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									Bangladesh
Jatropha Curcas for Sustainable Development and
Energy Stabilization

Author: Titus van der Spek
Date: 17 July, 2009
The Hague School of European Studies
The Hague University of Professional Education
Bangladesh: Jatropha Curcas for Sustainable Development                         Titus van der Spek



Executive Summary

Identifying a global need

      Interest in renewable energy sources has gained increasing international attention. A
potential source for future energy generation may be found in the cultivation and extraction of
oil from the Jatropha Curcas shrub.

The characteristics of Jatropha Curcas

        Jatropha Curcas is cultivated as a renewable energy source in more than 21 countries.
Its oil yield is considerably higher than alternative biodiesel crops. Furthermore, the fact that
the crop can be cultivated on wasteland means that it does not contribute to the growing
problem of deforestation or the threat of food crop replacement. Currently, Jatropha Curcas
allows India to meet 20% of its energy consumption and Germany to meet 30% of its fuel
requirements. Jatropha Curcas provides a variety of by-products such as soap, medicinal
remedies and animal feed. Its characteristics make it suitable for sustainable development
projects. It can be affirmed that Jatropha Curcas has the potential to stabilize energy generation
within developing country, while ensuring a high degree of sustainable development.

Relevance to Bangladesh

        Bangladesh has shown growing suitability for Jatropha Curcas cultivation, yet little
initiative has been taken. The two (identified) dominant bodies involved in research are the
Bangladesh Agricultural University and Grameen Shakti – Grameen Bank an institution which
focuses on poverty alleviation through energy distribution.        Through analyzing successful
Jatropha Curcas projects in other countries, similar models can be implemented in Bangladesh.
However, a number of barriers must be considered. These barriers include:
    Inadequate funds
    Lack of awareness of Jatropha Curcas, primarily amongst farmers
    Lack of government initiative
    Instability of the country’s economic framework
    Corruption




The Hague School of European Studies                                                            II
Bangladesh: Jatropha Curcas for Sustainable Development                          Titus van der Spek


Jatropha Curcas for sustainable development

        Projects have been identified across the globe, which allow Jatropha Curcas to be
utilized for the development of poverty stricken communities.           The implementation of
appropriate projects within rural Bangladesh will benefit both sustainable development as well
as the industrial energy needs. Potential global project examples include:

       Feasible micro-financed pumps provided to farmers (Haiti)

       Small-scale model farms, which distribute seedlings to local farmers (India)

       Jatropha Curcas oil-run electricity generators (Mali)

 Successful projects should allow communities to initiate cultivation and eventually, process and
 extract biodiesel independently. Once such communities have established a constant supply of
 energy, their quality of life will improve substantially.

Future implementation

        Preliminary Jatropha Curcas research was initiated in Bangladesh in 2006. These studies
have indicated that aspects such as plant compatibility and machinery feasibility render
conditions in Bangladesh suitable for cultivation. Using these findings, a step-by-step plan for
the future implementation of Jatropha Curcas into the Bangladeshi economy has been
formulated. By means of this plan Bangladesh may be able to institutionalize Jatropha as a
significant sector of its agricultural break up.
        To conclude, the economical potential for Jatropha Curcas within Bangladesh has shown
promising results. This is further supported by its potential to increase rural sustainable
development projects.




The Hague School of European Studies                                                            III
Bangladesh: Jatropha Curcas for Sustainable Development                                                                               Titus van der Spek



Contents
Executive Summary ..................................................................................................................................... II
    Identifying a global need ........................................................................................................................... II
    The characteristics of Jatropha Curcas ..................................................................................................... II
    Relevance to Bangladesh ........................................................................................................................... II
    Jatropha Curcas for sustainable development..........................................................................................III
    Future implementation..............................................................................................................................III

Contents ....................................................................................................................................................... IV

Introduction ...................................................................................................................................................1
    Central research question ...........................................................................................................................1
    Sub-Questions .............................................................................................................................................1
    Research methods .......................................................................................................................................1
    Study findings .............................................................................................................................................2

1        Jatropha Curcas - The plant, the crop & the bio fuel .......................................................................3
    1.1      Introduction .......................................................................................................................................3
    1.2 Jatropha Curcas - The plant .............................................................................................................3
       1.2.1  The Jatropha Curcas shrub .......................................................................................................3
       1.2.2  The Jatropha Curcas seed ........................................................................................................4
    1.3      The uses of Jatropha Curcas .............................................................................................................5
    1.4      Environmental impact .......................................................................................................................6
    1.5 Cultivation and extraction .................................................................................................................6
       1.5.1  Cultivation ...............................................................................................................................7
       1.5.2  Inter-cropping ..........................................................................................................................7
       1.5.3  Extraction method & oil blends ...............................................................................................8
       1.5.4  Rural acceptance ......................................................................................................................8

2        The opportunity for sustainable development ...................................................................................9
    2.1      Introduction .......................................................................................................................................9
    2.2 Tackling rural development with Jatropha Curcas ...........................................................................9
       2.2.1   JaRID .....................................................................................................................................10
       2.2.2   Haiti’s initiatives ....................................................................................................................11
       2.2.3   International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) .....................11
       2.2.4   Food & Agriculture Organization - United Nations (FAO) & Policy Innovation Systems for
       Clean Energy Security (PISCES) .........................................................................................................12
    2.3           Conclusion ..................................................................................................................................14

3        Situation in Bangladesh .....................................................................................................................15
    3.1      Introduction .....................................................................................................................................15
    3.2 Energy crisis - Bangladesh .............................................................................................................15
       3.2.1 Energy composition ...............................................................................................................15
       3.2.2 Natural gas .............................................................................................................................15



The Hague School of European Studies                                                                                                                          IV
Bangladesh: Jatropha Curcas for Sustainable Development                                                                                 Titus van der Spek


        3.2.3         Electricity...............................................................................................................................16
        3.2.4         Biomass .................................................................................................................................17
        3.2.5         Oil ..........................................................................................................................................17
        3.2.6         Alternative solutions ..............................................................................................................18
        3.2.7         Government barriers and political effects ..............................................................................18
        3.2.8         Government energy initiatives ...............................................................................................19
        3.2.9         Analysis of energy situation ..................................................................................................19
    3.3 Rural development ..........................................................................................................................20
       3.3.1 Current situation ....................................................................................................................20
       3.3.2 The potential for JC to aid in rural development ...................................................................21
    3.4      Environmental effects ......................................................................................................................23
    3.5      Aid and Government support ..........................................................................................................24
    3.6      Conclusion ......................................................................................................................................25

4       Bangladesh - Turning to Jatropha Curcas ......................................................................................26
    4.1      Introduction .....................................................................................................................................26
    4.2 The current situation .......................................................................................................................26
       4.2.1 Institutions involved ..............................................................................................................26
       4.2.2 Governing bodies ...................................................................................................................28
    4.3 The future potential for Jatropha Curcas ........................................................................................28
       4.3.1  Cultivatable land ....................................................................................................................28
       4.3.2  Plant compatibility .................................................................................................................29
       4.3.3  Machinery ..............................................................................................................................29
       4.3.4  Profitability ............................................................................................................................29
    4.4      SWOT analysis ................................................................................................................................30
    4.5      Confrontation Matrix ......................................................................................................................31

5       Effective Aid .......................................................................................................................................33
    5.1      Introduction .....................................................................................................................................33
    5.2      The Wageningen University: Global Jatropha Curcas Evaluation Programme (2006-2010) ........33
    5.3      Kyoto Protocol: Carbon Credits .....................................................................................................33
    5.4      Grameen Bank: Micro-Credit Financing ........................................................................................34
    5.5      Jatropha Vikas Sansthan: Technical Aid ........................................................................................34
    5.6      ODAM: Biodiesel Centre 2007 .......................................................................................................34
    5.7      ODAM: Fair-trade soap production ...............................................................................................34
    5.8      AHIMSA: Seedling distribution .......................................................................................................35
    5.9      Foreign aid for rural and agricultural development .......................................................................35

Conclusion ....................................................................................................................................................36

Recommendation: Step-by-step implementation plan .............................................................................38
    Introduction ..............................................................................................................................................38
    Step-by-step plan ......................................................................................................................................38

References ....................................................................................................................................................40



The Hague School of European Studies                                                                                                                              V
Bangladesh: Jatropha Curcas for Sustainable Development                                                               Titus van der Spek


Appendices ....................................................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
   Appendix 1 - Interview Md. P. Islam .......................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
   Appendix 2 - Interview Dr. M. Islam .......................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
   Appendix 3 - Additional primary research findings .................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.




The Hague School of European Studies                                                                                                       VI
Bangladesh: Jatropha Curcas for Sustainable Development                            Titus van der Spek



Introduction

        The Jatropha Curcas shrub is a renewable energy source with high potential for
cultivation in Bangladesh. Its relevance to sustainable development and its ability to counter
the effects of the country’s energy crisis must be analyzed to ensure its suitability.

Central research question

Jatropha Curcas cultivation in Bangladesh: What is the potential for sustainable development?

Sub-Questions

    How can Jatropha Curcas cultivation, extraction and processing, to generate biodiesel, best
     be implemented in Bangladesh?
    What positive effects can Jatropha Curcas cultivation have on rural, poverty stricken
     Bangladesh?
    What is the most effective way of utilizing JC to increase sustainable development?

Research methods

        Primary research aims to identify institutions and reports which are relevant to the
following topics:
a) Jatropha Curcas cultivation,
b) The potential for a new energy source in Bangladesh.


Further in-depth research was carried out using newspaper clippings, forums, blogs, company
web-profiles and magazine articles. Secondary research was carried out to further justify claims
and ideas. The majority of this research was undertaken during a field-trip to Bangladesh in
May, 2009. This included a visit to the Bangladesh Agricultural University in Mymensingh, where
a Jatropha Curcas plantation has been established for research purposes.                 Furthermore,
interviews were held with Mr. P. Islam, the Jatropha Plantation Team Leader and Dr. M. Islam,
Head of International Cooperation and Development at Grameen Shakti. Assistance offered by
research institutions allowed for further verification through e-mail based correspondence.




The Hague School of European Studies                                                               1
Bangladesh: Jatropha Curcas for Sustainable Development                          Titus van der Spek


Study findings

        In order to answer the proposed questions, the research undertaken for this study
focuses on the analysis of projects established in other countries. Section 2: The opportunity for
sustainable development and Section 5: Effective Aid, explain the different methods of Jatropha
Curcas cultivation which were found to increase sustainable development. Such methods
include small-scale plantations, women-group soap production workshops and seedling
distribution at competitive prices.      To gain a better understanding of Jatropha Curcas’
characteristics and its current position in Bangladesh, Section 1: Jatropha Curcas - The plant, the
crop & the bio fuel, and Section 4: Bangladesh - Turning to Jatropha Curcas, were developed
respectively. Research shows that there are large areas of land available in Bangladesh for
Jatropha Curcas cultivation and that climate and soil conditions are suitable for growth. Its
ability to grow on infertile soils further emphasizes Jatropha Curcas’ potential for sustainable
development.
Using the findings of this paper, a summarized timeline is included in the section
Recommendation- Step-by-step implementation plan. This timeline outlines a possible plan of
action for Jatropha Curcas cultivation in Bangladesh. Its steps include:
    1. Planning, research and the development of collaborating bodies
    2. Setup model farm and business system
    3. Awareness campaigns, guidance and aid
    4. Guidance, aid and ensuring control
    5. Rural penetration and development of farmer incentives
    6. Analyze and stabilize the industry
The findings of this paper aim to primarily educate its readers on the potential of the Jatropha
Curcas shrub. Additionally, this study will offer an analysis of the shrub’s suitability for the
Bangladeshi economy.




The Hague School of European Studies                                                             2
Bangladesh: Jatropha Curcas for Sustainable Development                                 Titus van der Spek



1 Jatropha Curcas - the plant, the crop & the bio fuel

1.1     Introduction

         This section aims to outline the characteristics of Jatropha Curcas (JC) at all stages of its
industrial lifespan. The provision of a comprehensive overview of JC will help in ensuring its
suitability before the shrub is introduced in Bangladesh.

1.2     Jatropha Curcas - The plant

1.2.1    The Jatropha Curcas shrub

         JC is a large shrub, native to South America. It can be found throughout Africa and Asia
and is most suitable in tropic and sub-tropic regions (see Figure 1.2). JC can be cultivated in
marginal soils with a low nutrient content.           Once seedlings have sprouted, little human
assistance is required for further growth (“Jatropha Curcas”, 2008, pg 1). Depending on the
species, a JC shrub takes an average of 3 to 5 years to reach maturity. In terms of lifespan, a
shrub can live for up to 50 years (“What is Jatropha Curcas?”, 2008, para. 1). Typically, a shrub
reaches heights between 3 and 5 meters. It can however gain heights up to 10 meters if
conditions are favorable (“About Jatropha Plant”, 2009, section: The Plant - Profile).




Figure 1.1       The Jatropha Curcas shrub as typically found in tropical and sub-tropical
                 regions (“Jatropha Curcas”, 2008, pg. 1)



The Hague School of European Studies                                                                    3
Bangladesh: Jatropha Curcas for Sustainable Development                             Titus van der Spek




Figure 1.2      Global sphere for most suitable climate condition for natural growth of Jatropha Curcas
                (Jongeshaap, Corré, Bindraban & Brandenburg, 2007, pg. 1)


1.2.2   The Jatropha Curcas seed

        The JC shrub has the ability to bear fruit for approximately 25 years, with each fruit
containing an average of three seeds (Hussain, 2007, pg. 2). When the sheath and the shell of
the seed are removed, the remaining kernel is the source of viscous oil. To avoid wastage the
seedcake is used as fertilizer or animal feed. In its unprocessed state, the oil is suitable for
cooking, lighting, varnishing and the production of soap.                  Under the process of
transesterification, JC oil can be used to generate biodiesel (Jongeshaap, Corré, Bindraban, &
Brandenburg, 2007, pg 15). Using calculations from Dr D. Hussain’s study concerning JC’s
compatibility in Bangladesh, oil yield per seed is between 25% and 37%. Considering that 6 to
15 tons of seed are contained within one hectare of land, this can be further calculated to mean
that approximately (taking an average of 30% oil yield and 10 tons per hectare) 3000 liters of oil
can be obtained per hectare of land (Hussain, 2007, pg. 3).
        Fruit yield tends to increase during the first 4 to 5 years of cultivation. According to
research carried out by P. Islam from the Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU), the number
of fruits collected in the second harvest increased by 140% (Hussain, 2007, pg. 28). After the
fifth harvest, fruit yield reaches a level of stable outcome. What makes this attractive for
farmers is that the care and time needed to nurture the plantations decreases after the first
harvest. This means that initial investments are gained back rapidly and with little effort.




The Hague School of European Studies                                                                 4
Bangladesh: Jatropha Curcas for Sustainable Development                                   Titus van der Spek


Figure 1.3
The non edible fruit of Jatropha
Curcas is about the size of a cherry.
On average it contains three seeds
which are the source of the plants
natural oils (Picture taken during
fieldtrip to BAU, 2009)




1.3    The uses of Jatropha Curcas

       JC is an attractive crop to cultivate as every part of it can be used (see Figure 1.4). This is
especially relevant for developing countries, as maximum utilization is possible. Statistically, JC
has far higher outputs of biodiesel compared to alternative vegetation such as soybean, coconut
and sunflower oil (Gonsalves, 2006, pg. 23). Furthermore, alternatives often require fertile soil,
while JC has more flexible growth patterns. In rural areas where the benefits of the JC shrub are
unknown, the shrub is used as a hedge to keep stray cattle in place. As the shrub is drought
resistant it allows for increased water conservation. Once the shrub stops bearing fruit, it can be
used as firewood (Jongeshaap, Corré, Bindraban, & Brandenburg, 2007, pg 3).




Figure 1.4 This tree-diagram outlines the uses of the entire JC shrub (Jatropha Cultivation and Oil
Production, 2007, slide 6)



The Hague School of European Studies                                                                      5
Bangladesh: Jatropha Curcas for Sustainable Development                         Titus van der Spek


1.4    Environmental impact

        Numerous articles, papers and reports have been written with a high degree of
skepticism regarding the environmental impacts of JC. The main factors discussed include a lack
of research into the shrubs long-term environmental effects and the possible effects of toxins
which are formed during the transesterification process. Critics tend to emphasize the mildly
poisonous characteristics of the seed when ingested. According to an article published in The
Times, consuming three seeds will kill a human being. More scientific documentation merely
predicts dysentery, stomach aches and nausea (Macintyre, 2007, para. 10). Based on present
research, the only real harm done by the JC shrub is through pollution caused by the generation
of biodiesel.
        In comparison to refining petrochemical biodiesel, JC offers a number of advantages.
The gases emitted during the transesterification process produce relatively low levels of sulphur.
Smoke emission is reduced by 30% and CO₂ emission is reduced by 78%. Furthermore, there is
no wastage as the shrub is 100% biodegradable. JC is a renewable form of energy which, when
compared to petrochemical biodiesel, has higher readings of energy generation (Hussain, 2007,
pg. 4-7).
        Further positive effects of the JC shrub include wasteland reclamation and low levels of
water dependency. Numerous developing nations do not have enough fertile land to produce
food crops. In the sub-tropic and tropic regions, much land goes to waste due to drought or low
soil nutrition. JC has the ability to make use of this land and more importantly, JC increases its
fertility. Wasteland, which would otherwise be barren can be used to counter the effects of
deforestation and be rejuvenated to accommodate other plant forms and possibly even food
crops (Jongeshaap, Corré, Bindraban, & Brandenburg, 2007, pg 3).



1.5    Cultivation and extraction

       JC can grow along canals, water streams, surrounding crop fields, along highways and on
dry land in hilly areas. Large scale chemical fertilizers are not suitable as the shrub requires
larger spaces to grow. Once the shrub has rooted itself in the ground, natural fertilizers such as
cow dung are most suitable to enhance growth. Seeds are easily collected as fruits can be
plucked quickly and the shrubs are not very tall (Gonsalves, 2006, pg. 23).




The Hague School of European Studies                                                            6
Bangladesh: Jatropha Curcas for Sustainable Development                              Titus van der Spek


1.5.1   Cultivation

        Most countries involved in JC cultivation focus on large scale plantations. BRIC (Brazil,
Russia, India and China) nations utilize barren land to improve their energy situation by
cultivating JC. India is set to have 1 million hectares of JC by 2020, Mozambique 300,000 and
Brazil 100,000 (“Biodiesel 2020: A Global Market Survey”, 2008). Mass cultivation has worked
well for countries such as India which now uses JC biodiesel to meet 20% of its industrial energy
consumption. India aims to reach a stage of 100% JC dependence in the future. Developed
nations are also turning to biodiesel for future energy consumption. Germany currently meets
30% of its energy consumption using JC biodiesel (Rahman, 2008, para. 6).




Figure 1.5      Global cultivation levels in 2008 and those predicted in 2015 as by the WWF
                (Global Jatropha Market Study, 2008).

1.5.2   Inter-cropping

        Inter-cropping is the process of growing two or more crops simultaneously in the same
field. Initially, this was an attractive option as there was little knowledge of JC’s potential.
However, this system has been relatively unsuccessful, even though it has a number of
advantages, which include a lower dependency on a single crop, rapid return on investment,
larger variety of products and multiple harvesting seasons (“About Jatropha Plant”, 2009,
section - Cropping Technology).        Inter-cropping has an increased effect on sustainable
development, but requires much more initial labor to gain enough plantations for any economic
change. For this reason, governments and rural entrepreneurs have shown little interest in its
potential and have focused more on mass cultivation.




The Hague School of European Studies                                                                 7
Bangladesh: Jatropha Curcas for Sustainable Development                          Titus van der Spek


1.5.3   Extraction method & oil blends

        There are several processes for the extraction of biodiesel fuel. Among these, the
process of transesterification using alkali-catalysis has shown the highest rates of fuel
generation. This method has been adopted by most countries. Additional research is, however,
needed to lower the costs of this extraction method (Hussain, 2007, pg. 4-5). Based on research
carried out by the UNCTAD the average cost of JC biodiesel production (including the collection
of seeds, transesterification and the extraction of impurities) is calculated to equal Tk. 23.47 (€
0.25) per liter. During the transesterification process, glycerol is produced. When purified,
glycerol will increase the quantity of useable resources made available to the industrial market
(Gonsalves, 2006, pg. 24).
        As cited from Peterson and Cook (1999) by Dr. D. Hussain in his study concerning JC
cultivation processes, the biodiesel produced from JC proved suitable for use in smaller scale
machinery. Examples of this include generators, which are often used during load shedding or in
rural areas where there is a lack of electricity. Further research has been carried out through
mixing biodiesel with petrochemical diesel to fuel larger engines. A promising example of this
can be seen in Rolls Royce’s collaboration with Air New Zealand to fuel a Boeing 747 using
biodiesel. A 50/50 blend of jet-fuel and kerosene derived from JC oil proved to be compatible.
This blend cut CO₂ emission by 60 % and saved over 1 ton of fuel (Stone, 2009, para 1).

1.5.4   Rural acceptance

        The acceptance of JC by rural farmers has been a difficult task for developing countries.
Farmers are reluctant to initiate cultivation due to a lack of public awareness and a lack of
governmental initiatives. Furthermore, in the majority of countries where JC cultivation has
been implemented, the establishment of the government’s minimum support price took too
long to initiate immediate mass cultivation. This minimum support price refers to government
investments and buy-back programs when prices reach vulnerable levels. There also seems to
be much debate concerning the level of expertise available and the identification of the
appropriate species for each country or region (Gonsalves, 2006, pg. 28).




The Hague School of European Studies                                                             8
Bangladesh: Jatropha Curcas for Sustainable Development                             Titus van der Spek



2 The opportunity for sustainable development

2.1       Introduction

           This section aims to analyze the most appropriate means by which JC can further benefit
the poverty-stricken population of Bangladesh. Global analysis reveals systems of cultivation
and extraction adopted in numerous countries by NGOs, government bodies and rural
development institutions. These examples will aid in identifying the most suitable means of
implementing JC in rural Bangladesh while ensuring an increase in sustainable development.
           As defined by the United Nations World Commission on Environment and Development:
The concept of sustainability relates to the maintenance and enhancement of environmental,
social and economic resources, in order to meet the needs of current and future generations. The
three components of sustainability are:
      1. Environmental sustainability – which requires that natural capital remains intact. This
           means that the source and sink functions of the environment should not be degraded.
           Therefore, the extraction of renewable resources should not exceed the rate at which
           they are renewed, and the absorptive capacity to the environment to assimilate wastes
           should not be exceeded. Furthermore, the extraction of non-renewable resources should
           be minimized and should not exceed agreed minimum strategic levels.
      2. Social sustainability – which requires that the cohesion of society and its ability to work
           towards common goals be maintained. Individual needs, such as those for health and
           well-being, nutrition, shelter, education and cultural expression should be met.
      3. Economic sustainability – which occurs when development, which moves towards social
           and environmental sustainability, is financially feasible.
                                                         (Gilbert, Stevenson, Girardet & Stren, 1996)



2.2       Tackling rural development with Jatropha Curcas

           Before observing the different means of utilizing JC, it is important to underline the
fundamental advantages which have already been identified.
          Water scarcity - JC is drought resistant
          Lack of labor - JC grows independently after first harvest
          Threat to food crops - JC grows on infertile soil




The Hague School of European Studies                                                                9
Bangladesh: Jatropha Curcas for Sustainable Development                         Titus van der Spek


       Low oil yield in alternatives - JC has high rates of oil generation.
       Lack of funds to revitalize wastelands for crop production - JC can be cultivated on
        wasteland and re-fertilizes the soil.
       Pest and disease - JC is a strong crop with high pest resistance.
       JC provides numerous by-products which increase the variety of produce made available
        to rural populations who have limited resources.


Little machinery is required to produce JC oil for lighting and cooking purposes. Research has
been conducted to obtain biogas from JC’s seedcake and to develop stoves which can be fuelled
by JC oil (Akter, 1997, pg 13).        To further understand the opportunities for sustainable
development, a number of case studies have been analyzed (below) to highlight the different
means of cultivation and extraction.

2.2.1   JaRID

        Jatropha for Rural Indian Development (JaRID) is a social enterprise which works closely
with internationally renowned universities and entrepreneurial institutions to promote JC
cultivation in villages. JaRID has three fundamental objectives:
    1. Helping villages to become self-sufficient in their energy needs
    2. Improving womankind
    3. Driving rural India towards a socially, economically, and environmentally better future.
                                          (“JaRID - Jatropha for Rural Indian Development”, 2007)
The Multi-stage Model
        JaRID’s multi-stage model starts by obtaining 10 hectares of land. By inter-cropping JC
with aloe vera, a quicker return on investment is ensured while JC seedlings are undergoing
development. Using the model farm, local villagers are educated concerning JC cultivation and
energy security. Seeds are then provided at a reduced price to help villagers start small-scale
plantations. Eventually JC seeds will be purchased from the village community and sold back as
biodiesel. JC biodiesel will also be promoted in local industries as a cheaper and more efficient
alternative to petrol and diesel. Typical JC run machinery would include tractors, water pumps
and rice mills.                           (“JaRID - JAtropha for Rural Indian Development”, 2007)




The Hague School of European Studies                                                           10
Bangladesh: Jatropha Curcas for Sustainable Development                            Titus van der Spek


2.2.2   Haiti’s initiatives

        Haiti’s government has initiated programs which focus on small-scale cultivation and
extraction using micro-credit schemes to purchase machinery.


Kick-Start Limited
        Kick-Start Limited is a local
firm which has designed a pump-
press, which meets rural, domestic
needs. Using simple manual filtration
techniques it extracts oil from JC
seeds (Moon & Fisher, 2001).


FONKOZE & FINCA - Micro-credit
Institution
        Numerous organizations in          Figure 2.1 The Kick Start Oil Press; produces clear, cold-
                                           pressed oil ready for direct sale, bio-fuel processing or
Haiti offer small loans and micro-         lighting (Moon & Fisher, 2001, Section: Oil Processing)
credit schemes. With the help of such
organizations a pump-press (as offered by Kick-Start Limited) can be purchased by rural farmers.
FONKOZE and FINCA are examples of such organizations, which have focused on boosting rural
development through micro-credit schemes (Miller, 2007, Section: Micro Credit Lending).

2.2.3   International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT)

        ICRISAT is a research institute which collaborates closely with governments and industry
leaders to improve the situation of farmers in the tropics.


Pro-poor Bio-fuels Initiative
        ICRISAT      has   partnered    with    the
government of Andhra Pradesh, India to help
disadvantaged women groups cultivate JC on
wasteland. The seeds are then pressed by the
women and the oil sold to companies.

                                                      Figure 2.2 Woman collecting Jatropha seeds for oil
                                                      extraction (FAO & PISCES, 2009, pg. 22)


The Hague School of European Studies                                                              11
Bangladesh: Jatropha Curcas for Sustainable Development                          Titus van der Spek


Watershed development project
        ICRISAT aided a tribal community in the north of India to cultivate JC and purchase
extraction machinery. The biodiesel produced is now sold locally and the community has shown
significant developments.


Jatropha Nursery
        In Niger, West Africa, ICRISAT has set up a JC nursery for research purposes. ICRISTAT
has collected and grown 18 species from different ecological conditions to identify those most
suitable for mass or small-scale cultivation.
                                                                       (Kumar, 2007, para. 15-24)

2.2.4   Food & Agriculture Organization - United Nations (FAO) & Policy Innovation
        Systems for Clean Energy Security (PISCES)

        The FAO and PISCES published a report based on 15 international case studies, which
linked livelihood to small-scale bio-energy initiatives. JC was found to be a prominent example.
The report identifies a number of key factors, which are necessary to improve livelihood:
    1. Partnership - The most successful initiatives were supported by the collaborative efforts
        of NGOs, private companies, universities, governments and producer associations (FAO
        & PISCES, 2009, pg. 12).
    2. Key Activities - These included: Coordination, Capacity Building, Technology Transfer,
        Marketing Aid, Feasibility Study, Seedling Distribution and Soft Loans (FAO & PISCES,
        2009, pg. 21-22).
    3. Support Services - To ensure the smooth functioning of the market chain, certain
        support services were implemented.           These include: loans, factors of production
        (fertilizer and machinery availability), legal assistance, research and development,
        bargaining support, and capacity building (FAO & PISCES, 2009, pg 25)


The Garalo Project - Mali Jatropha Electrification
        Small-scale JC farmers from the Garalo community in Mali are encouraged to supply JC
oil to run a hybrid power plant. This power plant uses JC oil to generate electricity which is sold
to residential and industrial consumers. The project involves more than 300 rural families,
providing them with stable incomes and energy (FAO & PISCES, 2009, pg. 12).



The Hague School of European Studies                                                            12
Bangladesh: Jatropha Curcas for Sustainable Development                               Titus van der Spek




                                                      Figure 2.3 A 100kW electricity
                                                      generator at Garalo which is able to
                                                      run on Jatropha oil, diesel or a blend
                                                      (Photo by Khennas, FAO & PISCES,
                                                      2009, pg. 19)



Winrock International India (WII) - India Jatropha Electrification
        To electrify a tribal village in the state of Chhattisgarh, India, JC oil was used instead of
biodiesel. The tribal village is able to generate enough power to accommodate 110 households
using 1 ton of JC seeds per month. This initiative has sparked the idea of rural electrification
through active community collaboration and participation.
                                                                     (FAO & PISCES, 2009, pg. 15)
Guatemala - Ministry of Agriculture
        The Guatemalan Ministry of Agriculture identified 600,000 hectares of land suitable for
JC cultivation. Every 170 hectares is owned by 150 families (known as a ‘co-operative’). Initially,
processing machinery is owned by an outside party, but with the earned revenues, each co-
operative will eventually be able to extract biodiesel independently. Each co-operative receives
technical support from Technoserve (TechnoServe website, 2009) a global organization which
supports small entrepreneurial developments.
                                                                     (FAO & PISCES, 2009, pg. 17)
Thailand Jatropha Co-operative
        The University of Kasetsart and the Viengsa Agricultural Co-operative initiated a zero-
waste JC cultivation project in the Viengsa district of northern Thailand. The two institutions
play a key role in supporting cultivation and ensuring competitive pricing for consumers within
the project. This collaboration has provided incomes to 1000 farmers and has increased food
and energy security.
                                                                     (FAO & PISCES, 2009, pg. 18)




The Hague School of European Studies                                                                 13
Bangladesh: Jatropha Curcas for Sustainable Development                           Titus van der Spek


2.3     Conclusion

          Using the example projects in other countries, Bangladesh must implement a system
which will be most effective within its economy. This system should not only be economically
beneficial, but must also include a high degree of sustainable development. Significant points
for future JC cultivation in Bangladesh include:
      1. A model farm must be developed and used for demonstrations.
      2. Increased awareness and education is necessary to ensure rural involvement.
      3. Collaborating bodies must be formed to maximize efficiency, exercise control and
          develop policies.
      4. Small-scale farming and long-term self-empowerment are definite success factors.
      5. Cultivation and processing methods must be studied in depth by national research
          institutes.
      6. Support must be provided at all levels starting from cultivation to sales and marketing.
      7. Sustainable development aims at niche rural populations, and industries require mass
          cultivation. It is important that both are carried out simultaneously and collaboratively
          to ensure complete economic development.




The Hague School of European Studies                                                             14
Bangladesh: Jatropha Curcas for Sustainable Development                             Titus van der Spek



3 Situation in Bangladesh

3.1     Introduction

         Bangladesh is currently facing an economic downturn, plagued by a serious energy crisis
which displays no immediate signs of improvement. Barriers ranging from a past instable
political background to a lack in foreign direct investment have further halted efforts toward
energy independence. This section analyses the energy situation in Bangladesh to gain a better
understanding of how JC may benefit its economy. It is important to note that all statistical
information has been included with some degree of skepticism, as there is a lack of consensus
amongst research institutions.



3.2     Energy crisis - Bangladesh

3.2.1    Energy composition




Figure 3.1 Energy Composition (Compiled using resources from: “National Energy Grid Bangladesh”, 2008)


3.2.2    Natural gas

         Bangladesh’s largest source of energy lies in its natural gas reserves. Estimates suggest
that an approximated 9.8 trillion cubic feet of gas is still available for energy generation (“Energy
Sector of Bangladesh”, 2009, para. 3). It has been speculated that natural gas reserves will be
depleted within the next 7 to 20 years.          The rate of depletion is dependent on future



The Hague School of European Studies                                                               15
Bangladesh: Jatropha Curcas for Sustainable Development                          Titus van der Spek


consumption and the possibility of discovering more reserves (Huque, 2008, para. 11).
Currently, only 10% of all gas reserves are allocated for domestic use (Khan, 2008, para. 8).
        The dependency that Bangladesh should allow itself on natural gas reserves is a topic of
much discussion. As reserves are slowly being depleted, extraction and exploration costs will
increase. Privatization has led to an increase in environmental damage and micro-economic
downturn. The growth of the global energy crisis will inevitably intensify the pressure on
Bangladesh to export its resources. As national infrastructure is not in a favorable state,
revenues obtained from such ventures would not be utilized efficiently. Consequently, there
will be little left for the national population to consume and develop its own industries (Huque,
2008, para. 11).

3.2.3   Electricity

        According to US AID, only 3% of the Bangladeshi population had access to electricity in
1971. Today that figure is still a shocking 33%, of which approximately 50% is distributed to the
nation’s capital; Dhaka (“Current Conditions: Energy”, 2009, pg. 1).           Due to a lack in
infrastructure, power sources are spread unevenly across the country. Efforts have been under
way to create pacts with neighboring countries to utilize mutually accessible power sources
(“National Energy Grid Bangladesh”, 2008, para. 3).
        The inefficient generation of electricity has been a determining obstacle in the struggle
to stabilize Bangladesh’s energy crisis. According to Dr. M. Tamin from the Independent
University of Bangladesh, power plants could generate 5000 MW (Megawatt), while actual
power generation is approximately 4200 MW (Tamim, 2008, slide 17). Furthermore, electricity
wastage during generation can reach levels as high as 33.3%. To add to the problem, an
increase of 300 MW is required annually. This requires an investment of Tk. 54 billion (€1 billion)
annually (“Energy Sector of Bangladesh”, 2009, para. 1).
        The generation and accessibility of electricity in Bangladesh is highly insufficient. Those
who do have access to electricity are often plagued with power-cuts known as load-shedding.
Load-shedding has been implemented to distribute electricity to a larger number of houses than
the actual power supply can handle (“Current Conditions: Energy”, 2009, pg. 1). Although load-
shedding allows a greater percentage of the population to have access to electricity, it creates a
number of additional problems, such as:




The Hague School of European Studies                                                            16
Bangladesh: Jatropha Curcas for Sustainable Development                             Titus van der Spek


       Water supplies are disrupted and become contaminated.
       Industrial production is effected as load-shedding impedes productivity.
       The working class suffers from pay cutbacks during power-cuts.
       Traders utilize dangerous and inexpensive preservatives such as formaldehyde as there
        is a lack of refrigeration possibilities.
                                                          (“Current Conditions: Energy”, 2009, pg. 2)
        There is little evidence to suggest that effective changes will be implemented in the near
future. Bangladesh lacks the necessary funds to upgrade its local power supplies, infrastructure
and implement government initiative.

3.2.4   Biomass

        Currently, 55% of the country’s energy supply is satisfied by traditional fuelling methods.
These include animal dung, firewood and crop residue (“Energy Sector of Bangladesh”, 2009,
para. 4). These energy sources are readily available in Bangladesh, especially for the rural
population.   Numerous initiatives are being taken (by government bodies, NGOs and aid
institutions) to make better use of biomass fuels. These range from depots which create biogas
using animal dung to more efficient stoves (Akter, 1997, pg 12). The use of biomass seems to be
the most accessible source of energy for Bangladesh, however, it does not meet the country’s
energy deficit and has detrimental effects on the environment. According to Dr. Khalequzzaman
from Georgia Southwestern State University, the forest cover in Bangladesh has been reduced
from 15.6% in 1973 to 9% in 2007 (Khalequzzaman, 2007, short note 3). This has caused
increased flooding throughout the country.

3.2.5   Oil

        As national research focuses on renewable energy and waste management, media and
industrial attention has been shifted away from the oil crisis. In Bangladesh oil comprises
approximately 27% of commercial energy consumption. To import this quantity of oil requires
70% of the country’s export earnings (Huque, 2008, para. 11). Global oil levels are predicted to
decline within the coming ten years (Khalequzzaman, 2007, short-note 3). Bangladesh is
definitely not a country which can afford to rely heavily on oil imports for future economic
development. Although still in a state of industrialization, Bangladesh must focus its efforts on
exploring feasible alternatives.




The Hague School of European Studies                                                               17
Bangladesh: Jatropha Curcas for Sustainable Development                             Titus van der Spek


3.2.6   Alternative solutions

        Unlike countries which developed in an industrial oil-dependent era, Bangladesh has the
opportunity to develop itself using other resources. Alternatives which are being considered
include wind power, hydroelectric power, tidal power, solar power and nuclear power.
Potential locations for such forms of power generation have been found across the country, yet
there are a number of barriers which question their suitability. For example, wind power can be
generated in the valleys of Chittagong (the second largest city in the south of Bangladesh).
Despite adequate investments and government incentives to promote this form of energy, its
power generation is minimal when compared to other energy sources. Another proposed
alternative is hydroelectric power. Due to the low level of land and the high population density,
prospects for developing hydroelectric power have been suggested infeasible due to the effects
of flooding (Khalequzzaman, 2007, short note 3). Solar power has, however, started to become
popular in remote areas which cannot be connected to electricity systems (“Current Conditions:
Energy”, 2009, pg. 1). Although the energy alternatives discussed above may offset negative
environmental impacts, they are not cost effective for developing countries like Bangladesh.
Such alternatives will reduce the government’s budget and cause a slowdown in other sectors of
the economy. Furthermore, there is little knowledge concerning such alternatives amongst local
communities, who would not welcome the idea of increasing expenditure for energy generation.

3.2.7   Government barriers and political effects

        The on-going political situation in Bangladesh has detrimental effects on efforts made to
improve infrastructure and energy management. Political instability has increased corruption,
which has made it impossible to reach satisfactory levels of energy generation (Khan, 2008,
para. 3-5). The lack of initiative and greed for energy has affected both, the quality of life for the
poor as well as business development for industrialists. Simultaneously, the inadequate levels
of energy have further increased corruption as numerous players want to control its supply. The
culture of bribes, corrupt bureaucracy and low productivity must be confronted before
conditions can be expected to improve. Hitherto, efforts to establish a functional energy
authority in the nation have failed due to a lack of policies and control.




The Hague School of European Studies                                                               18
Bangladesh: Jatropha Curcas for Sustainable Development                         Titus van der Spek


3.2.8   Government energy initiatives

        While action is taken to improve infrastructure for the future, the government has also
begun to take on initiatives to aid those affected by the energy crisis. Incentives have been
implemented to encourage public and private investments, which should help improve
productivity (“Current Conditions: Energy”, 2009, pg. 1).       Further relaxations in policies
regarding energy generation and tax reductions have encouraged the establishment of private
companies. These incentives include a 15 year tax holiday for private power generation and
increased government funding for local companies (“Energy Sector of Bangladesh”, 2009, para.
3). As Bangladesh may be one of the nation’s most affected by global warming, a high degree of
international aid is provided by developed countries.

3.2.9   Analysis of energy situation

        Bangladesh needs to explore alternative sources of energy so that further economic
development can be ensured. JC may be this alternative source of energy. As JC is a fuel crop its
cultivation is restricted to rural areas. This may counter rural unemployment, as well as ensure
that energy is not solely distributed to the nation’s capital. JC has positive effects on the
environment and may remove the countries debt ratio caused by increased oil dependency.
Below is a table which analyses the prospects for JC in Bangladesh.
Energy drawbacks             Research and requirements for JC cultivation
                             JC is an energy source with environmental and social benefits.
Lack of funds                International aid and government funding may be more
                             accessible. Furthermore, the sympathy given to Bangladesh due
                             to the effects of global warming may attract funding.
                             Sufficient land is available in Bangladesh to initiate mass-
Dependence on natural gas    cultivation of JC. Mass-cultivation is predicted to stabilize the
                             energy situation in Bangladesh (Hussain, 2007, pg. 14-15).
                             As oil prices continue to soar, JC may be an ideal alternative. It
Debt due to oil imports      can be cultivated, processed and distributed locally.
                             Furthermore, it can also be exported.
                             It would be best to collaborate closely with the government
Government monitoring scares when initiating business processes (2009, Appendix 1). This
private companies            would ensure funding and remove any future government
                             reprisal for not including them in initial planning.
                             Through building government relations and gaining foreign
Political framework          guidance, a division between energy objectives and political
                             objectives must be sustained. This will require a high degree of
                             security as well as the careful selection of staff to develop
                             appropriate policies.




The Hague School of European Studies                                                           19
Bangladesh: Jatropha Curcas for Sustainable Development                          Titus van der Spek


                                  Collaboration with NGOs and relevant government bodies will
Lack of awareness of alternatives help raise awareness concerning the potential benefits of JC.
                                  Raising awareness of JC will ensure that numerous players get
                                  involved and a healthy level of competition is developed.
                                  JC cultivation will take place in rural areas. The sources of
Power supplies lack regional energy will therefore be spread across the country. If policies
framework                         and strict controls can ensure that all fuel supplies are not
                                  transported directly to urban areas, this will guarantee that a
                                  larger percentage of the population can benefit.
                                  Bangladesh’s current dependency on exported oil and natural
Increasing global warming         gas reserves has only increased global warming. JC may
                                  counter these effects as it balances out CO₂ emission and
                                  nurtures the environment through its plantations.
                                  Bangladesh must realize the severity of its energy crisis.
Wasting potential resources       Through international support, a system must be established
                                  and supervised which will allow the maximum generation of
                                  energy with minimum waste.
                                  Once initial plantations and refineries have been setup, these
Lack of energy has increased can be used to create awareness concerning JC’s potential.
poverty                           Collaborative bodies must then initiate the setup of small-scale
                                  sustainable development projects.
                                  Through close collaboration with the government, JC cultivation
Deforestation has reached a can be carried out in regions which were once dense forest
critical state                    areas. These regions have now been illegally occupied by rural
                                  citizens. It must be ensured that these people are able to
                                  benefit from cultivation as well (Islam, 2009).


3.3     Rural development

3.3.1     Current situation

          Since the independence of Bangladesh in 1971, numerous initiatives have been
implemented to increase rural development. Rural regions comprise 80% of the country’s
population. Ignoring them could have detrimental effects (Asaduzzaman, Barnes, & Khandker,
2009, pg 20). There are five key factors contributing to rural development in Bangladesh:
      1. Poverty alleviation
      2. The impartial distribution of wealth
      3. Increasing employment opportunities
      4. Involvement of rural population in planning and executing development programs
      5. The degree of control given to rural populations regarding the distribution of resources
                                                                             (Islam, 2008, para. 2)




The Hague School of European Studies                                                            20
Bangladesh: Jatropha Curcas for Sustainable Development                           Titus van der Spek


For the rural development of Bangladesh, agricultural is a sector of significance. Agricultural
development seems to affect all of the above mentioned factors. Due to the intensity of the
agricultural industry, the rural population has little opportunity for further development. The
profitability of agricultural produce is highly volatile due to natural disasters and an increasing
dependence on foreign assistance (Islam, 2008, para. 6). Current government policies are aimed
at increasing employment and citizen involvement in decision making. A few major consistent
problems in the country’s economy have stunted growth considerably. These include:
    1. Instability of (national and international) development institutions
    2. Corruption
    3. Lack of well defined sustainable development policies
    4. Inefficient distribution of aid
                                                            (“Bangladesh: Foreign Aid”, 2009, pg 1)

3.3.2   The potential for JC to aid in rural development

        Rural development is clearly a cause of concern for Bangladesh’s future. As described
below, JC cultivation seems to be able to improve the situation in a number of areas.


Employment
        A case study carried out by Dr D. Hussain from BAU, demonstrates that roughly 11
employees are necessary for the cultivation of 100 hectare. This figure does not take into
consideration additional forms of employment in areas such as logistics, administration or
marketing. Furthermore, employment opportunities will be created in other industries that are
willing to implement JC bio-fuel in their business structure. Regarding cultivation; in the long-
term JC requires less agricultural supervision as plants have been seen to grow independently
after the initial 2 to 3 year growth period (Hussain, 2007, pg. 36).


Higher revenues for farmers
        When comparing a hectare of rice to a hectare of JC, profitability is much higher for JC
farmers. According to Dr. D. Hussain, an average of 1500 liters of JC oil can be obtained from
one hectare of land. This calculates to Tk. 46000 (€ 475), which is double the value of a rice field
(Hussain, 2007, pg. 19). Farmers will also be able to sell different parts of the JC shrub to
produce soap or fertilizer. A possible drawback concerns the threat to food crops. As farmers



The Hague School of European Studies                                                             21
Bangladesh: Jatropha Curcas for Sustainable Development                            Titus van der Spek


are made aware of the profitability of JC cultivation they may switch crops. It is therefore
important that strict regulations are put in place to ensure crop diversity (Islam, 2008, para. 2-3).


Development in balance of wealth
        The rural population involved in JC cultivation will gain a higher income. Furthermore,
as cultivation is highly dependent on the willingness of rural councils and farmers, rural
communities will gain more decision making power. If JC is cultivated with a collectivist
approach in each village, this will increase the income of a larger percentage of the population
and strengthen communities. There is however also the possibility that development efforts will
be exploited for personal gain.


Independent processing
        JC oil can be processed easily if used only for cooking, lighting and varnishing. This
means that the rural population will be able to process JC independently. Basic pump presses
(Section 2) can be purchased using micro-credit to produce oil. Local soap production can be
initiated to increase the role of women in the process.


Alternative energy source
         The greatest energy deficiency in Bangladesh is found in rural areas (Asaduzzaman,
Barnes, & Khandker, 2009, pg. 19). Figure 3.2, displays the extent of deforestation which is
deemed to take place due to energy consumption in rural areas. JC will not only provide an
alternative to inefficient energy sources, but will also decrease deforestation. Through JC
cultivation the dependency on fuel sources such as kerosene, petrol and diesel can be further
decreased.




The Hague School of European Studies                                                              22
Bangladesh: Jatropha Curcas for Sustainable Development                                Titus van der Spek




                      Energy Use and Expenditure in Rural Bangladesh, 2004




          Figure 3.2 Data compiled using resources from: Asaduzzaman, Barnes, & Khandker, 2009



3.4   Environmental effects

        JC has been classified as a renewable energy source. Studer and Wolfensberger
conducted research in 1992 which showed that when comparing pollution emission caused by
the processing of petrochemical diesel, JC emission was 30% lower. Furthermore, CO₂ emission
is decreased through the continuous cultivation of plantations. After processing, the JC shrub is
still 100% biodegradable (as cited in Hussain, 2007, pg. 5).




Figure 3.3 Based on data gathered from Jatropha Curcas studies, the following graph has been collated. It
                displays the levels of effect which each factor has on rural development.



The Hague School of European Studies                                                                  23
Bangladesh: Jatropha Curcas for Sustainable Development                           Titus van der Spek


3.5    Aid and Government support

        Foreign aid to developing countries is decreasing due to the global recession. The
Bangladeshi government is well aware of this and has taken action to ensure that funds are
utilized efficiently.   The Annual Development Programme (ADP) is a department of the
Bangladeshi government, which distributes resources to different sectors of the economy.
Being one of the country’s most dominant industries, agriculture receives much attention from
the ADP (“Bangladesh: Foreign Aid”, 2009, para. 1). Agriculture contributes to 32.4% of GDP and
affects approximately 75% of the population. Nevertheless, there has been a decline in this
sector due to economic and environmental turbulence.          An increase in funds has therefore
been promised by the government. Additional incentives for farmers include liberal credit
schemes and long-term policies which sustain this particular industry (“Bangladesh: Foreign
Aid”, 2009, para. 2).
        NGOs are involved in a wide range of rural development projects. Currently more than
89 NGOs are present in Bangladesh. Agriculture is an industry which receives much support as
many feel it is able to contribute significantly toward creating a sustainable society. Currently,
numerous NGOs are implementing schemes which encourage poverty alleviation through micro-
credit financing (Islam, 2008, para. 10).
        Since the agricultural industry is receiving more aid, JC cultivation will be aided as well.
The Bangladeshi government had allocated Tk. 3 billion (€ 31 million) of the national budget for
2008-2009 toward dealing with climate change (Mingxin, 2008, para. 6). This figure is only
expected to increase as the situation worsens. Research continues to verify that JC is a highly
environmentally-friendly sources of renewable energy. This is especially relevant for developing
countries such as Bangladesh, which cannot afford alternative energy sources such as solar
power. JC cultivation has the potential to be allocated funds for both agricultural growth and
environment climate change.




The Hague School of European Studies                                                             24
Bangladesh: Jatropha Curcas for Sustainable Development                          Titus van der Spek


3.6     Conclusion

          Bangladesh is becoming increasingly dependent on oil imports and natural gas reserves
to fuel its economy.        These resources are however limited and have proven to be
counterproductive for economic development. Energy is the lifeline of any economy and when
in a state of crisis, this is detrimental to a country’s development and progress. It is clear that
Bangladesh needs to find an alternative method to generate energy. Not only should this
method be economically feasible, it should also be environmentally friendly.
          Bangladesh must take advantage of international research and develop a detailed plan
of action for future energy generation. There is a clear trend toward rural development and
economic stimulation within Bangladesh. Three areas of focus have been identified thus far:
      1. The alleviation of poverty in rural areas
      2. Aiding the agricultural sector
      3. Dealing with climate change
The analysis put forward in this study has demonstrated that the cultivation of JC has the ability
to play a role in each of the above mentioned areas. This suggests that JC will enter the
agricultural industry with ease and will gain substantial funding and support to ensure its
prosperity.




The Hague School of European Studies                                                            25
Bangladesh: Jatropha Curcas for Sustainable Development                           Titus van der Spek



4 Bangladesh - Turning to Jatropha Curcas

4.1     Introduction

         This section aims to identify efforts already made towards cultivating JC in Bangladesh.
Furthermore, an analysis will be conducted concerning its future prospects.

4.2     The current situation

         Locally, JC is known as Jamalgota, Erenda or Sadamandar (“Jatropha Cultivation and Oil
Production”, 2007, slide 3). The characteristics of the shrub have not yet undergone exhaustive
(complete) studies by research institutes in Bangladesh. All doubts and speculations must be
cleared by governing bodies and reputable research institutions. Currently, the shrub is found in
the wild and is used by some tribal farmers as fencing for cattle. Farmers are not aware of its
potential as an oil bearing plant or its numerous by-products (Hussain, 2007, pg. 15).

4.2.1    Institutions involved

         Based on desk research and communication with national energy institutes, there seem
to be very few organization that are involved in analyzing the potential for JC cultivation in
Bangladesh.


Grameen Shakti, Dhaka
         Grameen Shakti is an initiative undertaken by
Grameen Bank to aid poverty-stricken communities in
their struggle against the energy crisis. Based on an
interview with Dr. M. Islam, Head of International
Cooperation and Development for Grameen Shakti,
their involvement in JC awareness programs and
cultivation initiative seemed to be very much in a
preliminary planning stage. Grameen Shakti showed
keen interest in establishing further steps toward
implementation.      Their powerful local position and
                                                            Figure 4.1 Dr M. Islam, displays the
international name make this organization a key player      inaugural JC shrub at Grameen Bank
in the future of JC cultivation.                            (Picture taken during interview, 2009)




The Hague School of European Studies                                                                 26
Bangladesh: Jatropha Curcas for Sustainable Development                              Titus van der Spek


Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU), Mymensingh
        BAU is currently the primary national institution which has contributed to research
concerning JC. Dr Daulat Hussain & Md. Parvez Islam, setup the University’s Jatropha Plantation
Group which carried out extensive research concerning the shrub’s national potential. A study
carried out by this team, Proposal on Jatropha model farm and business plantation farm for seed
and oil production in Bangladesh, contains a
detailed analysis of the cultivation and processing
methods applicable to Bangladesh (Hussain,
2007). P. Islam revealed that the potential for JC
cultivation in Bangladesh was promising.         The
shrub showed similar growth patterns to that of
neighboring India and machinery was easily
adaptable.    He emphasized, that the lack of
government     initiatives    and   foreign    direct
investment were two of the main setbacks.
        Surprisingly,   JC    research   has   been
conducted for more than 3 years, yet still no

steps have been made toward initiating
                                                        Figure 4.2 Two Jatropha Curcas species from BAU
cultivation and extraction.    As the price of oil      Farm, Interview with Md. P. Islam (Picture taken
                                                        during fieldtrip, Mymensingh, 2009)
decreases due to the global recession, private
energy companies have focused solely on revitalizing their oil supplies. Furthermore, as there is
little awareness of JC’s potential, investors are skeptical to get involved. Overall, there seems to
be little national interest in JC cultivation (Islam, 2009, Appendix 1). Grameen Shakti and BAU
were the only two institutions identified as showing a genuine interest in the future of JC in
Bangladesh. A clear example of this is a report published for the World Wide Fund for Nature
(WWF), which contains little factual knowledge of Bangladesh’s potential (GEXSI, 2008, slide 9).
Based on extensive research many such international institutions have shown a clear lack of
interest in the potential for cultivation in Bangladesh.




The Hague School of European Studies                                                                 27
Bangladesh: Jatropha Curcas for Sustainable Development                          Titus van der Spek


4.2.2    Governing bodies

         In 2006, a committee was formed by the government to examine Bangladesh’s potential
for biodiesel production. The committee identified that JC could account for a minimum of 25%
of total fuel consumption. This would save the country more than € 350 million annually
(“Bangladesh Mulls Jatropha Plantation to Boost Bio-diesel Output”, 2007, para 1-5).
Government incentives for JC cultivation are based on agricultural developments, which still
take priority in the government’s interim budget. Tax holidays, payback systems and relaxed
barriers for foreign direct investment all help to increase agricultural development (“Energy
Sector of Bangladesh”, 2009, para. 3). As JC is still regarded with some degree of skepticism,
government support must be gained before any effective form of cultivation can take place
(Islam, 2009, Appendix 1).



4.3     The future potential for Jatropha
        Curcas

4.3.1    Cultivatable land

         BAU has completed a study to locate areas
most suitable for cultivation. The university is situated
in Mymensingh which is itself one of these potential
areas. As can be seen in Figure 4.3, prospects for
cultivation are promising. The land toward the north
has been targeted mainly due to the soil diversity.
Cultivatable land in the south is mainly found in the
hill-tracts where the soil is undesirable for food crops
and well above sea level. One of the main threats to
cultivation in Bangladesh is the annual floods which
                                                            Figure 4.3 cultivatable lands in
have had detrimental effects on agricultural progress.      Bangladesh (Jatropha Curcas
(Hussain, 2007, pg. 9-11).      In 2007, the Jatropha       Cultivation and Oil Production, 2007)
Plantation Group visited potential areas for cultivation to ascertain land pricing, stakeholders,
soil conditions and community awareness (see Appendix 3 for detailed tables of results). Most
of the identified land was available on lease for 10 years or more. The potential land identified
by the Jatropha Plantation Group consisted of 30,000 hectare at an average leasing rate of €



The Hague School of European Studies                                                            28
Bangladesh: Jatropha Curcas for Sustainable Development                          Titus van der Spek


3,250 per 10 years (Hussain, 2007, pg. 9-11). Collaboration with the government to cultivate
along transportation routes has also been considered. According to findings in 2007, close to
3000 kilometers of railway routes proved suitable for JC cultivation (“Jatropha Cultivation and
Oil Production”, 2007 slide 9). As soil may not be suitable for growth in certain locations, it has
been found that a mixture of soil, sand and compost in equal proportions allows for efficient
growth (Hussain, 2007, pg. 15).

4.3.2    Plant compatibility

         Within BAU’s model farm, 660 JC shrubs where planted for demonstration and research
purposes. To ensure compatibility, BAU collected species which grew locally across the country.
The shrub proved to grow well but needed more time to adapt to be utilizable for mass
cultivation (Hussain, 2007, pg. 19)

4.3.3    Machinery

         Machinery must be imported to extract biodiesel efficiently.        According to Dr. D.
Hussain, the average cost of an expeller would be € 21,500. BAU has however taken initiatives
toward identifying how expellers could be manufactured locally. Converting mustard seed
expellers to extract JC is one proposed solution. This alternative is less efficient than imported
expellers as extraction levels are between 15% and 20% of pure oil, rather than the average 30%
procurable with efficient machinery (Hussain, 2007, pg 15-23).

4.3.4    Profitability

        The average quoted production cost of one liter of JC oil is € 0.32. BAU has calculated
that the market value for 1 hectare of JC will be Tk. 46000 (€ 477) per harvest.            When
considering additional revenues gained from the seedcake or the production of soap, JC
cultivation proves to be extremely attractive. Currently rice farmers earn approximately half
this figure.




The Hague School of European Studies                                                            29
Bangladesh: Jatropha Curcas for Sustainable Development                          Titus van der Spek


4.4    SWOT analysis

       To gain a better understanding of all findings, a SWOT-analysis of JC’s potential for
Bangladesh has been developed.


           Strengths                                      Weaknesses

   -   Utilization of wasteland                    - Energy recovery rate is low
   -   Renewable energy source                     - Production costs are not feasible for
   -   Sustainable development                       developing communities
   -   Reduction of oil dependency                 - Lack of established protocol
   -   Counter deforestation effects               - Relative unawareness
   -   30-50 year payback period                   - Low level of toxicity
   -   Soil & erosion rejuvenation                 - Long initial payback period
   -   Inter-cropping possibilities                - Modification of more complex
   -   Multiple by-products                          machinery is costly
   -   Low effects on food crops                   - Lack of national interest
   -   Adaptable with diesel engines
   -   Lessen effects of global warming
   -   Strong international interest
   -   Micro-credit financing



           Opportunities                                  Threats

   - Employment opportunities                      - Lack of studies regarding toxicity
   - International control & relation              - Encroachment of JC plantations in
     building                                        food-crop plantations.
   - Government aid to agricultural                - Localized technology is not
   - Lower oil and gas dependency                    standardized.
   - Greater distribution of power                 - Political, governmental and social
   - Rural energy services allow for                 instability
     further development of the                    - Government interference will scare
     community                                       of private interests
   - Revitalize forest areas                       - Lack of studies regarding JC oil
   - Greater balance of wealth between               adaptability
     rural and urban population                    - Exploitation of development
   - Combine with micro-credit loans                 projects
   - Environmentally friendly aspects              - Lack of policies and control
   - International knowledge will lessen
     doubts




The Hague School of European Studies                                                            30
Bangladesh: Jatropha Curcas for Sustainable Development                               Titus van der Spek


4.5   Confrontation Matrix
         A Confrontation Matrix carries out an accurate analysis and understanding of how each
strength, weakness, opportunity or threat can be related to one and other. Below is a list of the
most important factors. The factors in bold are those with the highest level of significance.
Through analyzing the relationship between each chosen factor, with the other, strategic
outcomes have been formulated.

Strength                  Weakness                 Opportunities            Threats
Current national          Lack of protocol         Governmental aid         Effect on food crop
interest
Strong international      Unawareness              Inter. know-ledge        Government
interests                                          will lessen doubts       interference
Micro-credit              High production          International            Lack of policies and
Financing                 cost                     control                  control
Utilization of            Low level of toxicity    Lower oil and gas        Lack of studies
wasteland                                          dependency               regarding JC oil
                                                                            adaptability
By -products              Low energy               Community                Exploitation of
                          recovery rate            development              development
                                                                            projects

Reduction of oil          Long initial payback     Environmental            Lack of studies into
dependency                period                   impact                   toxicity levels

The Confrontation Matrix:
                       Opportunities               Threats
Strengths              Offensive                   Adjust
Weaknesses             Defensive                   Survive

Offensive – Strengths & Opportunities
         The offensive strategy is primarily effective in the initial stages of the business life cycle.
To gain from each strength in relation to each opportunity, collaborating bodies must be setup
to ensure awareness. The possibility of cultivating JC in wastelands and its ability to reduce oil
dependency make it a strong competitor in the field of renewable energies. Therefore,
wasteland cultivation is the primary offensive strategy. Once this has been communicated and
introduced, a secondary offensive strategy must be implemented to further establish a high
level of sustainable development within the country’s JC industry. This secondary offensive
strategy is developed using the by-products of the plant. These by-products are easily
integrated within rural under-developed communities who have a lack of resources. The
primary and secondary strategies will automatically establish the third opportunity; a healthy
impact on the natural environment as cultivation increases.




The Hague School of European Studies                                                                  31
Bangladesh: Jatropha Curcas for Sustainable Development                            Titus van der Spek


Defensive – Weaknesses & Opportunities
         As primary offensive strategies are put in place, defensive strategies must be
established as the most prevalent weaknesses start to affect the business cycle. The greatest
weakness is unawareness. This unawareness creates numerous additional barriers such as a
lack of government initiative and insecurity amongst farmers. It must therefore be tackled
through vigorous communication using the primary opportunities. Decreasing oil dependency
and community development are two factors, which will make JC a very popular alternative
within rural communities. Developing collaborating bodies between unions, government
bodies, NGOs and agricultural institutions to send the message across to all relevant
stakeholders is crucial.

Adjust – Strengths & Threats
         The main threats are directly related to the main strengths. This allows the perfect
adjustment strategies to be developed and implemented when necessary within the business
cycle. Government policies and international control must be implemented to ensure that food
crops are not affected. The utilization of wasteland plays a dominant role in further ensuring
this. Educational workshops must be set up along with model farms to explain how cultivation
can take place most effectively. It is important that educatory sessions focus not only on
cultivation methods, but also on the energy crisis and sustainable development. JC must be
portrayed as a crop, which can benefit communities rather than individuals. Through educatory
session and high levels of control, the threat on food crops will be decreased. Simultaneously
people will be made aware of possible forms of exploitation which may take place. A lack of
government policies will have its greatest effect in the early stages of the business cycle. This
must therefore be handled carefully and quickly. Eliminating this threat requires a strong focus
on JC’s ability to reduce Bangladesh’s oil dependency. As this is a problem being faced by
Bangladesh for several years now, an alternative solution will grasp the attention of governing
bodies.

Survive – Weaknesses & Threats
         The main link between weaknesses and threats lies between a lack of protocol and a
lack of policies, respectively. These two factors are interlinked and create one of the greatest
barriers; a lack in efficiency. Without clear policies all efforts are with little effect. To counter
this problem, the best initiative would be to target NGOs and simultaneously start a model farm.
NGOs play an important role in stirring the government’s interests. A model farm will help to
create awareness in a more tangible form. Furthermore, international investments tend to draw
more attention from the government. Funding bodies must be targeted by local entrepreneurs
to gain more governmental awareness.




The Hague School of European Studies                                                              32
Bangladesh: Jatropha Curcas for Sustainable Development                           Titus van der Spek



5 Effective Aid


5.1       Introduction

          Bangladesh can learn a lot from international efforts already made to cultivate JC for
sustainable development. Besides learning from these examples, there are also organizations
and institutions which would be able to aid Bangladesh as it ventures into the biodiesel industry.
This section will highlight such opportunistic forms of aid.

5.2       The Wageningen University: Global Jatropha Curcas Evaluation
          Programme (2006-2010)

           Wageningen University has initiated research into the different JC species.          The
University aims to collect species from different climates to identify potent varieties.
Participants can send samples of their plants which will be analyzed genetically free of charge.
The analysis;
          Identifies the species and conducts a comparison with other types of species
          Makes predictions with regard to crop development
          Examines the crop production cycle
          Determines the oil content
This initiative supports cultivators in the management of their business processes and to
collaborate with others who have interests in similar species.
                                                                 (Jatropha-WUR website, 2009)

5.3       Kyoto Protocol: Carbon Credits

           Since every country has its own policies and regulations regarding pollution, the Kyoto
Protocol tries to hold them responsible for their own emission.           Carbon Credits can be
purchased and earned. Companies not able to curb their own emission outputs can effectively
purchase the right to pollute. Those who reduce carbon levels can sell Carbon Credits. This
system is meant to provide a more balanced form of pollution.
Bangladesh joined the Kyoto Protocol in October, 2001. It is therefore able to initiate in Carbon
Credit trading. JC is officially recognized as a Carbon Credit viable crop. The government can
initiate Carbon Credit sales with other Kyoto Protocol signatories, thereby allowing farmers to
earn more for every hectare of JC cultivated.                      (Save the Planet website, 2009)


The Hague School of European Studies                                                             33
Bangladesh: Jatropha Curcas for Sustainable Development                         Titus van der Spek


5.4   Grameen Bank: Micro-Credit Financing

        Numerous projects in Africa and Haiti (see Section 2) have been established to develop
micro-credit worthy tools to cultivate JC for the purpose of sustainable development. Grameen
Bank, the founder of micro-credit financing, is the most suitable body to manage such projects
successfully in rural Bangladesh. Not only does it have the necessary knowledge, but it also has
strong ties with the governing bodies of Bangladesh.
                                                                 (Grameen Shakti website, 2009)

5.5   Jatropha Vikas Sansthan: Technical Aid

        The NGO Jatropha Vikas Sansthan, promotes energy plantations in India.             It has
successfully cultivated thousands of hectares and provided farmers with aid such as technology
for raising nurseries and buy back arrangements.
Such NGOs must be established or otherwise invited to participate in the Bangladeshi market.
One of Bangladesh’s main problems in initiating cultivation is the lack of technical knowledge.
An NGO like Jatropha Vikas Sansthan would not only profit from taking on opportunities in
Bangladesh, but would also be able to provide quick results with stronger guarantees of payback
for farmers.
                                                             (Editorial Team, 2009, para. 1-5)

5.6   ODAM: Biodiesel Centre 2007

        The Organization of Development Action and Maintenance (ODAM) is an NGO
established in Tamil Nadu, India. In March, 2007, ODAM developed South India’s first biofuel
demonstration site. This site provides eco-friendly biodiesel for agricultural equipment in nearby
vicinities whilst also serving as an educational platform for farmers and collaborating NGOs. In
the long term, ODAM also hopes to use the site to distribute seedlings to farmers who want to
start cultivating JC independently. ODAM is an NGO based solely in Tamil Nadu, yet it is willing
to collaborate and educate others. Similar small-scale demonstration sites must be set up
across all cultivatable regions in Bangladesh to promote awareness and educate farmers.
                                                                      (ODAM website, 2009)

5.7   ODAM: Fair-trade soap production

        ODAM has set up workshops to help women gain independent incomes through soap
manufacturing from glycerin; a by-product of JC. The soaps are marketed and sold as fair trade


The Hague School of European Studies                                                             34
Bangladesh: Jatropha Curcas for Sustainable Development                            Titus van der Spek


products. Though still at an experimental stage, ODAM has shown its openness and willingness
to educate any who are interested. NGOs based in Bangladesh must visit ODAM to gain a better
understanding of what projects can be implemented for their own rural population.
                                                                        (ODAM website, 2009)

5.8     AHIMSA: Seedling distribution

         All Human Integrated Meritorious Social Awareness is a NGO based in South India. It
provides JC seedlings at a minimal price of € 0.04 per seedling. It also guarantees the farmers a
buyback price of Rs. 10 per kilogram of seeds, incase private buyers fall weary.
AHIMSA has shown interest in expanding its horizon and providing its service in other countries.
As Bangladesh’s conditions regarding pricing, climate and culture are similar to those of India; it
would be a suitable location for AHIMSA to continue its work.
                                                                       (Prabu, 2008, para. 1-6)



5.9     Foreign aid for rural and agricultural development

         There are numerous institutions and government bodies which can be targeted for
(financial) aid. What is of greater importance however is that each has its own areas of focus
and must therefore be approached accordingly. Two examples are given:
      1. The European Union, has a programme called the European Development Fund (EDF).
         This fund is mainly focused on the African sub-continent, but it may be approachable
         from a small-scale rural development perspective (Europa.eu website, 2009).
      2. AusAID is a federally funded program which aims to alleviate poverty. Currently it is
         already active in Bangladesh, targeting issues such as youth and water conservation. Its
         focus seems to lie in uplifting people groups and increasing the quality of life through
         environmental conservation. JC cultivation can be regarded as aiding both causes
         (AusAID website, 2009).




The Hague School of European Studies                                                              35
Bangladesh: Jatropha Curcas for Sustainable Development                          Titus van der Spek



Conclusion
        This study; ‘Bangladesh, Jatropha Curcas for sustainable development and energy
stabilization’, has revealed that the Jatropha Curcas shrub has high potential with regard to
economic and sustainable development in Bangladesh.
        Using a future analysis of the potential for Jatropha Curcas in Bangladesh (Section 4.3)
and the country’s current energy situation (Section 3), a hypothetical timeline was created in the
Section: Recommendations. This section provides a step-by-step plan to take Jatropha Curcas
cultivation, extraction and processing to an effective level in Bangladesh. The plan strives to
provide a comprehensive and viable solution to the sub-question raised; how can Jatropha
Curcas cultivation, extraction and processing to generate biodiesel best be implemented in
Bangladesh? The problematic areas which were underlined as a result of this analysis
highlighted the country’s economic fallbacks rather than the need for a suitable Jatropha Curcas
business system. Problematic areas include a lack of government support, economic instability,
corruption and a lack of funds. These findings have been justified based on interaction with
national bodies of relevance to this study and an in-depth analysis of developing countries which
have already initiated Jatropha Curcas cultivation.
        Beside the economic effects of biodiesel production using Jatropha Curcas cultivation in
the wastelands of Bangladesh (Section 1 and 4), the identification of the shrubs numerous by-
products has further encouraged its suitability to aid rural, poverty stricken communities. These
include, but are not limited to, the production of soap, soil reclamation, water conservation,
animal fencing, fertilizer and medicinal purposes. These factors (Section 1 and 2) have been
sustained by literature findings from completed projects, models and reports from reputable
research bodies and help answer the sub-questions; What positive effect can Jatropha Curcas
cultivation have on rural, poverty stricken Bangladesh?
        The most effective methods of utilizing Jatropha Curcas as an aid to sustainable
development (sub-question: What is the most effective way of utilizing JC to increase sustainable
development?) have been found to lie not only in small-scale farming projects, but also in mass
cultivation for industrial consumption, regional power supplies and export purposes. This is
largely due to the volatile economic situation in Bangladesh. Therefore, the findings in this study
suggest that collaborative cultivation efforts for economic gain, while simultaneously targeting
sustainable development, would be most suitable.




The Hague School of European Studies                                                            36
Bangladesh: Jatropha Curcas for Sustainable Development                         Titus van der Spek


        Based on the analysis of information gathered, and its relevance to this particular study,
it can be stated that the cultivation of Jatropha Curcas in wasteland regions of Bangladesh has
shown remarkable possibilities.      Based on the levels of support procurable, the long-run
potential for sustainable development has shown positive results and should be further
analyzed by relevant institutions to appropriate future initiatives.




The Hague School of European Studies                                                           37
Bangladesh: Jatropha Curcas for Sustainable Development                           Titus van der Spek



Recommendation: Step-by-step implementation plan

Introduction

          There is a clear lack in initiatives take toward JC cultivation in Bangladesh. Using data
gathered, an in-depth analysis of JC’s potential in Bangladesh has been carried out.
The following step-by-step plan has been constructed to outline a hypothetical path for JC
cultivation and biodiesel extraction in rural Bangladesh.

Step-by-step plan

Stage 1: Planning, research and constructing collaborating bodies.
          Bangladesh’s rural conditions do not make it fit for immediate cultivation. Exhaustive
research must be carried out to confirm its suitability. This research will help create awareness
and gain acceptance.       Partnerships should be developed between Bangladesh’s research
institutes and international companies who are willing to provide funding. Furthermore, efforts
to gain government approval and change policies must be initiated. This will not be an easy task
as Bangladesh faces constant political turmoil, which has a major effect on its key industries.
Corruption also plagues the country and will definitely slow down the implementation of healthy
business practices. Government involvement must be ensured to avoid future confrontation.


Stage 2: Setup model farm and business system
          Based on research carried out in stage 1, model farms must be set up in rural areas. This
model will help educate farmers and rural communities (ODAM website, 2009). Once sufficient
funding is available, this model should be expanded to include oil extraction &
transesterification machinery. If feasible, generators run on biodiesel, should be setup to
support rural communities situated around the model farms.


Stage 3: Awareness campaigns
          Using the model farms as an example, JC must be publicized across the country.
Research institution and the national media must work together to effectively communicate the
benefits of JC. Urban communities must also be targeted, during awareness campaigns to
attract further investments. Little focus has been placed on Bangladesh’s potential as a JC
cultivator in international communities. To ensure success and a higher level of aid, this must
change.


The Hague School of European Studies                                                             38
Bangladesh: Jatropha Curcas for Sustainable Development                          Titus van der Spek


Stage 4: Guidance, aid and control
        Within the time frame of stage 1 and 3, it is inevitable that private parties would have
already developed plantations. Such efforts must be supported. Teams should be educated,
that can assist farmers. JC developments must be documented and analyzed to implement
suitable policies. Depending on the levels of cultivation, restrictions must be placed on the
percentage of biodiesel allowed for export. To further initiate growth, seedlings should be
distributed at competitive prices, to further initiate growth. Farmers and small-scale agricultural
communities will start to see the benefits of cultivating JC. Policies must ensure that this crop
does not take over other forms of agricultural produce. Extracted oil must be processed and
fairly distributed. The governing bodies responsible for energy distribution must ensure that
cultivation efforts are not exploited by private companies. Finally, rural populations should have
the opportunity to develop themselves as energy services are made available to them.


Stage 5: Rural penetration and development of incentives.
        By stage 5, cultivation will have been initiated by farmers across the country. Suitable
techniques, plant species and protocols will have been developed by research institutes. It is
now important that plans to increase sustainable development are implemented. Government
and financing institutions such as Grameen Bank should help rural communities start small-scale
cultivation.   The government must ensure continuous encouragement to promote mass
cultivation, through a variety of incentives. As cultivation is encouraged, carbon credit schemes
should be implemented to further motivate and aid farmers.


Stage 6: Analyze and stabilize the industry
        Economic factors and a variety of political and social influences within a developing
country such as Bangladesh can have detrimental effects on efforts toward institutionalizing
effective and ethical business practices. At this point in time, JC cultivation and processing will
have been initiated on a national level. The collaborating bodies which were initially involved in
developing protocols, must now work as a governing body which controls this industry. To
ensure that these bodies do not exploit their powerful positions, regular international
monitoring should take place. It must be ensured that an adequate percentage of the biodiesel
generated, is made available for local industries and communities. The remaining percentage
can then be used to gain revenues through exports.



The Hague School of European Studies                                                            39
Bangladesh: Jatropha Curcas for Sustainable Development                          Titus van der Spek



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The Hague School of European Studies                                                            40
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The Hague School of European Studies                                                              41
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The Hague School of European Studies                                                          42

								
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