ENTC Electronic Devices and Circuits II Spring Semester

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ENTC Electronic Devices and Circuits II Spring Semester Powered By Docstoc
					ENTC 351 – Introduction to Mixed-Signal Test and Measurement
Fall Semester 2000

Instructor : Dr. Rainer Fink                          Lecture : FERM 110
Email : Fink@entc.tamu.edu                            TR 12:45 pm - 2:00 pm
Phone : 845-5150
Office : Fermier 306                                  Laboratory : THOM 010
Office Hours : TR 9:00 - 11:00 am                     MW 12:40 – 2:30 pm

2000 Catalog Data: Credit (4) – Introduction to Mixed-Signal Testing. Integration of
analog and digital circuits in one chip requires a high tech solution to chip testing.
Course material covers the basic concepts of mixed signal testing: Test specifications, DC
and Parametric testing, Measurement accuracy, Tester Hardware, Sampling Theory, DSP
Based Testing, Analog Channel Testing, Sampled Channel Testing, and Focussed
Calibrations. Prerequisite : ENTC 350 with a C or better.

Important Note : A letter grade of “C” or better in ENTC 351 and all junior and senior
level Electronics Engineering Technology courses is required for advancement in the
electronics course sequence.

Textbook:      The textbook will be provided to you as a courtesy of Texas Instruments.
Presently the book is in the process of being written and revised by experts in the field of
mixed-signal testing. The material in the book is copyrighted and protected by Texas
Instruments. Please do not copy any portion of the book without written consent from
Texas Instruments. Written comments on the content and formatting of the book will be
welcomed by the author at the end of the semester. Once the text has been officially
released, you may be required to purchase a copy for your personal library.

Grading :      In this course, homework assignments, laboratory assignments, quizzes
               and exams will be used in the evaluation of your performance.

               Mid Term Exam                          150
               Final Exam (comprehensive)             150
               Homework / Quizzes                     100
               Projects / Labs                        200
               Total                                  600

Distribution : standard 90/80/70/60 percent breaks will determine your letter grade.

Special note: If you fail the final - you fail the course - irregardless of percentage in
the course.

Learning the information in this course requires practice to develop the skills of circuit
analysis and testing. Homework problems will be given in class and some or all of each
may be graded. Assignments will be either individual or group efforts as announced in
class. Absolutely no academic dishonesty will be tolerated in this course!!!!

Laboratory : The lab exercises have been developed to give you practice in the
experimental building, measurement and testing of basic electronic systems. Due to the
increased usage of the laboratory facilities, it is imperative that you leave the lab station
clean and orderly. Failure to do so will result in a zero for the lab grade for that group.
The performance of your lab will be verified by the instructor before you leave. Keep
your circuit built until you have the instructor’s signature showing this verification.

Requirements for lab grades will be outlined in lab.

Late assignments : Both homework and lab assignments will be turned in at the
beginning of class on the appropriate due date. Late assignments may be accepted at the
discretion of the instructor; however, a 50% penalty will be assessed for the first day late.
An additional 10% will be taken off for each day beyond the first. No assignments will
be accepted after I have completed the grading and returned the papers.

Attendance : If you get behind it will be very hard for you to catch up. Attendance is
required, and only documented university approved absences will be accepted.

The door to the classroom will be closed after 10 minutes. Do not disturb the class
by entering after this time.
                                  Course Outline

Chapter 1. – Overview of Mixed Signal Testing

      Mixed Signal Circuits
              Analog, Digital or Mixed Signal?
              Common types of Analog and Mixed Signal Circuits
              Applications of Mixed Signal Circuits
      Why Test Mixed signal Devices?
              The CMOS Fabrication Process
              Real World Circuits
      Post Silicon Production Flow
              Characterization vs. Production Testing
      Test and Diagnostic Equipment
              Automated Test Equipment (ATE)
              Probers
              Handlers
              E-Beam Probers
              Focussed Ion Beam Equipment
      New Product Development
              Concurrent Engineering
      Mixed Signal Testing Challenges
              Time to Market
              Accuracy, Repeatability and Correlation
              Electromechanical Fixturing Challenes
              Economics of Production Testing

Chapter 2. – The Test Specification Process

      The Device Specification Sheet
            Purpose of a Spec Sheet
            Structure of a Spec Sheet
            Electrical Specs
      Generating the Test Plan
            To Plan or Not to Plan
            Structure of a Test Plan
            Design Specifications vs. Production Test Specifications
            Converting the Spec Sheet into a Test Plan
      Components of a Test Plan
            Test Plan Structure
            Test Code and Digital Patterns
            Binning
            Test Sequence Control
            Waveform Calculations and Other Initializations
            Focussed Calibrations and DIB Checkers
            Characterization Code
            Simulation Code
            Debuggability

Chapter 3. – DC and Parametric Measurements

      Continuity
             Purpose of Continuity Testing
             Continuity Test Technique
             Serial vs. Parallel Continuity Testing
      Leakage Current
             Purpose of Leakage Testing
             Leakage Testing Technique
             Serial vs. Parallel Leakage Testing
      Power Supply Currents
             Importance of supply Current Tests
             Test Techniques
      DC References and Regulators
             Voltage Regulators
             Voltage References
             Trimmable Referencs
      Impedance Testing
             Input Impedance
             Output Impedance
             Differential Impedance Measurements
      Offset Measurements
             Output Offset Voltage
             Input Offset Voltage
             Single Ended, Differential and Common Mode Offsets
      DC Gain Measurements
             Closed Loop Gain
             Open Loop Gain
      Power Supply Rejection Ratio
             DC Power Supply Sensitivity (PSS)
             Power Supply Rejection Ratio (PSRR)
      Common Mode Rejection Ratio
             CMRR of Op Amps
             CRR of Differential Gain Stages
      Comparator DC Tests
             Input Offset Voltage
             Threshold Voltage
      Voltage Search Techniques
             Binary Searches vs. Step Searches
             Linear Searches
      DC Tests for Digital Circuits
            IIH / IIL (Input leakage currents)
            VIH / VIL (Input high voltage and input low voltage)
            VOH / VOL (Output high voltage and output low voltage)
            IOH / IOL (Specified Load Currents used for finding VOH and VOL)
            IOSH / IOSL (Short Circuit Currents)

Chapter 4. – Measurement Accuracy

      Terminology
             Accuracy and Precision
             Systematic Errors
             Random Errors
             Resolution (Quantization Error)
             Repeatability
             Stability
             Correlation
                     Tester to Bench Correlation
                     Tester to Tester Correlation
                     Program to Program Correlation
                     DIB to DIB Correlation
                     Day to Day Correlation
             Reproducibilty
      Calibration and Checkers
             Traceability to Standards
             Hardware Calibration
             Software Calibration
             System Calibrations & Checkers
             Focussed Instrument Calibrations
             Focussed DIB Circuit Calibrations
             DIB Checkers
             Tester Specifications
      Dealing with Measurement Error
             Instrument Ranging
             Filtering
             Averaging
             Guardbanding
      Basic Data Analysis
             Datalogs
             Histograms
             Normal (Gaussian) Distributions
             Noise Test Time and Yield
Chapter 5. – Tester Hardware

       Mixed Signal Tester Overview
               General Purpose Testers vs. Focussed Bench Equipment
               Generic Tester Architecture
       DC Resource
               General Purpose Multimeter
               General Purpose Voltage / Current Source
               Precision Voltage References
               Calibration Source
               Relay Matrices
               Relay Control Lines
       Digital Subsystem
               Digital Vectors
               Digital Signals
               Source Memory
               Capture Memory
               Pin Card Electronics
               Timing and Formatting Electronics
       AC Sources and Measurement
               AC Continuous Wave Source & AC Meter
               Arbitrary Waveform Generator (AWG)
               Waveform Digitizers
               Clocking and Synchronization
       Time Measurement System
               Time Measurements
               Time Measurement Interconnects
               User Computer
               Tester Computer
               Digital Signal Processor
               Network Connectivity
Test #1
Chapter 6. – Sampling Theory

       Analog Measurements using DSP
              Traditional vs. DSP-Based Testing of AC Parameters
       Sampling and reconstruction
              Continuous Time and Discrete Time
              Sampling
              Reconstruction
              Aliasing
              Imaging
              Sampling Jitter
       Repetitive Sampling Sets
              Finite and Infinite Sample Sets
            Coherent and Non-Coherent Signals
            Peak to RMS Control in Coherent Monotones
            Spectral Bin Selection
      Synchronization of Sampling systems
            Multiple Sampling Systems in Simultaneous Testing
            ATE Clock Sources
            The Challenge of Synchronization

Chapter 7. – DSP Based Testing

      Advantages of DSP Based Testing
              Reduced Test Time
              Separation of Signal Components
              Advanced Signal Manipulations
      Digital Signal Processing
              DSP and Array Processing
      Discrete Fourier Analysis
              Discrete Fourier Transform
      Fast Fourier Transform
              Interpreting the FFT Output
      Inverse FFT
              Equivalence of Time Domain and Frequency Domain Information
              Application of the Inverse FFT
      Frequency Domain Filtering
      Windowing

Chapter 8. – Analog Channel Testing

      Overview
              Types of Analog Channels
              Types of AC Parametric Tests
              Review of Logarithmic Operations
      Gain and Level Tests
              Absolute Voltage Levels
              Absolute Gain and Gain Error
              Gain Tracking Error
              PGA Gain Tests
              Frequency Response
      Phase Tests
              Phase Response
              Group delay and Group Delay Distortion
      Distortion Tests
              Signal to Harmonic Distortion
              Intermodulation Distortion
      Rejection Tests
             Common Mode Rejection Ratio (CMRR)
             Power Supply Rejection and Power Supply Rejection Ratio (PSRR)
             Channel to Channel Crosstalk
             Clock and Data Feedthrough
      Noise Tests
             Noise
             Idle Channel Noise
             Signal to Noise and Signal to Noise Distortion
             Spurrious Free Dynamic Range
      Weighting filters

Chapter 9. – Sampled Channel Testing

      Overview
             What are Sampled Channels?
             Examples of Sampled Channels
             Types of Sampled Channels
      Sampling Considerations
             DUT Sampling Rate Constraints
             Digital Signal Source and Capture
             Simultaneous DAC and ADC Cannel Testing
             Mismatched Fourier Frequencies
             Undersampling
             Reconstruction Effects in AWGs, DAC’s and other Sampled Circuits
      Encoding and Decoding
             Signal Creation and Analysis
             Data Formats
             Intrinsic Errors
      Sampled Channel Tests
             Similarity to Analog Channel Tests
             Absolute Level, Absolute Gain, Gain Error, and Gain Tracking
             Frequency Response
             Phase Response (Absolute Phase Shift)
             Group delay and Group Delay Distortion
             Signal to Harmonic Distortion, Intermodulation Distortion
             Crosstalk
             CMRR
             PSR and PSRR
             Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR)
             Idle Channel Noise (ICN)
      Summary
Chapter 10. – Focused Calibrations

        Overview
               Traceability to National Standards
               Why are Focused Calibrations Needed?
               Types of Focused Calibrations
               Mechanics of a Focused Calibration
               Program Structure
               DC Offset Calibration
               Cascading DC Offset Calibration
               DC Gain Calibration
        AC Amplitude Calibrations
               Calibrating AWGs and Digitizers
               Low Level AWG and Digitizer Amplitude Calibrations
               Amplitude Calibrations for ADC and DAC Tests
        Other AC Calibrations
               Phase Shifts
               Digitizer and AWG Synchronization
               DAC and ADC Phase Shifts
               Distortion Tests
               Noise Tests
        Error Cancellation Techniques
               Avoiding Absolute Calibration
               Gain and Phase Matching
               Differential Gain and Differential Phase
        Summary

Total                                                         (35 classes + 2 Tests)

				
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