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					         Government of India
Ministry of New & Renewable Energy
DIREC 2010                                       We Would Like to Thank
 Our Partner Ministries                                     Our Partner Network   Our Partner Countries
                      Ministry of Urban Development
                      Ministry of Science and Technology
                      Ministry of Environment and Forests
                      Ministry of Power
                      Ministry of External Affairs
                                                                                  Germany   Norway
Government of India

Our Associate Organisations & Associations
A Catalyst for Sustainable Habitats

Government of India hosted Delhi International Renewable Energy Conference (DIREC) 2010, the
fourth in the series of global Ministerial-level Conference on Renewable Energy from 27th to 29th
October, 2010. The conference followed from the initiative taken at the 2002 World Summit on
Sustainable Development in Johannesburg and also builds up on the initiatives taken in various IRECs
held in Bonn (Renewables 2004), Beijing (BIREC 2005) and Washington (WIREC 2008) to highlight
the significance of renewable energy.

DIREC 2010 was an effort to provide an important forum for international discourse on renewable
energy. Accordingly, the conference was carefully divided into four major themes - Technology &
Infrastructure, Policy, Finance and Renewable, Access & MDGs.

The overwhelming response received from the international community reiterated the significance
of ‘Up scaling and Mainstreaming Renewables for Energy Security, Climate Change and Economic
Development’, which was also the theme of the conference. It also showcased that the strides made
in this sector have surpassed predictions.

We, the organisers, were indeed left humbled by the encouragement received from various
stakeholders. Enthused by this response, we are pleased to bring out a Roadmap, which was
deliberated threadbare by the participants of DIREC 2010, with a hope that this document will act
like a guiding force for the continuing efforts and forthcoming IRECs.

Deepak Gupta
Government of India
Ministry of New and Renewable Energy

                                                                          A Catalyst for Sustainable Habitats

DIREC 2010 turned out to be one of the most significant renewable energy events ever held in India.
The ambitious and unprecedented effort required for the success of this event could not have been
possible but for the charismatic and inspirational leadership of Dr. Farooq Abdullah, Hon’ble Minister
of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE). The organizing team was equally guided and supported by
Mr. Deepak Gupta, Secretary, MNRE, whose enthusiasm and fervour kept the team motivated.

The multifaceted International Advisory Committee members gave in their valuable advice and inputs
for organising the event at every stage. The Renewable Energy Policy Network for the 21st Century
(REN21) Secretariat especially Ms. Virginia Sonntag-O’Brien worked tirelessly with the Organising
Committee in making this event a success. The support and facilitations extended by the Ministry of
External Affairs, Indian Missions abroad and Diplomatic Missions in India ensured the participation of
Ministries and delegations from countries across the globe.

An event like DIREC cannot happen overnight. The preparations started months ago. We were fortunate
to be backed by a motivated and dedicated team, whose commitment, professionalism and tirelessness
helped in setting the right tone for the organisation of the conference. We thank all those whose efforts
contributed towards making the event a success:

 Core Organising Committee:           Dr. A. K. Singhal                Mr. B. S. Negi
 Mr. Rohit Kansal                     Dr. J. R. Meshram                Mr. P. Sivasankaran
 Mr. S. S. Madan                      Dr. Ashivini Kumar               Mr. Mohan Lal
 Ms. Ritu Bharadwaj                   Dr. D. K. Khare                  Mr. R. P. Batra
 Mr. PNBV Chalapathi Rao              Mr. JB. S. Giridhar              Mr. I. P. Singh
 Mr. K. P. Sukumaran                  Mr. A. K. Varshney               Dr. G. Prasad
                                      Dr. Santram                      Dr. P. Saxena
 MNRE officers and staff members,     Dr. P. C. Maithani               Mr. M. C. Sharma
 who took on diverse tasks -          Dr. A. K. Tripathi               Mr. A. Narvane
 coordination     with   Embassies,   Mr. R. Dubey                     Mr. A. K. Joshi
 Session Coordination, organisation   Dr. Jugal Kishor                 Mr. Prem Chand
 of parallel workshops and side       Mr. V. K. Jain                   Mr. Bhanu Surender
 events, management of logistics,     Dr. B. S. Negi                   Mr. A. N. Narayanan
 venue arrangements and outreach of   Dr. M. R. Nouni                  Mr. B. K. Trikha
 conference.                          Mr. Dilip Nigam                  Mr. B. Routh
 Dr. N. P. Singh                      Mr. B. K. Bhatt                  Mr. Suresh Kumar
 Dr. B. Bandyopadhyay                 Mr. ML Bamboriya                 Mr. N. Ghatak
 Dr. Sudhir Mohan                     Mr. J. P. Singh                  Mr. Anil Kumar
 Dr. A. R. Shukla                     Mr. Girish Kumar                 Mr. Arun Kumar Jain
 Dr. H. L. Sharma                     Mr. A. K. Kaushik                Mr. Babu Ram Gupta
 Dr. P. Saxena                        Dr. G. Girdhar                   Mr. S. S. Ahmed
 Dr. Ahmar Raza                       Mr. G. Upadhyay                  Mr. Sita Ram Meena
 Dr. B. Bhargava                      Dr. P. C. Pant                   Mr. Kshitij Tyagi
 Mr. A. K Dussa                       Mr. B. R. Mishra                 Mr. Prabir Kumar Dash

                                                                             A Catalyst for Sustainable Habitats
       Mr. A. Hari Bhaskaran                  Mr.   Bhupinder Neemesh             Ms. Debjani Bhatia
       Mr. Arun Kumar                         Mr.   Rama Krishna Sharma           Mr. P. Kannalagan
       Mr. Tarun Singh                        Mr.   Anil Kumar                    Mr. Karamvir
       Mr. Karndhar Sanjay Gorelal            Mr.   Mahinder Singh                Ms. Prava Debal
       Mr. Shobhit Srivastava                 Mr.   Laxman                        Ms. Punnu Grover
       Mr. Sanjay Prakash                     Mr.   Saumitro Sarkar               Mr. K. S. Talwar
       Mr. Anindya Sundar Parira              Mr.   Ajay Kumar                    Ms. Poorva Sharma
       Mr. Hiren Chandra Borah                Mr.   Rohit Sikriwal
                                                                                  Special     efforts put  in    for
       Ms. Suminder Kaur                      Mr.   Pammi
                                                                                  coordinating and managing various
       Ms. Preeti D. Khanna                   Mr.   Ramvir Singh
                                                                                  sessions by
       Mr. Harpreet Singh                     Mr.   Chatter Pal Singh
                                                                                  Mr. A. K. Gupta
       Mr. Gurucharan                         Mr.   Bodh Raj
                                                                                  Mr. S. K. Sangal
       Mr. Kuldeep Sharma                     Mr.   P. D. Nautiyal
                                                                                  Ms. Nayanika Singh
       Mr. Raja Ram                           Mr.   Ramesh Kumar
                                                                                  Dr. Dilip Ahuja
       Mr. U. K. Maini                        Mr.   P. S. Rawat
                                                                                  Mr. Saurabh Yadav
       Mr. S. N. Nautiyal                     Mr.   Rajkumar
                                                                                  Ms. Mili Majumdar
       Mr. A. Raina                           Mr.   N. Ramachandran
                                                                                  Ms. Namarata Mukherjee
       Mr. G. S. Ghugtyal                     Mr.   Suresh Pal Singh
       Mr. V. Richard                         Mr.   Ram Prakash                   Support and facilitation extended
       Mr. D. K. Meena                        Mr.   Mahipal Singh                 by the Government of Uttar Pradesh
                                              Mr.   S. K. Jana                    particularly   the    Greater   Noida
       Mr. R. K. Mahajan
       Mr. Ghanshyam                                                              Authority in organizing the event.
                                              IREDA team led by Mr. Debashish
       Mr. R. K. Mehrolia                     Majumdar       that took care  of   Special thanks to Exhibition India
       Mr. Rambir Singh                       all the speaker related logistics   team for managing the arrangements
       Mr. R. S. Sodhi                        arrangement.                        at venue, Mr. Rahul Agrawal of i2k2
       Mr. J. S. Bhatia                       Mr. K.S. Popli                      for managing the website, Ms.
       Mr. Pala Ram                           Mr. Khekiho Yeptho                  Kavita Datta of Mutual PR agency for
       Mr. Devinder Singh                     Mr. Abhilakh Singh                  ensuring media coverage of DIREC,
       Mr. Madan Lal                          Mr. S. K. Dey                       Ms. Nutan Manmohan and the ATP
       Mr. D. Banerjee                        Ms. Kanchan Bhalla                  team members for audio and video
       Mr. Vipin Joshi                        Mr. S. M. Siddesh                   coverage of the conference and Mr.
       Mr. Om Prakash                         Dr. R. C. Sharma                    Sanjog Sharan of Karmic Designs,
       Mr. Prem                               Mr. S. L. Burman                    whose creativity in designing the logo
       Mr. Shankar                            Mr. Darpan Garg                     and backdrops of DIREC made the
       Mr. S. K. Dawra                        Mr. Sapan Thapar                    venue and settings spectacular.
       Mr. Rajesh                             Mr. P. K. Pandey
       Mr. Badan Singh                        Mr. K. P. Philip

      We witnessed unprecedented response from stakeholders representing Ministerial delegates from
      over 70 countries, policy makers, academia, private sector, energy companies, technology providers
      and NGOs. We thank all of them for their participation and support that enabled us in coming out with
      a Political Declaration that will help in up-scaling renewables. We also thank all the eminent speakers,
      leading experts and exhibitors, whose participation and inputs supported us in our endeavour of
      mainstreaming renewables through DIREC 2010.

      Ms Gauri Singh
      Joint Secretary
      Government of India
      Ministry of New and Renewable Energy

    DiREC 2010 REpoRt
x   Road Map for Up Scaling and Mainstreaming Renewables
Table of Contents

Message from Minister.....................................................................................V

Preface .......................................................................................................... vii

Acknowledgement .......................................................................................... ix

Chapter 1: Introduction .....................................................................................1

Chapter 2: Inauguration of DIREC 2010 ...............................................................9

Chapter 3: Plenary and Parallel Session .............................................................. 17

Chapter 4: Thematic Session, Track I: Technology & Infrastructure ........................ 31

Chapter 5: Thematic Session, Track II: Policy ...................................................... 41

Chapter 6: Thematic Session, Track III: Finance .................................................. 49

Chapter 7: Thematic Session, Track IV: Renewables, Access and MDGs .................. 59

Chapter 8: Closing Plenary ............................................................................... 69

DIAP Pledge Summary................................................................................... 79

Aide Memoire ................................................................................................ 82

Chapter        1

                   A Catalyst for Sustainable Habitats
Chapter                     1
Delhi International Renewable Energy Conference 2010
Up-scaling and Mainstreaming Renewables for Energy Security, Climate Change and
Economic Development

        ecent years have shown unprecedented           benefits. Against this backdrop, when energy
        growth of renewable energy scenario,           has increasingly become an important input
        where despite the global financial crisis      for economic development, Delhi International
the sector has managed to hold its own. The            Renewable Energy Conference (DIREC) 2010 was
resilience of the sector against all odds showcases    organised in New Delhi for three days, from 27th
that renewable energy is indeed the future             October to 29th October 2010.
and will play a major role in providing a clean,
secure and sustainable energy economy. The             DIREC 2010 is the fourth in the series of Global
potential is unquestionably large and the rapidly      Ministerial Level Conferences on renewable energy.
growing economies are determined to transform          These conferences were a natural progression
the economic crisis into an opportunity for            of the initiative taken at the World Summit on
greener growth. However, for the sector to grow        Sustainable Development in Johannesburg in the
significantly to meet world energy demands, it         year 2002. Accordingly, acknowledging the role
is imperative for the governments to provide           of renewable energy in sustainable development,
support in making renewables cost competitive          the first conference was held in the year 2004 in
as compared with other energy sources and              Bonn. Over the years, these conferences have
technologies.                                          evolved as an international platform for policy
                                                       makers, corporates and civil society leaders to
The IEA’s World Energy Outlook 2010 also               jointly address the goal of advancing renewable
reinforces that renewables will become increasingly    energy.
competitive as fossil fuel prices rise and renewable
technologies mature. But with an increase in           DIREC 2010 endeavoured to build upon the
renewables contribution to the world energy            success and outcomes of the previous events
mix, the scale of government support will also         in Washington in 2008, Beijing in 2005 and
increase. In 2009 this support amounted to USD         Bonn in 2004.With more than 13000 delegates
57 billion for both electricity from renewables and    participating in the conference, more than 20,000
bio-fuels and is bound to grow exponentially in the    visitors to the exhibition, over 250 speakers and
coming years. In principle, such a support is even     about 600 exhibitors from more than 70 countries,
justified, especially in the context of long term      DIREC will be looked upon as the most significant
economic and energy security and environmental         renewable energy event ever held in India.

                                                                                                  ChaptER 1
                                                                              A Catalyst for Sustainable Habitats
                                                              energy technologies, especially in the context
                                                              of developing countries. In particular, the
                                                              conference enabled the participants to acquire a
                                                              deeper understanding of:
                                 IRECs                          ^^ Policy efforts to encourage and enable
                                 A snapshot                        renewable scale up
        Since the initiation of the first IREC in Bonn in       ^^ Mobilising finance for renewable energy
        2004, this conference has achieved high-level              innovation and deployment
        international participation of stakeholders from        ^^ Benefits of collaboration, synergies, and
        policy, business, science and civil society. The
                                                                   knowledge sharing at the international
        Bonn “Renewables 2004” and the subsequent
                                                                   level to scale up renewable energy (RE)
        conferences in Beijing (BIREC 2005) and
        Washington (WIREC 2008) provided important              ^^ Link from Copenhagen to Cancun via
        fora for the international discourse on renewable          DIREC
                                                              A Trade Show was also held at DIREC 2010, which
        The Bonn 2004 conference yielded a political
                                                              turned out to be the largest exposition ever held
        declaration as one of its outcomes, which
                                                              on all-renewable energies in India. Spread over
        reflected shared political goals for an increased
        role of renewable energy and a joint vision of a
                                                              an area of 20,000 sq. mts, it was global in scope,
        sustainable energy future. At BIREC 2005, political   hosting over 600 exhibitors from more than 70
        declaration fostered the scaling up of renewables.    countries from around the world. The Exhibition
        WIREC 2008 focused on voluntary pledges. Six          featured renewable energy technology suppliers,
        years on, DIREC 2010 is well placed to trigger        systems integrators, financiers, professional
        further development and scale up of renewables        services firms, end-users, utility companies,
        through a political declaration/concrete plan of      energy companies, educational institutions, non-
        action.                                               profit organizations, associations, government
                                                              agencies, foreign governments and economic
                                                              missions, and other exhibitors. Fifteen foreign
                                                              countries which are leaders in the renewable
                                                              energy field had national pavilions, including
                                                              USA, Germany, Japan, Norway, Spain, and
                                                              Sweden. More than 20,000 visitors stepped into
                                                              the exhibition to witness the latest products,
                                                              technologies and inventions in the Renewable
                                                              Energy Sector.

                                                              DIREC 2010: Renewables - The Need
                                                              of the Hour
      The theme of DIREC 2010 was up-scaling and              The world’s energy supply is largely based on
      mainstreaming renewables for energy security,           fossil fuels. It is estimated that by 2030, 80% of
      climate change and economic development.                primary energy mix will be dominated by fossil
                                                              fuels, where in oil will remain the dominant fuel
      DIREC 2010 also showcased and became a                  and demand for coal will rise more than that of any
      launching pad for concrete initiatives undertaken       other fuel in absolute terms. In such a scenario,
      by the public and private sectors to promote            the realisation that these sources of energy
      widespread adoption of cost-effective renewable         will not last forever and are also contributing

    DiREC 2010 REpoRt
6   Road Map for Up Scaling and Mainstreaming Renewables
to environmental problems is what has made                    poverty. Renewables Global Status Report
renewables a lucrative and sustainable option.                (2009 update) by REN21 also reiterates that the
This has also led the governments around the                  renewable energy sector offers an essential path
globe, along with industries, thinking seriously              for growth that can stimulate economic recovery
about alternative sources of energy, the need                 and job creation without the burden of increasing
for which was further affirmed by the 1973 oil                carbon emissions.
embargo and oil price shock of 2008, coupled
                                                              Keeping up with the trend, Indian government
with the ever increasing oil prices.
                                                              focus is also on exploitation and development
Recent studies1 underscore that current global                of various forms of energy and making energy
trends in energy supply and consumption are                   available at affordable rates. The country’s
patently unsustainable – environmentally,                     energy supply comes from different sources:
economically and socially. It also went on to add             coal, hydropower, oil and gas and various forms
that the situation can be changed if the supply               of non-conventional energy. Government of India
of reliable and affordable energy is secured and              has recently brought out an Integrated Energy
a rapid transformation is made to a low-carbon,               Policy linked with sustainable development that
efficient and environmentally benign system of                covers all sources of energy and addresses all
energy supply.                                                aspects of energy use and supply including
                                                              energy security, access and availability,
The urgent need to focus attention on the                     affordability and pricing, as well as efficiency
development of renewable energy sources and                   and environmental concerns. This policy also
use of energy efficient technologies is what                  underlines the importance of renewables in
has led to initiatives like DIREC 2010. Now,                  India’s energy sector. The Policy states that solar
more than ever, countries all over the world                  power in particular could play an important role
fully recognise the need to promote wide                      in helping country attain energy independence
spread adoption of renewable energy into their                in the long run. With an increasingly favorable
country’s energy sources, with the intention of               regulatory and policy environment, along with a
promoting sustained economic growth, social                   growing number of enterprising entrepreneurs
development and environmental stewardship.                    and project developers; India is ranked the third
It is also presumed that with increasing scope,               most attractive country to invest in renewable
scale, research and development, the cost of                  energy after USA and Germany2.
renewable energy technologies will come down;
making them affordable and able to make a major
contribution to electricity generation, heating,
                                                              DIREC 2010: A Catalyst for Scaling
cooling and transport. Estimates highlight that               Up Renewable Energy
renewable energy could contribute at least half
                                                              Renewable energy has significant potential to
of all the electric power in each of the large
                                                              mitigate global climate change, address regional
economies by 2050; even in countries where
                                                              and local environmental concerns, reduce poverty
electricity demand is significantly high.
                                                              and increase energy security. The challenge is to
What’s more, renewable energy not only has the                provide the right policy framework and financial
                                                              tools to catalyse private sector investment at
capacity to provide millions of people with access
                                                              a scale that is adequate to undertake massive
to electricity; renewable energy equipment
                                                              up-scaling of renewable energy. DIREC 2010
manufacturing and installation is highly labour-
                                                              provided an apt platform for the policy-makers,
intensive, thus contributing not only to improved
                                                              thought leaders, corporate and civil society
living conditions, but also leading to reduced

    World Energy Outlook 2008, International Energy Agency.   2
                                                                  As per Ernst and Young Country attractiveness indices.

                                                                                                               ChaptER 1
      representatives to focus on creating enabling            Taking cognisance of the above-mentioned
      policy, legal and regulatory framework. It also          facts, the conference framework was also
      helped them to deliberate on existing market             painstakingly designed in consultation with the
      barriers and risks, besides focusing on financial        DIREC International Advisory Committee and
      incentives to promote commercialisation and              Renewable Energy Policy Network for the 21st
      investment.                                              Century (REN21) Secretariat. Accordingly, the
                                                               conference agenda had both the breadth and
      DIREC 2010 is an optimistic step in the direction        depth necessary for international leaders to
      of fostering:
                                                               address energy security, environmental issues,
        ^^ Enhanced political support and             public   and wealth creation in rural areas.
           awareness for renewable energy
        ^^ New and innovative actions to promote               Building upon the outcomes of the previous
           widespread adoption, and                            conferences (Bonn, Beijing, and Washington),
                                                               DIREC 2010 provided an inspiring road map
        ^^ Advanced    tools  for   collecting and
                                                               for global renewable energy progress and an
           disseminating best practices to the end
                                                               invaluable source of information on specific
                                                               steps that can be taken to advance the uptake of
      India too has come up with several initiatives for       renewable energy. This conference undoubtedly
      promoting renewable energy by mobilising large-          provided new vistas for governments and other
      scale private finance. DIREC 2010 therefore also         major stakeholders to make even bolder pledges
      provided an opportunity to highlight models that         to develop and enact renewable energy policies
      help in addressing challenges in mainstreaming           that will tackle energy security, environment and
      renewable energy in the context of developing            economic challenges and mainstream renewables
      countries.                                               into a low-carbon development pathway.

    DiREC 2010 REpoRt
8   Road Map for Up Scaling and Mainstreaming Renewables
Chapter       2
Inauguration of DIREC 2010

                             A Catalyst for Sustainable Habitats
Chapter                  2
Inauguration of DIREC 2010

      he Delhi International Renewable Energy    and renewables access and the Millennium
      Conference 2010 (DIREC 2010) was           Development Goals (MDGs).
      inaugurated on the evening of 26th
October 2010 in Vigyan Bhawan, New Delhi.        Parallel workshops were also hosted on various
The conference is one of the biggest renewable   issues including: solar power, solar water heating
energy events that India has ever witnessed.     systems, wind energy, sustainable habitats, bio-
Energy Ministers of more than 50 countries       methanation, rural empowerment, smart grid
and official delegates of almost 70 countries    technology, biofuels and clean lighting options.
participated in this three day conference and    In addition, a renewable energy trade expo
deliberated on the vital issues of renewables    showcased latest renewable technologies.
and energy security, climate change and
economic development. These themes were          Through 11 parallel sessions and 29 official
explored in both the plenary sessions, as        side events spanned over three days, delegates
well as in ministerial, multi-stakeholder and    and participants, deliberated and exchanged
CEO discussions, which followed four tracks:     ideas on various issues and aspects related to
technology and infrastructure, policy, finance   renewable energy.

                                                            DIREC 2010 pre-launch Press Conference

                                                                                            ChaptER 2
                                                                        A Catalyst for Sustainable Habitats
                                                                              Inauguration of DIREC 2010
                                                                 Dignitaries at the dais during Inaugural Session

       Several important documents and publications         Inaugurating the conference, Dr. Farooq Abdullah,
       were released and shared at the DIREC 2010           the Union Minister, New and Renewable Energy,
       platform, notable amongst which were a               Government of India, also welcomed the august
       compendium of Case Studies ‘Access to Clean          gathering of ministers and delegates to New
       Energy - A Glimpse of Off-Grid Projects in India’    Delhi to address the goal of advancing the use of
       and the strategy paper of Ministry of New and        renewable energy. He underscored the importance
       Renewable Energy, Government of India, viz.          of international cooperation in renewable
       ‘Renewable Energy in India - Progress, Vision &      energy research and development. This hand-
       Strategy’.                                           holding, he stated, was essential to expedite
                                                            the identification and development of solutions
       Welcoming the delegates, Mr. Deepak Gupta,           to meet world’s ever augmenting demand for
       Secretary, Ministry of New and Renewable             affordable and non-polluting, renewable energy.
       Energy (MNRE), India informed the gathering          The inauguration was also graced by India’s
       that it is their participation that has made DIREC   President, Smt. Pratibha Devisingh Patil, the
       2010 the biggest ever and a truly international      Union Power Minister, Government of India,
       multi-stakeholder conference. He stated that the     Shri Sushil Kumar Shinde, Union Minister of
       time has come when it is being recognized that       State for Science and Technology, Shri Prithvi Raj
       renewable energy is an important part of the         Chouhan, Deputy Chairman, Planning Commission,
       solutions to provide clean energy to the world       Dr. Montek Singh Ahluwalia and Chairman,
       threatened by fossil fuels and to provide access     Renewable Energy Policy Network for the 21st
       to those who do not have it.                         century (REN21), Dr. Mohamed El-Ashry.

     DiREC 2010 REpoRt
12   Road Map for Up Scaling and Mainstreaming Renewables
The President in her inaugural address expressed        to electricity, renewable energy has immense
confidence that DIREC 2010 will be able to              potential. It was evident in the inaugural ceremony
build on the success of the previous events in          itself that the delegates were more than keen to
Bonn (2004), Beijing (2005) and Washington              share and deliberate the knowledge and experience
(2008). She reminded the delegates that these           to tap renewable energy sources on a large scale,
are unprecedented times when energy security            to meet the ever growing energy requirements of
and climate change are among the issues                 the populace.
defining global discourse. Though there was a
time, mentions our ancient scriptures, where in         Dr. Montek Singh Ahluwalia, went on to add that
Ekam Adityam or “one sun” was considered the            renewable energy is already providing more
source of inexhaustible energy and for ages the         than 18 percent of the total energy supply and
early man relied largely on natural sources like        it is believed that by 2009, non-hydro renewable
sun, wind and wood for energy. But it was the           power will constitute over 5 percent of the global
industrial era that led to a major shift to fossil      power generation capacity. Keeping up with
fuel energy. With increasing dependency on fossil       the trend, solar energy, wind power and other
fuels; the issues of limited supply, depleting stocks   renewable technologies are also experiencing
and environmental pollution gained all the more         double-digit annual growth rates for more than a
importance.                                             decade. Not to forget grid-connected solar photo-
                                                        voltaic the fastest growing energy technology
The challenge, stressed the President, was to come      in the world. Needless to say, these trends
up with a sustainable mix of energy and in a world      speak volumes about the immense potential of
where 1.4 billion people worldwide lack access          renewables.

                                                                         Delegates at the Inaugural Session

                                                                                                   ChaptER 2
                                                                               A Catalyst for Sustainable Habitats
                                                                                     Inauguration of DIREC 2010
       Dr. Mohamed El-Ashry in his address said that         needs of domestic, institutional and industrial
       DIREC 2010 has brought us together to show            establishments. Programmes such as biomass
       international leadership on renewable energy          energy including biofuels; new technologies
       and we need strong leaders at all levels that         including hydrogen are under implementation.
       have vision and want to invest in this great          In wind energy, India has the 4th largest installed
       opportunity.                                          capacity. Besides enormous potential, a short
                                                             gestation period in installing wind turbines makes
       The delegates were made conversant with the           it an attractive option for India. The Action plan
       fact that for India, energy security is a pre-        for renewable energy by 2022 also aims to set
       dominant objective and translating this urgent        up around 85 GW of renewable power, including
       need into a well-thought out plan of action, the      20 GW from solar energy.
       country has put in place the transformational
       and historic initiatives like the National Action     The inaugural session also emphasised on the
       Plan on Climate Change and a new policy on the        critical role of research and development and
       development of solar energy, which is essentially     initiated the much needed thought process
       a part of the eight key national missions with        towards technological up-gradation, vibrant
       the twin objective of contributing to India’s         and active collaboration of industries with
       long term energy security, as well as ecological      academic and research institutes, along with
       security. Besides, the country is already on          research partnerships between developed
       a low carbon growth path and considerable             and developing countries to work towards
       amount of work has already been done for              cost-effective technological innovations. The
       the development and production of renewable           speakers also emphasised on the importance of
       energy     technologies.     Renewable     power      collective efforts of the international community
       already contributes to around 10 percent              to support and strengthen developing countries
       of country’s electric installed capacity. In          initiatives   with     financial  resources  and
       addition, over 7000 remote and inaccessible           technology transfer.
       villages and hamlets have been provided with
       basic electricity services through distributed        The President of India also invited the delegates
       renewable power systems.                              to include all the above-mentioned essential
                                                             issues in meaningful discussions and effective
       In an effort to provide clean and efficient cooking   outcomes of the discourse on renewable
       energy in the villages, over 4 million family size    energies. The session concluded on an optimistic
       biogas plants have been set up; almost 3.5            note hoping for fruitful and effective way forward
       million square metre collector area solar thermal     and success in fostering partnerships to promote
       systems have been established to cater to the         the use of renewable energy.

     DiREC 2010 REpoRt
14   Road Map for Up Scaling and Mainstreaming Renewables
            Visiting Minsiters and High Level Delegations
                     from Participating Countries
H.E. Mr. Wais Ahmad                          H.E. Dr. Irene                        H.E. Tawfiq-e-Elahi
Barmak                                       Freudenschuss-Reichel                 Chowdhry, Bir Bikram
Deputy Minister                              Director General for Development      Adviser to Hon’ble Prime Minister
Ministry of Rural Reconstruction             Cooperation, Ministry for European    of Bangladesh
and Development, Afghanistan                 and International Affairs, Austria

H.E. Mr. Vladimir                            H.E. Ir. Moise Bucumi                 H.E. Lyonpo Khandu
Shemashko                                    Minister of Energy and Mines,         Wangchuk
First Dy. Prime Minister, Belarus            Burundi                               Minister of Economic Affairs, Bhutan

H.E. Mr. Vahid Heco                          H.E. Mr. Carol Buckley                H.E. Mr. Jose Brito
Federal Minister of Energy,                  Director General                      Minister for Foreign Affairs
Mining and Industry, Bosnia and              Natural Resources, Canada             Cape Verde

H.E. Mr. Liu Qi                              H.E. Mr. Nyembo Kitungwa              H.E. Mr. Antonis
Vice Administrator
                                             Etienne                               Paschalides
National Energy Administration
                                             Secretary, Ministry of Energy         Minister of Commerce, Industry
(NEA), China
                                             Congo Democratic Republic             and Tourism, Cyprus

H.E. Mr. Ivo Hlavac                          H.E. Mr. Hassan Younes                Mr. Getahun Moges Kifle
Deputy Minister of Environment,              Minister of Electricity & Energy,     General Director, Ethiopian
Czech Republic                               Egypt                                 Electricity Agency, Ethiopia

Mr. Kahisu Tadesse Yaebyo                    H.E. Mr. Paavo Väyrynen               Mr. Timoci Natuva
Director General, Ethiopian                  Minister of Foreign Trade and         Minister for Works, Transport and
Alternative Energy Development &             Development, Ministry for Foreign     Public Utilities, Fiji
Promotion Centre, Ethiopia                   Affairs, Finland

H.E. Mr. Aristide Ngari                      H.E. Dr. Mamadou Tangara              Hon. Mambury Nijie
Director General of the Energy &             Minister of Foreign Affairs,          Minister of Economic Planning
Hydraulic Resources, Gabon                   International Cooperation and         and Industrial Development and
                                             Gambians Abroad, Gambia               Minister for Energy, Gambia

H.E. Mr. Jurgen Becker
State Secretary Federal Ministry             H.E. Mr. Wasna Papai Danfa            H.E. Ms Katrin Juliusdottir
for Environment, Nature                      Secretary of State for Energy,        Minister of Industry, Energy and
Conservation and Nuclear Energy,             Guinea Bissau                         Tourism, Iceland

H.E. Dr. Hussein                             H.E. Eng. Behzad                      Hon’ble Mr. Roberto Menia
Al-Shahirstani                               Deputy Minister for Electricity and   Under Secretary (Minister of State)
Minister i/c Ministry of Electricity, Iraq   Energy, Iran                          Ministry of Environment, Land and
                                                                                   Sea, Italy

H.E. Mr. Hiroshi Asahi                       H.E. Mr. Lamissa Diabate              H.E. Mr. Jean Rodolphe
Director General for Energy &                Secretary General,                    Ramanantsoa
Environmental Policy, Ministry of            Ministry of Energy & Water, Mali      Minister of Energy, Madagascar
Economy, Trade & Industry, Japan

H.E. Dr. Ahmed Rashid                        H.E. Mr. Trond Giske                  H.E. Mr. Per Rune Henriksen
Beebeejaun, GCSK                             Minister of Trade and Industry,       State Secretary/Deputy Minister,
Deputy Prime Minister                        Norway                                Ministry of Petroleum and Energy,
Minister of Energy and Public                                                      Norway
Utilities, Mauritius

                                                                                     A Catalyst for Sustainable Habitats
         H.E. Mr. Halvard Ingebrigtsen          H.E. Mohamed Abdullah                 H.E. Jose Carlos das Dores
         State Secretary/Deputy Minister for    Mohamed Al-Mohrooki                   Zorrinho
         Trade and Industry, Norway             Chairman of Electricity and           Secretary of State (MoS) for
                                                Water Public Authority, Oman          Energy and Innovation, Portugal

         H.E. Dr. Mohammad Saleh                H.E. Mr. Jim Mather MSP               H.E. Mr. Louis Seck
         Al-Sadar                               Minister for Enterprise, Energy and   Minister for Renewable Energies,
         Minister of State for Industry and     Tourism, Scotland                     Senegal
         Energy Affairs, Qatar

         Hon’ble Pedro Luis Marin               Hon. Patali Champika                  H.E. Nr. Al-Sadig Mohamed
         Uribe                                  Ranawaka                              Ali
         Minister of State for Energy,          Minister of Power and Energy,         Al-Sheikh
         Ministry of Industry, Tourism and      Sri Lanka                             Minister of State, Ministry of
         Trade, Spain                                                                 Electricity & Dams, Sudan

         H.E. Mr. Eisa Bushra                   HRH Princess Tsandzile                H.E. Ms. Maud Olofsson
         Mohamed                                Dlamini                               Minister of Energy, Sweden
         Minister of Science & Technology,      Minister for Natural Resources and
         Sudan                                  Energy, Swaziland

         Dr. Walter Steinmann                   H.E. Mr. Simon D’Ujanga               H.E. Dr. Rashid Ahmad bin
         Secretary of State,                    Minister of State for Energy,         Fahad
         Department of the Environment,         Ministry of energy and Mineral        Minister of Environment & Water,
         Transport, Energy and                  Development, Uganda                   United Arab Emirates
         Communications, Switzerland

         H.E. Dr. Sultan Ahmed Al               H.E. Mr. Suresh Kumar                 H.E. Awadh al-Suqatri
         Jaber                                  Assistant Secretary,                  Minister of Electricity and Energy,
         CEO, MASDAR, Abu Dhabi and             Department of Commerce, USA           Yemen
         Assistant Minister, Ministry of
         Foreign Affairs, United Arab

         H.E. Mr. Kenneth Konga
         Minister of Energy and Water
         Development, Zambia

     DiREC 2010 REpoRt
16   Road Map for Up Scaling and Mainstreaming Renewables
Chapter       3
Plenary and Parallel Session

                               A Catalyst for Sustainable Habitats
     DiREC 2010 REpoRt
18   Road Map for Up Scaling and Mainstreaming Renewables
Chapter                   3
Plenary and Parallel Session

                                                  Welcoming the delegates to New Delhi, Farooq
Day 1: The Plenary Session                        Abdullah, the Union Minister, New and Renewable
27th October 2010                                 Energy, India, underscored the significance of
                                                  international cooperation in research targeted
After registration in the morning, an august      towards renewables. He set the tone of the
gathering of participants convened in the         discussion by pointing out that the research and
plenary sessions. The overwhelming response       development in renewables is necessary to expedite
from participants, across the globe, in itself    the identification of technological solutions, which
reiterated the importance of renewables and       can meet world’s increasing demand for affordable
demonstrated the interest in the fundamental      and non-polluting renewable energy.
change in the world’s energy system. Making
the best possible use of this enthusiasm, the
                                                  Journey from Johannesburg to Delhi
deliberations in this session revolved around
following themes:                                 In the morning, Mr. Michael Eckhart, President,
  ^^ The journey from Johannesburg to Delhi       American Council on Renewable Energy (ACORE)
                                                  and & Co-chairman, World Council for Renewable
  ^^ Scaling-up renewables for energy security,
                                                  Energy (WCRE) moderated a panel on the
     climate change and economic development
                                                  International Renewable Energy Conference
  ^^ The road to Cancun
                                                  (IREC) concept and process. He drew the
  ^^ The green economy and the role of            attention of delegates towards the contribution
     renewables                                   made by Mr. Hermann Scheer, the winner of the
  ^^ Vision 2020 – the role of renewables         Alternative Nobel Prize and author of Germany’s
     for energy security, climate change and      Renewable Energy Sources Act, who breathed
     economic development                         his last on 14th October 2010. A moment of
                                                  silence was held in his honor to pay respect to
In the afternoon, three parallel sessions         his immense contribution to renewable energy.
including ministerial and multi-stakeholder       He was responsible for establishing the European
discussions, and a CEO roundtable were followed   Association for Renewable Energy, World
by a joint ministerial-multi-stakeholder-CEO      Council for Renewable Energy (WCRE), and was
‘Straight Talk’.                                  instrumental in the founding of International

                                                                                              ChaptER 3
                                                                          A Catalyst for Sustainable Habitats
                                                                                Plenary and Parallel Session
                                                               The dais observing a moment of silence for the recently
                                                                     departed renewable energy icon, Hermann Scheer

       Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) and IREC                  2004. In addition, 83 countries have established
       conferences.                                              national policies to promote renewable and there
                                                                 is a strong possibility to strengthen and enable
       Mr. Eckhart stated that thanks to Mr. Scheer’s            partnerships between banks in the developed
       efforts, exemplary progress has been made                 and developing countries with the help of Global
       worldwide towards a green energy supply from              Climate Partnership Fund.
       renewable sources. It was his unwavering focus on
       accelerating the transformation of energy systems,        Mr. Kadri Nassiep, CEO of South African National
       that has help to advance renewables. His wealth           Energy Research Institute (SANERI), added
       of knowledge, his logical analysis and his ability to     momentum to the optimistic thought process by
       inspire and convince others of the importance of          mentioning that even a country like South Africa
       this energy system will not be forgotten.                 has pledged to generate 4% of the country’s
                                                                 energy from renewable sources by the year
       Taking forward the conference from this sombre            2013. He also attracted the attention of the
       beginning, Mr. Jürgen Becker, State Secretary,            gathering towards the role of women and rural
       Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature              revitalisation and the overall importance of their
       Conservation and Nuclear Safety, Germany,                 upliftment and empowerment.
       gave another dimension to the discussion by
       stating that renewable energy is pertinent for            The next eminent speaker, Mr. Liu Qi, Vice
       tackling climate change challenges and ensuring           Chairman, Vice Minister of China National Energy
       energy access and security. He reminded the               Administration, also stated that renewable energy
       delegates that time is ripe to press for change           is not just a source of energy; it is an alternative
       as global investment in renewables is at an               that represents an important choice for humanity
       all-time high and has increased five-fold since           to make a pragmatic leap towards sustainable

     DiREC 2010 REpoRt
20   Road Map for Up Scaling and Mainstreaming Renewables
and green energy options. He called for an           Chairman, Renewable Energy Policy Network
international road map to develop renewable          for the 21st Century (REN21), reminded the
energy according to countries’ conditions and        delegates about the progress made in general
resources and stressed on the role of education      in renewable energy since the WIREC in 2008.
and training.                                        He drew everyone’s attention towards enhanced
                                                     political commitment to renewables from both the
Unfolding the efforts made by US legislation on      developed and developing countries. He noted
clean and renewable energy, Dr. Arun Majumdar,       that despite the economic recession, renewables
Director, Advanced Research Projects Agency-         growth has not been significantly hampered
Energy (ARPA-E), US Department of Energy,
                                                     and hoped that it will continue to be driven by
stressed on the role of innovative solutions and
                                                     climate change and the need for energy security
basic science. He mentioned how US is going out
                                                     and energy access. He called on the delegates
of its way to make unprecedented investments to
                                                     to come forward to radically change the world’s
the tune of $29 bn in Energy Efficiency, $21 bn in
                                                     energy system, not just for today, but for the
Renewable Energy, $10 bn in Grid Modernisation,
                                                     sake of future generations.
$6 bn in Advanced Battery Manufacturing and
Biofuels, $3 bn in Green Innovation and Job          Taking the recap of Dr. El-Ashry to a futuristic and
Training and $2 bn in Clean Energy Manufacturing     optimistic note, Mr. Deepak Gupta, Secretary,
Tax Credits. He highlighted how the US, taking       Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE),
forward the country’s commitment towards             India, urged the governments and other
renewables has organised an ARPA-E-sponsored         stakeholders to come forward to sign the Delhi
energy innovation summit to be held in February-     International Action Program; besides pledging
March 2011 in the US.                                commitments for renewable energy. He reminded
                                                     the delegates that the total commitments
The DIREC Theme: Up-scaling and                      pledged in DIREC will be an indication of DIREC’s
mainstreaming renewables for energy                  success.
security, climate change and economic
development.                                         Road to Cancun
The session was mainly designed as a recap of        In the wake of the next climate summit in
the strides made by the world in the direction       Cancun, Mexico, this December, the session
of renewables. Hence, Dr. Mohamed El-Ashry,          reiterated the   importance  of  revisiting

                                 Mr. Deepak Gupta,                              Dr. Kamdeh K. Yumkella,
   Secretary, Ministry of New and Renewable Energy                              Director General, UNIDO

                                                                                                ChaptER 3
                                                                                   Plenary and Parallel Session
                                                               Green Economy and the Role of
                                                               This session focused on the need for increasing
                                                               the share of renewable energy sources in the
                                                               total energy production and consumption.
                                                               Accordingly, emphasis was on describing the
                                                               initiatives taken and the challenges addressed,
                                                               or to be addressed by the respective countries in
                                                               order to increase the share of renewables.

                                                               H.E. Ms. Maud Olofsson, Minister for Energy
                                                               and Enterprise, Sweden, shared her country’s
                                                               experience in enhancing the usage of renewables.
                                                               She stated that Sweden was able to dramatically
                                                               reduce carbon emissions because of renewables
                                                               and endeavoured to increase the share of
                                                               renewable energy sources to 50 percent of the
                                          Dr. R.K. Pachauri,
                Director General, TERI and Chair of the IPCC   total energy consumption by 2020, along with
                                                               increasing the share of renewables to 44 percent
                                                               of the total GDP.
       commitments towards renewables. In line
       with the theme of the session, Dr. Kandeh               She informed the delegates that in order to
       K. Yumkella, Director General, UN Industrial            achieve the above-mentioned targets, Sweden
       Development Organisation (UNIDO), stated that           had to address the challenges of reducing the
       neither climate change, nor the requirement             dependency of the transportation sector on fossil
       of meeting the ever-important Millennium                fuels, providing subsidies for renewable electricity,
       Development Goals (MDGs) can be met without             reducing and lowering the administrative
       an energy revolution. He listed that at this point      burden of renewable energy sources, along with
       of time, to make universal energy a possibility,        promoting research (on new and renewable
       the world has two most important goals: to              energy sources).
       reduce energy intensity to 40% by 2030 and
       to double the energy efficiency.
                                                                “Free transport from the consumption
       Reflecting on different dimensions of renewables,        of fossil fuel”
       Dr. Rajendra K Pachauri, Director General, The           H.E. Ms. Maud Olofsson, Minister for
       Energy and Resources Institute (TERI) and
                                                                Energy and Enterprise, Sweden
       Chair, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate
       Change (IPCC), said that for the 16th session
       of the Conference of Parties (COP16) of the             She pointed out to the delegates that enhancing
       UN Framework Convention on Climate Change               the use of renewables is a two-way process,
       (UNFCCC), setting an appropriate price for              which also involves fundamental changes in
       carbon and focusing on adaptation and impacts           people’s lifestyles, for if there is no demand,
       to human health are important policy areas. He          supply will automatically be affected. She stated
       listed the multiple benefits of using renewables        that this pertinent realisation needs to be duly
       that included energy security and access,               considered while attempting to increase the share
       reduced air pollution, and higher agricultural          of renewables in the total energy consumption of
       productivity and employment.                            any country.

     DiREC 2010 REpoRt
22   Road Map for Up Scaling and Mainstreaming Renewables
Dr. Montek Singh Ahluwalia, Deputy Chairman,          until the costs come down, so by 2020, India
Planning Commission, Government of India,             is planning to generate 20,000 megawatts (MW)
described India’s energy situation and stated         grid connected solar energy using solar photo-
that India is an energy deficit country with about    voltaic technology.
70 percent of country’s energy needs being met
through imports. He expressed concern that            Dr. Ahluwalia concluded his presentation by
India’s demand for energy is outpacing the rate       saying that India is planning to reduce the
of discovery of coal and oil reserves.                emission intensity of its economy by 20 – 25
                                                      percent by the year 2020 and intends to provide
He informed the gathering that India has an           by 2050 almost 500,000 MW of clean energy by
action plan on energy that emphasises on:             using thorium based nuclear energy.
  ^^ Adapting    new    and   renewable     energy
     sources.                                         Ms. Sylvie Lemmet, Director of UNEP’s Division
                                                      of Technology, Industry and Economics (DTIE)
  ^^ Reducing the       percentage     of   carbon
                                                      was the moderator of this interesting session.
     emissions and
                                                      She summed up the session highlights on an
  ^^ Mitigating the carbon foot print of the          optimistic note stating that all over the world
     country.                                         many countries are taking initiatives to increase
                                                      the share of renewables. She said that as a
He also shared that government of India has
                                                      result of these efforts, around 60 to 70 million
already set-up eight national missions under the
                                                      households across the globe installed solar water
Prime Minister’s National Action Plan on Climate
                                                      heating systems. In Germany alone, more that
Change (NAPCC) that include National solar
                                                      300,000 people depend on renewable energy
mission and Green India Mission to name a few.
                                                      sector for employment. Though this sector
Talking about the challenges, he stated that          is growing exceedingly well, there is still an
India has limited scope for wind energy, but huge     urgent need to build strong institutions, not
scope for solar energy. However, the application      only to provide economic incentives in terms of
of solar energy is not fully exploited owing to the   tariff subsidies, tax subsidies and fuel subsidies
cost involved in setting up solar technologies.       etc., but also to maintain standardisation and
He felt that while promoting these technologies,      certification of equipments to ensure reliability
one has to keep in mind the economics of these        of equipment and technologies, besides bringing
sources, but a country like India can’t wait          down the cost.

                      Dr. Montek Singh Ahluwalia,                                 H.E. Ms. Maud Olofsson,
      Deputy Chairman, Planning Commission, India              Minister for Energy and Enterprise, Sweden

                                                                                                 ChaptER 3
                                                                             A Catalyst for Sustainable Habitats
                                                                                   Plenary and Parallel Session
       She reiterated the need to look into the financial
       aspects of renewables, for example, bringing          “The 450ppm target outlined in the
       down transaction costs and risks for the private      International Energy Agency (IEA)
       sector and helping the pioneers in the private        World Energy Outlook 2009 requires
       sector to move towards renewables. She                investment of US$ 5 trillion between
       suggested that countries need to move towards         2010 and 2030”.
       adopting energy policies for which respective
       ministries have to take the responsibility.           H.E Mr. Roberto Menia, Minister of
                                                             State, Ministry of Environment, Land
                                                             and Sea, Italy.
       Vision 2020: Role of Renewables for energy
       security, climate change, and economic
                                                            The H.E. Mr. Roberto Menia, Minister of State,
       This session focused on what is being envisaged      Ministry of Environment, Land and Sea, Italy,
       as the future of renewables. Setting the tone        stated that according to the World Energy Outlook
       of discussion, the moderator Mr. Shyam Saran,        2009, an investment to the tune of 5 trillion US
       former Special Envoy to Prime Minister, India, on    dollars is required between 2010-2030 to meet
       Climate Change emphasised that it is necessary       the target of 450 ppm carbon emissions. He
       to focus on what is required to be done in the       specified, this means that the next 10 years will
       short time period up to 2020. He also pointed        be crucial and investments will need to be made
       out that demand for energy is mounting in many       specifically in the areas of research and capacity
       fast developing economies like India, Brazil and     development.
       South Africa. While working towards the reduction
       of carbon emissions, these countries must also       He further added that the European Union is
       ensure economic development as energy plays          committed to achieving the target of 20 percent
       an important role in economic development.           share of renewables by 2020 as the institutional

     DiREC 2010 REpoRt
24   Road Map for Up Scaling and Mainstreaming Renewables
framework necessary to achieve this target is            Dr. Arthouros Zervos, President, European
well in place. Already, all the member countries         Wind Energy Association (EWEA) and European
have included renewables in their respective             Renewable Energy Council (EREC), in line with the
macro-economic plans. He admitted that in order          theme of the session assured the delegates that
to increase the share of renewables, the cost,           the European Union is committed to achieving 20
especially of solar and wind needs to be more            to 25 percent share of renewables by 2020. He
competitive; while the cost has already been             expressed hope that renewables, from being an
reduced drastically due to improved technologies         alternative source of energy, will soon become
and better materials, a lot still needs to be            a mainstream energy source. Talking about
achieved. So he suggested the option of technology       the inter-link between renewables and climate
transfer to developing countries like Brazil, China      change, he echoed the sentiments of many
and India.                                               delegates by mentioning that the developed
                                                         countries have failed to arrive at an agreement
While concluding his speech Mr. Roberto Menia
                                                         on climate change, which will affect the progress
said that his country (Italy) expects that
                                                         of renewables. But at the same time, he also
renewables will meet 60% of the gross internal
                                                         expressed hope that with continued efforts, the
consumption by 2020.
                                                         world may reach a global agreement on climate
 “Renewables will be the foundation of
 future energy systems.”                                 In this connection he mentioned that the use
                                                         of renewables will not only reduce risk to the
 Dr. Arthouros Zervos, President,                        climate and environment, but also reduce the
 European Wind Energy Association                        dependency on fossil fuels, which in turn will lead
 (EWEA) and European Renewable                           to a fall in oil prices owing to reduced demand.
 Energy Council (EREC).                                  Acknowledging some of the constraints of using
                                                         renewables, he mentioned that countries like
                                                         India have problems in adopting solar energy
                                                         due to its high cost and also due to intermittancy
                                                         caused by fluctuating radiation.

                                                         A.S. Sambo, Director General, Energy Commission
                                                         of Nigeria, briefed the delegates about the
                                                         energy situation of Nigeria. He mentioned that
                                                         though Nigeria’s energy consumption is one of
                                                         the lowest in the world, the demand for energy
                                                         is still growing rapidly. To add to the woes,
                                                         efficient energy utilisation is very poor resulting
                                                         in deforestation, and pollution.

                                                         In order to improve the manner in which energy
                                                         is utilised in the country and to increase the use
                                                         of renewables, energy research centers have
                                                         been set up in Nigeria. Though abundant in oil,
                                                         natural gas reserves and renewables, Nigeria
                                                         unfortunately still suffers from energy poverty.
                                                         He emphasised the need for financing, called
                                                         for strengthening policy and modernising the
       Panelists at the Ministerial Discussion session   regulation frameworks for the energy sector,

                                                                                                    ChaptER 3
                                                                                A Catalyst for Sustainable Habitats
                                                                                      Plenary and Parallel Session
                                                                                  Delegates at the Plenary Session

       especially in partnership with the other developing
                                                               Day 1: Parallel Sessions
       and developed countries.
                                                               In the afternoon of the first day, three parallel
       Ambassador Richard H. Jones, Deputy Executive           sessions were organised. These sessions provided
       Director, International Energy Agency (IEA),            separate platforms for various categories of
       stressed on the need to define “sustainable             thought leaders, ranging from ministers and
       energy”. He also emphasised the need to set             multi-stakeholders to CEOs, to discuss renewable
       realistic targets for 2050, like 35 percent reduction   energy from different perspectives.
       in carbon emissions, achieving 50 percent share
       of   renewables,    reducing    the   carbon    based   Ministerial Discussion
       electricity by a 90 percent etc. This, he said, can
       be achieved by two pronged approach: namely             Energy ministers from Iceland, Mauritius, Japan,
       through policy framework and technology. In             Iran, Portugal, India, the US, Finland, Uganda,
       policies he specifically mentioned that nations         Norway, Spain, Scotland, Bangladesh, Bhutan,
       must work on framing policies that provide              Sri Lanka and a representative of the Asian
       transparent and predictable incentives. Whereas         Development Bank participated in a moderated
                                                               Ministerial Panel Discussion. The session, as
       on the technology front, investments need to be
                                                               mentioned in the introduction of the proceedings,
       made in smart grids and CSP technologies. He
                                                               focused on the role of renewable energy in
       stressed on the point that it may take a long
                                                               climate change mitigation, energy security and
       time for the energy revolution to happen, but the
                                                               providing energy access to the poor.
       action must start right now and for that climate
       change negotiations are very crucial.                   Facilitated by Vikram Chandra, CEO, NDTV,
                                                               the panellists deliberated on the challenges
       With the end of this session, the conference laid       that the governments face to streamline global
       the foundation of deliberations, which were then        action on energy; to find speedy, apt and
       followed in three sessions.                             effective solutions and to comprehend whether

     DiREC 2010 REpoRt
26   Road Map for Up Scaling and Mainstreaming Renewables
technology can enable renewables to make                effectiveness     of    renewable       technology.
a valuable contribution and even dominate               Accordingly, three of the ministers including Pedro
the energy industry. Many ministers even                Luis Marin Uribe, Secretary-General for Energy,
suggested that the time is ripe to stress on the        Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Trade, Spain,
necessity to cooperate and collaborate and for          Dr. Ahmed Rashid Beebeejaun, Deputy Prime
that countries will have to look beyond borders.        Minister, Minister of Energy and Public Utilities,
Despite these suggestions, the ministers had            Mauritius, and Dr. Farooq Abdullah, Union
different degrees of optimism about the growth          Minister for New and Renewable Energy, India,
of renewables.                                          stated that the cost of renewable technology
                                                        at times acts as a restrictive factor in effective
Taking forward the discussion, Hiroshi Asahi,           market penetration.
Director General, Agency for Natural Resources
and Energy, Ministry of Economy, Trade and              Mr. Lyonpo Khandu Wangchuk, Minister of
Industry, Japan, mentioned that the effective           Economic Affairs, Bhutan, and Paavo Väyrynen,
way forward was to increase competition and             Minister of Foreign Trade and Development,
demand, which are in many ways inter-related,           Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Finland, acknowledged
but overall provide an effective remedy to ensure       the challenges mentioned by other ministers and
growth of any sector.                                   highlighted the need to bring synergies between
                                                        various stakeholders of this sector.
Agreeing with the thought process of Mr. Asahi
and adding further, Mr. Suresh Kumar, Assistant         Mr. Xiaoyu Zhao, Vice President, ADB, at this
Secretary, US Department of Commerce, and Jim           juncture mentioned that to ensure smooth
Mather, Minister for Enterprise, Energy and Tourism,    availability of finances, regional cooperation
Scotland, UK, stated that there is a need to push       between bank members is the key to success. He
for increased reliance on renewables. However,          also announced to a jubilant crowd that ADB will
this quest for enhanced energy independence             double its lending for climate change mitigation
should be coupled with knowledge sharing and            to US$ 2 billion.
development of international cooperation as quick
                                                        Along with the above-mentioned interesting, and
growth can’t be compartmentalised in specific
                                                        essential discussions to make renewables the
knowledge centres and needs to be effectively
disseminated to guarantee results.                      energy of future; the session also touched on the
                                                        importance of combining renewable technologies
Both the developing, as well as the developed           and the role of women in the successful
countries, showed concerns for the cost-                implementation of this sector.

                                     Panelists at the                                        Panelists at the
                               Ministerial Discussion                           Multi-stakeholder Discussion

                                                                                                   ChaptER 3
                                                                               A Catalyst for Sustainable Habitats
                                                                                     Plenary and Parallel Session
       Multi-Stakeholder Discussion                          President, invVEST, emphasised on prudence
                                                             and mentioned that with dwindling oil reserves,
       In another parallel discussion supporters of the RE   peak in the prices of oil is imminent. The
       sector shared their thoughts on the theme of DIREC    looming catastrophe all the more increases the
       2010. Accordingly panellists from industry, civil     importance of clean energy industry, which will
       society, academia, local policy makers, media and     soon become a US$40 to US$50 trillion industry
       NGOs deliberated on the role of renewable energy      in the next 20 years.
       in climate change mitigation, energy security and
       providing energy services for the poor.               Adding on to the caution, Vijay Mahajan,
                                                             Chairman, BASIX, highlighted another major
       Moderating the session, Mr. David Hales, President,   concern of the industry players. He mentioned
       College of the Atlantic, noted that although          that the need of the hour is to strengthen
       significant in-roads have been made in renewables,    marketing and establish distribution networks,
       the industry is still in the stage of infancy.        as this is the major challenge being faced by the
       Mr. Mark Radka, Chief of the Energy Branch,
       UNEP, threw light on another significant aspect       Ed Norrena, Head BBM Division, Cleantech, Dept.
       that was important for the growth of the sector.      of Foreign Affairs & International Trade, Ottawa,
       He mentioned that there is an urgent need to          stated that governments will have to play a
       invest in human capital. Increased investment         major role, almost acting as the front runner in
       in this aspect of business will actually yield        the development of renewables. Similarly, Hugo
       greatest gains, apart from strengthening the          Lucas, Director for Policy, Capacity Building and
       hands of the industry.                                Outreach, International Renewable Energy Agency
                                                             (IRENA), added on to the thoughts of Mr. Norrena
       Dr. David S Renné, President, International Solar
                                                             by stating that there is a need to bring synergies
       Energy Society, and Principal Project Leader,
                                                             in policy goals as the development is not just
       U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) National
                                                             of a single stand-alone sector; the increased in
       Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), spoke
                                                             renewables will also be able to effectively address
       at length on the role played by his organisation
                                                             the imperative issues of mitigation, employment,
       in helping the stakeholders make an informed
                                                             security and energy access, to name a few, all of
       choice. He said that his organisation ensures
                                                             which improve simultaneously.
       that the sector stakeholders are always informed
       about the latest breakthrough in solar and other      André Aranha Corrêa do Lago, Director, Department
       renewable technologies.
                                                             of Energy, Ministry of External Relations, Brazil,
                                                             drew the attention of the gathering to another
       Echoing the sentiments of many entrepreneurs
                                                             urgent aspect that needs immediate intervention,
       like him, Dr. Harish Hande, the co-founder and
                                                             which includes addressing the unsustainable
       Managing Director of Selco Solar India, a social
       enterprise spoke from his experience and stressed     patterns of production and consumption. Adding
       on the need to provide energy access to poor          another dimension to this discussion was another
       and this, he said, can’t be delayed any further by    stalwart of the sector, Sunita Narain, Director,
       the policy makers as the cost of inaction, at this    Centre for Science and Environment. Speaking
       juncture, outweighs the marginal costs of efforts     from her years of experience in the sector,
       made towards providing decentralised renewable        she emphasised on the need to come up with
       energy over and above the grid energy.                business models that lay emphasis in bringing
                                                             renewables to the poorest of the poor, for whom
       Speaking from their experience in the industry        it still matters the most and who, in any ways,
       both, Dr. Jeremy Leggett, Founder and                 will tend to benefit the most from this source
       Chairman, Solarcentury, and Mr. Probir Ghosh,         of energy.

     DiREC 2010 REpoRt
28   Road Map for Up Scaling and Mainstreaming Renewables
CEO Roundtable                                       energy. Huang Ming shared the plans to build
                                                     a “solar city,” and Rakesh Bakshi called on the
Akin to the title of the session, it drew an         governments to strengthen the hands of the
impressive gathering and the most well-known         industry by providing clear and uniform policy
names of the sector attended the session to          guidelines. Many participants even suggested
provide an excellent opportunity for an in-depth     putting in place country-specific national
sharing of thoughts, challenges, solutions and the   renewable energy strategies that will set the
way forward. Moderator of the session was Steve      momentum for the sector. K. Subramanya
Sawyer, Secretary General, Global Wind Energy        highlighted the importance of strategies like
Council (GWEC), who led the discussion to its        Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission of India,
conclusion with ease. Panellists too undoubtedly     but also cautioned in the same tone that to curb
were the who’s who of the sector and included        migration of rural populace to cities, rural access
Alf Bjørseth, Chairman and CEO, SCATEC               to electricity needs to be improved.
Solar; Rakesh Bakshi, Chairman and Managing
Director, RRB Energy; Gary D Conley, CEO, B2U        Similarly, Fabrice Didier expressed his conviction
Solar; Fabrice Didier, CEO, Saint-Gobain Solar;      that it is not far off that the cost of solar and wind
Wu Gang, CEO, Goldwind; Kishore Jayaraman,           energy will become extremely competitive and
President and CEO, GE Energy India; Huang            is not actually dependent on factors like carbon
Ming, President, Himin Solar Energy Group; K.        pricing. Acknowledging Mr. Didier’s observation,
Subramanya, CEO, Tata BP Solar; Sean Sutton,         even Sean Sutton also pointed out how simply
President, Vestas Asia Pacific; and Harish Mehta,    by focusing on research and development, cost
Director of Suzlon.                                  of renewable can be easily brought down.

Panellists explained the objectives and goals        While discussing cost, the problem of subsidies
of their organisations in the field of renewable     was also mentioned. Viewpoints were divided

                                                                              Panelists at CEO Roundtable

                                                                                                  ChaptER 3
                                                                              A Catalyst for Sustainable Habitats
                                                                                    Plenary and Parallel Session
       on this aspect as some felt that reduction in        the renewables achieve economies of scale.
       subsidies will not give impetus to the sector and    Similarly, on energy access for rural areas,
       is not necessarily the best possible approach.       she underscored that it is being increasingly
       However, many others felt that having a standard     recognised that decentralised power generation
       price of carbon will not help renewables and will    is often cheaper than constructing a grid.
       add to the financial woes. Whereas many others
                                                            Ms. Sonntag O’Brien also spoke on the importance
       felt that the “commercialisation” of carbon
                                                            of working together towards eliminating tariffs
       and placing focus on carbon emissions will not
                                                            for renewables and mentioned that a sustainable
       boost the sector. One participant also pointed
                                                            Energy Free Trade Agreement is being proposed
       out that the solar market is primarily driven by
                                                            to the G20.
       a small number of countries, mostly through
       feed-in tariffs, but in many cases the cost of       Multi-Stakeholder discussion moderator David
       photovoltaic energy is competitive with peak         Hales pointed out the diverse views reflected
       load production costs. Adding to the discussion,     by the panel. He mentioned that in this session,
       Rakesh Bakshi noted that grid conditions dictate     discussions revolved around the need for a
       renewables’ design.                                  renewable revolution in a broader context. A
                                                            fundamental disconnect was felt in general like
                                                            gap between rich and poor. He stated that these
       Joint Ministerial-Multi-stakeholder-CEO              challenges and problems need to be addressed
       ‘Straight Talk’                                      in order to attain a revolution, and noted that
                                                            other speakers felt that the problem would be
       In this small session the outcomes of the            automatically taken care of when the renewable
       deliberations held earlier in the day were shared    revolution is finally achieved.
       with a wider audience to bring consensus in the
       suggestions, thoughts and the way forward.           On the other hand, the CEO roundtable moderator
                                                            Steve Sawyer stated that discussions in his
       Accordingly, summing up the discussion and
                                                            session pointed towards the need to reduce the
       reporting on the ministerial discussion, Virginia
                                                            costs of renewable energy in order to make them
       Sonntag-O’Brien, REN21, reiterated that the
                                                            more competitive; the need to scale up wind
       discussions highlighted the importance of            and solar energy; the requirement to assist the
       working together and pointed more towards            industry to reach maturity; ensuring sending
       collaborations and partnerships. She said that       clear government signals to markets regarding
       ministers had stated that there is indeed a need     renewable and fossil fuels; and addressing the
       to bring down the cost of renewables, but that       issue of subsidies, besides developing domestic
       cost will also automatically reduce as and when      renewable energy markets.

     DiREC 2010 REpoRt
30   Road Map for Up Scaling and Mainstreaming Renewables
Chapter       4
Thematic Session, Track I: Technology &

                                 A Catalyst for Sustainable Habitats
     DiREC 2010 REpoRt
32   Road Map for Up Scaling and Mainstreaming Renewables
Chapter                    4
Thematic Session, Track I: Technology & Infrastructure

                                                    and has now reached an estimated 4800 GW (in
Day 2: Thematic Sessions                            2009), which accounts for almost a quarter of
28th October 2010                                   global power generation capacity that takes care
                                                    of approximately 18% of the global electricity
The second day of the conference convened           production. The positive aspect of this power
around four thematic sessions organised around      generation is the incentive of emission reduction
a) technology and infrastructure; b) policy; c)     and generation of green jobs. Specifically for the
finance; and d) renewables access and the           developing world, the challenge lies in ensuring
Millenium Development Goals (MDGs). Parallel        electricity access to the poor as it is essential
workshops also took place on bio-fuels and          for their economic and social development and
promoting rural entrepreneurship for enhancing      also involves ensuring that the high-carbon
access to clean lighting options. Meanwhile side-   technologies are not restricted to only a few.
by-side, the renewable energy exposition and
the trade show continued.                           This session focused on the aspects of scaling
                                                    up the development and transfer of renewable
                                                    energy-based power technology, the role of
Track I: Technology and Infrastructure              private investment, the value of liberalisation in
                                                    the power sector and its effects, along with policy
Track I gave a platform to discuss the challenges   prescriptions for different scale of operations.
related to Technology and Infrastructure-the key    Since innovation and research and development
aspects in advancing the adoption of renewable      (R&D) are equally important for power
energy in the other sectors. This track was         technology and infrastructure development, the
further divided into various sessions, each of      session underscored how cooperation could be
which focused on diverse yet important aspects      promoted in R&D for current, new and innovative
of renewables.                                      technologies.

                                                    The main topics of discussion in this session
Session I: Power Technology and Infrastructure
Estimates show that power from renewable energy       ^^ Scaling up the development and transfer
sources has been undergoing a silent revolution          of RE power technology.

                                                                                                  ChaptER 4
                                                          Thematic Session, Track I: Technology & Infrastructure
                                                                             A Catalyst for Sustainable Habitats
         ^^ Role of private investment                            distribution grids in renewables too require up-
         ^^ Value of liberalisation in the Power Sector           grades and planning to accommodate renewable
            and its effects.                                      energy feed-ins from small-power producers.

         ^^ Policy prescriptions for different scale of           Inviting the industry and other players to
            operations.                                           invest in renewable, Ms. Natalia Kulichenko-
         ^^ Smart and resilient transmission                and   Lotz, Senior Energy specialist, Sustainable
            distribution infrastructure.                          Energy department, World Bank, stated that
         ^^ Cooperation in R&D for current, new and               the investment on renewables will go up to 50
            innovative technologies.                              percent by 2020. She also mentioned that the
                                                                  World Bank encourages private sector, as well as
         ^^ Grid integration of RE:         political
                                                                  the developing country governments to invest in
            framework and stakeholder landscape.
                                                                  renewables, irrespective of the size and scale of
                                                                  the project, along with supporting transmission
       Dr. Jeremy Leggett set the stage for the discussion
                                                                  and distribution.
       by briefly familiarising the delegates with the
       topics of discussion (given above). Moderating
       a discussion on the up-scaling of renewable
       energy and grid integration of renewable energy             “Bank programs are aimed towards
       he mentioned that renewables have the potential             incentivising developing    country
       to improve the quality of life of the majority              governments to invest in renewable
       of populace and unlike conventional sources                 energy”.
       of energy, renewables encourage community                   Natalia Kulichenko-Lotz, Senior
       participation, thus breaking the monopoly of few            Energy specialist, Sustainable Energy
                                                                   department, World Bank.
       Emphasising on the importance of energy
       efficiency, Dr. Marianne Moscoso-Osterkorn,                In the same session, Dr. Ravi Prasher, US
       Director, Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency           Department of Energy ARPA-E or Advanced
       Partnership (REEEP), informed the gathering that           Research     Projects   Agency-Energy,    briefly
       even now more than 90 percent of the ownership             introduced ARPA-E and stated that it has been
       of the power sector is with the government, who            modelled after Defence Advanced Research
       are powerful and also have the potential to divert         Projects Agency and that it was set up to
       their investments and thus bring in reforms.               promote and fund research and development of
       She also added that unlike conventional power              advanced energy technologies. He mentioned
       systems, the renewable energy sector works better          that in order to make renewable storage cheaper,
       with decentralised generation and distribution as          the transmission technologies have to be highly
       it provides energy security, generates jobs and            competitive. ARPA-E funds research projects in
       also a more reliable system in some areas when             these areas of even small companies and has
       compared to the centralised system.                        set up energy research labs modelled after
                                                                  Bell labs and HP labs to work on scaling- up of
       Mr. Hans Arild Bredesen, Manager, Econ Pőyry,              technologies.
       in his brief presentation emphasised that
       when developing plans and policies for power               The session also saw lot of deliberations on issues
       technologies, the larger picture has to be kept            like adapting a balanced approach and having
       in mind. The framework has to be drawn taking              the right mix of renewables and fossil fuels;
       into consideration the benefits and welfare of all         viability of solar energy as a reliable alternative to
       the stakeholders like suppliers and end users.             conventional energy sources; impact of impasse
       He also noted that like any other power sector,            on climate change and on the progress of

     DiREC 2010 REpoRt
34   Road Map for Up Scaling and Mainstreaming Renewables
renewable energy sources; importance of green          ^^ Successful policy initiatives and case
bonds and carbon trading; developing hybrid               studies that have catalysed the uptake.
grid technologies which can be fed by electricity      ^^ Heating and cooling for different scale of
generated by more than one type of source.                operation.

                                                     Eminent panellists of this sector deliberated to
Session II: Heating and Cooling Technologies
                                                     find answers for the following key questions:
Heating and cooling in the industrial, commercial      ^^ What are the main future trends you expect
and domestic sectors account for around half              to see in the renewable heating & cooling
of the total global energy demand. Biomass,               sector?
solar and geothermal energy currently supplies         ^^ How do you see the future of renewable
the heating and cooling requirements of                   cooling? What can be done to bring the
millions of buildings worldwide, and renewable            cost down?
energy heating and cooling (REHC) has been             ^^ What are the main instruments to achieve
described as the “sleeping giant” in terms of its         sustainable growth of renewable heating &
potential from a global perspective. Appropriate          cooling? Can you share some best-practice
strategies are needed to promote scaling-up               examples with us?
of RE technologies for heating and cooling and         ^^ Your message to the political decision
to foster international cooperation to allow              makers here at DIREC to awaken the
replication of effective policies.                        sleeping giant?

Topics discussed in this session were:               Introducing the session, Gerhard Stryi-Hipp,
  ^^ State of the art of Heating & Cooling           Head of Energy Policy and Group Leader, Thermal
     technologies.                                   Collectors and Applications, Fraunhofer ISE, drew
                                                     the attention of the delegates towards the fact
  ^^ Combining different technologies to provide
                                                     that in most of the countries, energy demand
     heating & cooling services.
                                                     is predominantly for heating and cooling, hence
  ^^ Addressing the existing barriers.               there is lot of market potential for solar cooling
  ^^ Making REHC cost effective.                     and heating pumps.

                                                    Panelists at Heating and Cooling Technologies Session

                                                                                                   ChaptER 4
                                                           Thematic Session, Track I: Technology & Infrastructure
       Figure 1: Final Energy Consumption Europe 2009        Drücke, President, European Solar Thermal
                                                             Industry Federation (ESTIF), circulated the idea
                                                             of mass deployment. Adding another dimension
                                                             to the thought process of Mr. Drücke; Prof.
                                                             Huang Ming, President, Himin Solar Energy
                         for         Electricity             Group, stressed on the requirement of branding.
                     Transport          20%
                                                             He supported the suggestion with the example
                                                             of the success of renewable manufacturers in
                                                             China’s Solar Valley and R.R. Sonde, Thermax.
                                                             These manufacturers, he mentioned, provide
                                   48%                       consumers with complete renewable energy
                                                             solutions for their energy service needs.

                                                             Session III: Buildings

       Source: JRC 2010                                      Buildings alone are responsible for 38% of all
                                                             human-caused greenhouse gas emissions (20%
                                                             residential, 18% commercial) and are the largest
       He also stated that the full replacement of           GHG source in many countries. The increasing
       fossil and nuclear power for heating & cooling is     number of buildings in the developing countries
       possible by a mixture of:                             require the spread and scaling up of renewable
                                                             and energy efficiency technologies, as well as
         ^^ Increased Efficiency
                                                             effective regulation to correct market failures. A
         ^^ Biomass                                          specific session focusing on promoting renewable
         ^^ Geothermal                                       energy and energy efficiency in buildings covered
         ^^ Solar Thermal                                    energy conservation building code, solar passive
                                                             architecture, buildings envelope and green rating
         ^^ Combined Heat and Power with RES
                                                             that can facilitate the uptake of renewable energy
         ^^ Heat Pumps with RES electricity                  technologies.

       Whereas, Ralph Sims,Director, Centre for Energy       The objective of the session was to deliberate on
       Research, mentioned that world is replete with        following key issues:
       examples of successful policies and frameworks that     ^^ Green building initiatives (for existing and
       have been implemented worldwide for renewable              new constructions) in different countries
       heating and cooling, and recommended that other            and how they could help ongoing initiatives
       countries should draw lessons from these.                  of the Government of India.

       Mr. Ravi Khanna, Director, Scatec Solar and Dr.         ^^ Strategies, action plan and implementation
       Gudni A. Jóhannesson, Director General, Iceland            challenges
       National Energy Authority were of the view that         ^^ Barriers faced by various stakeholders
       practical and attractive applications of renewable         and experiences towards slating a way
       heating and cooling are required to encourage              forward
       industry growth and emphasised that pragmatic           ^^ Information   on   future  needs  for
       energy choices need to be taken to avoid system            technological up-grades and financial
       inefficiencies.                                            mechanisms that may be adopted

       Underlining the importance of developing new          Dr. Ajay Mathur, Director General, Bureau of Energy
       products based on market research, Mr. Olivier        Efficiency, Government of India, moderated this

     DiREC 2010 REpoRt
36   Road Map for Up Scaling and Mainstreaming Renewables
Figure 2: Coherent Policy Framework for RES Heating and Cooling



         Projects                          Ambitious

                                                                             Awareness Raising

                        Financial Incentives


session. He discussed the use of renewables in    on clean energy. He said this hand-holding
green buildings and emphasised the importance     involves knowledge sharing on energy building
of design to reduce energy consumption.           codes and establishing the India Green Building
                                                  Council. Other panellists like Mr. Andreas
Taking the discussion forward, Shri Deepak        Thermann, Senior Project Manager, KfW German
Gupta, Secretary, Ministry of New and Renewable   Development Bank and Mr. Robert Angioletti,
Energy, Government of India, informed the         Senior Consultant, French Agency for the
delegates about the efforts India has made in     Environment and Energy Management (ADEME)
the direction of constructing certified green     discussed the application of energy efficiency
government buildings.                             measurements for building subsidies.

Whereas, Dr. Rick Duke, Deputy Assistant          Taking note of the above-mentioned efforts,
Secretary for Climate Policy, United States       Mr.   Manit    Rastogi,     Managing     Director,
Department of Energy, informed the delegates      Morphogenesis, encouraged the delegates to
about the partnerships that US and India have     push for a paradigm shift to eliminate and reduce

                                                                                                ChaptER 4
                                                        Thematic Session, Track I: Technology & Infrastructure
                                                                           A Catalyst for Sustainable Habitats
       the impacts of new construction of non-green                   ^^ Environment due to the emission of both
       buildings. Such an effort, he felt will also give                 greenhouse gases and local pollutants,
       a boost to locally appropriate technology. Prof.               ^^ Economy due to mounting fossil fuel import
       Alastair Adair, Pro. Vice Chancellor, University                  bill for many countries and depleting fossil
       of Ulster, UK, shared with delegates the efforts                  fuel resources.
       made by Northern Ireland to reduce emissions. He
       mentioned that recent research clearly indicated          The sector certainly needs a transformation and a
       how green buildings are yielding higher returns.          revolution in technology, infrastructure, transport
       S Padmanaban, USAID, encouraged participants              concepts and political framework. Accordingly, it
       to come up with more projects that showcase               was decided to discuss the role that alternative
       integration of renewable technology into green            forms of energy, as well as alternate power packs
       building design.                                          can play in reducing dependence on fossil fuels.
                                                                 How it can help us to achieve greater energy
       Session IV: Transport                                     security and reduce noxious emissions. The
                                                                 session also discussed 2nd and 3rd generation
       Increasing urbanisation and industrialisation have        bio-fuels and new feed stocks for bio-ethanol
       led to a phenomenal growth in transportation              production. In addition, a parallel workshop was
       demand worldwide, coupled with a concentration            also organised to specifically focus on the status
       of vehicles in metropolitan cities with subsequent        and development of bio-fuels in India, including
       impact on:                                                the transport sector.

       Figure 3: Contribution of Road Transport to Carbon Dioxide





                                                      for other                            15.9%



                                  & Construction                      Road Transport

                                                                   (Cars, Trucks & Buses)

                                                                       r No
                                             Electricity Generation
                                                   & Heating                               4%


     DiREC 2010 REpoRt
38   Road Map for Up Scaling and Mainstreaming Renewables
Setting the tone of the discussion, Mr. Tomoya        Dr. Mathew Abraham, General Manager,
Ichimura, Director General, Smart Community           Alternate Fuel Technology, Mahindra &
Department, New Energy and Industrial, Japan,         Mahindra, explained the global challenges and
shared with the participants how in Japan more example he reinstated the transport sector
  Taking forward the discussion from this example he reinstated how reform of
Taking forward the discussion from this requirements faced by how reform of
than 20% sector is one of the emissionschallengeshow be realized in aa oil is not aiming
  transport total is one of the biggest challenges to be realized in society sufficient
transport ofsectorcarbon-dioxide biggest are and to current sources ofsociety aiming
from transport sector and though this share has       enough to meet the growing demands. He
  towards constant, but society. He also mentioned howthe impact growing transport sector
            low carbon the absolute value has showed Japan has already identified 21
towards low carbon society. He also mentioned how Japan has already identified 21
growntechnologiesTaking forward the discussion
  key substantially. to attain this objective.
key technologies to attain this objective.            has on climate change and went on to discuss
from this example he reiterated how reform of the     the alternate fuel and propulsion technologies

  The other eminent panellists: Mr. Dilip Chenoy, Chief disposal. Officer & Managing
The other eminent panellists: Mr. Dilip Chenoy, Chief atExecutive Officer & Managing
transport sector is one of the biggest challenges     available
to be realised in a society aiming towards low
carbon society. He Skill Development Corporation; Coordinator, Kaberger, Director
  Director, National Skill Development Corporation; Dr. Tomas Kaberger, Director
Director, National also mentioned how Japan Session Dr. Tomas Dr. A.R. Shukla, Advisor,
has already Swedish Energy technologies Mr. Yasuyuki spoke at length on Alternateand
                                                        Yasuyuki Sando, Chief Engineer Fuels
General, Swedish Energy Agency and toMr.MNRE, GoI, Sando, Chief Engineer and
  General, identified 21 key Agency and
attain this objective.                                for Surface Transportation (AFST) programme
  Senior Manager, R&D, Honda Motors, also discussed the importance of
Senior Manager, R&D, Honda Motors, also discussed the importance of
                                                      of the GoI, the objective of which is to promote
  technological improvements, Dilip Chenoy, Battery Operated Vehicles manpower, and
                                    skill identification and development of (BOV), which
technological improvements, skill identification and development of manpower, and are
The other eminent panellists: Mr.
Chief overarchingimportance of finances for non-polluting and quiet in technological
  the Executive       importance of finances           product development and technological
the overarchingOfficer & Managing Director,forproduct development andoperation, conserve
National Skill Development Corporation; Dr.
  advancements.                                       petroleum products and curb environmental
Tomas Kaberger, Director General, Swedish             pollution, along with getting feedback on the
Energy Agency and Mr. Yasuyuki Sando, Chief           performance of BOVs in operating conditions.
Engineer and Senior Manager, R&D, Honda Alternate Fuel Technology, Mahindra
  Dr. Mathew Abraham, General Manager,
Dr. Mathew Abraham, General Manager, Alternate Fuel Technology, Mahindra &&
  Mahindra, discussed global challenges This requirements faced by the transport
Motors, alsoexplained the global challenges and interesting mix of country-specific examples
Mahindra, explained thethe importance of and requirements faced by the transport
technological improvements, skill identification      acted as an eye-opener for the delegates, who
  sector and how current sources of oil            notsufficient enough tomeet the growing
                                                        sufficient enriched
sector and how current sources of oil isisnot were further enoughtoby meetthe growing
                                                                                 participating in many
and development of manpower, and the
  demands. importance
              He showed finances for product transport events and parallel workshops along
                             the impact growing other side sector has on climate change
demands. He showedofthe impact growing transport sector has on climate change
  and went and discuss the alternate fuel the propulsion technologies available
developmenton todiscuss the alternate fuel and main ministerial conference at DIREC. at
and went on to technological advancements. and propulsion technologies available at
Figure 4: Transport Sector: Global Challenges & Requirements

 Session Coordinator, Dr. A.R. Shukla, Advisor, MNRE, GoI, spoke at length on
Session Coordinator, Dr. A.R. Shukla, Advisor, MNRE, GoI, spoke at length on
 Alternate Fuels for Surface Transportation (AFST) programme of the GoI, the
Alternate Fuels for Surface Transportation (AFST) programme of the GoI, the
 objective of which      to promote Battery Operated Vehicles (BOV), which are non-
objective of which isisto promote Battery Operated Vehicles (BOV), which are non-
 polluting and quiet in operation, conserve petroleum products and curb
polluting and quiet in operation, conserve petroleum products and curb
 environmental pollution, along with getting feedback on the performance of BOVs in
environmental pollution, along with getting feedback on the performance of BOVs in
 operating conditions.
operating conditions.                                                           Roshini
                                                                             ChaptER 4
                                                           Thematic Session, Track I: Technology & Infrastructure
                                                                              A Catalyst for Sustainable Habitats
Chapter        5
Thematic Session, Track II: Policy
Chapter                     5
Thematic Session, Track II: Policy

                                                      a joint session summarising the fundamental
Track II: Policy                                      questions raised and responses offered on
The world has only tapped a small percentage          the need of coherent, consistent and enabling
of its vast renewable energy resources of which       policy, legal & regulatory frameworks needed to
there is immense scope. Policy efforts need to be     mainstream renewable energy.
strengthened in order to encourage a massive
scale-up of renewable technologies so as to build a   Session I: Renewable Energy Scenario
long term, stable, low-carbon economy. Currently
around hundred countries across the globe have        The discussion centered on alternative scenarios
at least some kind of renewable energy policy         for the future and the challenges posed by the
targets or promotion policies. However, there         dramatic growth of renewable energy. The session
is wide variation in the level of pro-active and      primarily focused on the following key questions:
sound national energy policies that give priority       ^^ How much renewables can be realistically
to spending on sustainable energy as part of               expected (or intend) for the long-term
national investment and development priorities.            (2025-2050)? What are the most important
Realising the need of the hour, DIREC 2010
proposed to come up with strategies to support          ^^ What are appropriate time frames for much
countries in developing stronger institutional             greater renewables penetration?
frameworks to undertake reforms in the energy           ^^ What growth rates are possible? Does
sector, to strengthen their institutions and build         development happen in stages or just
their capacity to increase the share of renewable          continuously? Is sequencing important?
energy in the overall energy mix.
                                                        ^^ What is the role of distributed generation
The main ministerial conference at DIREC                   and energy storage in a renewables-rich
was designed in such a way that the various                future? Which DG and storage technologies
stakeholders, besides having an opportunity to             will be most important first, in the shorter-
delve deeper into various issues, would also be            run? and Why?
able to share with the participants of other forums     ^^ How much of contribution can we
the outcomes of their session’s deliberations in           expect from biomass and biofuels? Will

                                                                                                ChaptER 5
                                                                            AThematic for SustainableII: Policy
                                                                              Catalyst Session, Track Habitats
              the resource be exhausted before the            viable at large scales. The five key trends identified
              “long-run”?                                     in support of this paradigm were:
         ^^ What is the appropriate mix of renewables,          ^^ Emergence of energy storage technologies,
            carbon-capture and storage, and nuclear                which are still costly, but prices are
            power for constraining future carbon                   expected to decline with economies of
            emissions to the levels deemed necessary               scale and technology improvement.
            to avert serious climate change?                    ^^ The evolution of power systems, from
                                                                   centralised to distributed and from
       Panellists mentioned that fossil fuels are still the        dumb to smart.
       major contributor to global electricity supply and
                                                                ^^ The paradigm-changing concept that “load
       renewables account for only 19 percent of which
                                                                   follows supply” on a power grid.
       the major contribution comes from traditional
       biomass, followed by hydro power, solar and              ^^ The     institutional     and     technical
                                                                   interconnection of the electric power and
                                                                   transport systems.
       However, the future looks very promising for             ^^ Changing institutional and managerial role
       renewables. As per the global scenario for                  of (local) power distribution companies.
       Renewable Energy:
         ^^ International Energy Agency “Blue Map”            Session II: Supporting policies (On-Grid)
            scenario (2008) shows 50% of electricity
            from renewables by 2050.                          The current policy environment has yielded
         ^^ Greenpeace advanced “revolution” scenario         significant results in creating a large and diverse
            (2008) shows that renewables will account         renewable energy market. However, policy efforts
            for 77% of electricity by 2050.                   need to be taken to the next level to encourage a
                                                              massive scale-up of renewable technologies. To
         ^^ Global Wind Energy Council (GWEC)
                                                              increase the share of RE in the overall energy mix,
            advanced scenario shows that wind power
                                                              many countries have adopted feed-in laws as an
            will provide 20-25% of global electricity by
                                                              effective way to stimulate the expansion of RE
            2030, which is on the basis of growth rates       based power. The Renewable Portfolio Standard
            much less than the current growth.                (RPS) has also been tried out by several countries
         ^^ Distributed generation (DG), including            and states. It is essential to understand as to
            solar PV, biomass and biogas power, is            how effective these policies have been, and how
            not seen as playing a large role in most          they could be improved upon in the medium and
            scenarios, but one group of European              long term to bring more renewable generated
            experts estimated 30% of total electricity        power to the grid.
            in the EU from DG by 2020.
                                                              Though effective policies for renewable energy
         ^^ Distributed solar PV will provide for 30%
                                                              depends on the status and maturity of the
            of global electricity beyond 2040. Some
                                                              technology in the respective country, international
            analysts have constructed scenarios
                                                              cooperation and the sharing of best practices on
            based on radical cost reduction in solar PV
                                                              regulatory and policy approaches can accelerate
                                                              the scale up of RE technologies. Taking forward
                                                              this discussion, the session focused on the
       To translate these optimistic outlooks into a
                                                              following topics:
       workable vision, this session discussed about low-
       carbon transport and linked it with a new paradigm:      ^^ Embedding RE policy           in   energy   and
       the integration of smart power grid technologies            infrastructure policy.
       with energy storage technologies and electric            ^^ Learning from past policies to promote RE
       vehicles to make renewable energy cheaper and               power.

     DiREC 2010 REpoRt
44   Road Map for Up Scaling and Mainstreaming Renewables
  ^^ Risks and barriers facing large scale             tariff as in METI (Ministry of Economy, Trade and
     deployment of RE power.                           Industry) document. Presently Japan is focusing
  ^^ The role of Regulators.                           on PVC market.
  ^^ Feed-in    tariffs/Renewable          Portfolio
                                                       Similarly, Mr. Tulsi R. Tanti, Chairman and
                                                       Managing Director, Suzlon, stated that if India
  ^^ Innovative policy & regulatory instruments.       wants to increase the portfolio of renewables,
                                                       strong policy frameworks at national level is a
Moderators of the session were Dr. Pramod Deo,
                                                       must. Even tariff based mechanisms have to be
Chairperson and Chief Executive, Central Electricity
                                                       worked out; reforms have to be made in issuing
Regulatory Commission, India, along with Dr. Dan
                                                       permits and funding the renewables.
Arvizu, Director and Chief Executive, National
Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), USA. Dr.           Appreciating the efforts made by different
Deo suggested the use of a holistic approach in        countries; Prof. Li Junfeng, Deputy Director
calculating the cost of renewables. In this regard,    General of Energy Research Institute & Secretary
he mentioned in his opening remarks that the           General of China Renewable Energy Industries
externalities such as GHG emissions also have to       Association, in his talk expressed the need to
be taken into consideration while working out the      learn from each other’s experience. He mentioned
costs of renewable energy. To ensure the growth        that Germany was the first country to install
of renewables, he mentioned that government            wind power and it has good policy framework for
support, both at the policy and fiscal level, is       renewables on tariffs, providing subsidies and
important. Various policy mechanisms such as           also for encouraging research and development.
tax incentives and regulatory measures such as         He went on to add that Germany’s market for
feed-in tariffs have to be extended to the market      renewables is also very good. In comparison
players in order to attract the private sector.        to Germany, China has a good market for wind
                                                       power but solar still has to be developed.
Almost echoing the suggestions made by Dr.
Deo, Prof. Li Junfeng, Deputy Director General of      While talking about the growth of renewables
Energy Research Institute & Secretary General of       over the years, Mr. Christopher Flavin, President,
China Renewable Energy Industries Association,         Worldwatch Institute, said that there was a time
also urged the removal of trade barriers, a            in 2004 when many countries did not even have
measure that would reduce the cost of renewable        any policy for renewables. However today 41
energy technologies. Whereas, Mr. Christopher          developed and 42 developing countries have
Flavin, President, Worldwatch Institute suggested      their policies in place. Some countries like
that for the creation of sustainable markets (for      Germany with mediocre renewable sources have
renewables); a combination of policies, inclusive      also developed a good market and achieved
of rules for grid access may be apt.                   grid convertible renewables. In fact, Germany
                                                       took lessons from California way back in 1990;
To showcase best practices, some panellists            similarly other countries also have to learn from
even highlighted national experiences promoting        each other. He expressed the need to devise
renewable energy. For example, Dr. Tetsunari           policies that govern grid access as it is very
Iida, Executive Director, ISEP, explained the          important for the promotion of decentralised,
status of renewables in Japan. He informed the         variable output. New and flexible portfolio
delegates how prior to 1998, Japan’s RE industry       standards have to be worked out. He said that
suffered owing to grid related problems, poor          solar energy is going to be the dominant and
regulations, poor supporting policies and due to       dynamic energy of the future.
lack of societal acceptance. However the situation
is fast changing. Since 2009, the new government       Mr. Rainer Hinrichs-Rahlwes, President, European
is promoting renewables by introducing feed in         Renewable Energy Federation, gave the

                                                                                                  ChaptER 5
                                                                              AThematic for SustainableII: Policy
                                                                                Catalyst Session, Track Habitats
       suggestion that the best way to reduce reliance       its possible convergence with the grid expansion
       on coal and nuclear energy is to harvest domestic     programme in developing countries. Accordingly,
       renewable energy sources as the former have           the major areas of discussion were:
       adverse impact on health and environment. He            ^^ The role of renewable energy in addressing
       explained that even the cost of PVC has reduced            energy access.
       and PVC along with wind power has the potential
                                                               ^^ RE for rural development.
       to share maximum energy load. He added that
       wind energy can both be centralised as well             ^^ Public-private   partnership for  the
       as decentralised, where as solar energy is a               development of renewable energy based
       decentralised system. He also urged that society           products/services.
       accept the advantages and benefits of renewables        ^^ Decentralised RE power and its convergence
       and support government policies.                           with grid expansion plans.
                                                               ^^ Barriers for mainstreaming small scale RE
       Session III: Supporting Policies (of f-Grid)               applications.
                                                               ^^ Sustainability issues of RE based DDG
       A sizeable market for renewable energy is for              systems.
       off-grid and decentralised applications both
       in urban and rural settings. DIREC provided a         Moderated by Mr. Hemant Lamba, Chief, AuroRE
       platform to strategise on the development of          and Ms. Akanksha Chaurey, Director, TERI,
       policies to support off-grid renewables, especially   the session focused on the renewable energy
       those addressing the high cost of renewable           situation in rural areas. Mr. Lamba introduced
       technologies, lack of awareness, need for strong      the panellists to the audience and explained the
       Operation & Maintenance (O&M) infrastructure          structure of the session stating that to begin with
       and market based delivery models. The role            panellists will share their thought process with
       of renewable energy based Decentralised               the delegates in various presentations. This part
       Distributed Generation (DDG) systems in               of the session broadly focused on two aspects of
       addressing the issue of energy security was also      RE namely: the lessons learnt and the road map,
       discussed focus was on policies that encourage        before inviting a round of discussion.

                                                                Panelists at Supporting Policies (off-Grid) Session

     DiREC 2010 REpoRt
46   Road Map for Up Scaling and Mainstreaming Renewables
Ms Chaurey commended the involvement of              model, which urgently need to be addressed for
Indian institutions and NGOs in renewables, and      the sustainability of these projects.
Dr. Alf Bjørseth, Chairman and CEO, Scatec Solar,
gave a brief profile of his company, outlining       Similarly, Dr. Kinsuk Mitra, President, Winrock
details about its operations in various developing   International India, spoke at length from the
countries. Describing the experience and expertise   experience of his organisation in implementing
of his company, Dr. Bjørseth mentioned that due      rural electrification projects using Jatropha
to the proactive policies of many a government’s,    oil. He referred extensively to a project
considerable investment has been made in off-        undertaken by Winrock International India in
grid technologies. Consequently, Scatec has          Ranidhera and informed the delegates that in
projects in India, China, Africa and USA, where      India some villages are in areas too remote to
it has commissioned various rural electrification    be connected by the grid supply. So off-grid
projects in collaboration with different NGOs. The   is the only option available for them. He also
delegates also learnt that Scatec solar is even      added that commissioning such projects has
into mini grids, financing of solar projects and     its share of difficulties as it requires the active
setting up of solar energy centres.                  participation of all the stakeholders. Unless
                                                     there is synergy between grid expansion and
                                                     DDG (Decentralised Distributed Generation)
 “Removing      trade  barriers  will                projects, nurturing and sustaining these
 reduce the cost of renewable energy                 projects becomes an uphill task and it takes
 technologies”.                                      so long to implement the project that even
 Li Junfeng, China Renewable Energy                  the villagers lose interest. In the case of bio-
 Industries Association.                             mass electrification, feed stock supply is very
                                                     important. Besides, local communities have to
                                                     be trained to manage the plants by themselves
Similarly, Dr. B.C. Jain, Managing Director, Ankur   as too much of hand holding is not good for the
Scientific Ltd., also shared the experience of his   success of the project in the long run.
company in rural electrification using biomass.
                                                     At the end of the session all the panellists agreed
He mentioned that while working in rural areas
                                                     that issues like - long term policies both for
one has to work with too many stakeholders
                                                     lighting and electrification; creating awareness
like village community, local officials, district
                                                     among people; standardisation of technologies,
and state government agencies etc., and this
                                                     material, equipment; proper structuring of
adversely hampers the growth of the project
                                                     programs and projects have to be taken into
primarily because of the lack of accountability
                                                     consideration for the promotion and sustainability
and excessive interference.
                                                     of the off-grid projects.
Dr. S.P. Gon Chaudhuri, Managing Director, West
Bengal Green Energy Development Corporation          Session IV: State and Local Governments
Limited, gave a different dimension to the
discussion by giving the perspective of West         Local governments can play multiple roles for
Bengal and described the initiatives undertaken      mainstreaming renewable energy as decision
under Rajeev Gandhi Gramen Vidyuteekarn              makers, planners, management of municipal
Yojana (Rajeev Gandhi Rural Electrification          infrastructure and role model for citizens and
Scheme). Under this scheme, he explained,            businesses. DIREC 2010 provided an opportunity
the villagers now get grid quality electricity       to the state and local governments from around
for almost 10 to 12 hrs. The challenges faced        the world to interact and share details of policies
in this supply are gradation problems, lack of       that can promote renewable energy. Accordingly
appropriate tariff structure and lack of business    the discussion revolved around following topics:

                                                                                                ChaptER 5
                                                                            AThematic for SustainableII: Policy
                                                                              Catalyst Session, Track Habitats
         ^^ Best-practice policies at state & local level   development, which can also be promoted by
            to promote renewables                           public private partnerships.
         ^^ City & spatial planning
                                                            Mr. S.K. Shukla, Director, Chhattisgarh
         ^^ Role of micro-finance and consumer credit       Renewable       Energy      Development      Agency
            for promoting renewables                        (CREDA),      Chhattisgarh,      India,   described
         ^^ Capacity-building to develop local skills       CREDA’s initiatives in promoting renewables
            to produce, market, install, operate and        in the state. He said that the organisation not
            maintain sustainable energy technologies.       only works as a facilitating agency, but also
                                                            undertakes the responsibility of operations.
       The session was moderated by Mr. Griffin             Accordingly village clusters have been formed
       Thompson, Manager Energy and Climate                 and youngsters have been trained to work like a
       Programs, US State Department, and introduced        technician. These technicians are responsible for
       by Mr. Emani Kumar, Executive Director, ICLEI        the operation and maintenance of energy plants
       South Asia. Mr. Kumar introduced the panellists      installed in respective villages. Thus CREDA
       and briefly explained the working pattern of         has successfully linked service provision with
       ICLEI in India, along with the initiatives taken     income generation option for the rural people.
       by the organisation to promote renewables. He        Renewables like PV’s, biomass gassifiers are
       also read out the message sent by Mr. Prithvi
                                                            used for water heating, street light, household
       Raj Sawhney, Mayor of Delhi, who was not able
                                                            lighting etc. In fact all the hotels in Chhattisgarh
       to attend the conference due to ill health. In his
                                                            have solar water heating systems. He also
       message, Mr. Sawhney described the initiatives
                                                            pointed out that 1400 villages in Chhattisgarh
       taken by the Municipal Corporation of Delhi to
                                                            are getting electricity for lighting through solar
       promote renewables like the mandatory green
                                                            based mini grids.
       building norms for government buildings and
       solar street lighting, etc.                          Giving another dimension to the discussion,
                                                            Mr. R.A. Rajiv, Municipal Commissioner, Thane
       Panellists like Mr. Wolfgang Jung, Vice Managing
                                                            Municipal Corporation, Mumbai, explained to
       Director and Head of Project Group on Future
                                                            the participants that Thane is part of Mumbai
       energies at Science Park, Gelsenkirchen, and
                                                            metropolitan area and has a unique problem.
       H.E. Jose Carlos das Dores Zorrinho, Secretary
                                                            Rate of migration is very high in this area; hence
       of State for Energy and Innovation, Portugal,
                                                            demand for energy grows proportionately. In
       spoke at length based on the experience of their
                                                            order to cope up with the growing demand,
       organisation; whereas in general, the panellists
                                                            alternative development strategies for energy
       emphasised on the importance of local leadership
       in promoting the use of renewable energy.            have been devised such as mass transport
                                                            system operated on renewables, devising green
       Mr. Ray Morgan, Chief Executive of Working           building norms and solar air conditioning etc.
       Borough Council, UK, suggested reducing
       the demand for thermal energy (used for              In USA there are organisations like ICLEI
       room heating) by using appropriate spatial           that undertake activities like data collection,
       planning. He also stated that local policies         developing plans of cities and towns, conducting
       have to encompass all the dimensions taking          social, economic and environmental studies etc.
       into consideration the requirements of all the       Explaining how ICLEI works, Mr. Mosi Kitwana,
       stake holders as renewables cut across various       Deputy Director, ICLEI, USA, mentioned that
       disciplines and fields. It was suggested that        besides undertaking all the above-mentioned
       though it is recommended to have a Master            activities, his organisation also collaborates with
       plan for town and city planning, provisions can      various stakeholders and provides technical
       always be made for up-scaling and incremental        consultancy for promoting renewables.

     DiREC 2010 REpoRt
48   Road Map for Up Scaling and Mainstreaming Renewables
Chapter        6
Thematic Session, Track III: Finance

                                  A Catalyst for Sustainable Habitats
     DiREC 2010 REpoRt
50   Road Map for Up Scaling and Mainstreaming Renewables
Chapter                     6
Thematic Session, Track III: Finance

Track III: Finance                                    Session I: Financing innovation-projects,
                                                      businesses and technologies
Renewable energy technologies have long
been recognised as an important part of the           Financing innovations is the need of the hour
solution to address energy security concerns          as it is extremely important to not just develop
and ensure economic growth in an environment          new financial products, but also to adjust
friendly manner. However, despite efforts and         these products to customers’ requirements.
the proactive stance taken by many countries,         Financing innovation from technology and
renewable energy is yet to be fully regarded as an    business development through transfer and
economically viable alternative energy source.        early deployment require new forms of risk
Several barriers impede commercialisation             capital provision. Although the market potential
of renewable energy and the development of            for renewables is significant in most of the
commercially viable small-and-medium scale            countries, it is difficult to get financing for new
enterprises that harness these technologies. The      and innovative projects due to the elevated risks
major barriers include: limited financing to defray   and associated first-mover costs. As a result,
high up-front costs associated with developing        new approaches and mechanisms to finance
renewable energy projects; entrepreneurs’ lack        innovation are needed, some of which may be
of familiarity with structuring commercially          an outcome of new forms of public and private
viable businesses; strong competition from            partnerships.
subsidised conventional energy sources and
market penetration costs. Past experiences            The main focus of the session was on following
indicate that while there is a perceptible growth     topics:
in demand, institutionalisation of market
                                                        ^^ Where are the frontiers of innovation and
mechanisms, especially that of investment
                                                           how can they be financed?
mechanisms is yet to take root. DIREC 2010
took the initiative of exploring strategies to help     ^^ What are the Costs and Rewards of being
address these barriers and stimulate enhanced              a first mover?
financing for the deployment of renewable               ^^ What are the roles for public finance in
energy.                                                    supporting innovation.

                                                                                                  ChaptER 6
                                                                            Thematic Session, Track III:Habitats
                                                                             A Catalyst for Sustainable Finance
       The session was chaired by Mr. Xiaoyu Zhao,            ^^ Mr. Don Purka,         Senior   Investment
       Vice President, Asian Development Bank and                Specialist, Private    Sector    Operations
       moderated by Mr. Eric Usher, Manager, Seed                Department, ADB.
       Capital Programmes, UNEP.
                                                            The panellists viewed RE development in three
       Panellists of the session were:                      segments – technology development, supply
                                                            chain and product development. The panellists
         ^^ Dr. Vivek Tandon, Founder, Aloe Private
                                                            unanimously agreed that though the market
                                                            potential for renewable is significant in most
         ^^ Ms. Christine Eibs-Singer, Co-Founder and       countries, early projects are hard to finance
            Chief Executive Officer, E+Co.                  dut to higher risks and this is where the public
         ^^ Mr. Ethan Zindler, Head of Policy Analysis,     sector needs to come in to being down risks and
            Bloomberg New Energy Finance.                   transaction costs in order to catalyse private
         ^^ Ms. Anita George, Director- Infrastructure,
            International Finance Corporation (IFC).        Moderator Mr. Eric Usher, UNEP, began the session
         ^^ Mr. Debashish Majumdar, Chairman cum            with his experienced observation that for public
            Managing Director, Indian Renewable Energy      finance institutions the challenge is choosing
            Development Agency Limited (IREDA).             how to exit sectors that have successfully scaled

     DiREC 2010 REpoRt
52   Road Map for Up Scaling and Mainstreaming Renewables
up to make way for private sector finance and to         various issues like the difficulty of matching
identify the way forward.                                innovations of smaller companies with that of
                                                         large investors. Problems are due to the lack of
Assessing the reasons to get capital into this space,    regulatory frameworks in emerging sectors and
the panellists explained that typically conventional     adapting technology to new markets, or as per
power sector projects have development costs             the requirements of the existing markets.
of 3–5%; whereas the ‘first mover’ low carbon
projects have development costs of 6 – 10%.In            2008 Milestone: For the first time all the
addition to this cost, development cycles of these       renewables (incl. large hydro) attracted more
projects are typically 2–3 times longer. There is        power sector investment (~$140bn) than fossil-
also a different risk and return paradigm, from          fueled technologies (~$110bn)
that of conventional energy which makes the risk
                                                         The Panel deliberated on the role of public finance
perception of this sector much higher.
                                                         in supporting innovation and rewards for first
Dr. Vivek Tandon, Aloe Private Equity, said that         movers. They pointed out that while established
with carbon credits so far have been of great help       players are just entering business, many a
in India, and that now it is necessary to improve        small entrepreneurs and industries are already
yields. Whereas, Anita George, International             involved with RE. Taking forward this aspect of
Finance Corporation (IFC), spoke at length about         the discussion, Ms. Christine Eibs-Singer, E+Co,
                                                         mentioned that this is what makes it imperative
                                                         to help small entrepreneurs de-risk, especially
                                                         keeping in mind the replication potential and
                                                         cataloguing lessons learned.

                                                         Representatives of some of the banks and
                                                         financing institutions like Yes Bank. E+ Co, ADB
                                                         and IFC described their respective financing
                                                         policies. For instance, IFC’s that emphasis is on
                                                         portfolio approach and providing debt financing
                                                         through various lines of credit. E+ Co also stated
                                                         following a portfolio approach, but for SMEs with
                                                         the prime focus on “S”. In fact, E+ Cos investment
                                                         in East and West Africa focuses on de-risking
                                                         the investments of small entrepreneurs, whose
                                                         projects have a replication potential; Yes bank
                                                         also finances business and people rather than

                                                         Mr. Vivek Mehra, YES Bank, too reflected on
                                                         the requirement of reliable finance models to
                                                         support such initiatives, while Don Purka, ADB,
                                                         highlighted the need to fund projects focusing
                                                         on adapting technologies to the new markets
                                                         and designing insurance policies for the same to
                                                         reduce risk. Almost echoing the same concerns,
                                                         Ethan Zindler, Bloomberg New Energy Finance,
                                                         said that investment in emerging technology
         Panelists at Financing Innovation – Projects,   start-ups has not taken off and hence it is
                Businesses and Technologies Session      important to reinforce public finance.

                                                                                                     ChaptER 6
                                                                               Thematic Session, Track III:Habitats
                                                                                A Catalyst for Sustainable Finance
       Session II: Financing deployment at scale              ^^ Role of financial institutions in catalysing
                                                                 commercial investment.
       To achieve large-scale deployment of technologies
       that have been commercially proven requires          The session was chaired by Mr. Rashad Kaldany,
       large-scale investment. Weak financial markets       Vice President, IFC for Asia, Eastern Europe,
       create not only a problem of access to finance,      Middle East and North Africa. It was moderated
       but also introduce a bias towards investment in      and introduced by Ms. Kirsty Hamilton, Associate
       fossil fuel based technologies. Many renewable       Fellow, Chatham House, and coordinated by
       energy technologies are still relatively new to      Mr. K. S. Popli Director (Technical), IREDA. The
       the market so the commercial chains, networks,       panellists of the session were as follows:
       marketing and financial links and other                ^^ Mr. Clifford Polycarp, Senior Associate,
       institutional structures that service traditional         World Resources Institute - WRI.
       energy technologies are not completely in place.       ^^ Mr. Nick Robins, Head, Climate Change
       In low-income countries government intervention           Centre of Excellence, HSBC.
       and development finance is necessary to unlock         ^^ Mr. Craig O’Connor, Director, Office of
       and scale-up investment in RE technologies                Renewable Energy & Environmental
       (cover incremental costs, share risks, provide            Exports, Exim Bank, USA.
       underlying finance in LDC). But to achieve large-
                                                              ^^ Mr. Peter T. Gutman, Global Head,
       scale deployment, a large share of financing
                                                                 Renewable Energy & Environmental
       needs to come from the private sector.
                                                                 Finance, Standard Chartered Bank.
       The following topics were identified:                  ^^ Mr. Satish Mandhana, Managing Director,
                                                                 IDFC Private Equity.
         ^^ Risks and barriers facing the large
            scale deployment of renewable energy            The panel gave an overview of financing
            technologies.                                   renewables from 2004 until today. It was

     DiREC 2010 REpoRt
54   Road Map for Up Scaling and Mainstreaming Renewables
                                                           mentioned that investments in renewables
                                                           constitute one fourth of the total energy
                                                           investments and majority of these are in hydro.
                                                           To reduce the capital costs and to encourage
                                                           innovative financing; technical assistance should
                                                           be provided to the governments and local banks
                                                           in order for them to be able to assess the risks
                                                           involved with RE. Standardising systems is also
                                                           necessary for RE as in the case of biomass, as
                                                           there was a time when the initial cost of biomass
                                                           used to be taken as low but with experience the
                                                           cost of biomass has been reconsidered.

                                                      Accordingly, Mr. Kaldany mentioned the challenges
                                                      for renewable energy growth, which he said
                                                      included nascent stages of growth, inadequacy of
                                                      grid infrastructure, unpredictability of government
                                                      support and lack of funding in local currencies.
                                                      Adding to the discussion, Mr. Mandhana said
                                                      that countries like India need to strengthen law
       due to the lack of regulatory frameworks in emerging sectors and adapting
   Panelists at Financing deployment at scale Session implementation to enabling scaling-up.
        technology to new markets, or as per the requirements of the existing
Figure 5: Financial investment by region 2004–2009 ($bn).

Source: Global Trends in Sustainable Energy Investment 2010, UNEP/Bloomberg New Energy Finance.
     Figure 2: Financial investment by region 2004 - 2009 ($bn); source:
     global trends in sustainable Energy investment 2010, unEp/Bloomberg
                                                                           ChaptER 6
     new Energy Finance                              Thematic Session, Track III:Habitats
                                                      A Catalyst for Sustainable Finance

2008 milestone: For the first time all the renewables (incl. large hydro)
       Panellists in general felt that innovation is           reforms. He emphasised the need to focus on a
       required both in technology as well as in               shift from developed to emerging markets.
       business models; similarly grid parity is also
       important especially in countries where tariff
       structure varies with the type of RE source
                                                               Session III: Financing for small businesses
       and consumer. It was also noted that scaling            and end-users
       up is also dependent on issues like innovation
                                                               To start a new business activity/project and
       in financing, inter connectivity, uncertainty
                                                               to develop a new technology, an entrepreneur
       of converting to firm power and effective
                                                               (at different stages) needs various sources of
                                                               capital and business-development support.
       The panellists felt that clean technology fund          Given the nascent stages of the renewables
       needs to be developed not only at the global            industry, there is limited availability of
       level, but also at national level, both in direct, as   investment capital to finance the high up-front
       well as indirect mechanisms.                            cost associated with these projects, especially
                                                               at the initial stages of development. Due to
       Mr. Craig O’Connor from Exim Bank mentioned             various barriers and market failures that inhibit
       that competition is a recipe to reduce loan             financier engagement in (particularly off-grid)
       costs; Peter Gutman said RE projects are more           RE markets, there are many financial and non-
       about debt than equity so it is very essential          financial gaps. These gaps make it difficult to
       to carefully structure as well as support these         launch new businesses, or even expand the
       projects.                                               existing and proven ones.

       Mr. Nick Robins of HSBC underscored the                 Taking into consideration the above-mentioned
       importance of investment related energy                 facts, the session revolved around following
       transitions that result from financial regulation       topics of discussions:

       Figure 6: Public Finance in Sustainable Energy.


                                                                         $8,510         Export Finance
                                                                                        Development Banks

                     $6.5bn                                                             Multilaterals
                      2007                        2008                    2009

       Source: Bloomberg New Energy Finance.

     DiREC 2010 REpoRt
56   Road Map for Up Scaling and Mainstreaming Renewables
  ^^ Enterprise Development Services for Clean       Session IV: Initiatives to catalyse and scale-
     Energy SMEs.
                                                     up investment in renewable energy
  ^^ Scaling up access to Early Stage/Seed
     Capital for RE projects.                        The session focused on a number of recent
  ^^ Approaches for softening loan financing:        initiatives designed to catalyse in investment in
     interest rate reductions, green mortgages,      renewable energy. These included:
     guarantee facilities.                             ^^ Scaling Up Renewable Energy in Low
  ^^ Importance of microfinance.                          Income Countries (SREP).

  ^^ Development of new end-user finance               ^^ Global Energy Transfer Feed-in Tariff (GET
     products by local banks/MFIs.                        FiT).
                                                       ^^ Global Climate Partnership Fund.
  ^^ Leveraging existing networks, building new
     market linkages.                                  ^^ The Critical Mass project.

  ^^ Creation of opportunities for incoming            ^^ Global   Renewables     Investment Plan         -
     generating activities.                               GRIP.

The session was moderated and introduced by          Moderator of the session was Ms. Virginia
Ms. Richenda Van Leeuwen, Senior Director,           Sonntag-O’Brien, Executive Secretary, REN21,
UN Foundation, coordinated by Dr. D.K. Khare,        who also introduced the session; while the
Director, MNRE and the panellists were:              session coordinator was Mr. K. S. Popli, Director
  ^^ Mr. Daniel Magallon, Managing Director,         (Technical), IREDA. The panellists were as
     Basel Agency for Sustainable Energy.            follows:

  ^^ Mr. Eric Usher, Manager, Seed Capital             ^^ Mr. Jonathan Maxwell, Founding Partner
     Programmes, UNEP.                                    & Chief Executive Officer, Sustainable
                                                          Development Capital LLP.
  ^^ Mr. Patricio Boyd, Director Rural Operations,
     Emprenda, Argentina.                              ^^ Dr. Klaus Peter Pischke, Energy Sector and
                                                          Policy Division, KfW Development Bank
  ^^ Mr. Charan Singh, Chairman, Aryavart
     Gramin Bank                                       ^^ Ms. Natalia Kulichenko-Lotz, Senior Energy
                                                          Specialist, Sustainable Energy Department,
The panellists in general shared their experiences        World Bank.
in financing SME’s and mentioned that what
                                                       ^^ Dr. Martin Schoepe, Head of Division
their institutions look for while assessing their
                                                          International and EU Affairs of Renewable
financial needs the business model, maintenance
                                                          Energy, German Federal Ministry for the
and sustainability aspects and loan recovery
potential of a project.
                                                     The panellists presented different programs
Speaking from the experience of his bank,
Mr. Singh mentioned that approximately 500           and funds available to finance RE projects.
million people in India’s countryside still have     Mr. Jonathan Maxwell explained the Critical
no access to electricity. So realising that India    Mass project that promoted public-private
has a solar energy potential of 5000 trillion        partnerships and looked at ways to allocate risk
kwh per year, his bank decided to support            and report on lessons learned to improve capital
the most feasible solution of decentralised          efficiency. He also spoke about the proposed
renewable energy systems, which includes             Climate Public-Private Partnership (CP3) fund
local energy generation and dissemination            that will focus on providing private equity for
systems. Fortunately, the bank has not looked        low carbon and resource efficient infrastructure
back since then.                                     in Asia.

                                                                                                ChaptER 6
                                                                          Thematic Session, Track III:Habitats
                                                                           A Catalyst for Sustainable Finance
       Taking the discussion further, Dr. Martin Schoepe        technical assistance to developing countries
       stated that the Global Renewable Investment Plan         financial institutions. Similarly, Mr. Mark Dominik
       (GRIP) is an initiative to quantify economic benefits,   gave details of Deutsche Bank’s Global Energy
       understand effectiveness of policy schemes               Transfer Feed-in Tariff (GET FiT) program. In his
       and stimulate investment through increased               presentation he mentioned that GET FiT has a lot
       international cooperation. Ms. Natalia Kulichenko-       of flexibility and can help to overcome problems
       Lotz made the delegates aware of the World Bank’s        of cost competitiveness and technical, financial
       Strategic Climate Fund and Clean Technology Fund         and project development constraints of the
       as well as the Scaling-Up of Renewable Energy            projects being implemented in the developing
       Program, which primarily focuses on pilot projects       countries.
       in selected low-income countries.
                                                                On the other hand Mr. Clifford Polycarp explained
       Dr. Klaus Peter described the Global Climate             the working of World Resources Institute and also
       Partnership Fund that provides financial and             cautioned about starting too many initiatives.

     DiREC 2010 REpoRt
58   Road Map for Up Scaling and Mainstreaming Renewables
Chapter       7
Thematic Session, Track IV: Renewables, Access
and MDGs

                                A Catalyst for Sustainable Habitats
Chapter                    7
Thematic Session, Track IV: Renewables, Access
and MDGs

                                                       ^^ Mobilising resources to achieve access to
Track IV: Renewables, Access                              clean energy.
and MDGs                                               ^^ Engagement of all stakeholders.
This track endeavoured to foresee how renewables       ^^ Energy justice.
could address the Millennium Development Goals
and lead to development by improving social          The session was chaired by Dr. Kandeh
and economic conditions in the world’s poorest       K. Yumkella, DG, UNIDO; coordinated by
countries. Much like other tracks, this one was      Dr. P.C. Maithani, Director, MNRE, Government of
also divided into four sessions as given below:      India and the panellists were as follows:
                                                       ^^ Dr. Manfred Konukiewitz, German Federal
                                                          Ministry for. Economic Cooperation and
Session I: Renewables, Access & MDG
                                                          Development (BMZ).
Almost 2-3 billion people living in the developing     ^^ Mr. Kadri Nassiep, Chief Executive Officer,
countries lack access to affordable and clean             South African National Energy Research
energy services for both consumption and                  Institute (SANERI).
productive uses. Lack of access to clean,              ^^ Ms.    Veerle  Vandeweerd,    Director,
sustainable and affordable energy has been                Environment and Energy Group, Bureau
recognised as a key constraint in the attainment          for Development Policy, United Nations
of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs),               Development Programme (UNDP).
particularly in terms of creating the economic         ^^ Ms. Rachel Kyte, Vice President, IFC.
conditions necessary for reducing poverty. To
                                                       ^^ Mr. Deepak Gupta,             Secretary,     MNRE,
understand the role renewable can play in this
                                                          Government of India.
direction and how to improve the scenario, the
                                                       ^^ Ms. Sylvie Lemmet, Director, Division
session focused on following key topics:
                                                          of Technology, Industry and Economics
  ^^ Development of a global partnership for
                                                          (DTIE), United Nations Environment
     energy access.
                                                          Programme (UNEP).
  ^^ Development of an effective communication/
     media campaign focusing on building             The panellists were unanimous in accepting that
     support for achieving energy access.            energy access has the potential to play a major

                                                                                                   ChaptER 7
                                                       Thematic Session, Track A Catalyst for Sustainable Habitats
                                                                               IV: Renewables, Access and MDGs
       role in achieving the MDGs goals. Facilitating       technologies and best practices available for
       the discussion, Kandeh Yumkella spoke why            improving the efficiency of energy use, and for
       and how energy access can help to achieve            increasing the use of renewable energies are
       the MDGs and the role that improved energy           needed to increase access to energy. Priority
       access can play in this aspect. Taking forward       needs to be given to those initiatives which
       the discussion, Mr Deepak Gupta said that the        are focused on tackling the poverty agenda
       world is replete with examples that showcase         through the provision of sustainable energy
       how poverty reduction depends on energy              services for lighting, communications, water
       access and how improvements in lighting and          pumping, education, health and wealth creating
       rural electrification enhance education, health,     activities.
       and livelihoods. He invited the delegates to work
       towards an international commitment, possibly        The session revolved around following topics:
       through creation of a new energy access fund           ^^ Availability of information and education of
       that would help in ensuring energy access and             rural population.
       security, particularly in the rural pockets.           ^^ Enhancing communication and awareness
                                                                 raising among key stakeholders and
       Adding to the thought process of Mr Gupta, Kadri
                                                                 decision makers about the potential of
       Nassiep mentioned that energy opens doors to
                                                                 RE sources and the potential of    these
       many a knowledge opportunities like internet
                                                                 sources to provide a sustainable form of
       access, which is a vital source of educational
                                                                 energy supply.
       opportunity. He mentioned that energy access
       also has significant emphasise on improving the        ^^ How to increase the understanding of
       living conditions and livelihoods of people.              environmental issues and their implications
                                                                 at all levels, from local to the global,
       Veerle Vandeweerd gave another dimension                  and to influence opinion and policy in
       to the discussion by emphasising on an all                ways that promote sustainable forms of
       inclusive approach to energy services, such as            development.
       providing lighting, battery and mechanical power       ^^ How to motivate industry, investors,
       simultaneously. Whereas, Rachel Kyte mentioned            researchers and government agencies to
       the role private sector can play to make the              continuously share information that will
       policy makers aware of sector requirements like           facilitate dissemination of RETs.
       establishing appropriate investment incentives at
                                                              ^^ Creation of opportunities for incoming
       national and international levels. She reminded
                                                                 generating activities.
       that it is necessary to ensure that the poor don’t
       end up paying the price of carbon accordingly          ^^ Developing innovative and decentralised
       RE business should be oriented towards ‘saving            approaches to poverty reduction by
       cost’ rather than making profits and in such a            harnessing solar energy.
       scenario initial subsidies can help the businesses     ^^ Training and networking for energy policy
       to establish quickly and move into new markets            makers, regulators, and planners.
       with ease. However, Manfred Konukiewitz stated         ^^ Strengthening existing Energy Centres,
       that it will help to treat the customers as the           Agencies and Industry Associations.
       “first funding mechanism.”
                                                            The session was moderated and introduced by
                                                            Dr. Leena Srivastava, Executive Director, TERI,
       Session II: Capacity Building
                                                            coordinated by Mr. P.C. Pant, Director, MNRE, GoI
       Capacity Building on energy policy making,           and the panellists were:
       energy regulations, energy planning and                ^^ Dr. Joe Madiath, Executive Director, Gram
       project financing, as well as in the latest               Vikas.

     DiREC 2010 REpoRt
62   Road Map for Up Scaling and Mainstreaming Renewables
  ^^ Mr. Berthold Breid, Chief Executive Officer,        identified as paramount for the success of RE
     Renewables Academy AG (RENAC).                      programmes and projects.
  ^^ Mr. Ryan Glenn Anderson, Advisor and
     Team Leader, Renewable Energy Finance,              Session III: Women Empowerment
     Norwegian Agency for Development
     Cooperation Norway.                                 Women are the mainstream users and producers
  ^^ Mr. Mark Radka, Chief of the Energy Branch,         of energy and they have, in a number of cases,
     United Nations Environment Programme                demonstrated their interest by taking active roles
     (UNEP).                                             in renewable energy projects that produce real
                                                         benefits towards their empowerment: that improve
  ^^ Mr. Hugo Lucas, Director for Policy, Capacity
                                                         their quality of life, reduce their workload, reduce
     Building and Outreach, International
                                                         health hazards associated with indoor burning of
     Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA).
                                                         firewood or provide them with opportunities to
  ^^ Mr. Bunker Roy, Director, The Barefoot              increase their income. Women are already playing
     College.                                            diverse roles in some renewable energy activities
                                                         as energy consumers and beneficiaries, as micro
Panellists discussed how capacity building for
                                                         entrepreneurs, as extension workers and caretakers
energy access, especially in the area of renewable
                                                         and as leaders, networkers and lobbyists.
energy, needs to be all encompassing and
carried out at all the levels, right from politicians
                                                         This session accordingly focused on:
to donors and bureaucrats, to educators, NGOs
                                                           ^^ How to incorporate gender sensitivity in
and students in both the developed and the
                                                               national policy making?
developing countries. For such extensive training
                                                           ^^ What are the necessary steps to involve
programmes, it was felt that it is essential to
                                                               women in different stages of project
develop communication tools needed to elucidate
the co-benefits of providing energy access and
                                                           ^^ How to provide incentives for women and
its importance for the MDGs
                                                               women’s organisations to overcome the
The discussions also identified financial institutions         barriers often faced in obtaining credit?
as another key stakeholder in the energy access            ^^ Renewable energy for improving the
programme, whose capacity too needs to be                      households’ quality of life
developed for designing appropriate financial              ^^ Income generation activities for women in
instruments for lending. Even the importance of                energy service delivery
carefully identifying target groups for capacity           ^^ Separate resources for dealing                   with
enhancement; so as to achieve the purpose of                  women’s energy poverty issues
enhanced energy access in a sustainable manner
was stressed. In the context of capacity building,       The session was moderated and introduced by
the Government of India’s initiatives through            Dr. Veena Joshi, Senior Advisor, SDC and the
investment in educational institutes attracted a         session coordinator was Mr. K.P. Sukumaran,
lot of attention and interest.                           MNRE-UNDP ACE Project. Besides the panellists
From sustainability point of view, the session
                                                           ^^ Mr. Dipal Chandra Barua, Founder
advocated the need to develop entrepreneurs at
                                                              & Chairman, Bright Green Energy
the local level, who could support the renewable
energy based products and services identified
as critical; along with the need for identifying           ^^ Dr. Nandita Mongia, Principal Advisor,
and building replicable models on-the-ground                  South Asia Regional Initiative - Energy
and addressing the challenge of scaling up was             ^^ Ms. Jayshree Vyas, MD, SEWA Bank

                                                                                                        ChaptER 7
                                                            Thematic Session, Track A Catalyst for Sustainable Habitats
                                                                                    IV: Renewables, Access and MDGs
         ^^ Ms. Adeola Eleri, Nigeria, Senior Scientific       beneficial for women, and their families and the
            Officer, Renewable Energy Department,              need to design energy projects with significant
            Energy Commission of Nigeria                       general component. She also cited examples
                                                               of successful projects with active involvement
       The session was organised in the backdrop of            of women in India and other countries and
       the fact that women are the mainstream users            suggested that the details of such projects
       of energy and by taking active role in renewable        should be collated for wider dissemination. It was
       energy projects, they are empowered. There is           informed that the Government of Kerala in India
       also remarkable improvement in their quality of         has initiated a Women Institute for sustainable
       life besides there is significant reduction in their    development with direct association of the Energy
       work load, along with mitigation of health hazards      Management Centre, Government of Kerala. She
       associated with indoor air pollution arising out of     is actively involved in the functioning of this
       fire wood/biomass burning for cooking.                  institute and suggested that this is an example
                                                               worth emulating.
       The moderator Dr. Veena Joshi highlighted
       the importance of clean energy access to rural          The speakers highlighted the role of energy
       households, which would directly contribute to          for increasing the productivity, reduction in
       the empowerment of women. Dr. Nandita Mongia            drudgery, increasing the standard of life of
       highlighted the need for energy services equitability   rural people, particularly rural women. It was
       for women, creating awareness amongst women             suggested that project developers should have
       as a measure of their capacity building in order to     first-hand information about the use of energy
       select appropriate energy sources, which could be       by women in their daily life and such interaction

     DiREC 2010 REpoRt
64   Road Map for Up Scaling and Mainstreaming Renewables
                                                      The session was followed by active discussion,
                                                      which was participated by a number of delegates.
                                                      The suggestions made therein included;
                                                      integration of fuel policy in the public nutrition
                                                      programme, use of solar energy products for
                                                      water pumping and solar powered refrigeration
                                                      which could specifically benefit rural women,
                                                      to consider women as not only a consumer of
                                                      energy but also to empower them as energy
                                                      entrepreneurs or business partners, the need
                                                      for creating a portal of clean energy system for
                                                      creating awareness, introduction of clean energy
                                                      devices which could reduce the long working hours
                                                      of women, to consider women’s participation in
                                                      the relevant programmes not only as end-users
                                                      but also as an integral part in the supply chain. It
                                                      was highlighted that the technology per se is not
                                                      the critically important issue, rather providing
                                                      access to clean energy services should be the
                                                      primary objective of the projects.

                                                      The session was well attended by a cross-section
                                                      of delegates from India and other participating
         Panelists at Women Empowerment Session       countries and was extremely interactive.

should be collected by visiting the homes of
                                                      Session IV: Renewable Energy in India
women in order to find out the energy use
                                                      The development and utilisation of renewable energy
and the systems being used by them in order
                                                      has been accorded high priority by the Government
to suggest solutions for improving their living       of India. The current policy environment in India,
conditions. Need for providing micro financing        undoubtedly, has yielded significant results. India
to acquire energy efficient devices was also          is ranked fifth globally for installed wind capacity
highlighted.                                          and second for biogas generation and runs one of
                                                      the most diverse and biggest renewable energy
The relevance of improved cook stoves and
                                                      programmes in the world. The Government
biogas plants for providing clean cooking energy
                                                      policy has been successful in creating a fairly
services was also discussed. The speakers
                                                      large and diversified manufacturing base, and
suggested that energy audit in the women’s
                                                      an infrastructure to support Renewable Energy
home may be carried out in order to suggest
                                                      Technology (RET) design, development, testing
measures for energy conservation, as well as
                                                      and deployment. So far, an aggregate capacity
the installation of appropriate energy devices for
                                                      of over 17,000 MW has been installed, based on
improving the quality of life. Ms. Adeola Eleri and   renewable energy technologies. The topics that
Mr. Barua presented the details of the projects       were covered during this session were:
being implemented in Nigeria and Bangladesh
                                                        ^^ Status of renewable energy deployment in
respectively for providing access of clean energy
to women and called for integration of gender
sensitivity in the renewable energy projects,           ^^ Barriers to mainstreaming RE in India.
particularly for rural energy services.                 ^^ Role of RE in addressing energy security.

                                                                                                     ChaptER 7
                                                         Thematic Session, Track A Catalyst for Sustainable Habitats
                                                                                 IV: Renewables, Access and MDGs
         ^^ RE as a driver for rural development.                     ^^ Dr. Shonali Pachauri, Deputy Program
         ^^ Role of R&D and technology development.                      Leader of the Population and Climate
                                                                         Change (PCC) program, International
         ^^ Policy, regulatory and fiscal measures to
                                                                         Institute for Applied Systems Analysis
            promote RE deployment.
       The key speakers during this session were:                     ^^ Dr. Jyoti Parikh, Executive Director, IRADe
         ^^ Chairperson: Dr. Farooq Abdullah, Union
                                                                    Mr. Deepak Gupta set the stage for discussion
            Minister for New & Renewable Energy,
                                                                    during the session. He mentioned that renewable
            Government of India.
                                                                    grid capacity in India has increased more than
         ^^ Moderator: Mr. Suresh Prabhu, Chairman,                 five times, from around 2% to around 11%
            Council for Energy, Environment and Water,              in only eight years, and is contributing about
            India.                                                  4.13% to electricity generation mix. He added
         ^^ Introduction: Mr. Deepak Gupta, Secretary,              that in the larger perspective of grid power, a
            MNRE, Government of India.                              new area of renewable power plant at the tail
                                                                    end of grid is being experimented in India to
       Panellists:                                                  reduce transmission losses, and improve both
         ^^ Dr. Pramod Deo, Chairperson and Chief                   voltage and frequency at the tail end. Hundreds
            Executive, Central Electricity Regulatory               of such plants are expected to come up in the
            Commission, India.                                      next few years, thus improving the transmission
                                                                    infrastructure in the country.
         ^^ Mr. Darryl D’Monte, Chairman, Forum of
            Environmental Journalists of India.                     In the context of off grid renewable power
         ^^ Mr. Jens Burgtorf, Director, Indo-German                program, he mentioned that Indian renewable
            Energy Programme (IGEN), GTZ.                           energy priorities are different from that of the

       Figure 7 India’s Energy Challenged i a ’s
               :                                         E ne rg y C h a ll e ng e

            In ne xt 1 2 y e ars Ind ia’s                                                       Elect r ic it y
            e le ct r ic it y re qu ire m e nt                                                  s ho r tag e
                t o g r ow 2 .5 t i m es                                                 e st im at ed at 25 35
                                                     Dem a nd        Sh orta ge

                                                 C lim ate                                   40 0 M i llion p eo ple
           Cl im at e C ha ng e is                                          A c c e ss
                                                 C h a n ge                                  st ill w i th o ut acc ess
           a lso an i m po r ta nt                                                                t o e le ct ric it y
                   issu e
                                                              Se c urity

                                                    Ind ia is d ep en de nt o n oi l
                                                      i m p or t s fo r 80 % of its
                                                                de m an d

        The key speakers
     DiREC 2010 REpoRt      during this session were:
     Road Map for Up Scaling and Mainstreaming Renewables
                 Chairperson: Dr. Farooq Abdullah, Union Minister for New & Renewable
                                                              Panelists at Renewable Energy in India Session

developed countries, firstly, because it provides       to be achieved by 2015 through usage of rural
energy access to large rural populations including      solar lighting in 5 million rural households. The
those in inaccessible areas and meeting the un-         session proceedings were then handed over to
met demand in many other areas. Secondly,               the distinguished panellists of the session by the
because in one way or the other, they replace fossil    moderator.
fuels and can make a significant contribution to
reduction in their consumption, which is important      Dr. Pramod Deo mentioned that facilitating private
from the point of view of energy security.              sector investment in renewable energy is a key
                                                        objective of the regulatory framework in India and
Quoting a few successful initiatives of the Ministry,   several regulatory mechanisms have been put in
he said that Solarization through 150,000               place to promote renewable energy development
solarized telecom towers will result in savings         in the country such as cost plus return based
of 450 million litres of diesel annually, daytime       tariff, or preferential tariffs, renewable purchase
mitigation of diesel consumption in Industry            obligations (20 states in India have already
through solar applications will result in savings       announced these targets) and new grid code and
of 400 million litres diesel, rice-husk gasification    connectivity regulations comprising facilitative
in the rice mills in Eastern India through 2000         provisions for grid connectivity and integration of
plants totalling 200 MW will result in savings          renewable energy projects has been announced.
of 100 million litres of diesel and 35 Million          He stated that there is a need to move from the
litres annual savings of kerosene is proposed           cost plus return based tariff regime to a market

                                                                                                       ChaptER 7
                                                           Thematic Session, Track A Catalyst for Sustainable Habitats
                                                                                   IV: Renewables, Access and MDGs
       based mechanism to promote such resources            technologies such as wind and solar PV in the
       and suggested that it is necessary to mobilize       country. He made a critical point that the scale of
       funds from the clean energy fund to incentivize      development of technologies such as solar PV have
       acceptability of market based mechanisms for         been possible in Germany primarily on account
       greater acceptability among the end users.           of cost reduction, which can also be the case for
                                                            India as it embarks on a journey of promoting
       Adding another dimension to the discussion,          large scale deployment of solar power.
       Mr. Darryl D’Monte spoke about the ‘power
       to choose’ and focussed his discussion on            Dr. Shonali Pachauri spoke about renewable
       traditional fuel based cooking and the harmful       energy and household energy access in India.
       effects of the same on the health of women. He       She discussed in detail the health effects,
       urged the international community to accept the      environmental impact and socio- economic
       proposition of improving traditional cook stoves     impact of biomass usage, particularly in cooking;
       in developing countries as an attractive business    whereas, Dr. Jyoti Parikh emphasised on the key
       opportunity and invited help in alleviating this     buzz words of integration, consolidation and
       critical problem.                                    convergence in the field of renewable energy
                                                            development in India.
       Mr. Jens Burtgrof brought to the discussion
       the German experience of renewable energy            To conclude, this session focused on the potential
       development. He emphasised the important             of renewable industry in India, the challenges faced
       role that feed-in-tariffs has played in promoting    and the importance of household energy access.

     DiREC 2010 REpoRt
68   Road Map for Up Scaling and Mainstreaming Renewables
Chapter       8
Closing Plenary

                  A Catalyst for Sustainable Habitats
Chapter                    8
Closing Plenary

                                                     gas concentrations to 450ppm will require
Day 3: Plenary on Key Findings from                  considerable efforts.
all Sessions
                                                     While underlining the importance of smart
29th October 2010                                    grids to scale up renewables, he reminded the
                                                     participants that while the world is undertaking
On Friday morning, the third and the last day of
                                                     great efforts in this direction, fossil fuels will
the conference, key outcomes from the four tracks
                                                     continue to play an important role in this
were presented to the delegates in the plenary.
                                                     transition phase. He added that participants
   Track     I: Technology and Infrastructure        highlighted the benefits of renewables for
      Prof. Ralph Sims, Director, Centre for         heating and cooling, and emphasised on the
      Energy Research, Massey University             need to manufacture and market quality
   Track II: Policy - Dr. Eric Martinot, Senior      renewable energy products. He noted that the
      Research Director, Institute for Sustainable   need of the hour was to convert our buildings
      Energy Policies and Mr. Ernesto Macías,       into net energy generators through green
      Alliance for Rural Electrification             building design and the need to educate more
                                                     and more green building professionals.
   Track    III: Finance - Mr. Eric Usher,
      Manager, Seed Capital Programmes, UNEP         In transport there is still a long way to go as
   Track IV: Renewables, Access and MDG -            the sector requires significant spending to switch
      Mr. Suresh Prabhu, Chairman, Council for       from the fleet of light vehicles to advanced
      Energy, Environment and Water, India           renewable fuel and storage technologies.
                                                     Prof. Sims noted that an array of renewable
Summing up the discussion on technology and          technology solutions will need to be combined
infrastructure, Prof. Ralph Sims applauded the       and promoted aggressively through government
efforts of different countries in the direction      institutional and infrastructural planning to make
of renewables and mentioned that substantial         this a reality.
progress has been made in renewable technology
in the past 20 years. However, he also cautioned     Dr. Eric Martinot and Mr. Ernesto Macías
that according to the IEA World Energy               summarised the policy track and stated that
Outlook 2009, the goal of limiting greenhouse        though the ideal scenario of 50-100% renewable

                                                                                                ChaptER 8
                                                                            A Catalyst for Sustainable Habitats
                                                                                                Closing Plenary
                                 Prof. Ralph Sims, Director,            Dr. Eric Martinot, Senior Research Director,
              Centre for Energy Research, Massey University                 Institute for Sustainable Energy Policies

       energy use sounds very challenging, it is               On Millennium Development Goals, it was very
       indeed feasible both technically and financially.       much evident that increasing access to energy
       Dr. Martinot explained that while the delegates did     will play a significant role in halving extreme
       raise concerns about the overall cost of renewables,    poverty by 2015. Mr. Prabhu, emphasised the
       the more overarching issue is that of distribution of   need to strengthen international cooperation on
       products within society. To overcome this barrier,      technology transfer and training. He also called
       he noted, new and better scenarios involving            for changing the UNFCCC Clean Development
       low energy price volatility, employment benefits        Mechanism to include decentralised off-grid
       etc. are needed. He also emphasised the need            energy projects.
       for countries to learn from one another’s policy
       successes to be able to effectively design the          Mr. Eric Usher summed up the discussion on
       energy grids of the future-an effort that requires      finance for renewables and mentioned that across
       policy, as well as technological innovations.           the globe, banks, industry and governments
                                                               are collaborating in unprecedented ways to
       Mr. Ernesto Macias focused on the need to               massively increase investment in renewables.
       develop effective off-grid systems and the role         However, much still needs to be done as the
       of systems NGOs, especially for countries like          policy frameworks should also incorporate
       India. He also added that these systems need to
       be flexible and focus more on increasing capacity
       and performance, which the session concluded
       is essential if we want to eventually move from
       off-grid to “grid” systems.

       Sharing the conclusion of the renewable access
       and MDGs session, Mr. Suresh Prabhu said that
       addressing gender inequality and access to
       energy are critical to reducing poverty, as often
       women are the ones burdened with collecting
       fuel for domestic use. It was also acknowledged
       that the world is replete with examples showing
       that gender inequality exacerbates poverty and
       that access to energy enables participation in                                     Mr. Eric Usher, Manager,
       productive activities.                                                      Seed Capital Programmes, UNEP

     DiREC 2010 REpoRt
72   Road Map for Up Scaling and Mainstreaming Renewables
various approaches of providing investment for          need to work together. He also stated that
the industry. The drivers of these policies, he         Copenhagen didn’t come up to his expectations,
stated, must be understood pragmatically as             but he did have great expectations from DIREC
necessarily being more related to industrial and        2010 and now with Cancun. He cautioned that
export policy than to environmental policy.             if we don’t save this world, we won’t be able to
                                                        have another world.
The session, Mr. Usher said underscored the
challenges for increasing investment in areas           In his initial remarks, Mr. Thomas Friedman, New
related to technology transfer and addressing           York Times columnist and Pulitzer Prize winning
the needs of the first-movers, who may not              author said, that world has become hot,
necessarily get decent returns in the beginning.        flat and crowded owing to climate change and
So, what is needed is to address the mismatch           over population. He added that “the world is
between the urgency of the renewable revolution         witnessing five major trends namely, supply-
and the slow policy scenario related to renewables.     demand imbalance, energy poverty, biodiversity
He lamented that while solar technology has             loss, climate change and petro dictatorship. All
radically advanced of late, the poor have not yet       these problems of the 21st century have the
benefited from this due to lack of investment in
                                                        same solution-reliable, abundant, cheap and
technologies they can use.
                                                        clean electrons.”
Explaining the new financing initiatives he pointed
                                                        His Excellency Mr. Trond Giske, Minister of Trade
out the example of the German Government
                                                        and Industry, Norway, explained that his country is
and KfW Development Bank’s Global Climate
                                                        committed to renewable energy and cited Norway’s
Partnership Fund which provides financial and
                                                        target to be carbon neutral by 2050. He stated the
technical assistance to financial institutions in
                                                        need for innovation and multilateral agreements
developing countries and is essentially focused
                                                        to set a price on carbon and open investments
towards addressing the multiple challenges of
                                                        in clean energy. This move, he said is essential if
bringing financing to all the levels.
                                                        we need to focus on the health of people living on
                                                        planet earth. He stated that we have to combine
The Concluding Session                                  solutions and work towards sustainable economic
                                                        growth with focus on renewable energy and outlined
DIREC 2010 saw a grand closing with an eclectic         three areas of action: innovation where binding
participation of ministers, energy experts and          global agreement is required, moving capital from
government representatives of 71 countries, with        rich to poor countries and action in the private
an aim of up-scaling and mainstreaming renewable        sector regarding financial support. These three
for energy security, climate change and economic        areas will lead to growth in green technologies
development. The conference outlined the need           and will require commitments from a broad range
for global leadership to ensure that the potential of   of stakeholders. Mr. Giske in his remarks also
renewable technologies are realised, dependence         stressed the need for increased public-private
on fossil fuels is reduced and energy needs of the      partnerships and mentioned Norway’s partnership
countries across the globe are met at affordable        with the Tata Group to develop hydropower in
rates. Consequently DIREC 2010 was successful           India. Attracting the attention of delegates to the
in promoting the campaign of renewable energy           severity of the global challenges, he urged the
to the next level – ‘demystifying renewable energy      participants to commit themselves to positively
for common man’s usage’.                                changing the world for the next generation.

Dr. Farooq Abdullah, Union Minister for New             Dr. Mohamed El-Ashry, Chairman, REN21 added
and Renewable Energy, Government of India, in           that DIREC 2010 has been a great success and
his concluding remarks expressed gratitude to           there is a clear consensus on the outcomes. One of
all the participants and stressed on the urgent         the key outcomes was the Political Declaration.

                                                                                                   ChaptER 8
                                                                               A Catalyst for Sustainable Habitats
                                                                                                   Closing Plenary
                                   THE POLITICAL DECLARATION

        Dr. Farooq Abdullah presented the                      trend of renewable energy growth to
        DIREC Declaration:                                     accelerate, technology development
                                                               and policy efforts need to be taken to
        1. We acknowledge the multiple benefits
                                                               the next level, and large-scale private
           provided by renewable energy. Together
                                                               investment needs to be encouraged.
           with energy efficiency, it provides
           energy access especially for the poor;           4. A large proportion of the world’s
           creates economic and job opportunities;             population has remained without access
           improves air quality and moderates                  to modern energy services for too long.
           climate change; and enhances energy                 Depending upon the energy source in
           security and sustainable development.               question (electricity for lighting, modern
           In the last five years, the renewable               cooking fuel, etc.) anywhere between
           energy sector has grown strongly and                1.4 billion and 2.7 billion people lack
           steadily. Even in 2009, up against                  modern energy services. The use of
           strong headwinds caused by the global               renewable energy sources will not
           recession, lower oil and gas prices,                only provide access, but also help in
           and the lack of an international climate            the eradication of poverty and in the
           agreement,     total  investment     has            achievement of the other Millennium
           increased.                                          Development Goals (MDGs).

        2. Besides finance, the growth in renewable         5. The goal enunciated by the UN Secretary
           energy has largely been policy driven. By           General’s Advisory Group on Energy and
           early 2010, more than 100 countries had             Climate change (AGECC) of universal
           some type of target and/or promotion                access to modern energy services by
           policy related to renewable energy. In              2030 is commendable and should be
           addition, adoption of renewable energy              pursued by the international community
           is no longer confined to the industrialised         and accorded a high development
           world—more than half of the existing                assistance priority.
           renewable power capacity is now in
           developing countries.                            6. We support the designation of a Year of
                                                               Access and call upon the United Nations
        3. Despite the impressive growth in                    to designate 2012 as the International
           renewable energy adoption in the last               Year of Energy Access. We agree to work
           five years, the challenge is that its share         with governments, development banks,
           in the world’s primary energy supply                the private sector and NGOs to achieve
           remains small and its adoption uneven.              this objective.
           The world has tapped only a small
           amount of the vast supply of renewable           7. In many of our countries, investments
           energy resources. For the upward                    in targeted research and development

     DiREC 2010 REpoRt
74   Road Map for Up Scaling and Mainstreaming Renewables
   in the energy sector are much lower             and related skills in sourcing, marketing,
   than in other comparable sectors of the         installing, operating, maintaining, and
   economy and incommensurate with the             servicing renewable energy equipment
   scale of the task at hand. We reaffirm the      and in the sharing of best practices.
   importance of investments in research,
   development and deployment (RD & D)          10.While there is no shortage of capital
   and of international cooperation in RD &        in the world, the challenge has always
   D for more cost-effective and advanced          been how to scale up private investment
   energy technologies.                            in clean energy in developing countries.
                                                   Public funds are instrumental in
8. It is only by significant scaling-up of         leveraging and incentivising large-
   renewable energy that we will enter             scale private investment in developing
   the virtuous cycle of cost-reductions           countries    through,     for   example,
   followed by more significant scaling-           guarantees, risk sharing, buying down
   up. We recognise that increasing the            interest, etc. The provision of fast-start
   use of renewable energy faces several           funding in the Copenhagen Accord,
   challenges but consistent and sustained         as well as existing multi-lateral and
   government policies can and do have             national funds, could catalyse much
   a favorable impact on technology                larger private flows for clean energy in
   deployment. Supportive frameworks,              developing countries. Some of these
   procurement policies, a level playing           resources should also be provided for
   field, providing access to affordable           improving access to modern energy
   long-term finance, all will help increase       services in rural areas of the developing
   the uptake of renewable energy.                 world.
   The integration and mainstreaming
   of renewable energy into national            11.We welcome the Delhi International
   sustainable development strategies              Action Programme that encourages
   for poverty reduction, agriculture,             governments, international organi-
   education, health and family welfare,           sations, private companies, industry
   will further provide more opportunities         associations,    and     civil society
   for scaling-up.                                 organisations to take voluntary action
                                                   for   up-scaling   renewable   energy
9. We welcome and urge cooperative                 within their jurisdictions or spheres
   global action to strengthen human and           of responsibility. We request the
   institutional capacities in developing          Government of India to present an
   countries. Long-term strategies for             update of these voluntary actions
   capacity building are required for policy       at the next International Renewable
   analysis and technology assessment,             Energy Conference to be hosted by the
   supporting development of technologies          Government of Abu Dhabi, UAE.


                                                                                         ChapteR 8
                                                                     A Catalyst for Sustainable Habitats
                                                                                         Closing Plenary
                                                                    Delegates on dais during the Closing Plenary

       Mr. Sultan Ahmed Al Jaber, Assistant Minister,       Action Programme, a call for pledges which ran
       Ministry of Foreign Affairs, United Arab Emirates    throughout the conference. She announced that
       (UAE), invited participants to the next IREC         30 pledges had come in with seven coming from
       conference to take place in Abu Dhabi, UAE in        National Governments and stated that most
       2013. He noted that the meeting will provide         pledges came in the areas of target-based measures,
       an opportunity to continue collaboration on          followed by rural energy, communication/
       renewable energy and stressed that the world         awareness raising and deployment. As an
       does not have the luxury of choosing between         incentive to make progress on the pledges,
       environmental protection and economic growth.        REN21 will be offering awards to those who reach
       “We have to be champions for both,” he said.         their milestones by the next IREC.

       Ms. Virginia Sonntag-O’Brien, REN21, reported        Closing the conference, Mr. Deepak Gupta,
       on the results of REN21’s Delhi International        Secretary, Ministry of New and Renewable

        As they said it:
        ™ “Addressing gender inequality and access to energy are critical to reducing poverty”.
        Mr. Suresh Prabhu, Chairman, Council for Energy, Environment and Water, India
        ™ “Countries must learn from one another’s policy successes in order to design the energy grids
          of the future, which will require policy as well as technological innovation.
        Dr. Eric Martinot, Senior Research Director, Institute for Sustainable Energy Policies
        ™ “Long, loud and legal policies are needed to encourage financiers to invest more heavily in
          renewables. Policy frameworks cannot only be supportive but must be investment grade.”
        Mr. Eric Usher, Manager, Seed Capital Programmes, UNEP
        ™ “We need to work together to have a better world….if we don’t save this world, we won’t be
          able to have another world.”
        Dr. Farooq Abdullah, Union Minister for New and Renewable Energy, Government of India.

     DiREC 2010 REpoRt
76   Road Map for Up Scaling and Mainstreaming Renewables
Energy, India, expressed his appreciation of the   biomass based technology. DIREC 2010 Expo
interest shown by the delegates and pointed out    with 525 exhibitors and 15 country pavilions
the interest shown by large number of students,    facilitated interaction between the experts and
which he saw as promise for the future.            practitioners in the field of renewable energy
A number of official side events and parallel
events were also held during DIREC 2010. Some      Globally, some 1.5 billion people lack access to
of these were on CDM projects in renewable         electricity. In India, itself 40% of the population
energy: Issues and Presentation, BEE: National     lacks access. Renewable energy can provide
Mission on Enhanced Energy Efficiency, UNDP        the means to provide this access. DIREC 2010
ACE project on cook stoves, Wind energy,           provided an opportunity to the participating
Solar Water Heating systems, National funding      countries and organisations to showcase policy
institutions promoting renewable energy:           initiatives and best practices in facilitating the
best practices and future, commercially viable     rapid scale up of renewable energy.

                                                                                              ChaptER 8
                                                                          A Catalyst for Sustainable Habitats
                                                                                              Closing Plenary
DIAP Pledge Summary

                                                     Cookstoves Initiative; the installation of 1180
Ren21 Secretariat                                    water pumping windmills and 608kW cumulative
The Renewable Energy Policy Network for the          capacity of wind-solar hybrid systems by
21st Century (REN21), provides a policy forum        2013; on-grid and off-grid biomass and biogas
for international leadership seeking to accelerate   applications; target of 200 MW of off-grid solar
deployment of renewable energies worldwide           installations by 2013 for hot water and lighting
and proved to be an ideal international partner      in rural areas; and decentralised bioenergy
for the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy,        applications for rural areas.
Government of India.
                                                     Germany submitted 4 pledges based on the
32 pledges have been submitted in total and          new German Energy Concept, the International
new pledges continue to be made. In fact, more       Climate Initiative (ICI), the national Development
pledges are expected until the end of the year       Plan on Electro mobility and the bilateral program
(December 2010)! Governments, industry and           for development cooperation on renewable
non-profit stakeholders can still showcase their     energy (RE) and energy efficiency (EE). In detail,
leadership and join the front-runners who have       Germany pledged to increase the share of gross
already pledged their commitments.                   final energy consumption in Germany to 18% in
                                                     2020, incrementally increasing each decade to
During DIREC 2010, strong pledges were               60% by 2050. In conjunction with the national
announced by the Government of India (6),            plan on electro mobility, pledges were also
Germany (4), Norway (2), and Switzerland             made on the integration of Germany’s electricity
(1). Local Governments in Japan lead the way         grid into the European grid network as well as
with pledges from the government of Tokyo            electric vehicle and transportation deployment.
(1) and Yokohama (1). Ten pledges were made          Germany also committed to a 300 billion euro
by the private sector representing India (9),        contribution annually (from 2010 to 2012) for
Bangladesh (1) and Nigeria (1). Seven pledges        capacity building and development cooperation
were submitted by NGO’s representing India,          on RE and EE in developing countries.
Canada, Europe and West Africa.
                                                     Norway submitted 2 pledges targeting policy
India submitted 6 pledges to promote renewable       development and financing. Norway committed
energy technology financing, development             to double for the promotion of clean energy in
and deployment for grid and off grid power           developing countries from NOK 800million to
generation in rural areas. This included the         1.6billion by 2011. Domestically, Norway also
creation of a global competition to develop and      pledged to reach its new national combined target
deploy affordable, efficient and clean cookstove     for renewable energy and energy efficiency of 30
technologies as part of India’s National Biomass     twh increased annual production from 2001-2016

                                                                                Diap plEDgE summaRy               79
                                                                            A Catalyst for Sustainable Habitats
                                                           (D  IAP)
                                        al A ction
                              tern ation llow Up
                   De  lhi In           Fo
                                                  up                 !
                                           follow          en tation
                                te  s DIAP         im plem          rough
                       ina                    dge                n th
                c oord             100 % ple          men  tatio
     RE N21           – ac hieve             ei mple                           ers
              C TIVE             ATE  pledg           en
                                                         tatio edge mak
         OBJE              CILIT                plem ween pl
                    ill FA                or im         et
            N  21 w               E EDs f        orm b ISTENCE                    c.)
                        ent of N       GE p latf       ASS            g to ols et
             As sessm f EXCHAN technical                    on itorin
                    ion o            ISE/           n ars, m
              Creat o EXPERT ent (webi
                    ss t              m
               Acce y Develop
                Capa                             12                                 es
                                      IR EC 20 le                      s of pledg
                            R D at            e ligib          r ogres
                    AWA il end 2010 entation p
             DIAP es unt                  imple
                                                 m                   E!
                 Pled  g
                               ase  d on                    P LEDG
                         ted b                    in ue to

     DiREC 2010 REpoRt
80   Road Map for Up Scaling and Mainstreaming Renewables
and to allocate NOK 1.85 billion (USD 310billion)   (Canadian Renewable Energy Alliance), West
to RE and EE in 2011.                               Africa (ECOWAS Center for Renewable Energy
                                                    and Energy Efficiency) and Europe (European
Switzerland pledged to continue the strengthening   Renewable Energy Council).
of their FIT law. The new FIT law, effective in
2009, increases the overall money for FITs 12       As REN21 continues to follow up and document
fold against the previous FIT. Qualified projects   the pledges in an ongoing dialog with the program
will receive approximately CHF 260 Mio as they      partners, successful results will be highlighted, and
come on line.                                       active cooperation will be encouraged. REN21 will
                                                    keep track and report on progress made on the
Japan local governments took the lead submitting    pledges at the next International Renewable Energy
two pledges. Tokyo pledged to increase the          Conference which is scheduled to take place in Abu
use of renewable energy through the Tokyo           Dhabi in 2013. REN21 will also track the progress
Metropolitan Government Cap and Trade program       made on the four themes that were addressed
and cooperation among regions. Yokohama             at DIREC: technology and infrastructure, policy,
pledged to increase the use of renewable energy     finance, energy access and MDGs. It will further
10-fold by 2025 in comparison to a 2004 baseline    help MNRE to design the DIREC International
through public private partnership.                 Action Programme award programme.

Non Profit: Pledges made by non-profit              MNRE sincerely thanks all those who contributed
organisations represented India (such as the        to, and will continue to contribute to, the successful
Indian Institute of Technology, World Vision        implementation of the Delhi International Action
India, Himalayan Water Service), Canada             Program.

                                                                                 Diap plEDgE summaRy         81
                                                                                                         Programme Structure
                                                                                                                                                  DAY 1 - 27 October 2010
                                                                                                                                                       MAIN EVENT MORNING SESSION
                                                                             Timing                    Parallel Workshops                                                                                                    Parallel Workshops
                                                                                                                                                                 (Room: Ganga)

                                                       DiREC 2010 REpoRt
                                                                           08h00-09h00                                                        Registration
                                                                           09h00-09h10                                                        Welcome and introduction by the Chair (Room: Ganga)
                                                                           09h10-09h50                                                        Journey from Johannesburg to Delhi (Room: Ganga)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Aide Memoire

                                                                                                                                              Upscaling & Mainstreaming Renewables for
                                                                           09h50-10h00                                                        Energy Security, Climate Change and Economic
                                                                                                                                              Development (Room: Ganga)
                                                                           10h00-10h30                                                        Road to Cancun (Room: Ganga)
                                                                                                                                                                                                   MNRE and           WINROCK &
                                                                           10h30-11h00                                                                            Tea Break                        Swedish Embassy,   UNDP ACE
                                                                                                       MNRE -C-WET,         MIRABILIS
                                                                                                                                                                                                   SIDA, Swedish      Project, SDC
                                                                                                       GWEC and             ADVISORY,                                                                                                                       IREDA &
                                                                                                                                                                                                   Energy Agency:     & MNRE:
                                                                                       INTPOW &        IWTMA: Wind          TERI, BEE &       Green Economy and Role of Renewables (Room:                                                                   KFW: National
                                                                           11h00-11h30                                                                                                             Bio-methanation:   Renewable
                                                                                       Norwegian       Energy: Leap         MNRE: Strategy    Ganga)                                                                                                        Funding
                                                                                                                                                                                                   Upscaling          Energy for Rural

Road Map for Up Scaling and Mainstreaming Renewables
                                                                                       Embassy:        Frogging to a New    for Sustainable                                                                                                                 Institutions
                                                                                                                                              Vision 2020: Role of Renewables for energy security, challenges and     Empowerment
                                                                                                       Era (Room: Kosi)     Habitats                                                                                                                        Promoting
                                                                           11h30-12h30 Enabling                                               climate change, and economic development             opportunities      (Room:
                                                                                       Renewable                            (Room: Jhelum)                                                                                                                  Renewable
                                                                                                                                              (Room: Ganga)                                        (Room: Shipra)     Mahanadi)
                                                                                       Energy                                                                                                                                                               Energy - Best
                                                                                       Generation in                        ACORE:                            Swiss Govt.:                                            US NREL:                              practices
                                                                                                       IHA, Govt. of                                                              GBEP & FAO:
                                                                                       India (Room:                         Expanding                         Renewable Energy                                        International                         and future
                                                                                                       Iceland & MNRE:                                                            Contributing
                                                                           12h30-14h00 Sutlej)                              Transmission:                     Policy, R&D,                                            Support for                           perspectives
                                                                                                       New Approaches                                                             to scale up
                                                                           Lunch/Side                                       Efforts in                        Technologies,                                           Clean Energy                          (Room: Yamuna)
                                                                                                       to Hydropower                                                              sustainable bio-
                                                                           Event                                            the U.S. and                      Applications and                                        Development
                                                                                                       Development                                                                energy (Room:
                                                                                                                            India (Room:                      Projects (Room:                                         Plans (Room:
                                                                                                       (Room: Kosi)                                                               Krishna)
                                                                                                                            Jhelum)                           Narmada)                                                Mahanadi)
                                                                                                                       ICLEI,                 AFTERNOON SESSION (Parallel Sessions and Joint
                                                                                                                                              Session)                                                                WINROCK &
                                                                                                                                              Session I                                                               UNDP ACE
                                                                                                      MNRE, C-WET,     ADVISORY,                              Session II Multi-                                                           NEDO, MNRE,
                                                                           14h00-16h00                                                        Ministerial                         Session III CEO                     Project, SDC
                                                                                                      GWEC and         TERI, BEE                              stakeholder                                                                     ,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          MoP JSCA,
                                                                                                                                              Discussion                          Roundtable                          & MNRE:
                                                                                                      IWTMA: Wind      & MNRE:                                Discussion                                                                  METI: Smart
                                                                                                                                              (Room:                              (Room: Krishna) MNRE and            Renewable
                                                                                                      Energy: Leap     Strategy for                           (Room: Narmada)                                                             Grid Technology
                                                                                                                                              Yamuna)                                              Swedish            Energy for Rural
                                                                                       UNDP Project, Frogging to a New Sustainable                                                                                                        Seminar (Room:
                                                                                       MNRE and                                                                                                    Embassy, SIDA,     Empowerment
                                                                           16h00-16h30                Era (Room: Kosi) Habitats                                     Tea Break                                                             Godavari)
                                                                                       REEEP: Solar                                                                                                Swedish Energy     (Room:
                                                                                                                       (Room:                 Joint Ministerial - Multi-stakeholder - CEO
                                                                           16h30-17h00 Water Heating                                                                                               Agency: Bio-       Mahanadi)
                                                                                                                       Jhelum)                STRAIGHT TALK (Room: Ganga)
                                                                                       Systems                                                                                                     methanation:
                                                                                       -Global                                                IRENA &                             EPIA &           Upscaling          Embassy of
                                                                                       Perspectives                    BMU: Green             REEEP:                              Greenpeace       challenges and     Belgium &
                                                                                       (Room: Sutlej)                  jobs, higher           Access to       REEEP & ESMAP: International:        opportunities      EU: Matching
                                                                                                      IREA- Renewables
                                                                                                                       energy                 Energy from Widening access Solar Generation (Room: Shipra)             EU Policy
                                                                           17h00-18h30                Working Together
                                                                                                                       security, GHG          Renewables to low carbon            - A Global                          and Practical
                                                                           Side Event                 Worldwide
                                                                                                                       mitigation             in Small        energy (Room:       Photovoltaic                        Experience with
                                                                                                      (Room: Kosi)
                                                                                                                       (Room:                 Islands         Narmada)            Market Outlook                      India’s Potential
                                                                                                                       Jhelum)                (Room:                              until 2050                          (Room:
                                                                                                                                              Yamuna)                             (Room: Krishna)                     Mahanadi)
                                                                           18h30-20h00 Networking Reception (Room: Ganga)
                                                                                      DAY 2 - 28 October 2010

                 Timing                                                                                                                                                    Parallel Workshops

               08h45-09h00                                            Stage Setting for Each Track by Track Chair

                             TRACK 1 - TECHNOLOGY AND                                                                           TRACK 4 - RENEWABLES
                                                                  TRACK 2- POLICY                  TRACK 3 –FINANCE
                                 INFRASTRUCTURE                                                                                   ACCESS AND MDGs
                                                                                                                                                             CII, MNRE, Indo-                     ,
                                                                                                                                                                                      TERI, REEEP ADB:
               09h00-10h30                                                                                                                                   Brazil Chamber           Promoting Rural
                                                                                              Financing innovation -
                             Power Technology and          RE Scenarios (Room:                                                Renewable, Access & MDG        of Commerce: 3rd         Entrepreneurship for
                                                                                              projects, businesses and
                             Infrastructure (Room: Yamuna) Narmada)                                                           (Room: Sutlej)                 International Biofuels   Enhancing Access to
                                                                                              technologies (Room: Krishna)
                                                                                                                                                             India 2010 (Room:        Clean Lighting Options
                                                                                                                                                             Kosi)                    (Room: Jhelum)
               10h30-11h00                                                             Tea Break

                             Heating and Cooling            Supporting Policies I (on-grid)   Financing deployment at scale Capacity Building (Room:
                             Technologies (Room: Yamuna)    (Room: Narmada)                   (Room: Krishna)               Sutlej)

                                                                                                                                                             UNEP: Considerations,
                                                                                                                            Norwegian Embassy & IREDA:                                WBA: Possibilities to
               12h30-14h00                                  EREC: Renewable Energy                                                                           policies and
                           WWEA: Wind Power                                                   Afganistan Govt.: Afghanistan Mini-grids for remote village                             increase the supply of
               Lunch                                        scenarios as guidance                                                                            measures to promote
                           Worldwide – Status, Prospects,                                     Rural Renewable Energy        electrification and income                                sustainable Biomass
               Break/Side                                   for policy maker (Room:                                                                          sustainable bio-energy
                           Drivers (Room: Yamuna)                                             Development (Room: Krishna) generation activities (Room:                                for Energy (Room:
               Event                                        Narmada)                                                                                         development (Room:
                                                                                                                            Sutlej)                                                   Jhelum)

                                                                                              Financing for small businesses
                                                            Supporting Policies II (off-grid)                                Empowering Women (Room:
               14h00-15h30 Buildings (Room: Yamuna)                                           and end-users (Room:
                                                            (Room: Narmada)                                                  Sutlej)                         CII, MNRE, Indo-
                                                                                                                                                             Brazil Chamber
                                                                                                                                                             of Commerce: 3rd
               15h30-16h00                                                             Tea Break
                                                                                                                                                             International Biofuels
                                                                                                                                                             India 2010 (Room:
                                                                                              Initiatives to catalyse and scale                              Kosi)
                                                            State and Local Governments                                         Renewables in India (Room:
               16h00-17h30 Transport (Room: Yamuna)                                           up investment in renewable
                                                            (Room: Narmada)                                                     Sutlej)
                                                                                              energy (Room: Krishna)

                                                            Enviro Legal Defence Firm                                                                                                 IEA-RETD & IRENA:
                           Scottish Development                                                                                                              ACORE & USDOC:
                                                            & Heinrich Böll Foundation:    BMZ: South-South-                                                                          The Role of Renewable
               17h30-19h00 International: Grid connectivity                                                                                                  Innovation in
                                                            Towards RE Law: locally        Cooperation for Capacity    MNRE: JNNSM (Room: Sutlej)                                     Energy in Tomorrow’s
               Side Events in Remote Locations (Room:                                                                                                        Renewable Energy
                                                            adaptible globally competetive Development (Room: Krishna)                                                                Energy Systems
                           Yamuna)                                                                                                                           Finance (Room: Kosi)
                                                            (Room: Narmada)                                                                                                           (Room: Jhelum)

               18h30-20h00 Networking Reception (Room: Ganga)

aiDE mEmoiRE
                                                                                                                                                DAY 3 - 29 October 2010

                                                                             Timing                                                 Main Plenary Hall (Ganga)                                                        Parallel Workshops

                                                                           09h00-10h30 Plenary: Report key findings from all sessions (Room: Ganga)                                                MNRE, IIT Bombay, FAST,
                                                                                                                                                                                                   Spain, World Bank C-Step,
                                                                           10h30-11h00                                                      Tea Break                                                                            MNRE and SESI: Solar
                                                                                                                                                                                                   GTZ and IFC: Concentrated
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Photo-voltaic (Room:

                                                       DiREC 2010 REpoRt
                                                                           11h00-12h00 High level segment/Political Declaration or Plan of Action (Room: Ganga)                                    Solar Power; A potent
                                                                                                                                                                                                   option for Grid Power
                                                                           12h00-12h30 Closing remarks (Room: Ganga)                                                                               (Room: Kosi)

                                                                                                                                                                                                   CIIE: Addressing barriers
                                                                                                                                                                        MNRE: CDM projects in
                                                                           12h30-14h00                               BEE: National Mission on                                                      for equity investment and
                                                                                                                                                                        Renewable Energy: Issues
                                                                           Lunch/Side Vasudha Foundation,            Enhanced Energy Efficiency                                                    raising risk capital for
                                                                                                                                                                        and Perspective (Room:
                                                                           Event       Heinrich Böll Foundation,     (Room: Narmada)                                                               grid-connected solar energy
                                                                                       and BMZ: Low carbon                                        UNDP ACE: Cookstove                              (Room: Kosi)
                                                                                       options ensuring energy                                    (Room: Krishna)
                                                                                       security for India (Room:
                                                                                                                                                                                                   MNRE, IIT Bombay, FAST,
                                                                           14h00-15h30 Yamuna)                                                                                                     Spain, World Bank C-Step,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 MNRE and SESI: Solar
                                                                                                                                                                                                   GTZ and IFC: Concentrated
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Photo-voltaic (Room:
                                                                                                                                                                                                   Solar Power; A potent

Road Map for Up Scaling and Mainstreaming Renewables
                                                                           15h30-16h00                                                      Tea Break                                              option for Grid Power
                                                                                                                                                                                                   (Room: Kosi)
Parallel Workshops

      arallel Workshops were held alongside the ministerial conference at the same venue. These
      were half and full-day events, which aimed at enhancing participants’ capacities and knowledge
      across DIREC’s thematic areas. These events provided a unique opportunity to the world
community to discuss the challenges of a rapid global scale-up of renewable energy, and to address
the goals of energy security, climate change, and sustainable development.

      Parallel Workshops of DIREC 2010 during 27th to 29th October, 2010
 No.               Central Theme of the Event                            Organisation/Entity

  1     Solar Water Heating Systems: Global Perspectives   UNDP Project, MNRE and REEEP

 2.     Wind Energy: Leap Frogging to a New Era            MNRE -C-WET, GWEC and IWTMA

 3.     Strategy for Sustainable Habitats                  ICLEI, MIRABILIS ADVISORY, TERI, BEE & MNRE

  4     Bio-methanation: Upscaling challenges and          MNRE and Swedish Embassy, SIDA, Swedish
        opportunities                                      Energy Agency

 5.     Renewable Energy for Rural Empowerment             WINROCK & UNDP ACE Project, SDC & MNRE

 6.     Smart Grid Technology Semina                       NEDO, MNRE, MoP, JSCA, METI

 7.     National Funding Institutions Promoting            KfW Development Bank
        Renewable Energy – Best Practices and Future
 8.     3rd International Biofuels India 2010              CII, MNRE, Indo-Brazil Chamber of Commerce

 9.     Promoting Rural Entrepreneurship for Enhancing     TERI, REEEP, ADB
        Access to Clean Lighting Option
 10.    Concentrated Solar Power; A potent option for      MNRE, IIT Bombay, FAST, Spain, World Bank
        Grid Powe                                          C-Step, GTZ and IFC

 11.    Solar Photovoltaic Power, Technology and           MNRE and SESI

                                                                                                aiDE mEmoiRE          85
                                                                                A Catalyst for Sustainable Habitats
       Side Events

            ide Events provided DIREC participants with an opportunity to delve deeper into the issues
            addressed at the conference from a policy, rather than purely a technical or business perspective.
            29 side events were held by Governmental, Intergovernmental and Non-Governmental

                 Side Events of DIREC 2010 during 27th to 29th October, 2010
        No.                 Title of the Side Event                             Name of Organisation
         1.   Enabling Renewable Energy Generation in India         INTPOW & Norwegian Embassy
         2.   Expanding Transmission: Efforts in U.S. and India     The American Council On Renewable Energy
         3.   Renewable Energy Policy, R&D, Technologies,           Swiss Federal Office of Energy, Swiss Government
              Applications and Projects, including in Emerging
              and Developing Countries
         4.   Contributing to scale up sustainable bio-energy       Global Bio-Energy Partnership (GBEP) and Food
                                                                    and Agriculture Organisation (FAO)
         5.   International Support for Clean Energy                US National Renewable Energy Laboratory
              Development Plans
         6.   New Approaches to Hydropower Development              International Hydropower Association
         7.   Renewables Working Together Worldwide                 International Renewable Energy Alliance (IREA)
         8.   Green jobs, higher energy security, GHG               German Federal Ministry, Economic Cooperation
              mitigation                                            and Development Division
         9.   Access to Energy from Renewables in small             IRENA and REEEP
        10.   Widening access to low carbon energy                  REEEP & ESMAP
        11.   Solar Generation - A Global Photovoltaic Market       European Photovoltaic Industry Association (EPIA)
              Outlook until 2050                                    & Greenpeace International
        12.   Matching EU Policy and Practical Experience with      Embassy of Belgium and The Delegation of the
              India’s Potential                                     European Union
        13.   Wind Power Worldwide – Status, Prospects,             World Wind Energy Association (WWEA)
        14.   Renewable Energy scenarios as guidance for policy European Renewable Energy Council (EREC)
        15.   Afghanistan Rural Renewable Energy Development Ministry of Energy and Water, Afghanistan
        16.   Mini-grids for remote village electrification and     Royal Norwegian Embassy and Indian Renewable
              income generation activities                          Energy Development Agency Ltd (IREDA)
        17.   Possibilities to increase the supply of sustainable   World Bio-Energy Association (WBA)
              Biomass for Energy

     DiREC 2010 REpoRt
86   Road Map for Up Scaling and Mainstreaming Renewables
        Side Events of DIREC 2010 during 27th to 29th October, 2010
No.               Title of the Side Event                            Name of Organisation
18.   Considerations, policies and measures to promote   United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)
      sustainable bio-energy development
19.   Grid connectivity in Remote Locations              Scottish Development International
20.   Renewable Energy Law                               Environment Law and Development Foundation
                                                         (ELDF) and Henri Boll Foundation
21.   BMZ: South-South-Cooperation for Capacity          German Federal Ministry BMZ
22.   Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission            Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE)
23.   Innovation in Renewable Energy Finance             American Council on Renewable Energy (ACORE),
                                                         US Department of Commerce (USDOC)
24.   The Role of Renewable Energy in Tomorrow’s         IEA, RETD and IRENA
      Energy Systems
25.   National Mission on Enhanced Energy Efficiency     Bureau of energy efficiency (BEE)
26.   UNDP ACE: Cookstove                                UNDP
27.   CDM projects in the RE, issues, perspective in Indian Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE)
28.   Addressing barriers for equity investment          Centre for Innovation Incubation and
                                                         Entrepreneurship (CIIE), IIM Ahmadabad
29.   Low carbon options ensuring energy security for    Vasudha Foundation, Heinrich Boll Foundation,
      India                                              and BM

                                                                                               aiDE mEmoiRE          87
                                                                               A Catalyst for Sustainable Habitats

     DiREC 2010 REpoRt
88   Road Map for Up Scaling and Mainstreaming Renewables
                                 Photographs Courtesy
International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD)
                                      & Mutual PR Agency

                                           Cover Design
                                          Karmic Designs
                      Ministry of New and Renewable Energy
                      Block-14, CGO Complex
                      Lodhi Road, New Delhi-110 003, INDIA
                      Telephone: 91-11-24361298, 24360404 & 24360707
                      Fax: 91-11-24361298
Government of India   Website:,