of an all-India federation,
open for discussion at a later stage. Sapru opposed It with
such vigor that Gandhljl withdrew the proposal. But It made
no difference to their subsequent relations. All through the
stress and storm of the U World War, In (act until the end of
Gandhlji's life in 1948, there was a bond of unshakeable confidence

and respect between the two.

In the late thirties, Sapru dropped out of the liberal
party and functioned on a personal basis. He was aware of
Gandhijl's persistent efforts to reach a settlement" with the
British and with the Muslim League. More than once it was
my privilege, in the early stages of the II World War, to carry
important massages from Gandhiji to Sir Sikandar Hyat Khan,
the Unionist chief Minister of the Punjab. I had a regular
correspondence with Sapru and kept him informed of every
development. He was wholeheartedly behind Gandhiji's
negotiations for a wartime federal administration at the Centre
with the Congress, a section of the Muslim League under
Sir Sikandar's leadership and some of the progressive States
like Mysore and Baroda forming a stable coalition.

With Sapru it was always discriminating support never
blind admiration. He was distressed by Gandhljl's refusal to
look at the Cripps offer in 1942 and worried by the deepening
crisis which ultimately culminated in the 'Quit India'
resolution of August, 1942. With the active support of men
like Rajaji, he made a series of efforts through a non-party
leaders' conference to persuade the Churchill Government to
resume negotiations with the Imprisoned Congress leaders. A
war-time federal Government with conventions established that
would enable It to function, in effect as a responsible govern-
ment, and a conference of all the Chief Ministers of provinces
at the end of the War to serve as nucleus of a National Con-
venation for framing a new Constitution : that was Sapru's pro-
posal to the British Government, backed by Rajaji and nearly
all the prominent public men In India at that time.

There was no response from Churches. Sapru's ,anxiety
at that stage was to see India properly" represented by her real
leaders at the Peace Conference and In the movement for the
reconstruction of the post-war world. At last, In the late
summer of 1944, Gandhljl's release from detention seemed to
open the door for a fresh effort. Sapru invited me to
discuss with Gandhlji the Imputations of a
formula which he was prepared to Offer to Jlnnah. provided it
did not mean, complete separation of Pakistan from India.
Could there be for the transition period joint administration
of some subjects like defence, foreign affairs, currency and
communications, so as to ensure a smooth transfer of power?
How could such a treaty be incorporated into the constitutional
document that would authorless the creation of the two States 1

How vividly do I still remember the scene that night in
Gandhiji's hut in Seagram ; he was seated on the floor,
with an 011 lamp throwing a flickering light on his face ;
facing him were Spar, Rajaji and Bhulabhai Desai discussing
the Implications of the formula, convinced that Gandhijl was
anxious for a fair and permanent settlement of the Indian
problem, he made one more effort to persuade the British
Government to accept his out-stretched hand. It failed, as all
the previous efforts had failed

In 1946, Sapru, really too 1Il to be active, came to New
Delhi as my guest during the British Cabinet Mission's visit.
I warned Sir Stafford Cripps that he was in no condition to
go to Viceroy's House for an interview. Cripps promptly
replied, "There's no difficulty, the Viceroy and we will see him
your house, provided no one else is present." The following
morning Lord Wavell, Lord Pathlck Lawrence, Sir Stafford
Cripps and Lord Alexander came over and spent an hour with

There came an unusual and gracious gesture, from
Gandhiij ; he had heard of it and sent me a message: he was
coming to my house the next morning to call on Sapru. It
was to be a surprise visit in the full sense of the term. Sapru
felt overwhelmed by Gandhiji's solicitude and regard for him.

A fowl weeks later, when the elections to the Constituent
Assembly were due, I went to see Gandbiji late one evening,
in Bhangi colony. I told him that Congressmen knew bow to
break laws, but they could not frame a Constitution which was
a highly complicated business. You are right, replied Gandhiji,
but have you any suggestion to make? I said yes, I have
a list of 16 non-Congressmen, all competent for such a task.
He scanned the list : Sapru's name was at the top. Without
hesitation, he added, It has my full approval, and you may
say· so to Maulana Azad and Jawaharlal. The list was
accepted by the Congress Working Committee, though Sapru
was too weak to accept the invitation. He was consulted
from time to time on certain provisions of the draft

It's a wonderful record of close association between two
men bound by all the deeper values of life: selflessness,
integrity and dedication to the country's progress.


N0 two men so different In social background and purring-
became such kindred spirits as Mahatma Gandhi and
Lala Lajpat Rai. It is inevitable, therefore, to remember
Lalaji, In the Gandhi Centenary Year, as Bapu's trusted friend
and Comrade-In-arms.

Mahatma Gandhi and Lalajl were great friends.

Mahatmajl consulted him on every public Issue. Once Lalajl
drew up a programme of going out of India. On learning of
it Mahatmaji wrote to him that he wanted to see him. On
receipt of this letter, Lalaji immediately dropped his program.
me and went to see Mahatmaj at Ahmedabad. Such was his
reverence for him.

"In my judgment", advised Lala Lajpat Rai in the
"Open Letter to Young Punjab", "Mr. Gandhiji Is the best
leader you have just now. Imbibe his spirit and follow his

Gandbiji had started the khadi movement and en-
joined upon his votaries to wear khadl, poplars it and start
spinning. Gandhlji wanted Dr. Gopi Chand Bhargava's
services for this cause and wrote to Lalaji to spare him to
work as a khadi agent. Lalaji asked Dr. Gopl Ghand
Bhargava to take up the work which he continued throughout
his life.

Hindu-Muslim Unity

To Gandhiji, Lalaji was an institution, wrote Gandhiji
once: "Prom his youth he made the country's service his
religious duty and his patriotism was no narrow creed. He
loved his country because he loved the world. His nation-
alism was internationalism. Hence his hold on European
mind. He claimed a large circle of friends In Europe and
America. They loved him because they knew him."

He added: "His desire to strengthen and purify Hindu-
ism must not be confounded with hatred of Muscleman’s or
Islam. He was sincerely desirous of promoting and achieving
Hindu-Muslim unity. The problem, he felt, could not be
solved by sentimental talk: and 'temporary patchwork or
symbolical treatment'. His cold analysis of the situation led
him to the candid conclusion that the solution of the pro-
blem lay in their integration. He stated, 'what we aim at is
not the merging or the absorption of the one into the other,
but the integration of all Into one whole, without in any way;
injurlug or lessening each group's individuality."

Biographical writings

His activities were multifarious. He was a politician,
social worker, journalist, orator and parliamentarian.

Lajpat Rai's fame as a writer rests to an appreciable
extent on the biographical literature he produced in Urdu. In
1896 he published short biographies of Mazzini, Garibaldi and
Shivajl and two years later were issued those of Swami Daya-
nand and Shri Krishna. Mazzinl was considered by Lajpat
Ral as his political guru and he was much impressed by the
Italian movement of unification. The first three books were
written by Lala Lajpat Rai with the aim of Infusing patriotic
spirit in the youth of the Punjab. The biographies were very
popular and Lajpat Ral's Mazzini helped much in creating a
new awakening.

It was in 1888, at the age of 23, that Lala Lajpat Rai
joined the Indian National Congress when it met at Allahabad
under Mr. G. Yule,
In 1905, the Indian National Congress Committee having
reccgnlsed in him an austere, sincere and selfless devotee to
his country's cause selected him as one of the delegates to
place before the British public the political grievances of the
Indian people. He met the expenses of -his trip from his own
pocket. He, along with Go hale, carried on the political
campaign In various parts of England and brought home to
the mind of the Britishers the evils of unsympathetic bureacra-
tic government against which India was struggling and plead-
ed in eloquent language, with supporting facts and figures, the
cause of the 'half-starving and half-dying' people of India.
Needless to say that Lajpat Rai created an impression-on the
public In England.

Lajpat Rat returned to India fully convinced that India's
political salvation would depend on the efforts of her own
people. He wrote, "You can at times successfully appeal to
the humanity and benevolence of individuals but to hope for
justice and benevolence from a nation is hoping against hope.
The rule of a foreign democracy Is in this respect, the most

On his return from England in March 1909, Lalajl
resumed practice at the Bar which he had given up since his
deportation In 1907, in connection with unrest in Punjab.
However, he didn't actively participate in politics but devoted
bins energies to educational and social reform. He started the
Hindu Elementary Education League to help in the education
of Hindu children.

In 1920 he was elected President of the special session
of Indian National Congress called to devise measures (or the
redress of the Punjab and Klamath wrongs and to decide on
the Congress attitude towards Reforms. Before the session
met Lajpat Rai repudiated the Reforms and proposed the
boycott of new Councils. At the Congress session, Gandhijl's
resolution on non-violent Non-cooperation was - adopted.
Lalaji was in favour of the Council boycott but he was doubt-
ful about the practicability of non-cooperation in other fields
particularly regarding boycott of educational institution are
law courts. But by the time Congress met at Nagpur, Lave"
views had considerably changed ado he fell in 11-
Gandhijl. He extended his support to the non- cooperation
resolution which was virtually unanimously adopted.

Embodiment of Patriotism

Popularly known as the "Lion of Punjab", he was the
very embodiment of patriotism and self-sacrifice. Service was
the motto of Lalaji's life. About unsociability he wrote;
"The work of removing unsociability Is not to be undertaken
In a spirit of charity but under a sense of duty; not duty to-
wards them but duty towards ourselves because, we cannot be
free, unless they too are free.

However, there were occasions which showed clearly
the difference of approach between the two personalities-
Gandhiji and Lalaji. For example, Gandhijl dismissed Kather-
ine Mayo's book as "the drain inspectors report" but Lala
Lajpat Rai wrote "unhappy India" in reply to that book and
went beyond this to prove that it was not only "a drain Ins-
pector's report" but the conditions In North America were
much worse than anything happening In India.

Last Day"

Despite his old age and ill-health, Lalaji led a mass
demonstration at Lahore against the Simon Commission on
October 30, 1938. The demonstrators in general and Lalaji In
particular were brutally attacked.

The same evening at a public meeting Lalaj! said, "I
want to say from this platform that every blow that was hurled
at us this afternoon, was a nail in the coffin of the British
Empire. Nobody who has seen that sight is likely to forge\
it. It has sink deep into our soul. We have to avenge Out'
selves of this cowardly attack, Dot by violently attacking them
but by gaining our freedom."

Lalaji didn't survive the assault very long. In fact, It
accelerated his death. On November 17 he breathed his last.
His death brought to a close a long career of distinguished
public service. Among the numerous tributes paid by leaders
from India and abroad the most touching came from Gandbijj.
Writing in Young India, he aptly said, 'Men like LaJaji can-
not die so 10DS as the sun shines in the Indian sky. Lajpat
Relent a rich legacy for his countrymen whom he had love
and for whom he had suffered. It was a legacy of a true
patriot, a relentless campaigner for freedom and an ardent
religious and social reformer.


EVERY Indian should guard the unity of the country and

consider it as the most sacred legacy of those martyrs who
have laid down their lives to defend the honor, dignity and
integrity of the country. They died so that we may live.
Sardar Darshan Singh Pheruman was one of the greatest free-
dom-fighters and patriots who had been on a fast-unto-death
since August 15, for pressing the claim of the people of
Punjab for the inclusion of Chandigarh, the Bhakra and Beas
complex and other Punjabi-speaking areas in Punjab.

We are deeply grieved to hear o( the sad demise of Mr.

Darshan Singh Pheruman. He laid down his life fighting
against the injustice doe to Punjabis, True to his word, Mr.
Pheruman offered the supreme sacrifice for a cause dear
to all Punjabis. The Council of Ministers expressed their heart-
felt grief on this occasion and sympathy for the bereaved
family. Mr. Pheruman's was the longest fast in India and
just equaled the world record of Mr. T. 1. Mac Swiney. the
Irish patriot and Mayor of Cork who had died on the 74th day
of his fast on October 25, 1920.

His early Life

Eighty-five years ago, he was born in 1884 in Pheruman
village Distt, Amritsar. His mother's name was Raj Kaur,
Sardar Chanda Singh Malaya was his father. He was very
big businessman and a noble person. He had much property
In Pheruman village. S. Pheruman had one brother and only
.one sister. His father sent his dear son to Dwaba High
School, Jullundur for study.
From Soldier to Political Worker

In 1911, he completed his study and then he joined the
army and worked there for two years. At that time, there
was a Gadara Party in Punjab. He immediately resigned from
the army and came out in the field of freedom movement. He
was inspired by JalIiawala Bagh tragedy. There was an Impetus
to freedom movement when Akali movement started. He
took lion's share in the movements.

Sardar Pheruman made a 'Guru Teg Bahadur Akali
Dal' with the help of Udham Singh Nagoke in Distt, Amritsar.
He started to play a very good role In Akali and freedom)

He was put in Multan Jail, There he faced lot of difficulties.

 Only those people can realize who were with him in
the prison.

Akall movement was stopped. For some time, he went.
out to Malaya. He entered the freedom movement of Malaya.
There he led the Punjabis to join this freedom movement of

Pheruman with Gandhi

In 1930, with the Instructions of Gandhiji, they started
a Civil Disobedience Movement, He took part in this movement
also. Again he became a prisoner for one year.

In 1945, he was discharged from the jail. But he was
the real freedom-fighter, He determined to stay until we got
full freedom. He was the member of Sherman Committee
for years, General Secretary of Sherman Akall Dal for two
times and Chief of the Zilla Congress. From 1951 to 1964,
he remained a member of Rajya Sabha,

This is the life story of great man, Sardar Darshan Singh
Pheruman, who stuck to his promise. But he Is no more now
In this world. Immediately on learning of Mr. Pheruman's
end, Mrs. Gandhi said In a statement, "All those days, I had
hoped that S. Darshan Singh Penman who had been a
veteran in the fight for the freedom of our country, would live
and work! for larger causes. Now I find it difficult to find
words to express my grief. The Supreme sacrifice made by
Mr. Pheruman will move the people of Punjab and of Haryana
towards bringing their hearts and minds together in an act of
great reconciliation".


"OH, I'm beginning to be home-sick," said young Har Dayal

(28) to John D. Barry, Editor of the San Francisco Bulletin
at the Savvy Theatre, one evening in July 1912. They were
there to see the moving pictures of the Delhi Durbar. "I
played in those ruins", said Har Dayal on seeing certain dilapidated

 parts of Delhi. • It's uncanny to see them up there".
"When you think of the vast number of people that go hungry"
he added on looking at some poverty-stricken people, "you
hate food, you hate yourself."

A little earlier Mrs. Amy Dudley, a well-informed cultured

 lady, had approached Har Dayal with tears In her eyes.
She fell on her knees, "Master," she cried out, "you have
conducted yourself like a god." Har Dayal raised her and it
is said he too broke into tears. "Yes," he sobbed, "and
think of the responsibility".

Har Dayal was born on October 14, 1884, In Cheers khan

 (Delhi). From his mother, Bholi Rani, he Inherited
the decisive impulse of his traditional Indian culture. He
imbibed the spirit of learning from his father, Gaur! Dayal.
He always stood first in his class, In one year he did his
M.A. in English (at Lahore) and broke all records. And it
look him only 12 months to do his M.A. in history. The
Government of India awarded him a Scholarship in 1905 to
pursue higher studies in England.

Har Dayal bad a photographic memory. He could
play chess with six persons having six boards before them and
heat them. He could read whole pages just once and re-
produce them correctly.

Har Dayal had a zeal for public welfare even when he
was a boy. He was only 13 when l1e presided over meetings
of the Society for the Young. Once he went to Rajghat
(Delhi) with a friend at midnight to discuss a revolutionary
programme. Before going to Lahore he was a member of a
secret organization founded by the patriot. Master Amir

Robust Intellect
At St. John's College (Oxford) he was known for his
high character. simplicity, nobility and intellectuality. There
he secured two other scholarships, one for Sanskrit, the other
for philosophy. What interested Har Dayal's friends most
was the elasticity of his mind and his perfect freedom from
cant. He was quick-tempered in argument; sunny and sere no
in games. In him one found an ardent nature, a cool tempera-
ment and a robust Intellect.

It would have been easy for Har Dayal to pass the les
examination but he never cared to take It. In 1907 Go hale
requested him to join his Servants of India Society. Har
Dayal replied: "One of the rules of your society requires
that every member should be loyal to the British government.
My conscience does not permit this".

Sometimes he came down to London to meet the revolutionaries.

 Bhal Parma and, Shyamaji and Savarkar. When
Lala Lajpat Ral and Ajlt Singh were deported to Mandalay, he
gave up the State scholarship and the other two. "It Is a
sin to accept tainted money," he remarked. He left the university.

He resolved that his partner in life, Sundar Rani, should
take to the work of regeneration of Indian womanhood. She
was given lessons in history and politics at Oxford. On his
return to India, however, he took to sannyas, Now he was a
wandering Monica; of Indian nationalism In dhoti and kurla.
After this he never met his wife. or course, he never saw the
face of his daughter.

Har Dayal collected a band of selfless workers around
balm at Kanpur, They lived with the nationalists and revolutionaries

 of all ages. All the lime they were under the close
surveillance of the British secret service. Lala Lajpat Rai want-
ed him to edit the English daily Punjabi at Lahore. He came
to Lahore along with his disciples, self-denying ascetics. Each
spent a few coppers on his frugal diet. No bed was there even
in Har Dayal's room.

National denegation

Har Dayal preached nationalism through his personal
life and private talks. He was 80 forceful and convincing In
his arguments that nobody dared cross swords with him. In
five minutes spent with him one discovered a whole world of
knowledge, service, dedication and devotion distilled by a pro-
cases of which he alone knew the secret. His sentences were
sometimes fiery. An old lawyer observed: "Har Dayal
talked like an advocate from a brief. But what a brief!
What an advocate I"

Har Dayal's articles on national education show his
learning and love for the nation. "Patriotism," he says, "must
decay under a system which discourages the study of our nation-
al past. The British educational pulley diminishes reverence
and love for great heroes like Rama, Krishna and Guru
Govlnd. The British educational system promotes servility,
cowardice and social decay. A life of fraud and falsehood
can never build up character. Patriotism and spirituality, the
two great character-making forces, are absent from this system .

. Character Is ruffed, the springs of the national moral life are
poisoned. This system is the parent of two great evils: de-
nationallsation and demoralization,"

The satraps of Punjab and U.P. found that Har Dayal
through his revolutionary nationalistic ideas was bringing about
a strange metamorphosis among the educated classes. Students
began to show signs of leaving colleges. Government officials
felt at heart that they were guilty of serving aliens against the
nationalist interest. To the Indian Press Har Dayal was a
saint, a prophet. At the time of the famine in Kangra, Har
Dayal organised a relief party and went there to give succor
to the needy. The Government got alarmed at his soaring
influence. An Indian member of the Viceroy's Executive Council

 sent word to Lsla Lajpat Ral: "Send him abroad to save
his valuable life." Har Dayal wanted to face the music.
Lajpat Rai, however, succeeded in persuading him and he
left for Paris entrusting the strings of his organization to Master Amlr Chand.

M. Cama and Rana gathered round themselves an enthusiastic

group of Indian patriots in Paris. They wanted to
rally the best elements In the nationalist movement under the
banner of a revolutionary journal. In Har Dayal the journal
found a brilliant editor of deep political convictions and literary

halite. In the first issue of the monthly Bande Mataram
(September 1909) he stated his technique: "After Mazzlni
Garibaldi, after Garibaldi Cavour; and wisdom first, then
finally Independence."

Bomb incident

The Indian patriots in Paris had not made necessary arrangements

(or his stay. He thought of cheap living elsewhere.
He went to La Martinique and like the Buddha took to penance.

Bhai Parma and brought Har Dayal round to his view:

"Let us have Swami Vivekananda as our ideal. He is needed
both by India and the world," Har Dayal agreed to go to the
U.S. There were several thousand Punjabi patriots there. They
prayed to Har Dayal to lead them.

Har Dayal was appointed Professor of Indian Philosophy
at the Stanford University in 1912. The Bulletin wrote: "The
Hindu saint Har Dayal is the most powerful man In California.
Even the Governor came down to meet him. Others took
him as a Hindu St. Francis with modem passions." He slept
on a hare .floor and lived on milk and unbuttered bread.

On December 23, 1912, a bomb was hurled at the Viceroy

(Harding), Har Dayal wrote In the Yugantar Circular justifying

 the use of the bomb, "a concentrated moral dynamite".
The Gadar Society was founded with Har Dayal as its General
Secretary. His journal, Gadar, acted as a fiery cross. He turned
ordinary men Into martyrs by the thousands through the magic
of self-sacrifice. When World War I broke out thousands of
Indians pledged their lives to the cause of revolution in India.
But when their boats touched the shores of India, they were
arrested and hanged. Those who escaped did try to stir up a

The government held that Har Dayal and Bhai Parmanand
knew a year before the war that Germany and England
would go to war. They conspired together and Bhai Parmanand

lens for the U.S. to learn the art of bomb-making. He
was arrested in India on his return, Har Dayal in America.
The latter was released on bail. He reached Constantinople.
He wanted that Germans and Turks should help the Afghans in
attacking India from one side while Indian Muslims and Sikhs
should revolt In Punjab on the other. Germany valued his
suggestion. German money and arms (8,000 reifies four Mil-
lion cartridges, pistols and 10,000 bullets) failed to reach

44 months in Germany

During the later part of the war the Germans saw no
chance of success. Har Dayal was detained. Somehow he
got away to Sweden in 1918 where he wrote "Forty-four
Months in Germany and Turkey" criticizing the autocratic
ways of Germany. He thought teat the British government
would permit him to go to England. But it did not.

In Manlike Har Dayal was penniless. He began to
lecture in Swedish on music, politics, economics and philosophy.
Later he taught Indian philosophy at Uppsala University.

Pressed by C. F. Andrews the government allowed Har
Dayal: in 1927 to stay in England. The London University
conferred on him a doctorate for his thesis, "Bodhisattva
Doctrine". He wrote "Hints for Self-culture" and "Twelve
Religions and Modern Life." Friends like Andrews and Sapru
helped him in getting permission to return to India. In 1939,
however, he was found life-less in his bed at Philadelphia. It
has been said: "Har Dayal was assassinated, his was not a
natural death".

Lala Lajpat Ral writes: "In 1912 Har Dayal developed
great admiration for Occidental ideas of freedom. He Is a
quite uncertain item. During a part of the war he was pro-
German but after the war he damned Germany. He is now
(1927) a constitutionalist".

Har Dayal held that India should assimilate those things
of the West which could help her in her progress. He befriend-
ed Germany thinking that through her India might be able to
throw off the foreign yoke. He tried to make friends with
England after the war believing that if he could go back to
India he might be able to help her in achieving freedom in
some other way.


IT was on laniary Fist, 1914, that C.F. Andrews met
Gandhiji, who was then living in South Africa, for the first
time. He had, no doubt, heard earlier about ·his Passive
Resistance Movement, particularly from H S. Polak, an
esteemed colleague of Gandhiji in the Movement. He had
been deputed by Gopal Krishna Go hale, whom Gandhlji
called his "Political Guru" founder of the Servants of India
Society and a prince among Indian statesmen, to make first-
hand enquiries about the living and working conditions of the
large number of Indians, who had gone there under the
iniquitous indentured labour system to earn their livelihood.

When the ship, on which he traveled from India,
reached Durban and he alighted from It he was welcomed by
H.S. Polak. Immediately he asked him, "Where Is Mr.
Gandhi ?" Whereupon Polak pointed to an Indian dressed In
clothes of coarse material-the common uniform of an
Indentured laborer, Andrews straightaway went Up to him
and touched his feet in reverence.

No Sacrifice of Honor

Later in the day he was closeted with Gandbiji. He
discussed with him In detail the new crisis with which the
Indians had been confronted, consequent on their baling been
denied representation on the Indian Grievances Committee,
set up recently by General Smuts Clinching the issue, he asked
Gandhiji, "Is not It simply a question of Indian honor 7"
Gandhijl replied at once and In a firm toed : "Yes ; That is it.
Universal Pre-VniPerslty &8013
That is It. That is the real point at issue". "Then"
rejoined Andrews, "I am sure you are right to stand out.
There must be no sacrifice of honor". This righteous zeal to
safeguard the self-respect of Indians brought both of them so
close together that thereafter they began to address each other
as "Mohan" and "Charlie" (which incidentally, means "very
dear") respectively.

From then onwards for several months both carried on
the Satyagraha in South Africa, Gandhijl working in the field
while Andrews acted as his advocate and ambassador at large.
During his stay he had an experience which gave him a deeper
insight into the tyranny and inhumanity of racial discoid-
monition, which he had already observed in a subtle way. ever
since he landed In India in 1904 as a member of the staff of St.
Stephen's College Diehl. One Sunday Gandhiji went to the
church where C.F. Andrews was to preach, but he was not
admitted because he was an Asiatic. As he meditated on the
significance of this incident he seemed to sense in GandhiJl's
SATYAGRAHA something of the spirit of Christ the moral
revolutionary against every kind of human injustice and
Inequity. In due course, however, the indentured labour system
was abolished and Gandhiji returned to India and Andrews
devoted himself to securing justice and self-respect (or the
Indians ; residing in some of the other colonies of the then far-
flung British Empire.

After Gandhijl returned to India in 1915 and later
launched his programme for winning the Independence of
India, Andrews energies and time were divided between
Santlniketan of Poet Tagore, where he then worked as an Ideal
teacher and friend of the students on the staff of the institution,

besides acting as his secretary. and Sabarmati,' where
Gandhiji founded hi. ashram a kind of laboratory for
preparing stout-hearted warriors for his non-violent struggle
to enable India to come into her own. Rightly had Gokhle
once remarked in the course of the Satyagraha movement in
South AMca, "Gandhi has created heroes out of clay".
Spiritual Restlessness

There was, however, some sort of spiritual restlessness
in Andrews, which made it difficult for him to stay put in any
one place for any appreciable length of time. He went about
as "a fugitive", as poet Rabindranath observed humorously on
one occasion. On hearing of a railway strike, or inhuman
treatment of the poor and the oppressed, demure Using of one or
the other section of the large population in any part of India in
the name of law and order, he would be off on his mission of
reconciliation and bridge-building.

It is these people who, it is said, lovingly conferred on
him later the honorific title of "Deen-Bandhu", or "A Friend
of the poor". His one Invariable appeal to the aggrieved
always used to be, as he said in his farewell speech at Lahore,
after completing his mission of mercy in the Punjab, which was
still bleeding because of the indescribable acts of inhumanity
during the Martial Law regime in 1919 :

"I would urge you not to dwell upon Vengeance, but
rather upon forgiveness; not to linger In the dark night of
hate but to come ,out into the sunshine of God's love".

C.F. Andrews co-operated actively with Gandhiji in
some of the latter's nation-building activities like unsociability
crusade, evolution of the right type of Trade Unionism,
I rambling of the Indian students with the spirit of true
patriotism, editing of Gandhiji's weekly, Young India, fervid plea
for stoppage of sale o( opium by the Government to Assam for
earning revenue. In one of his letters to Gandhiji as far back
as 1920, he said :

"We must honestly and squarely face the non-Brahmin
movement and all that it implies. I have just come across this
passage In the Chandigarh Upanishad. Those whose conduct
has been pleasing will quickly attain a pleasing birth of a
Brahmin, or a Kshatriya or a Vaisya, but those whose conduct
has been abominable will quickly attain an abominable birth
of a dog, or a hog or an outcast, This kind of thing appear
to me every whit as bad as the religion of the white race,
which is being proclaimed in Africa today. The Indian
National Congress, as far as I am aware, is still In the hands of
the high castes: Is It not possible to bring this relation to an
end 1"

In a speech to Calcutta students a year later 1921, he
Unhersal Pre-Unhersity Elsay
further said "Independence complete and perfect Independence
for India, is a religious principle with me because I am a
Christian. But independence can never be won If the millions
of the untouchables remain still in subjection .•. India cannot be
India to you the India of your dreams and of my dreams also,
if she does not give Swaraj to her own depressed classes".

Apropos of the tainted revenue from the sale of opium,
he said, in an appeal to the members o( the then India Council
of State and Legislative Assembly in 1925 :

"In the long run, the normal credit that India win octal
in the world by taking up a truly humanitarian attitude on this
question is of far more material and spiritual Importance
to India than a certain number of rupees, which are obtained
by offering to other people what is recognized as a Polson".

Though C. F. Andrews was an ardent devotee of
Gandhijl, he never refrained from critic sing balm gently and
yet firmly whenever the need to do so arose.

As said earlier, Andrews was an ambassador at large,
advocate or Interpreter of Gandhiji and his vision of
Independent India and the ways and means to translate that
vision into a concrete achievements. In this connection he
wrote a number of books, such as India and Britain, The True
India, The Rise and Growth of the Congress, A case for
India's Independence, The Indian Problem and be edited
Mahatma Gandhi, his own story, Mahatma Gandhi's Ideas
and Mabatma Gandhi At Work.

Andrews often used to say that during his 36 years stay
in India, (ram 1904 to 1940, as a result of his Intimate
association with Poet Rabindranatb Tagore, Mahatma
Gandh', Principal S.K. Rudra, Swami Shraddhananda and
Maulvl Zakaullah and the spirit, and genius of eternal India,
he was re-born as a twelve-born", and that he had also a
deeper insight and appreciation of the life and message of

Alas, however, that he did not live to see India achieving
independence, (or which alongside Gandhljl-also Gurudeva
Tagore In the cultural and educational fields he had la bowed
so diligently and devotedly. But two months before he passed
away In Calcutta on April 5, 1940 at the age of 76-by the
bye his birth centenary falls a couple of years hence he had
a vision, In which he saw Swaraj coming. When Gandhiji
visited him in a hospital In Calcutta, the latter whispered to
him, "Swaraj Is coming, Mohan. Both Englishmen and
Indians can make it come If they will."

Then he repeated In a wear voice his (avoided lines of

poet Francis Thompson.

Does the fish soar to find the ocean,
The eagle plunge to find the air,
That we as of the stars In motion,

If they have rumor of Thee there?

Not where the wheeling systems darken,
And our benumbed conceiving soars

The drift of pinions, would we hearken,
Beats at our own clay-shuttered doors".

Thus, passed away C.F. Andrews 'Christ's Faithful
Apostle, a lover of mankind and a friend of the poor and an
ardent advocate of India's Freedom, one who in Gandhiji's
words was "simple like a child and upright as a die". My
reverent salutation to him,

ABRAHAM Lincoln, the sixteenth President of the United
States of America was one of the greatest humanitarian
and champion of liberty. He served the cause of the down-
trodden and the oppressed not only in his own country but
all over the world. In the words of Jawaharlal Nehru "he
was one of those very select great men who have become part
of the world's consciousness as embodying certain ideals which
the world treasures __ .",

In his life-span of 46 years he was motivated by two
basic convictions- belief in the common man and belief in
the ultimate triumph of truth. He had complete faith In
the basic goodness of every human being and in democracy.
'Old must like the common people', he said, 'or He would
not have made so many of them.' His creed was simple, "As
I would not be slave, So I would not be a master."

Early LICE
Abraham Lincoln was born near Hodgenville, on
February 12, 1809. In 1816, his father a restless western pioneer
made a new home in the forests of Indiana. Abraham had his
initial education in the Backwoods Schools. 'At 19, he had
grown to be an impressive figure strong enough to 11ft and
bear a pair of logs. He was lax feet two inches tall and
weighed 150 pounds.

The same year he got an opportunity to see something of
the outside world when he was booked to take a flat- boat of
farm produce of New Orleans. He had a close look for the
first time at the operation of slavery. A turning point came
In blest life when he was again engaged to take a boat load of
produce to New Orleans. This time he stayed there for a
month and had Intimate opportunity to study the conditions
of negro slaves. He took a vow there that If ever a chance
came his way he would cut slavery and hit it very hard.

Returning home. he joined a store at New Salem as a
clerk. Later he purchased it but could not run it profitably.
Leaving it he became the Village Post Master and Country
Surveyor. In 1854, President Stephen Douglas repealed the
Missouri Compromise of 1820 and reopened the question of
slavery in tile territories, The bill roused intense feeling
throughout the North and President Douglas defended his
step. Abraham Lincoln could not contain himself and plunged
into the popular struggle. His maiden speech revealed his
power as a debtor. The Republican Party was organised In
1856 to oppose the extension of slavery and Lincoln became
one of its premier leaders. Though Lincoln lost to Douglas-
in the election to the Senate in 1858, he established himself as
a public figure to reckon with.

In May 1860 the Republican Convention nominated him
for the Presidency. After an exciting campaign he received the
popular vote. Lincoln took! over the charge at a time when
tempers were high and the country was on the verge of a civil
war. In his inaugural address on March 4, 1861 he declared
the Union perpetual and argued the futility of secession. He
expressed his determination to faithfully execute the laws In
all the States.

He called a special session of the Congress, summoned
75,000 militia, ordered the enlistment of 65,000 regulars and
proclaimed a blockade of the southern ports. The confederation

soon had control of eleven States. The first important
battle was fought at Bull Run, Virginia and resulted in the
rout of the Union Army. On September 22, 1862 Abraham
Lincoln proclaimed that on and after January I, 1863 all
slaves In States or parts of States then in rebellion should be
free. On New Year's day the following year final proclamation

of emancipation was made. This greatest achievement
of his administration, wrung from him by the exigencies of
civil war, was completed by the passage (1865) if the 13th
Amendment of the Constitution.

In the Republican Convention in lone 1864 he was unanimously

 nominated for- a Second? term., In the elections held
in November he retained the Pesidentship with a thumping
majority. In his second inaugural address in March 1865, he
set forth the profound moral significance of war.

Like Gandhi

For all his reputation as the Great Emancipator he did
not place the Negro Cause as the first priority; to him it was
Union first then the uplift of the Negroes. He knew his aim
whIch was the cause of the Negroes, but he also knew that
he had to strike a middle path, achieve a consensus and reach
his target In a smooth manner. In his approach and thinking
he was much similar to Mahatma Gandhi ji
Fateful Month
Though April Is spring but the month of April in 1865,
was dewy and misty. A chill breeze blew into the buds of
spring like adversity quickening maturity, like divinity taking
men to their doom. In the White House, the President of USA
started his morning at seven. Swinging open the door of his
bedroom he peeped into the hall, where he knew favour-
seekers and genuine cases would be waiting, some overnight.
He had to wade through them to his office room opposite. He
could never have the heart to prevent them or turn them out.
He was a problem both to his colleagues and the security men.

On the fateful day falling on Good Friday on April 14,
1865 at Fords Theatre in Washington, Abraham Lincoln was
assassinated by a fanatic, 1. Wilkes Booth, an actor by profession.

 Lincoln succumbed to injuries and died the next
morning on April 15. The New York Times of the day
headlined the news "Awful Event--The Act of a Desperate

In his own words Abraham Lincoln said, "I have done
nothing to make any human being remember that I have
Lived. Yet what I wish to live for is to connect my name with
the events of my day and generation, to link my name with
something which will be of interest to my fellowmen." Such
was a man named Abraham Lincoln, whose story read aright
I. the epic of the United States of America which owe to him
today their existence as a nation of United Slates.

OF all the women writers in English at work today Nayantara
Sahgal is perhaps the most prolific. There are, of course,
others like Kamala Markandaya, Anita Desai, Santa Rama
Rau and Ruth Jhabvala who are well known because other
distinctive styles. They sometimes repeat themselves, the
basic theme of their novels remains the same, with the possible

exception of Anita Desai who has not written many books.

Nayantara Sabgal, according to Olivia Manning, is
"among the remarkable group of women writers at work in
India today. It is possible that she may prove to be the best
of them I don't think she has yet reached that stage but
she has certainly proved to be amongst the best of the Indian
women writers In English with her third novel Storm in

Nayantara first made her marl!; in 1954 with the first
part of her autobiography Prison and Chocolate Cake (covering
her childhood and the freedom struggle) which was followed
by a novel A Time to be Happy. After that she has written
more books, From Fear Set Free (the second part of her auto-
biography taking account of India after Independence) and
another novel, This Time of Morning. Nayantara began with
poetry at the age of 12. A poem she wrote much later was
published along with an easy one in a special Issue of "The
Atlantic' monthly called "Perspective on India" In 1953. But she
has never written poetry seriously after that. She feels that
"If one Is at all sensitive one will write poetry in adolescent

She started writing prose after her marriage (turning
from poetry to prose has nothing to do with marriage) and
her first book at the age of 27. She is a voracious reader but
does not like American fiction. She feels it Is highly commercialized,

 She docs not have much sympathy for writers
like Raja Rao who, she feels, write manly for a foreign market : "

I rather distrust that brand of human being who writes
for foreign consumption." Such a writer would never Impress,
however good his writings may be. She thinks highly of
Khushwant Singh's Train to Pakistan which, according to her,
has "great strength and economy In writing and carries an impact

 because of the subject." But she is willing to concede
to Manohar Malgoankar's A Bend in the Ganges perhaps
being a better novel. She could not express a positive opinion
because she has not read the novel. But she likes Malgoankar
and Bhabani Bhattacharya though she has only read the
former's The Distant Drums and the latter's A Goddess Named
Gold. The Distant Drums she considers is in "an altogether
modern, direct style." Unlike most writers who spin out
situations Malgoankar has the capability to get into the
situations straightaway." About Bhattacharya's novel she
failed to recall anything. And she was candid enough to
admit that "I am not very well up with Indian fiction in

Commenting on other writers she said "R. K. Narayan
I enjoyed because of the peculiar quality of his humor,
sarcasm and gentleness but he does not plunge any depths."
She enjoyed his Waiting for the Mahatma a great deal, partly
because of the theme whIch Is very close to her heart and
partly because she did not find the style pretentious and also
because of Narayan's "peculiar way of getting Into things."

Mulk Raj Anand she believes is a spent force. "He has,
I believe, had his say, though his early books were a great
contribution to the. understanding of our social problems. But
he does not seem to have added anything serious to his

She thinks very highly of the women writers In English
and admires Anita Desai who "shows extreme talent and Is
doing commendable work. She has tremendous power and [s
aware or low to build up a situation and come to grips with
It -the most important thing in any novel:' She herself has
just completed a supplementary text-book commissioned by
the NCERT called A History of the Freedom Movement for
the 14 to 15 years age group. It is expected to appear shortly.
Other favorites

Among other writers she admires Graham Greene great-
ly. In Morris West she finds "an under-lying streak of great
humanism. Simony de Beauvoir Is a social historian. She
covers a huge canvas which becomes rather bigger than the
novelist usually copes with." She Is . a regular reader of
Bertrand Russell and thinks that his philosophy Is both pro-
found and of daily use. "He Is a man who has striven all
his life to improve the lot of human beings." She also has
great respect for the writings of Andre Glide and among her
favorite novelists are two English writers both women, Iris
Murdoch and Penelope Mortimer.
About her writing In English she said: "I wrote in
English because it was my language, my. entire education was
In English schools and in colleges In the United States There
was no choice except to write in English. I do read some
Hindi magazines 'but haven't read any Hindi novelist for the
last few years." She feels that the task! of the Indian writer
In English Is ditlicult because one has to confront readers who
have read a great deal of tbe best of tbe world literature. "I
don't believe that Indians writing in English have really
achieved true distinction In producing novels. I think! we
have written good things but not something we could class as
excellent. Not a single one. But some beautiful novels have
nevertheless been written, like Kamala Markandaya's A Handful

 of Rice, which is moving, to the point and related to Indian
coalitions, She has a poignant way of expressing herself."

Nayantara Is unhappy about . the situation In India at
present and feels that if political forces continue to behave the
way they are doing now there might be some sort of chaos.
Her novel Storm in Chandigarh deals mainly with one problem
-the problem of Chandigarh. "The theme of Nayantara
Sahgal's hew novel Is violence, not necessarily an obvious
physical thing but the more subtle Infliction of one person's
will on another! In her earlier novel, This Time of Morning,
she gave "a daring, Intimate and explosive expose of the
goings-on in the protected world of politicians and administrators

 in the present-day India." She gave a revealing in-
sight into the world of politicians bureaucrats and their family
life, their wives in particular and the feeling of frustration
amongst the people of the younger generation. She handles
situations with competence. A number of well-known political
figures have also been dealt with_ This novel alone can put
her amongst the best of Indian writers at work today. She
Is currently working on a novel in which she is trying to explore

situations in the life of a woman after divorce
IT is no easy matter to recreate Lenin's personality or draw a
word picture of this versatile man. Maxim Gorky confessed

that to write a literary profile of Lenin was an arduous
task, that Lenin was forthright and direct like everything he
said, and "penetrating and wise."

Let us, however, Endeavour to recreate certain traits of
Lenin's personality from reminiscences by his contemporaries.
Dmitri Pavlov, a worker from Shrove, on being asked by
Maxim Gorky what he thought was Lenin's most outstanding
feature, replied that Lenin was "straightforward; straight-
forward as the truth".

To the ordinary - people, Lenin was the most human of
humans. "None of us had ever met a more warm-hearted
person. He had a key to every heart." This was what Kirov
had to say about him.

V. Karpinsky, one of the veterans of Russia's revolution.
aryl movement, who was a member of the CPSU as early as
1898, described Lenin as a considerate and thoughtful person.
His first meeting with Lenin made an Indelible impression on
Karplnsky: "That was Indeed a Parly leader, and at the same
time a plain comrade to whom you could go and unburden

Recalling his first meeting with Lenin at Shushcnskoye,
In 1898, Pantelelmon Lepeshinsky, one of Lenin's comrades-In-
arms wrote: "None of us could be on such natural, unaffected·
ed, charming and good relations with others, be so considerate
and tactful. and show such regard for the liberty and human
dignity of each of us, his comrades and en-thinkers, as

One of Lenin's closest fellow-workers, V. Bonch-Bruye-
vicb, business manager of the Council of People's Commissars,
recalls in his Reminiscences Lenin's family life. When in
emigration, Bonch·Bruyevich was a frequent visitor at the borne
of Lenin, where he was tnvarlably struck and touched by the
deep warmth With which Lenin treated Nadezhda Konatanti-
novna, his wife and Yeuzaveta Vaslllevna, his mother-In-law,
who lived with them.

"Often enough," recalls Bonch-Bruyevlch, "though they
spoke quietly (in the kitchen) Lenin's ears were sharp enough
to learn from their conversation that they were short of bread,
or that something else had to be got. He would then firmly

• "It's my business to go for bread. Surely I, too,
must contribute my share of the house-keeping" '.
Revolutionaries Welcome

Proletarian revolutionaries from Russia were always
cordially welcomed by Lenin and his wife when they lived in
emigration. Describing his unforgettable meetings with
Lenin and Krupskaya in Cracow, Maranon recalled that not-
withstanding the Irate hour, he was welcomed most cordially
by them and that they were quite firm that he should stay the
night at their home. The small fiat occupied by Lenin and
Krupskaya was furnished with little more than plain tables,
chairs, two iron bedsteads and a cupboard for clothes. The
rest of the space was taken up by books, newspapers and

Kolinsky, a lifelong revolutionary, remarked that Lenin's
whole way of life had always been proletarian, excepting (or
the heaps to books in his room.

Lenin must have dismissed the talk they had entirely
from his mind. Presently, however, Lenin' stopped Zheltyshev
In the Sonly corridor. "You haven't changed your mind
about taking leave, have you? How many days would you
need, would forty do? Get a certificate from the secretary
and go."

In Moscow the brief leisure Lenin had, he would spend
by taking walks around the Kremlin, going on rides to the
Verbose (now Lenin) Hills, or to the woods. Wile passing
a village, on Lenin's request, the driver S. Oil would pull up
and take the happy and boisterous village kiddies. for a ride,
Lenin liked meeting the village children and talking to them.
But Lenin had little chance for recreation in those years, right
after the Revolution. Later, in March 1923, a raw hours be-
fore he lost his power of speech, he remarked humorously to
his sister Maria ilylnichna : "In 1917 I had a rest at the hut
in Sestroretsk (here Lenin had lived his underground life during

the persecution by the bourgeois provisional government),
and in 1918 by the grace of Kaplan's shot (Kaplan, member
of the Socialist- Revolutionary Party, attempted upon Lenin’s
life and gravely wounded him). Later, however, no such
occasion presented Itself."

Fond of Children

Bolshevik Party veterans know well and .remember how
fond Lenin was of children, how concerned he was about food
supplies (or them in the crucial Civil War years, insisting that
everything possible be done to Improve supplies to orphanages
and to protect children from famine.

Lenin always showed concern and solicitude for the
health of his comrades and colleagues. Like everybody else,
Tsyrupa, People's Commissar of Food Supplies, was underfed
and his health was greatly impaired. In the summer of 1918
Lenin wrote to Tsyrupa : "Dear A.D., You're becoming quite
impossible-the way you treat state property.

"Prescription : three weeks medical treatment ,

"It Is unforgivable to squander your weak health like
that. You bave to recover l"

Gorky's health, too, was a matter of Lenin's touching
concern. Gorky termed this solicitude for his friends and
comrades the heartfelt thoughtfulness of a true comrade. an
expression of affection of an equal for an equal.

Lenin's entire life and revolutionary activities were
Inalienably linked with the work lug class. The workers had
the greatest affection for and boundless trust in their leader.
In the archives is preserved the address of greetings to Lenin
by the workers of tbe Stokowski Mill in Kuntsy (Bryanski

HO CHI MINH, the 79-year-old leader and liberator of
Vietnam, was the one revolutionary who successfully
defied-and defeated-the armies of three great colonial empires

and military powers-

"the French empire which, for centuries had enslaved
the countries of the Far East including Vietnam, and which,
after a bitter struggle, was eventually and decisively defeated at

"the Japanese empire which, during World War II, over-
ran the colonial possessions of Britain, France and other
European powers In the Far East and against which Vietnamese

 revolutionaries under Ho Chi Ming, organised a series
of uprisings, helping the process of the complete annihilation
of Japanese Imperial might, and

°after France had grudgingly conceded their Independence,

 the Americans stepped Into their shoes, and set up a
corrupt, reactionary, puppet regime in South Vietnam, to perpetually

 divide and dominate the country, and once again Ho
Chi Miuh and his phenomenally courageous army of liberation
had to take up arms against the imperialist aggressors, even
though they claimed to be the champions of democracy I

It Is this phase of Ho Chi Minh's revolutionary career,

the latest chapter in Vietnam's almost conunuouazs-year war I

of liberation, that places Ho among the greatest rebels and            \

redeemers in world history.


Consider his-and, under his leadership, his country

nrlraculoua achievement.

Here was a small, backward Asiatic country, with no
tradition of militarism and no record of aggression, enslaved
and kept down for centuries by imperial France, the millions
steeped in poverty and illiteracy, challenging, and taking up
arms against the greatest military - economic power In the

Here were peasant-solder with bamboo hats and grass
sandals clutching Soviet-made rifles, or American rifles snatch-
ed from the enemy, fighting the US Marines, with their battle-
ships, their bazookas, their air cover of fast fighters and
bombers, theft flame- throwers and rocket-launchers,

Here were Vietnamese boys, armed with only faith in
their cause, eating a handful of boiled rice which they carried
on their persons, fighting tough U.S. soldiers with their Mobile
Canteens stocked with tinned rations of beef and pork sausages,

biscuits and chocolates.

Here was the recreation of the fable of tbe little boy
David with his sling confronting the mighty giant's strength of
Goliatb. As in the (able, Goliatb Is on the run with little
David in hot pursuit.

Hero and Poet

How was this miracle achieved? It is admitted on all
hands that, more than anyone else, it was Ho Chi Minh who
Inspired and' educated his people, mobilized and organised
them, planned the national reconstruction of the country and
tbe cultural upsurge, that have been going on despite the
war. It was he who led his people In peace and In war, In
victory and defeat and military stalemate, who planned the
strategy and the tactics that have astonished the generals and
marshals of tbe world.

What were the sources of his power over his people, the
secret MANTRA with which he transformed illiterate peas-
ants, into first rate fighting men, turned every prospect of
defeat into a resounding victory against the heaviest odds?

Ho's life-long apprenticeship for tbe leadership of h1s
people is part of the story. Here was the sensitive boy from
tbe Village Sen., born in a region rich in the traditions of the
greatest patriots and the most famous revolutionaries of Viet
Nam, land of heroes, but also land of poets!

Teacher: Poverty

Ho Chi Minh is the inheritor or both these traditions.

There is a steal of poetry discernible not in his political
writings but also in his life Itself. Left to himself, born at
another time of tranquility, he would have been a composer
of exquisite verses, a weaver of words.

Poverty was the first teacher of Ho Chi Minh who was
born Nguyen Sinh Cooing. Life was hard for him as a boy,
he and the people In his-village were always in rags, most of
them could not afford trousers and went about In loin-

Little Cooing saw his mother die for Jack of medicine,
soon after she had given birth to a baby boy who, too, died
later, it was said, "because he had sucked the dead mother's
milk". This tragedy had a great and formative impact on his
sensitive mind.

Later, while he was studying and playing, the reason for
the poverty of his people and his family-the reason for his
mother's death - was revealed to him. The French imperial-
Ists were Imposing forced labour upon the people of this region
to build a military road in the mountains. Everyone from
the age of 18 to 50 had to submit to forced labour at the point
of gun.

Madly Names                                                         "<,

Imperialist exploitation was a fact of life learnt early
by little Cooing, and the grief for the death of his mother was
sublimated Into a growing concern for the fate of all his

Cooing had his name changed to Thanh when he went
to 'school and college In Hue and, after a brief spell as a tea-
cher, the restless spirit took possession of him and he left home
for: the wider world. After a technical course in Saigon, he
signed on as a cook OD a French ship. "For over ten years,"
his biographer records, "he went through a life of toil, of
hunger, of cold, as a cook's help, snow-sweeper, and photo-
grapher·s assistant ... he went to France, round Africa, to
England and America, visiting many countries

The callow youth became a confirmed revolutionary. He
arrived at Marxism not through study of books, but out of his
observation and experience of imperialism and capitalism, in
tbe school of life.
It was not easy for a Vietnamese to be a revolutionary,
the French secret police was always hounding them, and so
as he traveled on the road which eventually led to the liberation

of his country.

"he became Nguyen Ai Quoi-the name under which he
lived and edited revolutionary papers in Paris ;

be had to change into Ly They or Wang Shaner In

·into Comrade Vuong in Shang Hal (where he was reported

to be dead),

"Into contractor Chin in Siam,

onto Sung Man-chow in Hong Kong,

-into Lin-a pseudonym he used for writing In

Onto Limo during his period of study and revolutionary
apprenticeship in Moscow,

"and finally Ho Chi Minh, the name by which the world
knows him, and mourns him today.

Hooves ...

Seldom have the people of tbe world so deeply mourned,
and so spontaneously contoured, another national leader, with
the exception of Lenin and Gandbi and Jawaharlal Nebru.

And, indeed, Ho (affectionately known as Uncle Ho to
the children of Viet Nam) had something of Lenin, of Gandhi
and Nehru In him-the revolutionary zeal of Lenin, the utter
simplicity and humanly of Gandhi, the youthful and dynamic
spirit or Nehru.

Ho Chi Minh, the resolute old man of iron will, is dead.

But he lives on in the hearts and minds of his people, a living
tradition, an Inspiration and an ideal; their father, their
teacher, their leader, in peace and in war. The end of Ho Chi
Ming is not the end of the struggle of Viet Names’ people who
will carry it on now with added vigor and dedication-as
the Alder can army of occupation in South Viet Nam wll1 soon
find out!
WHEN Mabatma Gandbl fell a victim to the bullets of
. assassin Gods on January 30, 1948, very few o( his can try
men realized that it was the beginning of the end of the
Gandbian era.

Barely a decade after his death. Gandbiji's followers
bave steadily worked in public and private to destroy the very
ideals the great humanist stood for and died for. Most of
them bave become impervious to tbe dictates of even their own
conscience. Today, no longer do Gandhijl's words stir
their minds; no longer do his teachings send any ripples
through the stagnant pool o( their souls and no longer do his

messages reverberate even an echo In their hearts.

To those who lived in the Gandbian era, Mabatma was
an institution by himself. During his life time, he valiant-
ly fought and firmly stood his ground against all artifice, social
evils and serfdom. By his message of truth and love, he
perpetually injected into millions of ailing hearts a ray of new
hope to live In a spirit of tolerance and non-violence. Gandbi's
noble deeds and actions, dedicated and selfless service to
humanity, led India from the yoke of backwardness, ignorance
and misery to blossoming prairies and pastures. He got for
his countrymen freedom from the shakes of slavery.

This is the much-talked about Gandbi Centenary year.

But occasions like tbis which invariably begin In a somber
rash toe, Invariably end up 8S an ostentatious exhibitionism.
One need have no gestation in saying that had Mahatma been
alive today he would have strongly deprecated tbe extravagance
being displayed to celebrate bless centenary both at the Centre
and in the States.

Our politicians and the public may talk of Gandhiji as
a guiding star. But what they want to get out of it Is political
capital. When it comes to facing the realities of life, they are
all so for removed (ram the truth. The periodic communal
outburst in the country which amply demonstrated of tbe fact
and should remove all doubts from the minds of our country-
men that we In tbe land of Gandbijl do sincerely believe and
can effectively follow the GandWan ideals. Long after
Gandhiji is dead, it is apparent that what was preached by him
and achieved by him was possible for him alone. It Is
obviously out of reach of his followers and most of his
countrymen. Those who public ally talk highly of Mahatma
and the ideals that he put before us, would do a great service
to the departed soul, if they did not talk about him. It Is
better to leave the name of Gandhiji unsoiled. The commoner
can only raise his hands In prayer to the departed soul,

It is a matter of shame for the country and the people
that in this year of Gandhi Centenary it was left to Khan
Abdul Gaffar Khan to remind us that the teachings of Gandhiji
had no place for preaching of hatred. True to the discipline
of Gandhiji's philosophy of truth and non-violence, Bad shah
Khan had started a three day fast, not against any particular
section of the people of India or against a community or a
people or a state, but as a protest and bard reminder to the
people of the country in general, that it could ill afford to
forget the basic tenets of his thought which had not only
helped to achieve freedom for India but had recreated for
the Indians a new set of values which had held out the hope
for tbe entire mankind that a new weapon, the weapon of

satyagraha had been evolved to fight Injustice and exploitation      '

so that bitterness and hatred that were the outcome of any

physical fight, such as war or violent revolution, would be
eliminated from human hearts and at the end of an agitation

both the victor and the vanquished would feel that they were

equal partners In rooting out Injustice, and share the same

sense of achievement. -:

It was not accidental that the Frontier Gandh; should
have talked of the violence In the Telangana agitation. He said
that it was the accumulation of injustice that generally gave
rise to the feelings of separation, but added that such feelings

were not in the interests of ninety of the country and that best    'I.

way to fight injustice Is through non-violent means and agitate

for their redresses which would neither rancor In the hearts

of the people nor would lead to tbe Ideas of separation. It

is to be hoped that the leaders of Separate Telangana
agitation would heed his advice and agitate along with he rest

of the people for the redressed of. the injustice done during the
last twelve years through non-violent means, so that In the
process of this, based on satyagraha principles, the people
themselves would change and lay the foundation for a real
and binding emotional Integration of the people of the State
and between the dlfferellt communities and castes that Inhabit
Andhra Pradesh.

Those people that express concern for the health of
Khan should ponder and contemplate to what extent that he
had been moved, to state that the had decided to come to
India and make his protest to the people of India over their
failings because he had still faith In the people of India. who
dwell in the villages of this country, who cherish their memory
in their blossoms unostentatiously but with the utmost sincerity
and love, unlike the conical politicians who would pay lip
sympathy to Gandhiji. and his preaching’s and use his name
as a vote catching device to perpetuate the very evils
against which Mahatma had valialltly campaigned.

The visit of Bad shah Khan can be described in a sense
as the spirit of Gandhi revisiting this land to which he had
given his \ all and his life so that his compatriots might live in
freedom and love; and no wonder its wishing in agony at the
way the fruits of the hard won freedom had been squandered
by those who were to be the trustees on behalf or the people,
and Frontier Gandhi had to decide on a fast.

While everyone would join in prayers that khan Abdul
Gaffar Khan would have the strength to stand this ordeal at
80th year, it should be equally the concern and dally of every
one to strive to put It into practice the teachings of Mahatma

It seems Gandhi like Budha is going to be followed
only abroad than In the country of his birth. Whatever of him
was left, had been stamped out of existence during the post
independence period. All the more ironical is State sponsored
celebrations honoring the man at the time when his principles
and ideals are being crushed to the ground not only in a state
In which he was craddledbut elsewhere also.

What Is the use of holding empty public ceremonies and
giving fake respect to Gandhi 7 He died In 1948 and let us
not kill him any more.

Visit of Khan Abdul Gaffer Khan has served U8 with
one bitter lesson-e-a reality to encounter- the reality of our
being set to cross purpose to whatever Mahatma Gandhi
stood for.

The amount of hatred, false values and corruption we
have in our country shows to what an extent Gandhi's
teachings have been lost to us. We have forgotten him,
unfortunately. It Is hardly any use forcing his Ideology by
exhibitions and other outward and empty propaganda methods
unless people are genuinely receptive.

At the moment Gandhi Is A Big Failure In our country.

It Is a failure of Faith and Conviction-a failure of Truth
and Righteousness. Let us mourn the death of good thoughts
and values and may In the process of this ritual we drop one
genuine tear in regard and gratitude to the one who died for
principles, for truth, for love of mankind. If we want Gandhi
to be respected let us not forget what Is universal about his
philosophy e-non-violence, love, truth and dignity of man.


, 'I do not know whether you were told that I tried to see
you in Yervada Jail but you were removed to Nasik",
was a revealing sentence In a letter written by Mahatma
Gandhi to the writer in 1934. He further mentioned that be
was writing that letter at 4 a.m. before the morning prayers I
Such was the Mahatma with his personal touches.

The writer was a companion of Mahatma '8 Borsad
Asbram inmates In Nasik Jail. The Mahatma had imprinted
his immortal leadership with these golden touches on his In-
numerable followers of every race. Where is the leader of
that calibre anywhere in the world today; above all, in his
own land of birth, when we are celebrating the loath anniversary

 of his birthdays? He was a master of human psychology.
Jesus Christ picked up twelve fishermen and declared unto
them: "Follow me unto the ends of the world!" They
followed him blindly and each one of them became a tremendous

 leader except the one who betrayed him for 30 pieces of

Mahatma Gandbl created and molded his first tier of
leaders and thereafter many tiers beneath It all. Up to each
on e. he breathed his spirited message of love and discipline.
How many have now betrayed him after his death. He always
had a word of comfort for each one. He understood the
foibles and weaknesses and the strength of people around him
and above all the psychology of the masses. He rendered
what he could give up to each unit and no more than that. How
was it ever possible for him that after the collapse of Non-
Cooperation Movement of the twenties he could step by step
muster enough strength from one round of battle starting with
the Dandi March of 1930, initiated with the Salt Satyagraha
until he reached the fourth and final stage of the Quit India
Movement of 1942 preceded with Intermediary strike for free-
dom of 1932. He drew inside the rings of freedom millions
and millions of men and women from every part of the land.
What a magnetic personate he had I

Practice and Preaching

The Mahatma believed In practicing what he preached.

He did not say one thing at one place and another thing at
another place. If he had caused any deception willingly or
unwillingly or If he had misled anyone; he was the first one
to beg for forgiveness. That was the strength of his leader-
ship. He never cared for his life. He nobly faced his killer,
Nathu Ram Godse though he had enough warnings that he
may have a violent end.

When India attained freedom, he demanded honest and
incorruptible Ministers. Have we followed that dictum? Have
we carried out his orders? He was the supreme field com-
mender but we compromised at every stage and we are stilt
compromising today, At the Karachi Congress, he declared
as early as 1931 that the key industries of India could not be
entrusted to any private hands and that they should be nationals.

 Thereafter at the Round Table Conference at London,
he was ready to expropriate anything unduly held either by the
princes or by big business.

Big business or monopolists had not shown their ally
hands when he was alive. They started piling upon pile infamously

or unjustly after he had departed and today Parliament

 Is grappling with these problems not so effectively and
people fear that even an enquiry into Birla affairs wad produce
nothing. Perhaps, they will be let off with a warning or simple
Imprisonment as this writer predicted In the Rajya Sabha. The
writer concluded his speech on his subject with the observation
that it was a tragedy that Mahatma Gandhi lived and died in
the Birla House and that had afforded a powerful umbrella for
all the misdeeds if monopolists.

Mahatma Gandhi created a matchless core of disciples
headed by Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru. The great Sub has
Chandra Bose fen! out of his basket and he welt on his own
way. Netajl after his escape from his home in Calcutta-it
was a titan tic voyage indeed - led the Indian National Army
'and hanged the doors of the Raj in South East Asia. The
British were alarmed and one of the causes which compelled
them to leave India was the mutiny in the Army and the Navy.
NetaJi thus played a great part In 'opening the doors for free-
dom through the gateway of South East Asia.

Mahatma Gandhi's other followers were not less illustrious.

They were heroes indeed headed high the Patel brothers,
(Vithalbbai who flung' away the Speaker ship of the Indian
Legislative Assembly after fulfilling strenuous tasks indeed and
Sardar Patel) Babu Rajendra Prasad, Maulana Azad, Dr.
Ansari, Sarojini Naidu, Bhulabhal Deai and a host of others.
All these men and women carved out a place (or themselves In
the freedom-temple of India. The Mahatma's opposition to
the partition of the land was almost the biggest chapter to-
wards the end of his life. He fought the division of India
. tooth and nail with all the ferocity and determination at his

command. There was only one outstanding man who joined
him in that crusade. Others believed In the quick partition
of India and In their gaining the plums of office but not so the
Mahatma. The other man was that fearless Editor S. Saraland

 of Bombay's Free Press Journal. He launched a terrific
attack against the partition day after day in the columns of hi.
paper. The Mahatma would not enter the Constituent Assembly

 of India nor participate In the rejoicings of August 15,
1947 though his spirit was hovering around the corridors of
the Assembly which after two years became the Indian Parliament.

The writer has seen with his own eyes how Mahatma
Gandhi walked up to Jinnah's house at Bombay's Altamont
Road for 18 days in 1944 to conduct negotiations, for a communal

 settlement. Yet Jinnah prior to that had Dot had the
courtesy to write him a letter of condolences when the
Mahatma's noble spouse died in detention In the Agha Khan's
Palace. The writer reminded Jinnah at the Smile conference
about this lapse of courtesy on his part. Incidentally the
Mahatma walked up from the end of the lane from Birla
House to Jinnah's palatial mansion now occupied by the
Deputy High Commissioner of Britain. Yet It was from that
very Birla House. Kasturba Gandhi was turned out by the
Birla on the very next day after the Quit India campaign was
waged on 9th August 1941.

The Mahatma went and put up his tent in far away
Naokhall in Bengal living amongst peasants amid the fury of
the communal riots. He had reminded on a number of occasions

 that once the Hindus and the Muslims smoked from the
same hookah! He was for a mutual understanding between
two communities and went out of his way to fight
for their causes as he did in the Kilowatt agitation
with those fiery pair of brothers - Maulana Shaukat Ali
and Maulana Mahomed Ali headed by their noble mother
BI Amma. At one time he discarded the rich offer of
provincial autonomy at the hands of then Viceroy, late Lord
Reading but would not betray the cause of his pledged associates,

 the All brothers who were in jail. He demanded their
release. How many times he pleaded for the release or free-
dom of those who were sentenced to death and awaiting execution

at the gallows.

Thus truly, he made B tryst with destiny. Are we worthy
of the great heritage which we are recalling with humility and
devotion on the anniversary of his birthday. Are we
.offering any sacrifices to bum with noble minds and clean
hands? Have we not tarnished the pages of our post-freedom
period with nepotism and corruption, with gross failure to
establish justice between man and man, woman and child,
through tbe Ineffective Implementation of the social objectives
of our State? Time alone will show that Mahatma's life and
teachings were an indispensable chapter in our national Use.
Will that chapter of peace and non- violence be ended with a
violent struggle to establish the Ideals for which he stood?
Will it be a page of different methods at different times for
seeking the golden age about which he clearly reminded us
times without number. Let alone our conscience find the


MAHATMA GANDHI was once again assasslnated-e-thls

time, not in Delhi but in Ahmedabad not on January 30,
1948, but on September 20, 1969. This time there were not
three bullets, but two knives, In his heart. He had been stab-
bed both by Muslims and Hindus.
Godse Triumphs
And the Immortal spirit of Jawaharlal Nebru, who
defied a rioter's sword In Delhi, In 1947, bad to suffer a fatal
stab in bins sensitive heart five years after death.

- Only the spirit of Godse Wits jubilant triumphant. At

last, the assassin of the Mahatma achieved what his dastardly
-act had failed to achieve In 1948-the transformation of
thousands of simple Indians, both Hindus and Muslims, into
his own dark indwell Image.

Nor was he alone In this moment of English exultation.

Celebrating tbe triumph of their doctrine of bate and violence
were other religious fanatics and assassins-like the murderers
of Swami Shradhanand and Mahashay Rajpal-who, too, saw
in the events of Ahmedabad the fulfillment of their own life
purposes. Only, they were not purposes of Life they were
the purposes of Death I

Devil is Man

And all the evil spirits danced a macabre dance of death
and destruction - Hitler and Mussolini and the Nazi murderers
of the concentration camps, the hangmen of BeIsen and
Buchenwald, the arsonists of the lethal gas chambers-for, in
Ahmedabad, they saw their dreams come true, the transformation

of the children of Gandhi Into followers of Godse;
and Hate and Hysteria thrive In the cradle of Nonviolence ;
Intolerance rampant where the Mahatma had not only
preached, but demonstrated In practice, the gospel of Tolerance
and Love.

A dark, dismal, gloomy silence descended on the Heaven
that is in tbe beard of Man; while Hell-which also is In the
heart of Man-reverberated with the raucous laughter of the
Devil who bas a suspicious resemblance to Man I

Dead was the claim that Islam is the Religion of Peace,
that the word "Islam" Itself is a synonym for Peace.


Dead, also, was the claim that Hinduism is a catholic
philosophy of tolerance which can accommodate within Its large
heart many different variations of religious beliefs and cultural
Dead was the claim that the Gujaratls are by tempera-
ment a peace-Moving people steeped in the Gandhi an tradition
of tolerance and non-violence.

Dead was the smug belief that Communal Riots are
engineered by an interested "Third Party" (Imperialists, Capitalists,

Goondas 1) and that the common people are innocent
of any responsibility In the matter.

Dead was the lesion that a few 'speeches, a few
pamphlets, occasional appeals by leaders and Ministers, can
create the climate for the emotional integration of the nation.
A couple of cows passing on the road, the sounding of a
temple bell, the slightest disturbance in the names In a mosque,
the height of a taiga, the over-hanging branches of a peplum
tree, the sprinkling of Holly colours, the merest altercation bet-
ween street urchins belonging to different communities, Is
enough to start a cycle of violence, arson, looting and stabbings

; and they undo In a we whole year's work by the
National Integration Council.

. The situation, today, is the same (if not worse !) as It
was fifty years ago. That Is the measure of our national
failure and our national shame.

Remember '47 ?
Hardly a we passes without communal "Incident" of
smaller or larger magnitude, and elaborate subterfuges of
reporting fool no one. Everyone knows that "two sections"
or "two communities" means Hindus and Muslims, that "a
place of worship in Mohamedabad" means a mosque that "a
place of worship near the Slidell Markel Is a temple. The
well meaning restrictions on reporting (imposed for fear of
generating "reprisals" In other towns) defeat their purpose by
encouraging rum ours and speculation.

But what has happened in Ahmedabad in Its scale and
Intensity Is far more serious than any other recent communal
riot-Its technique and strategy and tactics are all reminiscent
of the worst days of the Partition Riots in 1947·48 which were
stemmed only by the supreme sacrifice of the Mahatma's life.


That It should have happened at an Is a tragedy and a

shame: but that it should have happened In the year of the
Gandhi Centenary, and in the place so closely associated with
the Mahatma's life, underlines the irony of the grim situation.
Incidentally, it also exposes the hollowness of our emotional
attachment to the memory of Gandhi Christ was betrayed by
one Judas, Millions of Indians are dally betraying the Father
of the Nation, who also happened to be one of the two
greatest men of his age-the other being Lenin.

Home Minister Y. B. Chavan summed up the tragic
significance of the current wave of rioting "Gandhiji's thought
Is being murdered in Ahmedabadwhile we are celebrating
Mahi-mahi’s birth' centenary, we must ask ourselves whether
we behave amongst us as men should with men This poison
of communalism) is so filled in the minds of the people that
any time it spills out and flares up."

Who Is Who

Admirable sentiments, but they sound strange coming
(rom the Home Minister, not only with a police but also with
a network of central intelligence to keep him Informed.

Does he not know (specifically, name by name) the
persons who are spreading this Polson In the country? Does
he not read at least a sample of what is being written and
published In communalist papers both of Hindus and Muslims?
Does he not know that the inspirers Instigators and accomplices

 of Godse are free and active, speaking, holding meetings
publishing their autobiographies, that they are being honored
feted and feasted not only by their supporters but also by
eminent members of the Government? Does Mr. Chavan
and his GID not know who talks what, who meets whom
who stays with whom ? Does he not know that his own Party-
men, his own Government officials are Involved In this business
of peddling ideological poison ?

Hearts 8th Minds

Someone described the communal riots as a continuing
civil war it India.

If wars begin in the minds of men, the riots also begin
In the minds-and the hearts-of men.
If riots have to be stopped the hearts of men must be
purge! of those elements like fear, anger, arrogance, hatred
and intolerance that create a psychosis of explosive tension
between different communities-specially the majority community

and the principal minority community.

But notoriously tbe Heart cannot read, and so Is likely
to be easily misled, carried away by the fanatic's appeal to
emotion. And so tbe beard must be supplemented, controlled,
guided, by the Mind, which must be informed, educated, disciplined

to appreciate, tbe Rational Secular, Scientific outlook.
The development of such a mental outlook alone, can immunize

the Indian people against the "poison" of narrow
religiosity and communalism.

Ideas bave legs. And a Slate dedicated to the twin concepts

of Socialism and Secularism can, and must, move,
Impel, actives, the rest ideas and Inject them Into the minds
of the people, Spiritual and social Immolation Is, at least
as Important as the Anti-Small Pox inoculations.

Danger Signal

 .But will someone, somewhere, think or all this? Or will

Ahmadabad be treated as just a law and order problem to be
solved by calling the Military organ sing a few Peace

Committees (sometimes with the same elements who have disrupted
the peace !) and pacificator fasts 'l

Ahmedabad Is almost the last of the danger signals. It
Is a grimly-worded writing on the wall a warning that, unless
something is done-and soon-s-to combat this evil, this country

is doomed to a Mediaeval existence, cramped by Mediaeval
minds, and torn by Mediaeval religious warfare.

Let no one be Indifferent.

For riots, like wars, are caused by the passive acquiescence of the Indifferent ones.

We arc equally Involved in Ahmedabad-in its suit, Its
horror, its rank unreason, Its cruel waste of human lives sacrificed

for no God at all I


DURING the year 1929, I came from London, specially to

rewrite my nova' Untouchable under the advice of Mahatma
Gandhi. I had read some articles by him In Young India on
the question of the outcastes. I was given an appointment to
see Gandhlji In Ahmedabad on the day after my arrival In
Bombay. When I met him the following dialogue ensued.

Gandblji : One thing you have Iterant In London-punctually.

In fact, I am late, as I was spinal

Author : As I wrote and told you, I have written a novel
about an untouchable.

Gandbiji ; We call them Harlan’s here,

Author : And I felt, after writing It, that It lacks depth,
although It Is based on actual experience about
the life of tbe outcastes In Northern India.

Gandbijl : "Outcastes" ?-we prefer to use the word
"Harijan", I told you.

Author : "Harljan" means son of God. And I am sorry I
do not see that our society gives them tbe status
of sons of God ... Besides I don't believe In God.

Gandbiji : Then you are not a Hindu.

Author : No-a religion which tolerates the caste system
Is not the kind of faith that I would like to
subscribe to. In fact, I have been thinking of
joining the Christian Church, because at least
Christianity does not enjoin caste. My only
difficulty is that even the Christians require their
followers to believe In God.

Gandhiji : So you prefer to be an atheist?
Author : Yes I I am B socialist.

Gandbiji : I don't agree with you that Hinduism tolerates
caste. The orthodox Hindus discriminate against
the lower castes, but not the good Hindus.

Author ; I think: you are very generous to the Hindu-faith
and Ignore the fact that caste has been the basis
of Hinduism for more than a thousand years.

Gandhiji : I would not belong to the Hindu faith If I
thought that caste was the basis of Hinduism.

Author : At any rate, I am convinced that it Is so and
that Is why I have written my novel-as a kind
of protest.

Gandhiji : It Is important to write about this question. But
why not write a straightforward book attacking
caste. 'the straight book is truthful and you can
reform people by saying things frankly.

Author : I wish to wade a novel and not a propaganda
tract. In a novel you state a problem but do
not solve It. You leave that to the reformers.
Though I do want to reform people, I believe in
posing the question rather than answering it.

Gandhiji : People are not likely to read your book! In the
English language-so It Is for your own glory
that you may wish to write this novel.

Author : Perhaps you are right. Because In Europe the
artist bas tended to become a hero. But I have
come to you merely because I wish to curb my
egotism and learn from you to' love the un-
touchable. I try to translate the thoughts and
feelings of my characters from the original
Panjabi and Hindustani Into English. There are
no publishers In Panjabi who will put out a
novel. So I am forced to write in English.

Gandhiji : Of course, there is no time to lose.

must say one's say In any language that comes
to hand. So there Is no reason why your book!
should not be In English.

Author : Except that many Indians say that it Is wrong to
expose India's bad things to the outside world.

Gandhiji : The truth must be told-s-never mind whom It
hurts. It Is truth, even If It hurts.
Author : The Russians said the same to Gogel, Dostoevsky
and Tobol, when these writers showed the evils
of their country.

Gandblji : You have read Tolstoy.

Author : Almost everything that he has written -also

what Countess Tolstoy says about him.

Gandbiji : I hear that she was not very kind to him.
Author : Have I your permission to stay in the Ashram ?
Gandbiji : You can stay . And we shall not be too hard

on you. And now it Is time for my prayer.

THE eighty. two kilometres of missing links of the road
which Gandhiji took from Sabarmati to Dandl, In March-
April 1930 Is being built by Gujarat youth.

Working under the auspices of the Gujarat State
Youth Board. hundreds or students are voluntarily donating
their labour to complete the missing links.

About 25,000 students are expected to participate In this
voluntary effort before the missing links are completed during
the Gandhi Centenary year.

When complete. the road will not only be a memorial
to the Mahatma and hi. famous Dandl March but also a .
symbol of the dignity of labour and self-reliance as provided
by the youth or Gujarat.

It may be recalled that 39 years ago on March 12. 1930
Gandhiji with a group of 81 satyagrahis set out on a momentous
march which paved the way for the country's independence
about seventeen years hence. A small man. as he was Indeed
physically, had raised his head against the mighty Imperial
power. He had no weapons In his : armory except self.
righteousness, burning love for the poor and down-trodden
and above all a firm determination to secure freedom for his

Before he set out on his epoch-making march, the
Mahatma gave a notice to British. rulers of his Intention to
pick up salt from the God-given sea-water in violation of the
then existing law. According to him, the salt law was
oppressive of the poor and must be opposed.

It was a symbolic non-violent movement which was to
be a precursor of the massive struggle for freedom.

The Mahatma, with his devoted associates trudged along
the road to Dandl, an obscure village on the sea-shore about
344 km. away. On the way he addressed several meetings
and explained to the people the nature of his mission.

On April 5, Gandhlji reached Dandl and picked up a
lump of the forbidden salt. Thousands witnessed this solemn
beginning of what turned out to be a gigantic movement.


It was Gandhiji's firm conviction that mere changes in the
society could achieve not binge unless there was a change
in tbe personnel which composed tbe society. In this con-
text tbe role of his Ashrams for human regeneration be-
comes significant.

Gandbiji himself bad this to say. "I am going to o.k. tbe
country not to judge me by either Chaparral or Kheda

      but only by the Ashrams."               -

AS the train approaches the Wardha railway station, a group
of huts, amidst natural surroundings, give the travelers
the first glimpse of Scwagram. Outside the railway station a
signboard reminds them that hallowed village Is only nine
kilometers away.
The Magic Spell of Seagram
After you have driven along the metal led road, linking
Wardha with Seagram, a panorama of scenic beauty unfolds
Itself. A warm, friendly smile is the first welcome anyone
gets anywhere In Seagram. This is the magic spell of
Sew gram.

At Seagram you can spot out most of the important
landmarks : Adi News, Bapu Kutl, Ba Kutl, Awhirl News
and tbe Prayer Ground.

On my first visit, inspire of the compelling attraction of
the visual perspective, the memories of days, which are no
marc, piled one upon the other. It was here that some of the
most historic political decisions were taken and the country's
destiny shaped by Gandblji and his trusted band of co.
workers. His spirit still pervades the whole Ashram.

Bapu Kati

Bapu Kati is one such place whIch touches a visitor's
heart by its simplicity. The wooden pliers supporting tbe
walls are natural trunks for Gandhijl felt that to cut them
square or polish them would he a waste of time, labour and
material. Preserved In the hut are a few pieces of Gandhiji's
personal property like "Dhanusa Take", the three monkeys,

copies of Ramayana, Gilt, Bible and a lantern.          .

It was in this Kuti that some of the most historic decisions

affecting the country were taken. At one time Seagram
was called the de facto capital of India.

Simplicity Is keynote of the life In Ashram where no
man made differences of race, language, caste, religion or sex
are recognized. There is a common mess (or all. Just as
Bapu and Ba used to take food along with Ashramltes so do
today's Asbramltes and their guests or pilgrims.

No Scavenger

Faithfully implementing Gandhian concept of dignity
of labour all the Aphanites even today 10010 after IPO sanitation

themselves. In the spotlessly clean Seagram one will
not find a scavenger.

The day at Ashram starts at 4 In the morning when
prayers are held In the open on the spot where Gandbljl used
to hold prayers. In selecting the site, Gandhiji wanted to
emphasizes that those who had renounced worldly comforts
and luxuries should not spend on a prayer house of brick and
mortar. Otherwise also he believed that the most fitting
prayer house was god's good earth, roofed with the open sky.

The solitary peplum tree standing at the edge of the
prayer ground was planted by Gandhiji in 1936 while the
other tree of babul, nearby, was planted by Kasturba on
August 2, 1942- her last gift to the Ashram.

Prayers consist of readings from the devotional songs of
all religions and recitations from Ramayana, Bhagwatgita,
Quran, Bible and other religious scriptures.

Parch are Kuti

The Ashram bears ample testimony to Gandhiji's
warmth and compassion for tbe little men-the ordinary Indi·
vIdual. The Parchure Kuti at the Ashram in one such ex-

The but, now called Parchure Kutl, was built for
Parcheesi Shastri who was strike with leprosy, ' Bapu used
to tend him every day in this Kutl and used to wash his
wounds and when he cleaned the wounds be gave something
not only to the victim of the disease but to all those who
watched him at the work,

The other thatched cottages include "Ba Kull"-
Kasturba GandhI's cottage and Akhiri News-tbe last place
of Gandhljl's stay at the Ashram.

Electric lights have been fitted in most of the other
buildings In Sewagram. The six memorial Kulis have, how-
ever, not been electrified to preserve their Identity.

It may be recalled that Gandhlji came to Sewagram in
1936. The original name of Sewagram was Saga on but since
there was another place of the same name, It was changed to
Sewagram-"The Village of Service", It was not his Inten-
tion to set up a separate institution at Sewagram OD the lines
of his previous Ashrams. He wanted tbe entire village and
its surroundings to become his Ashram, walk, in tact they
have become.
The Magic Spell of Seagram
Some o the close associates of Bapu are carrying on
diverse constructive activities, so dear to Gandhiji, In a spirit
of dedication with missionary zeal providing at the same time
a challenge to people In other parts of the country to come
forward and (allow the lead given by tbe Seagram,

Tami Sang

To the north of the Ashram are buildings of Hindustani
Thalami Sangh whose all the buildings are built of local material
and with the help of local' artisans.

Under the Sangh an experimental basic school with
spinning as a basic craft Is conducted, all Gandhljl always
laid stress on Kbadi and Village iudustries. Tbe Hindustani
TaUml Sangh has a dally class (or weaving also.

As self· sufficiency for food is the most urgent task be-
fore the country, the Talimi Saogh at Sewagram gives the first
importance to food self-sufficiency as an educational pro-
gramme. Their objective is to develop the farm, garden, and
daIry, as a training centre for students, teachers and workers
In agriculture, animal husbaudry and agrc-industries,

Rural Medical College

Close to the Sevagram Ashram is developing a rural
medical college known as Mahatma Gandhi College of Medic-
cal Sciences and Kasturba Hospital. The College whlch was
Inaugurated on September 12, 1969 i. based on Shrl Lal
Bahadur Shastri's Idea that medical students trained under
rural conditions would be more willing to serve rural areas. .

Changeless, yet changing, this Ashram is functioning
under Normal Behan, Gandhijl's daughter-in-law, on
Mahatma's lines, with pride in the past and faith In. the
future. -

'A man's enduring greatness is best measured by the extent of
. the esteem In which he Is held after his death not only by
Ills disciples but by those who opposed him in Ills life-time
and their successors. The continuing esteem of the disciples
can be taken (or granted. Sometimes, however, their adoration
takes weird forms with the result that the original gospel be-
comes distorted. When Fate cannot destroy a man, said Ernest
Remand, it sends him disciples.

Death softens enmity, but it is only In the case of the
truly great that enmity is transmuted into' esteem, admiration
and even affection. For the first fifteen years of his adult life,
Mahatma Gandhi relentlessly opposed the entrenched racialism
of the South African Government, of which General, later
Field Marshall, Smuts was the head. Yet, when Gandhi died
Smuts saluted him as 'a prince among men'. He also made
the gracious gesture of presenting to the Government of newly
independent India a pair of sandals which Gandhi had worn In
a South Adman prison and which Smuts used to keep as a
priceless possession.

Unique Gesture

Gandhi was persona non grata with the British Govern-
ment throughout his Eye~ I remember the uproar which took
place 'in the House of Commons in the early thirties when a
Labour Secretary or State, Lord Olivier, had the temerity to
call Gandhi a friend. Yet now the British Government Is
Issuing a Gandhi memorial stamp on the occasion of his centenary

. It Is a unique gesture because this wlIl be the first time
-In history that accruing face will be appearing, 'on-a BritIsh

A similar transformation has taken place In the So,. let
attitude towards Gandhi. It has passed through various stages.
When I went to the USSR, in 1952, dogmatism was at its height,
and the official Soviet attitude was expressed In the Great
Soviet Encyclopedia. There Gandhlji was described as 'a
reactionary who aped the ascetics ..• pretended in a demagogic
way to be a supporter of Indian independence and en
M 'mahatma Gandhi in Soviet Eye-s

, This attitude started changing soon after Gandblji's
death and found expression In the historic 20th. Congress In

This revived, or rather revised, interest is by no means
restricted to political and academic circles. A systematic
attempt Is being made to acquaint tbe man In tbe street with
tbe role played by Gandhi In the history of his country. This
was the impression which I, received during my recent visit to
the Soviet Union.

Within a few bours of my arrival in Moscow on 1 uly 20
I was plunged Into a Gandhi Centenary meeting at tbe

beautiful Botanical Gardens on the outskirts of Moscow. The
Director of the Gardens is none other than the internationally
famous botanist, Academician Taltson, known as "the man who
makes deserts bloom". He Invented 'winter wheat', a variety
which can be grown even in Siberia.

Dr. Taltson Is also an expert on roses. When he met
Dr. Zale Husain, another lover of roses, two months ago their
conversation turned mostly on roses, Dr. Tsetse was waiting
for the winter to be over In order to send the bulbs of some
novel varieties of roses for the President’s gardens. But,
alas, Dr. Zaire Huaaln was not destined to be their reel-

The principal speaker at the Botanical Gardens was Prof.

Littman, the author of a recent book called "Gandhi's philosophical

Views0. He described Gandhi as an original personality
who cannot be measured with though usual yardstick and to whom
the usual rules of logic cannot be applied.

Gandhi's greatest trait, said Littman, was his profound
faith in the people and his appreciation of the decisive part
which they could play in the struggle for freedom. He also
gave a comprehensive account of Gandhi as a social reformer
who sought to remove unsociability and the rigors of the
caste system and to improve the position of the under-privileged

classes, Including women, In society.

Similar meetings were being held in many parts of the
country under the auspices of a representative Gandhi Cent-
denary Committee, of which Academician Gafoor Is the Char-
man, A number of branches of the Soviet-Indian Friendship
Society have also been celebrating the Gandhi Centenary,
particularly in the Central Asian Republics of the USSR.
Recently the Youth Commission of the Society held a'

similar seminar, stressing Gandhi's role In the amelioration of

Gandhi & Art

The Industrial Art Research Centre also held a

 symposium on Mahatma Gandhi and Art. Gandhiji, however, was
less Interested ID the beauty of art than in the beauty of the
nature. Jawaharlal Nehru has said that "Gandhi admired
natural beauty but had little sense of beauty or artistry In
man-made objects-yet he discovered the art of living and
made of his life an artistic whole. Every gesture of his had
meaning and grace, without a false touch "0

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