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Risks and Returns in Business

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					                              BUSINESS CASE
                  This document prepared and owned by
[Business Owner, Business Transition Manager or Appointed Reviewer (name &
                                 position)]


                            [Agency/Organization/Division Name]
                                   [PROJECT NAME]
               VERSION: [VERSION NUMBER]                        REVISION DATE: [DATE]

The Business Case aims to inform decision makers of costs, benefits, timelines, risks, and returns on
an investment of resources (personnel, time, money) necessary to address a problem or opportunity.
The Business Case essentially answers the question: "Why should we do this now?" The owner of the
Business Case is the business manager although s/he may have used a project manager or business
transition manager to detail this report and presentation for a governing body review.
Approval of the Business Case indicates an understanding and acceptance of the business case
results described in this deliverable. By signing this deliverable, each individual agrees the information
accurately conveys project delivery results and is ready to be forwarded to organization lead and
appropriate governance teams.

Executive Sponsor and/or Business Owner

[Name]                                       [Email]                      [Telephone]


Signature:                                                                Date:


Project Manager and/or Business Transition Manager

[Name]                                       [Email]                      [Telephone]


Signature:                                                                Date:


Other (CIO/DCIO)

[Name]                                       [Email]                      [Telephone]


Signature:                                                                Date:



Other (Business Manager/Chair of Oregon Leadership Committee)

[Name]                                       [Email]                      [Telephone]


Signature:                                                                Date:
                                              Table of Contents
Table of Contents ....................................................................................... 2
Executive Summary ................................................................................... 3
Introduction and Project Background .......................................................... 4
Problem Definition & Desired Business Goals & Objectives ....................... 5
Business and Operational Impact ............................................................... 6
Environmental Scan ................................................................................... 8
  Business Transition and Technical Complexity Assessment (BTTCA) .... 8
Alternatives ................................................................................................ 9
  Benefits ................................................................................................... 9
  Costs ....................................................................................................... 9
  Assumptions............................................................................................ 9
  Risk Assessment & Risk Mitigation Strategy ........................................... 9
    Alternative 1 ....................................................................................... 11
Financial Analysis..................................................................................... 15
Conclusions and Recommendations ........................................................ 16
  Conclusions........................................................................................... 16
  Recommendations ................................................................................ 16
Appendices .............................................................................................. 17
Review / Signoff Sheet ............................................................................. 18
Document Information Page ..................................................................... 19
Amendment History .................................................................................. 19
Glossary of Terms .................................................................................... 20




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Executive Summary
<Key questions that the executive summary should answer by taking the information from the
body of the business case:
    What is the proposal & what problem does it solve?
    How will the business value be measured?
    What does the business solution or technology do?
    How much will it cost and what is the funding source (general/federal/other)?
    What are the business impact, and the risks of undertaking the project?

This section should be able to stand alone as the single source of the overall purpose, goals,
proposed actions, costs, benefits, and risks, which will allow an executive level sponsor to
deliver a compelling a case for the business opportunity. The Executive Summary will
describe the objective of the proposal, the current state of the problem and the resulting
opportunity. It outlines the scope of the proposal in general terms. The Executive Summary
also provides a brief description of the value of the proposal and benefit metrics in business
terms and not information technology terms. Conclude with recommendations and also
provide the reader with an idea of the overall investment cost and the associated funding
sources, if the funding source is known.>

The summary should be a maximum of 2 pages in length.




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Introduction and Project Background
<This section describes the current state of, and any history relating to the business problem
or opportunity. Examples of some general business problems are:

       Not meeting service level expectations
       Escalating costs
       Change in legislation
       Change in business requirements
       Inefficient business processes

The description of the current process can be enhanced by using a process flowchart diagram.
The process flowchart for the business case should be at a level that describes the overall
process without being bogged down in a lot of detail. The intent is to provide a management-
level understanding of the process that the proposed project will be augmenting or replacing.

Make sure to include any measures that would help quantify the business problems and
provide an accurate picture for the reader of the current environment or state of affairs.>




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Problem Definition & Desired Business Goals & Objectives
<This section should provide a description of the way things are now (as is), the way they
should be (to-be), and what is needed to fill the gap between the two (gap analysis). The
problem definition should never be defined as an information technology improvement or
enhancement. Technology is only a means to achieving benefits. The benefits themselves
are the result of changes to the business, designed to solve the problem.

The focus of this section should be on the people, process, and policy changes needed to
address the problem or take advantage of the opportunity and not just the technology.

In outlining the „as-is‟, „to-be‟ and „gap‟, explain the business process change and change
management aspects of the problem. If the proposal will benefit other Divisions, Districts, or
business units, provide the measures and metrics that will demonstrate business value for
these areas as well. Business value may be demonstrated by: revenue generation, business
cost reduction, business productivity, downside risk or vulnerability reduction, agility or
responsiveness. If necessary, include interviews, data or information from other Divisions,
Districts, or business units in the Appendices.

This section should also make a business or strategic link between the proposal and how the
problem or the opportunity aligns to business unit or District objectives, Division strategies, the
DHS mission and or agency strategic plan, statewide initiatives, Governor‟s initiatives, federal
mandates, etc. This strategic alignment can provide credibility, a sense of priority, and a sense
of immediacy to the business case.>




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Business and Operational Impact

<The Business & Operational Impact Section is to provide a list of all business and operational
impacts for each stakeholder. Each impact is described and analyzed for each viable
alternative.

Description:

In preparation for the development of an estimate of the cost of the project, this section of the
business case analysis describes changes that are anticipated to result from implementation of
the future process. At this point, cost is not addressed.

Changes to consider include:
   Required hardware
   Required software (off-the-shelf or developed)
   Personnel changes
     - Hiring
     - Re-training
     - Realignment
   Other required technology
     - Infrastructure
     - Databases
     - Communications capabilities
   Recurring operations and support requirements
   Total cost of ownership (TCO)
   Total value of ownership (TVO)

For each stakeholder, identify all business (strategic, longer term focused) and operational
(procedural, detailed focused) impacts that may arise from the project.

    Examples of business impacts are:
        Change in service and/or products being provided
        Change in focus or direction of the department/agency/enterprise

    Examples of operational impacts are:
        Staff training required
        Reduction of staff resources




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For each impact identify the magnitude of impact (high, medium, low, or none) for each alternative
using the following guidelines:

        High - indicates that the magnitude of impact is significant and stakeholder support and
        preparation is critical to the alternative’s success
        Medium - indicates that there is a manageable impact to the stakeholder
        Low - indicates the alternative will have a minor impact to the stakeholder
        None - indicates that the stakeholder will not be impacted by the alternative

If necessary, document the rationale for the evaluation.>

 Impact & Description                                     Alternative 1   Alternative 2    Alternative 3
 Stakeholder 1:
 Impact 1 – a description of impact 1                    High             Medium          High
 Impact 2 – a description of impact 2                    Medium           Medium          Medium

 6


 Stakeholder 2:
 Impact 1 – a description of impact 1                    High             Medium          High
 Impact 2 – a description of impact 2                    Medium           Medium          Medium




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Environmental Scan
<The Environmental Scan Section is to provide an understanding of what other organizations
(internal and external) have done or are doing to address similar types of problems or
opportunities. The reader can use this section to compare the proposed business case
direction to that of other organizations, agencies and industry trends.

Description:

The Environmental Scan should include what is happening in other government agencies,
other government jurisdictions and private industry that directly relates to the scope of the
project. Research may include such information as:

       The length of their project
       Specific project outcomes
       Critical success factors
       Business transition and technical complexity assessment (BTTCA)
       Project cost
       Benefits achieved
       What the organizations would have done differently
       Lessons learned


Business Transition and Technical Complexity Assessment (BTTCA)
    This assessment measures both the business transition complexity and the technical
    complexity of the project and used as an input in the development of the Business Case
    and Project Charter for the proposed project. The matrices are completed by reviewing
    each criteria and providing a rating fro a “1” (low” to “5” (high). Criteria that do not apply
    will be rated as “NA” (not applicable). Completion of this assessment by a multi-disciplinary
    group will yield a more accurate score and provide a higher degree of confidence. The
    scores should be discussed and a final rating will be agreed up by the group. An example
    BTTCA template.


This section should include any findings from research studies that identify industry trends and
best practices, clear understanding of the proposed project costs, duration, and full-time
equivalencies (FTEs), benefits, and outcome.>




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Alternatives
<This section should outline different alternative solutions for addressing the problem or
business opportunity. At a minimum, there must be a “do nothing” or “business as usual”
alternative and at least one other alternative. Business case best practices indicate that a
minimum of three (3) alternative solutions is preferred. While there may legitimately be only
two alternatives, this should not be inferred as an opportunity to seek sole source justification
or to circumvent procurement rules. For each of the alternatives, include enough information
to present estimates of timelines, costs, benefits, and risks to make comparisons.

There should be a supporting table for each alternative that illustrates the value (benefit),
costs, and risks across time. Use the tables provided in the template, create tables, or use
another format such as the legislative fiscal format. >


Benefits
        <Identify the benefits, how they will be measured, who realizes the benefits, and an
        estimate of when the benefits will occur. Use appendices for detailed information or
        calculations.>


Costs
        <Identify costs as One-time or Ongoing Costs. Predict these costs over the time period
        of the proposal, the payback period for the investment, or the specific timeframe that
        has been chosen to explain the alternative. Use appendices for detailed information or
        calculations.>


Assumptions
        <Document assumptions used to develop value, risk, and costs, and the ability of the
        alternative to solve the business problem, or optimize the opportunity. Include how the
        assumptions were determined, and if necessary, how they were validated. >


Risk Assessment & Risk Mitigation Strategy
        <This section provides the reader with an assessment of the risks, along with any
        discussion on risk mitigation strategies.

        Definition: A risk is a factor or event that may jeopardize the alternative from achieving
        the anticipated benefits or increase the cost of the alternative – should it become a
        project.




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Examples of risks:
    Legislative changes
    Lack of Senior Management Support
    Lack of training
    Poor communication
    Inability to secure critical resources
    Undefined or inconsistent enterprise architecture, specifically related to business
      strategy, business information requirements, and standards
    Poorly defined and or documented business processes

Identify the risks, the probability of the risks occurring, and the impact that the risks might have
on the proposal if they occurred for each alternative.>

Probability of Risk:
      High                indicates that there is a high likelihood that the risk will occur.
      Medium              indicates that the risk is likely to occur.
      Low                 indicates that the risk is not likely to occur.

Impact of Risk:
      High                indicates that there will be significant impact to the proposal.
      Medium              indicates that there will be moderate impact to the proposal.
      Low                 indicates that there will be a minor impact to the proposal.
      None                indicates that the risk will not impact the project.

Examples for Mitigation:

Example 1:
The risk that senior management will not support the project is low, but the impact to the
proposal if senior management does not support the project is high and will significantly affect
the proposal’s success.

        For more detailed proposals, it may be necessary to identify methods or strategies for
        minimizing or mitigating risks that have a high probability of occurring and would have a
        significant impact on the proposal.




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Example 2:
The risk mitigation strategy for obtaining senior management support for the project is to
create a communications plan for the proposal. The communication plan will define a process
for keeping senior management informed on the proposal’s progress. It will also identify a point
of contact for any questions that the senior management might have.

 Risk
         Project Risk                               Alternative 1                                  Alternative 2
 ID
                                      Probability        Impact        Priority     Probability         Impact           Priority
                                      (H - M - L)   (H - M - L- N)    (H - M - L)    (H - M - L)   (H - M - L- N)       (H - M - L)

 001     Description of risk         High           Medium           High           Low            Low                Medium


         General Mitigation          Specific Strategy                              Specific Strategy
         Strategy


 002     Description of risk         Low            Medium           Medium         Medium         Low                Medium

         General Mitigation          Specific Strategy                              Specific Strategy
         Strategy


NOTE: The alternative section and table will need to be unique for each alternative that
will be presented in the business case.>


Alternative 1
<Briefly describe what the alternative does and how it addresses the business problem.

        Business Case Assumptions:
          1. Business Needs:
             <e.g. alternative 1 will change the current process by,….
             e.g. clients in the field will no longer be required to…..>

              2. Workload:
                 <e.g. alternative 1 will allow the processing center to meet current federal
                 mandates by…..>
                    a. Transactions:
                        <e.g. will the number of transactions that can be processed increase?
                        e.g. will there be a new type of transaction?>

                         b. Data Processing:
                            <e.g. these assumptions should include the necessary changes that need
                            to be made to existing computer systems and the associated hours of
                            work needed to make the changes – or, the addition of a new computer
                            system, software, etc. and the associated hours of work, etc.>




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             3. Volumes/Position Duties:
                <e.g. what staff and positions are affected by this alternative? It may be that the
                alternative has a single funding source from one Division, but affects positions in
                several clusters, units, etc. Make sure to capture the impact on all the staff
                affected by the alternative, and what Division or unit they belong to, how they will
                be impacted, and what the affect of the impact might be. Additionally, include
                any information or data that was used to make these assumptions – if necessary,
                this information can be included in the Appendices. >


Now that the assumptions have been captured for the alternative, quantify the costs and
benefits for the alternative in the table below, or create your own table.




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Alternative <name in the table header>
 Cost Estimates                                          Year 1   Year 2   Year 3   Year XX
 Personnel Services:
 One-Time:
   <e.g. Contractors, Limited Duration,
   Regular Staff, etc. (Remember to
   document the assumptions,
   calculations, and data in the
   appendices.>
    <Add rows as required for line items>
  Ongoing Costs:
   <Include ongoing staff requirements
   for such things as:
   IT maintenance & support, increases
   in FTE or positions for clusters or
   business units.>


 Services & Supplies:
 One-Time Costs:
    <e.g. training, printed material, etc.>


 Ongoing Costs:
   <e.g. software license renewals,
   training, printed material, postage,
   etc.>


 Capital Outlay:
 One-Time Costs:
    <e.g. IT hardware, software, etc.>


 Ongoing Costs:


 Total Cost Estimates




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 Benefit Estimates                                         Year 1   Year 2   Year 3     Year XX
 Personnel Services:
 One-Time Benefits:




 Ongoing Benefits:




 Total Benefit Estimates

 Risk Estimates                                            Year 1   Year 2   Year 3     Year XX
  <Add the risks to this section for each
 alternative which is addressed in the
 next section>
 Total Risk Estimates

<Duplicate the assumptions and table for each alternative.>

Comments:
<Add any additional comments regarding the assumptions and table. The comments section
may also be used to list the costs and benefits that are intangible – meaning that dollar values
could not be determined for the items, but they are never-the-less, costs or benefits to the
alternative. For example, one benefit of an alternative may boost employee morale. That is
not necessarily a benefit that can be quantified in terms of dollars.>




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Financial Analysis
<What is the financial impact on the organization? Is there a cost/benefit that can be
expressed in terms of a financial metric such as a break even point, payback period, return on
investment (ROI), internal rate of return (IRR) or a total cost of ownership (TCO)?

The financial analyst member of the business case team should be able to provide input and
information about the best metrics to use to express the financial impact of the alternatives and
the recommended alternative.

Make sure to perform a financial analysis on the alternative solutions or business as usual
scenario with the same metrics used to analyze the recommended alternative solution and
illustrate how the proposed solution stacks up against the alternatives.

If there are significant up front costs and capital outlay, those costs can be analyzed here and
further illustrated in the next section; Implementation Approach/Timeline.>

 Cost Estimates                                            Year 1   Year 2   Year 3     Year XX
 Personnel Services
 Services & Supplies
 Capital Outlay
 Total Cost Estimates

 Benefit Estimates                                         Year 1   Year 2   Year 3     Year XX
 Personnel Services
 Services & Supplies
 Capital Outlay
 Total Benefit Estimates
 Risk Estimates                                            Year 1   Year 2   Year 3     Year XX
 Personnel Services
 Services & Supplies
 Capital Outlay
 Total Risk Estimates

 Business Case Estimates                                   Year 1   Year 2   Year 3      Year XX
 Personnel Services
 Services & Supplies
 Capital Outlay
 Total Business Case Estimates

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Conclusions and Recommendations
<The subsections below address issues that were raised initially in the Purpose and
Background Section of this business case. Much of what has previously been presented has
been information without much analysis. Now, interpret the numbers and information and
connect them to objectives, problems, opportunities, decisions, and actions.


Conclusions
Use the Conclusions section to state the complete “case,” tersely but completely, supporting
your reasoning with evidence from the preceding sections. This section will be very weak if it
is nothing more than a simple list of major financial projections. Connect the financial metrics
and important non- financial results with the problems, opportunities, and business objectives
presented throughout the case.
This section should also point out any surprising or unexpected results of the analysis and
discuss any findings that could be misinterpreted.


Recommendations
Use this section to make explicit recommendations for decision makers, managers, and others
responsible for implementing the proposed alternative,, based especially on the risk analysis,
but also the main points discussed in Problems or Opportunity Section.
Explain, specifically why one alternative is recommended over another or over the current
state, in terms of contributions to business objectives, problems solved, financial outcomes,
and risks and mitigation.(Here the reader can be reminded to give special attention to
important contingencies or dependencies).>




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Appendices
<Presents detailed supporting data, such as financial models (Gartner).

Provide supporting data (if required):
    Survey data?
    Environmental Scans- what are other jurisdictions doing for the same problem?
    Interviews?
    Spreadsheets, management reports, etc.
    Policy changes
    Federal mandates
    Other, etc>

Appendices:




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   Review / Signoff Sheet
Business Case Title:                                                           No:
Business Case Lead:                                                        Phone:
Investment Sponsor:                                                        Phone:
Primary Division:
Other Divisions:
Budget Cycle:                          __Normal Cycle                     __Off Cycle
Proposed Cost /                                              Funding
                                 $
Budget:                                                      Source:       (Indicate if no funding is available)

   Investment Sponsor:                    Office of Information Services:             Fiscal & Policy Analysis:
   ______________________                 __________________________                  _______________________
   Authorized signature Date              Authorized signature               Date     Authorized signature         Date

                          _______________________________________                             ______________
    Division ISM:
                          Authorized signature: Meeting Date:
           __Approved, as submitted:
           __Approved, with the following changes (see attached)
           __Not recommended for Approval for the following reason:

                      _______________________________________                                       ______________
     DHS ITGC:
                      Authorized signature:                                                         Meeting Date:
           __DHS ITGC approval not required; confirmed Division ISM action
           __Approved, as submitted:
           __Approved, with the following changes (see attached)
           __Not recommended for Approval for the following reason:


                      _______________________________________                                       ______________
    DHS Cabinet:
                      Authorized signature:                                                         Meeting Date:
           __DHS Cabinet approval not required; confirmed Division ISM action
           __Approved, as submitted:
           __Approved, with the following changes (see attached)
           __Not recommended for Approval for the following reason:

   Additional regulatory processes or documents required and considered :
   __POP                                     __APD                                   __Grant
   __Legislature                             __JLCIMT                                __Other: ________________
   __IRR                                     __E-Board                               __Other: ________________

   Fiscal & Policy Analysis                                          Funding Source/Code         Funding Amount
                                                                            GF __________            GF $__________
                                                                             FF __________            FF $__________
   ____________________________________                                   Other __________         Other $__________
   Authorized Signature:              Date                                                         Total $__________


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Document Information Page
 Required Information                          Definition


 Document:                                     [insert document name]

 Document ID:                                  [insert document control number or unique ID]
 Version:                                      [insert version number]

 Approval Date:                                [insert approval date here]

 Location:                                     [insert document file location]
 Owner:                                        [insert document owner]

 Author:                                       [insert document author]

 Approved by:                                  [insert document approver]




Amendment History
 Document                 Approval Date                   Modified By                Section, Page(s), Text
 Version #                                                                           Modified




 [insert version          [insert approval date           [insert document author]   [outline sections modified]
 number]                  here]



 [insert version
 number]




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Glossary of Terms
   Benefits-Cost Analysis: Process of estimating tangible and intangible costs (outlays) and benefits
    (returns) of various projects alternatives and using financial measures, such as return on
    investment or payback period, to evaluate the relative desirability of the alternatives.
   Business Case: Structured proposal that justifies a project for decision-makers. Includes an
    analysis of business process performance and requirements, assumptions, and issues. Also
    presents the risk analysis by explaining strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats.
   Business Complexity: This represents the business difficulty or risk associated with a particular
    business issue or opportunity that is driving a need for change.
   Business Goals: The underlying basis for which a project is undertaken.
   Financial Analysis: An assessment of the viability, stability and profitability of a business, sub-
    business or project.
   Environmental Scan: An analysis and evaluation of internal conditions and external data and
    factors that affect the organization. This analysis is often used to establish a framework for
    planning.
   Executive Summary
    A non-technical summary statement designed to provide a quick overview of the full-length report
    on which it is based.
   Impact Analysis: Qualitative or quantitative assessment of the magnitude of loss or gain to be
    realized should a specific risk or opportunity event - or series of interdependent events-occur.
   Objectives: A high level statement of the goal(s) of the project.
   Problem Definition: Process of distinguishing between causes and symptoms to determine the
    scope of effort to pursue on the project.
   Project Assumptions: Written statements relative to the project, which help to clarify scope,
    objectives and other relevant factors that cannot be known at a given point in time.
   Project Charter: Document issued by senior management that gives the project manager authority
    to apply organizational resources to project activities and formally recognizes the existence of a
    project.
   Risk Assessment: (1) Review, examination, and judgment to see whether the identified risks are
    acceptable according to proposed actions.
    (2) Identification and quantification of project risks to ensure that they are understood and can be
    prioritized. Also called risk evaluation.
   Risk Mitigation: Actions taken to eliminate or reduce risk by reducing the probability and or impact
    of occurrence.
   Service Level Agreement (SLA): A contract between a service provider and a customer that
    specifies, usually in measurable terms, what services the service provider will furnish.
   Strategy: Action plan to set the direction for the coordinated use of resources through programs,
    projects, policies, procedures, and organizational design and establishment of performance
    standards.

Additional definitions can be located at
http://www.oregon.gov/DHS/admin/bpm/glossary_terms.shtml)


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