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Evaluation Report 2004

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					                                 TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION………………………………………………………………………… 3

CHAPTER 1

        WORLD TRENDS IN DRUGS PRODUCTION, TRAFFICKING AND USE

       1.1.    General overview…………………………..……………………            6
       1.2.    Drug production………………………………………………               6
               1.2.1. Opium poppy……………………………………………             6
               1.2.2. Coca and cocaine………………………………………          7
               1.2.3. Cannabis …………………………………………………             8
               1.2.4. Amphetamine type stimulants…………………………    8
       1.3.    Drug trafficking……………………………………………………            9
               1.3.1. Opiates……………………………………………………              9
               1.3.2. Cocaine…………………………………………………               10
               1.3.3. Cannabis…………………………………………………              10
               1.3.4. Amphetamine type stimulants…………………………    11
       1.4.    Drug use…………………………………………………………                  12
               1.4.1. Heroin……………………………………………………               12
               1.4.2. Cocaine………………………………………………………             13
               1.4.3. Cannabis……………………………………………………             13
               1.4.4. Amphetamine type stimulants………………………………… 14
       1.5.    Conclusions………………………………………………………… 15

CHAPTER 2
                      DRUG DEMAND REDUCTION IN ROMANIA

       2.1. General overview…………………………………………………                             16
       2.2. The dynamics of drug demand……………………………………                       17
               2.2.1. General data on Romanian population……………………… 17
               2.2.2. Alcohol and tobacco use…………………………………                  18
               2.2.3. The dynamics of the assisted drug users in Romania ……… 20
               2.2.4. HIV/AIDS incidence among injecting drug users…………… 25
               2.2.5. Drug use estimates in Romania……………………………               28
               2.2.6. Dug users in the penitentiary system………………………          28
               2.2.7. Drug related mortality………………………………………… 29
       2.3. The implementation of the National Anti-drug Strategy 2003-2004 in the
       field of drug demand reduction……………………………………………                        30
       2.4. Conclusions……………………………………………………………                                47

CHAPTER 3
                              DRUG SUPPLY REDUCTION

3.1. General overview………………………………………………………………                                        49
3.2. Trends in drug related crimes……………………………………………                                  50
        3.2.1. Drug related crime in the territory……………………………………                     52
        3.2.2. Drug offenders identified and investigated by the police for crimes under
the law no.143/2002 on countering illicit drug trafficking and use………………             53
        3.2.3. Caught-in-the act drug offenders……………………………………                        53


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         3.2.4. Investigated drug offenders………………………………………………… 55
         3.2.5. Penal cases conducted by the Prosecutor`s Office……………………… 57
         3.2.6. Drug offenders investigated and prosecuted by the Prosecutor`s Office..59
         3.2.7. Drug convicts………………………………………………………………… 60
         3.2.8. Sentenced drug convicts………………………………………………………60
         3.2.9. Drug and precursor seizures………………………………………………….61
3.3. Modus operandi in illicit drug trafficking………………………………………… 79
3.4. Trends in illicit drug trafficking and use ……………………………………………70
3.5. The implementation of the National Anti-drug Strategy in the field of drug
supply reduction………………………………………………………………………………71
         3.5.1. Institutional development of the structures specialized in drug supply
reduction…………………………………………………………………………………………71
         3.5.2. The accomplishment of the objectives of the National Anti-drug Strategy
in the field of drug supply reduction ………………………………………………………….74
         3.5.3. Conclusions…………………………………………………………………… 78

CHAPTER 4
                              INTERNATIONAL ACTIVITY

       4.1. General overview……………………………………………………………… 79
       4.2. International cooperation acitivities accomplished by the institutions
involved in fighting drugs………………………………………………………………… 80
       4.3. The implementation of the National Anti-drug Strategy 2003-2004… 83
       4.4. Conclusions…………………………………………………………………                                   85

CHAPTER 5

   THE ROLE OF THE NATIONAL ANTI-DRUG AGENCY IN IMPLEMENTING THE
               NATIONAL ANTI-DRUG STRATEGY 2003-2004

       5.1. Institutional enforcement…………………………………………………… 86
       5.2. The coordination of the implementation of the National Anti-drug
Strategy and result assessment……………………………………………………….. 88
               5.2.1. In drug demand reduction………………………………………….. 89
               5.2.2. In drug supply reduction……………………………………………..92
               5.2.3. In international cooperation………………………………………… 94
               5.2.4. The Romanian Center for Drugs and Drugs Addiction………   96

CHAPTER 6

                          CONCLUSIONS AND MEASURES

       6.1. Conclusions………………………………………………………………….....98
              6.1.1. On drug demand reduction in Romania……………………………98
              6.1.2. On drug supply reduction in Romania…………………………… 99
              6.1.3 On international cooperation………………………………………..100
              6.1.4 On financial resources ……………………………………………...100
       6.2. Measures ……………………………………………………………………… 100

APPENDIX 1 (enclosed)



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                                     INTRODUCTION


         In the context of the expanding international networks of organized crime, the
amplification of drug trafficking and drug abuse led to new forms of solidarity and
cooperation between all institutions involved in the fight against drugs.
         In compliance with the overall focus of the international community on drug related
organized crime, the Romanian Government set countering illicit drug trafficking and abuse as
one of its national top priorities.
         This new approach translated into the establishment of the National Anti-drug
Agency. It coordinates unitarily all the activities achieved by qualified authorities involved in
reducing drugs demand and supply and in this process of coordination the National Anti-drug
Strategy 2003-2004 was by all means a necessary tool.
         According to chapter 5, indent 1, letter a and b of the Governmental Decision no. 1489
/ 2002 on the establishment of the National Anti-drug Agency, the institution examines how
the National Anti-drug Strategy and its Action Plan are applied and makes evaluations on the
implementation stages of these two acts. Up until now, the Agency performed two such
evaluations, one for the 1st half-year and another for the year 2003. Apart from analyzing the
implementation stages of the Strategy, the second assessment also includes the in-depth
description of the drugs phenomenon dynamics from1990 to 2003.
         After a presentation of the worldwide drug situation, the National Anti-drug Agency
analyzes in the report the implementation stages of the Strategy 2003 – 2004, the results
obtained in the field of reducing drugs demand and supply and makes proposals for adequate
measures and new approaches in the National Anti-drug Strategy 2005-2012.
         In Chapter 1, the main world trends in the production, trafficking and use of heroin,
cocaine, cannabis and amphetamine type stimulants are thoroughly presented. The analysis
emphasizes that the future developments of the world heroin, cocaine and cannabis market
depend on and is closely connected to the extent of opium poppy crops and production
(Afghanistan), coca cultivations (Colombia, Peru and Bolivia) and cannabis cultivations
(Maroc). These areas continue to be primary intervention areas of the international community.
         In Chapter 2, there is a close analysis of the drug demand reduction field consisting of:
 - the dynamics of the core indicators on the reduction of drugs demand and abuse;
 - estimates on the number of children and young adults abusing drugs, alcohol and tobacco;
 - measurements of drugs used by persons in risky situation;
 - the analysis of drug related risks.
     In order to evaluate the general and specific objectives of the demand reduction field,
 communication channels with specialized institutions were created, cooperation protocols
 were signed by different institutions while tasks and responsibilities were being assigned to
 their representatives.
     The analysis of the objectives accomplished by the institutions involved in the anti-drug
field showed that because of the lack of an accurate internal coordination of activities and of
resources in the medical system, the little progress made was mostly in the beginning stages of
drugs use and less in preventing relapses or drug addiction.



                                                                                                3
     The specific objectives in the field materialized to a certain degree once an adequate
medical network including all specific therapeutic structures was created and a therapeutic
circuit of the medical care and social reinsertion system was defined in order to support and
encourage social and work reinsertion of drug users and to ensure their access to harm
reduction programmes.
         Drug demand reduction was on a second plan within the drug reduction activities
because of the insufficient financial resources allocated to this field or redistributed to other
types of programmes.
        Chapter 3 refers to drug supply reduction and includes a presentation of the dynamics
of drug related crimes within 2001-2004 (the first nine months), revealing stricking growth.
        The activity of the institutions involved in countering illicit drug trafficking and
abuse – the Prosecutor’s Office, Police, Border Police and Customs – shows an increase of
sectorial actions within 2001-2004 while the results reveal a more resolute approach in drug
supply reduction. Despite all this, inconsistence is still present in the activity of these
institutions in the field of drug supply reduction and especially cooperation.
        Chapter 4 refers to the participation of the institutions involved in implementing the
National Anti-drug Strategy in the international cooperation on drugs, in developing contacts
with the European Union and programmes for the enforcement of the communitary policies.
        Chapter 5 is entirely dedicated to the presentation of the National Anti-drug Agency`s
activities in the field of institutional enforcement as well as in coordinating and evaluating
the implementation of the National Anti-drug Strategy 2003-2004.
        Throughout the phases of the institutional enforcement process the Agency didn`t need
a recommended “itinerary sheet” as it continuously sought support in fighting drugs from its
local and foreign partners in the shape of technical and financial assistance. This support was
meant to help the National Anti-drug Agency in coping with the new challenges of the drug
phenomenon and with the need to approach prevention and countering illicit drug trafficking
and abuse in an integrated and unitary manner.
        The institutional development of the National Anti-drug Agency and the activity
accomplished until now was positively appreciated by the international institutions
responsible with coordinating the fight against drugs.
        The evaluation report on the implementation of the National Anti-drug Strategy
2003-2004 studies in detail to what degree the activities outlined by the Strategy were
accomplished by different institutions, the data offered by specific indicators referring to drug
supply and demand reduction and the evaluation of the management of available resources.
        Our findings reflected that our professionals` intentions match the exepectations of our
foreign partners, but without governmental coordination stemmed from genuine political will,
the need for coordination could be ignored or perceived as a sign of bureaucracy enhanced by
European recommendations.
        Playing its active role as a national coordinator in the anti-drug field, the National
Anti-drug Agency made proposals for the improvement of the system for preventing and
countering illicit drug trafficking and abuse and set up the Programme the Great Romanian
Anti-drug Aliance. This programme is necessary in the establishment and implementation of
the Integrated National System for Preventing Drug Trafficking and Coutering Illicit Drug



                                                                                               4
Abuse and is a conceptual and action-driving instrument that could increase the efficiency of
the fight against drugs, with a view to Romania`s joining the European Union.
        Chapter 6 consists of the main conclusions of the drug phenomenon analysis and the
measures that should be taken in order to compensate the deficiencies and to improve the work
efficiency of all institutions involved in reducing drug demand and supply. All these measures
shall represent the starting point for the approach of the future National Anti-drug Strategy
2005-2012.
        Once the National Anti-drug Strategy 2005-2012 is adopted, the activity of the
Agency is expected to be marked by new efforts for an efficient coordination in the field of
drug use prevention and coutering illicit drug trafficking and use and by the strengthened
cooperation among all national and international institutions. All these efforts representing a
part of a new modern vision shall be made when all actions related to the reduction of drugs
demand and supply are integrated in a unitary frame.




                                                                                             5
CHAPTER 1


                       TRENDS IN WORLD DRUGS PRODUCTION,
                              TRAFFICKING AND USE*

1.1. General overview


     Considering the trends in world drugs trafficking, production and use, globalisation is
the core idea of the 2004 World Drugs Report, published recently by the United Nations
Office on Drugs and Crime.
      As the United Nations Report shows, the global character of drug production,
trafficking and use calls for a similar approach of drug control policies. To this end, the
globalisation of drug control policies is designed to work both on national and
international level. In 2003, member states of the United Nations Organization
emphasized the need to adopt a world strategy for drug control and to start initiatives
based on observable factors, on necessary estimations and data collection and analysis.

     On the other hand, globalisation of drug control policies at national level calls for the
participation of the whole society, not only the public institutions. Taking into account the
limitations of the programmes managed by specialized international bodies, the last
years` experience showed that interventions are far more efficient if certain „players” of
the civil society, such as non-guvernmental organizations, mass media, etc. are involved
in joint programmes and activities.

     Another important aspect emphasized by the 2004 World Report on Drugs is
connected to the necessity to improve the system of collecting and analyzing drug
related data as well as to promote a research programme on the structure, function and
growth of the drug market.
     The main reason is that only the acknowledgement of all aspects of the structure,
dynamics and inner mechanism of national, regional and worldwide drugs markets, can
make a valid support for future programmes, balanced interventions, allocating adequate
resources, and finaly, for more efficient drugs control strategies.

1.2. Drug production
1.2.1. Opium poppy

        Statistics show that at the beginning of the `90s opium poppy crops were
covering almost 270,000 hectares. At present the figure diminished by 40%. In 2003
only, the illicit opium poppy crops registered a drop of 6%, the estimated cultivated area
being of 169,000 hectares with a potential heroin production of about 480 tons.
        In the last decade of the 20th century, the territorial distribution of the opium
poppy crops experienced semnificant fluctuations shown, for example, by the
diminishing cultivated areas in South-east Africa while production areas expanded in
Afghanistan. In this respect, it should be mentioned that in 2003, more than 90% of the
opium poppy crops were concentrated on the territory of three countries: Afghanistan,
Myanmar and Laos.

        *The World Drugs Report for 2004 – United Nation Office on Drugs and Crime


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          Despite the diminishing global opium poppy cultivation the concentration of
opium cultivated areas in Afghanistan, with a high productivity of 45 kg of opium/ha (in
comparison with 13 kg of opium/ha in Southeast Asia), led to a global increase by 5% of
illicit productio of drugs. Thus, statistics show that 3,600 tons of opium produced in
Afghanistan in 2003 (the highest production registered for the second time in this
country) accounted for more than three quarters of the world`s illicit opium supply.




        Moreover, if in 2003 the opium production at the beginning of harvest time was
valued up to almost 1, 2 billion dollars, not less than 85% of it came from Afghanistan.
        In October 2003, a public poll carried aut by ONUDC and the Afghan government
revealed a worrisome aspect related to illicit opium poppy supply. It reflected the
intention of two thirds of the inquired farmers to expand the opium poppy crops while
only a third considered reducing them. Preliminary data showed that in 2004 also, the
crops in Afghanistan influenced the level of world illicit opium poppy supply.




1.2.2. Coca and cocaine


        Similarly to the trends of opium poppy crops, coca bush cultivations registered a
stable decrease during 1999-2003. In 2003, coca cultivations were estimated to spread
over 153,800 ha throughout Colombia, Peru and Bolivia, representing a decrease by
11% in relation to 2002, and 30% in comparison with 1999, the peak year for coca
production.
        In the field of territorial distribution there were no major changes, so that
cultivated areas registered almost the same apportion in 2003 as in 1996, i.e. 56% in
Colombia, 29% in Peru and 15% in Bolivia.
        The decrease of coca-cultivated areas can also be associated with a decrease of
world cocaine production, from almost 800 tons in 2002 to 655 t in 2003. In this respect,
the estimated Colombian cocaine production was of almost 440 tons in 2003 as
compared to the 580 tons in 2002.




                                                                                       7
               World coca bush cultivations,                 World cocaine production,
               1990-2003 (ha)                                1990-2003 (in tons)




1.2.3. Cannabis

        Cannabis still ranks as the world`s widest spread drug, in the context of the
stable increase up to 32,000 tons of the production estimates in 2002, partly because of
the specific features of the plant, which make it easily cultivated in almost every
geographic area. Moreover, USA authorities informed that two thirds of the total quantity
of cannabis grass is produced in domestic environment.
Although the main cannabis originating countries are Colombia and Paraguay, most of
the European states and practically every African state reported cannabis produced in
domestic environment.
        In Europe, one of the states most frequently mentioned as cannabis source is
Albania, providing for most countries in the Balkan and Holland - the major supplier for
western countries.
        The world production of cannabis resin was estimated to 7,400 tons, and Maroc
holds the first place in production, with a quantity of about 3,000 tons, and in seizures
too, considering that 80% of the total quantity of cannabis resin is seized in this country.

1.2.4. Amphetamine type stimulants


        In 2002, the world amphetamine and metamphetamine production was estimated
to almost 410 tons, while ecstasy production was appraised to 113 tons. According to
quantities, metamphetamine ranks first while ecstasy and amphetamine come next. The
annual production of amphetamine type stimulants is much higher than the heroin
production, but both are below the quantities reported for cocaine.
       Regarding territorial distribution, amphetamine and ecstasy production is the
highest in Europe, in states like Holland (thought to be the biggest producer), Belgium,
Poland, the Baltic states, United Kingdom and Germany, while „leadership” in the field of
metamphetamine production is claimed by Southeast Asian countries (Myanmar, China
and the Philippines included), USA and Mexico.
       This territorial distribution by categories of amphetamine type stimulents is
confirmed by the fact that in 2002, 97% of the clandestine laboratories for



                                                                                          8
metamphetamine and chemical precusors were discovered in USA, while most of the
amphetamine clandestine laboratories were discovered in Europe. The dicovery of
clandestine laboratories revealed a very interesting aspect related to a certain
amphetamine production movement from the west of Europe eastwards.


1.3. Drug trafficking1
1.3.1. Opiates


        In the context of the stable increase of the world`s opium poppy production, due
to the expanding cultivated areas and drug productivity per hectare in Afghanistan, in
2002, there was an increase of opiates seizures (heroin, morphine and opium expressed
in heroin equivalents) by 9%. The soaring world trend remained valid for the year 2003.
        Yet, statistics show a drop by 15% of heroin seizures on the account of the
proggressive reduction of huge stocks built in 1999-2000. In figures, the statistics for
opiates seizures match almost perfectly the potential for productivity of different areas,
so that most seizures (65%) were registered on the Asian continent, followed by Europe
with 28% and the American continents with 6%. By quantity, the biggest opiates seizures
were registered in Iran and Pakistan, representing 25% and, namely 16% of the total
world opiates seizures.
        The situation of heroin seizures is quite similar, as a third of the total seizures
was registered in countries neighbouring Afghanistan, stressing the fact that Central
Asian states are used as transit areas on the drugs` trafficking route from the producers
(the biggest in the drug field) to the users.




                   Opiates seizures (in heroin equivalents), 1980-2002




1
 World drug trafficking routes as well as drug money laundering centers are presented in APPENDIX
no.1



                                                                                                    9
1.3.2. Cocaine

        In the context of the diminishing cocaine production, cocaine seizures registered
a slight decrease in the last few years, being 10% lower in 2002 than in 1999, the peak
year for world cocaine production.
        Similarly to opiates, cocaine seizures match the areas with potential for
productivity, so that in 2002, 55% of the world cocaine seizure was registered in South
America (Central America and Caribbean included), 32% in North America and 13% in
Europe (of which 99% in Western Europe).
        The fact that seizures registered stable high levels in the last two years, in
Europe (13%), in comparison to only 6% in 1990 or 8% in 2000, could indicate an
increase of seizures in cocaine use areas, positively supported by policies for countering
drug trafficking.


                      World cocaine seizures 1980-2002 (in tons)




1.3.3. Cannabis

        Taking into account that cannabis products – grass, resin, oil, represent the most
frequently used drugs in the world, it can be stated that they are also most likely to be
involved in drug trafficking. This reality is confirmed by the fact that at global level, in
2002, the total seizure of cannabis products was of 5,800 tons of which more than 4,700
represent grass, more than 1,000 cannabis resin and almost a tone cannabis oil.
        The analysis of the last years shows two-fold higher figures of the total cannabis
seizure in 2002 in comparison to the last decade, thus confirming the continuously
increasing trend of cannabis seizures emerged in 1990.
        On the other hand, a similar comparison could reveal that cannabis products
seizures were 15 times higher than heroin seizures, but it should also be mentioned that
a drop in heroin seizures was observed in the same year.
        Regarding territorial distribution it should be stated that seizures match
production areas as America reported seizures of 55% of the total cannabis seizures,
Africa 20%, Europe 16%, Asia 9% and Australia less than 1%.


                                                                                         10
        Yet, statistics show that in 2002, cannabis seizures dropped in Australia and
Africa, while increasing in Asia, America and Europe.

                          Cannabis seizures, 1985-2002 (in tons)




1.3.4. Amphetamine type stimulents (ATS)




     2001 and 2002 were marked by a world drop in amphetamine type stimulants
seizures, mainly because, as specialists estimated, of the seizures of such substances
decreasing in China by 7% in 2002 in comparison to 2001. Despite all this in the last
decade, the ATS seizures were significantly higher than heroin or cocaine seizures.
       If during 1992-2002, the biggest amphetamine seizures were reported in China,
Thailand, USA, United Kingdom and Holland, in 2001 and 2002 the highest ATS
seizures were reported in Thailand and China. Of the total amount of ATS seizures, over
60% was metamphetamine seizures and almost 20% ecstasy.




                                                                                    11
1.4. Drug use
1.4.1. Heroin

        Data refering to heroin use in Western Europe countries showed a slight
decrease, after a time of relative stabilization.
        A significantly relevant indicator, which can be partly considered as a reason for
the diminishing heroin use, is drug related death, which registered during 2000-2002 a
decrease by 20%.
        The decrease of the injecting heroin use brought about a reduction of associated
risks, so that at European level only, the number of drug related HIV infections showed a
drop by 30%, during 2000-2002.
        Apart from all general aspects that could bring a shed of hope regarding heroin
use, recent data place the Russian Federation as the widest heroin market in Europe,
with a percent of about 1/3 heroin users out of 3-4 million drug users. Moreover, the
Russian Federation has one of the highest levels of drug related HIV infections in the
world.
        The same stabilizing and later decreasing tendency of heroin use, as well as
drug related risks, was observed in Asian states with well-established drug use. Thus,
after a long time of high levels of heroin use, states such as Pakistan and Thailand
registered in 2002 a slight decrease, except for India, where heroin use became more
stable.
        Contrary to the situation in most Asian countries, in 2002, China reported a
soaring trend of opiates use, as the number of drug users registered in 2002 and 2003
was 15 times higher than in the time interval 1990-2001.
        A somewhat similar situation was registered on the North American continent
when, after a period of constant increase, in 2002, the use of opiates stabilized.
        Entirely contrary to the the global situation, the use of opiates increased in states
such as South America, the Caribbeans and Central America (Argentine, Colombia,
Salvador and the Domincan Republic).




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1.4.2. Cocaine
       In correspondence with the world trends in drug use, the use of cocaine is
characterized in the same degree by relative stabilization and decrease.
       Thus, statistical data offered by national authorities emphasized that in 2002, the
use of cocaine stabilized in North America while the annual prevalence in USA was
2,5%, for the age group over 12. The same relative stabilization was observed on the
South American continent in states such as Mexico, Bolivia and Peru.
       Yet, the same data show that in the European space cocaine use decreased
continuously, though at a slower pace.
       On the other hand, cocaine use remains low in Asia, but certain increases were
noticed in South Asia and the Near East.

       Trends in cocaine use




Sources: Data from the questionnaries for the UNODC annual reports; the report of the UNODC
Regional Center in Bangkok; drug related epidemiologic trends in Asia (data supplied by
researches of the Asian Group for epidemiologic interurban activity); UNODC studies on domestic
life; International Report on the Drug Control Strategy – USA State Department ((Office on
Narcotics and International Law Enforcement, Issues), annual report of Bundeskriminalamt (BKA)
and other reports of police services; Epidemiologic Network of the Australian Africa Community
for Development on drug abuse; UNODC and Ministerio de Educcacion, Estudio Epidemiologico).


1.4.3. Cannabis

        Data regarding cannabis grass and oil production and trafficking showed that,
apart from the increase of cannabis supply, there was an increase of cannabis demand
in 2000-2002, following the slight decrease registered at the beginning of the `90s (1990-
1997) and the years of stabilization between 1997-2000.
        In 2002, the level of cannabis use in USA stabilized in comparison to the
previous year. In the same year, a study on the most important cannabis grass sources
revealed a drop in marijuana use in Mexico, following the increase noticed in the `90s.


                                                                                            13
Contrary to the stabilizing tendency in USA, cannabis use increased continuously in
South America, especially the Carribean, Central America, Western and Eastern
Europe, Africa and Asia (where the increase in higher).

                               Trends in Cannabis use




    Sources: data provided by questionnaries for the UNODC annual and national reports


1.4.4. Amphetamine type stimulants


        Amphetamine type stimulants were on an increasing trend, but the increase
registered in 2002 was less significant in comparison to the previous year. While high
increase was reported in China and Singapore, in 2002, East and Southeast Asian
countries reported a slight stabilization/decrease of the amphetamine and
metamphetamine use. One of the last years` most significant growths registered in
Thailand where the percentage of the patients taken into medical care for amphetamine
abuse increased from 2, 1% in 1995 to 50, 5% in 2001.
        However, in 2003 due to harsher approach of the metamphetamine trade, the
use of such substances decreased. After an important increase of metamphetamine
(especially amphetamine) use, in the year 1990, the global trend in Eastern Europe
stabilized within 2000-2002. In the following years, countries in Eastern Europe reported
– for the first time – stable levels for amphetamine use.
        World ecstasy use increased significantly in the last decade and seemed to grow
countinuously, although at a lower pace in comparison to 2001. Ecstasy continued to be
popular and widely spread in many developing countries. In many of the most important
ecstasy markets in Europe and North America, where massive increases were
registered in 1990, ecstasy use stabilized or dropped.




                                                                                         14
                               Trends in amphetamine use




Sources: Data from the questionnaries for the UNODC annual reports; the report of the UNODC
Regional Center in Bangkok; drug use related epidemiologic trends in Asia (Data supplied by
researches of the Asian Group for epidemiologic interurban activity); UNODC studies on domestic
life; International Report on the Drug Control Strategy – USA State Department ((Office on
Narcotics and International Law Enforcement, Issues), annual report of Bundeskriminalamt (BKA)
and other reports of police services;

1.5. Conclusions

       Taking into account trends in drugs production, trafficking and use the following
main ideas can be drown:
       •       World heroin market was stable in 2002, but there was a slight growth in
       2003, intensifying in 2004. The Afghan opium poppy crops that account for
       almost three thirds of the illicit world opium production will influence significantly
       the future world heroin market. In most of the states of the world, there is a
       decreasing or stabilizing tendency of heroin abuse.
       •      At global level, for the fourth year in a row, coca cultivations and cocaine
       production became either stable or decreased, and there are no indications of
       future notable changes. In Colombia, Peru and Bolivia, measures for reducing
       drug supply are continuously being taken. In spite of little insuccess, these
       measures seem to ensure the general decreasing trend of cultivations and
       production. The cocaine demand level is stable on every continent, exept for
       Europe, where a slight increase was noticed.
       •       Cannabis markets are flourishing. Cannabis use is increasing and the
       markets develop in South America, Western and Eastern Europe, as well as in
       Africa. In Great Britain, the largest cannabis market in Europe, cannabis use
       stabilized around the high figures registered in the last three years.




                                                                                            15
       •      Despite the expansion and dynamism of the amphetamine type
       stimulants market, some factors indicate a curve on the increasing axis,
       modifying the trend that characterized almost all market sectors in the past years.




CHAPTER 2



               DRUG DEMAND REDUCTION IN ROMANIA


2.1. General overview


        The drug phenomenon expanding at national level, the diversification of drug use
locations, the increase of illicit drug use and of the alcohol, tobacco and drug users in
the population, and, aspecially in the youth, represent serious issues the Romanian
society is dealing with.
The elements influencing the increase of drug use could be
- the flaws of the information and education systems;
- the sectorial control of the drug phenomenon;
- the low standard of living in vulnerable communities;
- the inappropriate solution to crises of the teenagers;
- the relatively limited experience of the authorities and of the society in dealing with
     the new phenomenon.
With such analysis as a starting point, the general objectives in the demand reduction
field are:
- drug use and abuse reduction in the population;
- the decrease of the number of children and young using drugs;
- decreasing drug use for persons at risk;
- reducing drug related risks;
- monitoring, analyzing and diagnozing the drug use phenomenon;
- tailoring legislation and institutional framework to the European Union`s provisions.

   Drug demand reduction also aims at drug addiction treatment and relapse
prevention, assuming the need for coordination of different assistance means and the
creation of a functional support network. In this field, the activities carried out within
2003-2004 were directed at ensuring medical and psycho-social care in a universal,
public, free of charge and specialized manner, at defining a therapeutic circuit of the
medical system of care and social reinsertion for drug users by creating a proper
medical network and at stimulating and supporting drug users social reinsertion.
   Because of inadequate financial resources, the specific means of prevention,
assistance and treatment in the qualified state institutions were insufficiently applied in
comparison to the escalation of drug use in Romania.



                                                                                        16
2.2. The dynamics of drug demand
2.2.1. General data on Romanian population

Starting with 1990, the Romanian population registered an important decrease, as
shown by the 2002 Population Census that indicated one million people less in
comparison to 1992.



         Romanian population according to Censuses in 1948, 1956, 1966,
                             1977, 1972 and 2002


   25.01.1948 21.02.1956         15.03.1966 5.01.1977         7.01.1992     18.03.2002

   15.872.624 17.489.450         19.103.163 21.559.910        22.810.035 21.680.974
                                          Sources: Population and Housing Census, 2002

       Out of the total young population –category at risk in relation to illicit drug use –
the percentage of children under 14 registered a significant decrease in 2002 in relation
to 1992 (17,6% by comparison with 22,7%). In 2002, the number of persons between 15
and 29 years old was 5.065.816, representing 23, 36% of the total Romanian population.
       The activities of drug demand reduction are directed mainly towards vulnerable
categories, and aim at educating young generations in favour of a healthy life style and
the avoidance of drugs.
       The prevention activities included organizing and monitoring specific activities in
a school population of 4.472.493 children learning in 18.012 schools within 2003-2004.
       The support given in educating children in Romania consist of including them in
the pre-school system (71,1% in the school year 2002-2003) as well as in the
preparatory system before primary education (85,1%).

                           Pre-school education within 2002-2003

                                  Total    Female     Male %            Difference by
   Pre-school education
                                   %         %                              sex %
   Inclusion in pre-school
                                 71,1     72,0        70,2            1,8
   education
   Children in the 1st form
   previously attending pre-
   school education              85,1     86,2        84,0            2,2


                                                                             Source:
                                        Pre-school education in 2002-2003, INS 2003
  Primary and secondary education at the beginning of the school year 2002-2003, INS,
                                                                                2003




                                                                                         17
        In the primary and secondary learning system, inclusion degree was of 92% and
respectively 84,6% in the school year 2002-2003, and higher rates were noticed in tha
rural environment, as a result of the family`s supporting children into attenting school
courses. Drop out in primary and secondary school registered 1% and 1, 4% in the
rural environment, where the continuous school attendence for children under 14 is
greatly affected by the social and economic problems of their families.

        In the school year 2002-2003 non promotion in primary school (3,3%) and
secondary school (3,5%) reaches higher figures in the urban environment for both
components (4,6% and, respectively, 4,4%), resulting from the diminishing family
support because parents, overloaded by professional duties, can no longer uphold their
children`s school performances because of the lack of time.


       Participating in children education in primary and secondary school
                            in the school year 2002-2003

                        Primary school %                Secondary school %
                        Total Urban Rural               Total    Urban    Rural
   Net inclusion rate   92      89,9   94,4             84,6     78,7     89,7
   School drop out
                       1,0     0,8     1,2           1,4        1,2         1,5
   rate
   Non promotion
                       3,3     4,6     2,0           3,5        4,4         2,8
   rate
            Sources: Primary and secondary schools at the beginning of the school year
                                                               2002-2003, INS, 2003
                                               Population and housing census, 2002

       The synthetic presentation of the demographic indices outlines the population
context of the drug demand reduction activities included among the specific objectives of
tha National Anti-drug Strategy 2003-2004.

2.2.2. Alcohol and tobacco use

        Due to the awarness of the impact of alcohol abuse on the socio-economic
development of any country (there are over 2 million alcohol related death cases
registered annually in the world), the international community developed control systems
in order to take measures supporting normative and institutional regulations.
        Alcohol abuse has become a greater threat in Romania in the context of the
constant rise of alcohol beverages production and use, after 1989.
        Alcohol abuse increased in Romania on the backround of the value crisis
installed after 1989, of the weakened social control of the institutions and of the low
living standars. Others causes of the alcohol abuse increase were inadequate solutions
to crisis, especially among teenagers, and the limited experience of the authorities and
civil society in dealing with a new phenomenon, often leading to incoherent reactions.
         In March-June 2002, the Save the Children Organization made a relevant study
in Bucharest in order to identify and depict drug use among homeless children and
young as well alcohol and tobacco use in the same disadvantaged category. The study,
conducted on a sample of 148 children and young, out of 2,100 persons eligible for the


                                                                                      18
study at national level, revealed that more than three quarters (76%) start using drugs
between 14 and 18 years old, while children under 14 would habitually smoke.
        Moreover, smoking cigars is a distinctive sign of the homeless children,
representing a membership mark in this environment.
        Most alcohol users fall into the 14-18 age group and the intake of strong alcohol
beverages increases together with the age, meaning that those who have 7 to 18 years
old are prone to beer intake while teens over 18 are fond of strong beverages. The
mentioned research displayed the alcohol abuse as a psychologic mechanism of
protection against the harsh reality of violence, abuse and commercial sex, which young
people deprived of any support in finding a job or shelter, have to face.
        The latest relevant data on alcohol abuse with pupils of 16 years old were
obtained in 1999 from the European Research Project in Schools on Alcohol and Other
Drugs (ESPAD) conducted in 1993, by the Suedish Council for Information on Tobacco,
Alcohol and Other Drugs. This project set the challenging task of making a European
study in youth, in which Romania participated along with other 29 European states.
According to the data obtained by this study, the percentage of 16 year olds who had
ever drunk alcohol was of about 86% while 43% experienced intoxication and 53% had
smoked cigarettes. Among illicit drugs, heroin is the most frequently used drug, in the
form of cigarettes. A percentage of 5,3% pupils used at some point sedatives without
medical prescription and almost 4% drank alcohol in combination with medicine with
psychotropic or intoxicating contents.
        In 2003, under the guidance of the Suedish Council for Data on Alcohol and
Drugs and the Concil of Europe through the Pompidou Group (Group for
Cooperation and Countering Illicit Drug Trafficking and Abuse), the Ministry of
Health together with the National Research and Development Health Institute, the
Public Health Directorate and School Inspectorates accomplished, for the second
time in Romania, the “Study on alcohol, tobacco and drug abuse in schools”. The study
targets 16 year olds (on a sample of 4.371 pupils born in 1987) who attend daily courses
of the post secondary school learning system. The results of the study revealed the
increasing drug, tobacco and alcohol use in the youth in comparison to the previous
study.
        The number of teenagers who had drunk alcohol at least once remained
relatively stable (88%) in comparison to 1999, with an increase of only 2,5%, but the
number of those who had experienced intoxication was a lot bigger. If in 1999, 32% of
the teenagers under 16 experimented intoxication, in 2003 there was a reported
increase of 20%.
        The first beer intake before the age of 14 was observed in more than half of the
pupils (55, 5%), which is two-fold higer than the figure registered in 1999. Moreover,
50% of the pupils under 14 begin drinking wine while 15% drink strong beverages. Yet
there is a decrease of 32% for those experimenting intoxication at an early age, in
relation to the 1999 study.
        The same study showed that pupils who reported drinking alcohol at home
registered 38% - three-fold higher than in 1999, at the disco 18% - three times more
than in 1999, at a friend`s house 15% - 2,5 higher than in 1999, in the street, in the
park, on the beach or in other locations 13% - ten times more frequently than in 1999,
at the pub 12% - three times higher than in 1999, at the restaurant 5,3% - nine times
more frequently than in 1999. It should also be mentioned that more than 0,5% of the
pupils eligible for study use alcohol on a daily basis.
        On the other hand, 7-8% of the pupils declared having been involved in fights or
quarrels after using alcohol; 4-6% experienced material loss (distruction of clothes or
objects that belonged to them, money or valuable objects loss), had communication


                                                                                      19
problems with parents or friends or were involved in accidents or body harm because of
the alcohol abuse.
        Moreover, in 2003, because of alcohol abuse, about 2-3% of the pupils had
problems with the police, was involved in unprotected sexual relations or had poor
school performance. On the whole, the percentage of those who had problems caused
by the use of alcohol increased to 20 or 30% in comparison to 1999.
        Far from being socially accepted, the use of alcohol combined with sedatives,
tranquillisers, neuroleptics, antianxiolitics and certain precursors decreased in 2003 by
15% in relation to 1999, so that only three out of one hundred 16 year olds indulge in
such practices.
        The same study showed that smoking more than one package of cigarettes a
day is considered the greatest risk (82%) – a value close to the European value of 84% -
and for the rest of the drugs, the risk is acknowledged under the average. Because of
this, Romanian pupils fall into the category of the pupils less informed on the risks of
drugs use.
        Taking into account that until now there hasn`t been any comprehensive quality
study related to drug use (alcohol and tobacco included), the National Anti-drug Agency
elaborated in 2004, the first National Study on the Knowledge, Attitude and
Practices Related to Drug, Alcohol and Tabacco Use, according to the European
guidelines of EMCDDA.
        The study was conducted on a representative sample of 3,500 respondents aged
15 to 64, of which 800 came from Bucharest. It showed that in the population between
24 and 34 years old (61%) as well as between 35 and 44 (74%) there was a higher
alcohol use in the last 3 months, in comparison to the age group 55-65 (55%).
        It was also determined that the mean age of the beginning of alcohol use is 13
and a percentage of 62% of the respondents under 14 had consumed alcohol during the
past 3 months. In shouldn`t be neglected that 39, 7% of the respondents under 14
admitted having got drunk and didn`t consider necessary to cut down alcohol
consumption.
        Another important issue of the study is related to the motivation of alcohol use.
Thus, every respondent who consumed alcohol in the past 12 months was asked to
mention at least three reasons for this kind of behaviour. The most frequent answer was
“to be more cheerful” or “to relax”, both with a rate of 29%. A negative motivation “to
forget about problems” was mentioned by 21% of the respondents while outer motivation
“because it`s what others do” was mentioned by 14% of the respondents. The main
motivation was the wish to feel better, to change moods, relieve stress and protect or
find refuge from problems. The wish to strenghten affiliation to a group was on the last
place.
        The growing number of alcohol and tobacco users along with the dropping age of
the first intake, the underestimation of this kind of negative behaviour, the lack of
continuity and completion of prevention programmes as well as of adequate financial
resources, represent only a part of the context in which activities for the prevention and
countering alcohol and tobacco use develop in Romania.




                                                                                       20
2.2.3. The dynamics of the assisted drug users in Romania*


       The number of drug addicts seeking treatment and medical care in the past four
years had a variable dynamics and in 2004, the decreasing trend was contrary to the
increase in drug users’ number.

                             Assisted drug addicts dynamics during 2001-2004


      2500
      2000
      1500          2134                                         2070
      1000                                   1737
                                                                                       1326
       500
         0
                     2001                    2002                2003                  2004


                Source: The Center for Sanitary Statistics and Medical Documentation,
                                        2004
*The Center for Sanitary Statistics and Medical Documentation within the Ministry of
Helath completes the annual centralized analysis of this category of indicators by 15 of
February. This Report includes data on the first 11 months of 2004.
      Thus, in 2004, there was a significant drop in the number of patients seeking
medical services for drug addiction, in comparison with 2001 and 2003.
       The distribution of cases according to the type of substance used reveals a high
percentage of treatment demand of the heroin users, followed, at great distance by
cannabis, fortral and cocaine users. During 2001-2004, there was a decrease in the
number of the heroin users who sought treatment, along with a relative increase of
treatment demands for cannabis, benzodiacetine and other psychotropic drug users.


                    Trends in treatment demand per subtstance during 2001-2004

      100
             93,4               83,9
                                                    64,8
                                                                        53.1


       10


                                                    2,1
                                   1,5                                     1.1
                     1                                     0,9                   0,9          heroina
        1                                1,1
                      0,9
                                                                                              f ortral

                                                          0,5                                 cannabis
                     0,2                                                   0.2                cocaina
                                       0,1
       0,1

                            Source: The Center for Sanitary Statistics and Medical Documentation,
                                               2004



                                                                                                         21
       In the reported period, there was an increase of the cases of relapses followed
by a decrease in the number of new drug users refered to medical centres.
                                 New cases of drug addiction and relapses during 2001-2004

                         100%
                          90%
                                       27.40%
                          80%                           38.60%         44.60%        52,90%
                          70%
         relapses         60%
         new cases        50%
                          40%
                                       66.30%
                          30%                           60.90%         55.40%        47,10%
                          20%
                          10%
                           0%
                                        2001             2002           2003           2004

                           Source: The Center for Sanitary Statistics and Medical Documentation


       Of the total number of drug addicts benefiting from medical services, the male-
female distribution during 2001-2004 indicates a slight ..... trend. Thus, female
percentage increased from 16, 6% in 2001 to 30,6% in 2004.

                        The dynamics of drug addicts by sex ratio during 2001-2004


               90.00%
               80.00%                                      67.40%        69.40%
               70.00%         83.40%
                                            78.20%
               60.00%                                                                bărbaţi
               50.00%
                                                                                     femei
               40.00%
               30.00%         16.60%
               20.00%                                      32.60%        30.60%
               10.00%                          21.80%
                0.00%
                              2001          2002          2003          2004

                                 Source: The Center for Sanitary Statistics and Medical
                                         Documentation

        Unemployed drug users represent one of the most numerous categories included
in the records of the Center for Sanitary Statistics and Medical Documentation, but
starting with 2002 their number registered a certain decrease. Pupils and students have
relatively low proportions within the total number of registered cases but it should be
mentioned that they rarely seek treatment and more frequently reject demands made by
parents or other adults.




                                                                                               22
                                               Drug users by occupation during 2001-2004




                126


                            127

                                      163




                                                               779




                                                                                             54
                       58

                            19
     2004




                                                                                          1302
                  225




                                             220




                                                                                                                                    104
                             84
                             69
                             63
     2003




                                                                          1147
                 164


                              130
                        76


                                      71
                                      95




                                                                                                               54
     2002




                                                                          1265
                154



                               141




                                                                                                                              399
                        98


                                      47
                                      30
     2001


            0                               500                   1000                           1500                           2000                   2500
                 wage earner                             unemployed                         pupils                              students
                 retired                                 without occupation                 others                              employed


                                                    Source: The Center for Sanitary Statistics and Medical
                                                            Documentation

         The education level of drug users cannot be stated without difficulty, taking into
account that at the time when they appealed to specialized medical services, many drug
users did not mention anything about their education. Yet the great number of drug
users having finished university, primary or secondary school represents a worrisome
reality.
                                               Drug users according to the level of education

            800
            700
            600
            500
            400
            300
            200
            100
                  0
                             Primar          Gimnazial      Profesional          Liceal           Postliceal   Nespecificat           Altele    Superior


                2001          104                 460          253                520                27             116                   654      0


                2002          65                  205          177                416                23             123                   728      2


                2003          63                  244          255                729                29             136                   564     50


                2004          62                  262          161                420                42             240                   64      64


                                                    Source: The Center for Sanitary Statistics and Medical
                                                            Documentation

       In the reference period, drug users seeking treatment in specialized units
benefited from dezintoxication treatments, methadone substitutive treatments and
phycho-social support.




                                                                                                                                                              23
                      Dynamics of drug users by type of treatment during 2001-2004

           100

                  79.9               81                  80
                                                                  71,4

                                       22.7       22.7                               detox
            10
                  13.67                                          11.7                substitution
                                                                                     treatments
                                                                                     therapy
                                                                        2,1
                          1.5             1            1
            1
                   2001              2002         2003           2004


                              Source: The Center for Sanitary Statistics and Medical
                                         Documentation
         The territorial distribution of drug addicts to psychotropical substances
seeking medical services during 2001 -2004 shows a decrease of activities at the level
of districts and of the capital (20 in 2001, 21 in 2002, 18 in 2003 and 17 in 2004). Yet, in
the reference period, in all districts of the country there were patients seeking this type of
services, which confirmed the extent of the drug use phenomenon at national level.
Despite all this, within the analyzed timeframe, only seven districts (Bihor, Braşov, Iaşi,
Ilfov, Mureş, Sibiu, and Timiş) and Bucharest reported annually the number of drug
users seeking treatment.


                                2001            2002               2003                      2004
         Argeş                   5                1                 1                          -
         Bacău                    -               1                  -                         -
          Bihor                  5                3                 4                          2
    Bistriţa Năsăud              2                -                 1                          1
       Botoşani                   -              16                 5                         40
         Braşov                  10               9                 17                        16
          Brăila                 4                -                 1                          1
       Bucureşti                1800            1318               1220                       668
    Caraş Severin                 -               2                  -                         4
           Cluj                   -              56                 60                        224
      Constanţa                  -                 6                 10                         7
      Covasna                   21                10                  -                         -
      Dâmboviţa                  -                 3                    7                       -
        Galaţi                   2                 -                    -                       -
         Gorj                    -                14                    -                       -
        Giugiu                   1                 -                    -                       -
      Hunedoara                  -                 3                    2                       -




                                                                                                    24
       Ialomiţa             -             -              -                 1
          Iaşi             96            119            534               263
        Ilfov             134             96            108               45
      Mehedinţi            6               2             -                 -
        Mureş              11             44             42               29
        Neamţ              3               -             1                 1
         Olt               2               -              -                -
       Prahova             2               3              1                -
        Sibiu              6               4             10                5
       Suceava             1               -              -                -
         Timiş             29             26             46               18
        Vaslui              -              1              -                -
        Vâlcea              -              -              -                1
         Total            2134           1737           2070             1326
                           Source: The Center for Sanitary Statistics and Medical
                                   Documentation


       2.2.4. HIV/AIDS incidence among injecting drug users
        In 2003, there were over 40 million HIV infected persons registered throughout
the world, of which more than 10 million were aged 15 to 24. In Eastern Europe and
Central Africa almost 1,3 million people are HIV positive. Romania is one of the few
countries in the East and Central Europe with a significant number of HIV/AIDS infected
persons. In December 2003, there were 14.353 cases of HIV/AIDS infections (death
cases and living patients). At the same date, there were 10.249 cases of HIV/AIDS
infected living patients. Of them, 4.679 were AIDS cases (3.553 children and 1.126
adults), while 5.599 were HIV infections (4.244 children and 1.355 adults).
        Statistics show that 8.000 HIV infected people have access to special medical
care and are monitored in one of the nine regional centers established to this end.
Romania is the only country in East and Central Europe that ensures universal access to
treatment and medical care to more than 5.700 HIV/AIDS infected persons (they benefit
from antiretroviral therapy at international standards).
        What characterizes the HIV/AIDS epidemy in Romania is the massive
occurrence of the HIV infection in children, during 1987-1991, because of blood contact,
the use of untested blood products and unsterilized medical equipment, which generated
cases of HIV infection in newborn, nursing and small children. At the end of 2003,
HIV/AIDS prevalence in Romania amounted to 44 cases per 100,000 inhabitants,
representing 0,04% of the total population.




                                                                                     25
                                                                  Source: UNAIDS Programme for Romania, 2004

       After 1994, the HIV/AIDS incidence in youth and adults increased continuously,
possibly because of unprotected sex.

  HIV infected cases in adult population, by way of transmission and the year of
                          diagnosis, during 1989- 2003
  160
  140
  120
  100
   80
   60
   40
   20
    0
  -20
    85

           86

                  87

                         88

                                89

                                       90

                                              91

                                                     92

                                                            93

                                                                   94

                                                                          95

                                                                                 96

                                                                                        97

                                                                                               98

                                                                                                      99

                                                                                                             00

                                                                                                                    01

                                                                                                                           02

                                                                                                                                  03
  19

         19

                19

                       19

                              19

                                     19

                                            19

                                                   19

                                                          19

                                                                 19

                                                                        19

                                                                               19

                                                                                      19

                                                                                             19

                                                                                                    19

                                                                                                           20

                                                                                                                  20

                                                                                                                         20

                                                                                                                                20




        Homo/bisexuala                Droguri I.v.          Hemofilie/coag               Recipient/trans                 Heterosexuala   Necunoscuta


                                                                  Source: UNAIDS Programme for Romania, 2004

         Considering how HIV is transmitted, drug-injecting use represents a high-risk
activity. During 1996-2002, there were 11 HIV/AIDS positive cases among the tested
injecting drug users. In 2003, there were four new such cases. Yet, because of the


                                                                                                                                         26
limited possibility of testing injecting drug users, the number of virus carriers can be
undoubtedly higher than the official one.
         Even though official data on HIV prevalence among injecting drug users do not
seem to be alarming, the studies conducted in Romania point out an increasing trend of
the HIV infection risk because of the increasing number of injecting drug users engaged
in risky behaviours.
         Thus in 1998, the Institute for the Management of Health Services in Bucharest
supported by the UNICEF, UNAIDS and CIDA conducted the first rapid assessment
study on the injecting drug users in Romania (in four regions: Bucharest, Constanta, Iasi
and Timisoara), which estimated 60 injecting drug users in Constanta and 781 in
Bucharest. The study displayed a lower awarness of the drug injecting related risk
among the respondents in Constanta and Timisoara, as compared to those in
Bucharest.
         In 2002, the National Anti-AIDS Commission in collaboration with the ROMTENS
Foundation and financially and technically supported by UNICEF and UNAIDS,
conducted the second Rapid Assesment of Injecting Drug Users in Romania, aimed at
establishing the intensity and characteristics of the drug use, and especially dug injecting
use, in Bucharest, Contanta, Iasi and Timisoara. On the other hand, the study layed
stresses on the risk behaviours of injecting drug users.
         The assessment identified a number of about 30,000 injecting drug users (IDU)
only in Bucharest – more than 1,3 % of the city’s population, and 211 IDU in Timişoara.
These persons belong to a group at high risk, regarding both sexually transmitted
diseases (STD) and HIV/AIDS - particularly as the study revealed a high percentage of
drug users sharing needles and syringes (about half of the IDU in Bucharest and
Timişoara, a third in Iasi and about a tenth in Constanţa). Moreover, even if an important
percentage of IDU are aware of the risks of such behaviour, few of them adopt an
adequate behaviour.
         According to the last Rapid Assessment Evaluation on heroin use in Bucharest in
2003, conducted by the National Anti-drug Agency (NAA) and UNAIDS Romania, there
are around 24.000 heroin users in Bucharest, representing more than 1% of the total
population of the Capital. Most of them use heroin through injection, which is a risky
behaviour, resulting in high percentages of infection with viral hepatitis B and C
(VHB/VHC) and other infectious diseases. Besides, most of IDUs admitted having been
involved in unprotected sexual contacts - a pattern that became classical for the onset of
HIV/AIDS epidemics in Central and Eastern Europe.
         In order to prevent such classical scenarios, the most important objective is to
support and promote harm reduction programmes and networks, at regional and national
level. It is compulsory to take special measures to include IDUs in harm reduction
programmes in order to reduce drug related risks (HIV, B and C hepatitis infection).
         The above-mentioned necessity was confirmed by the Case Study “HIV/AIDS in
South-Eastern Europe: case Study from Bulgaria, Croatia and Romania”, World Bank
Report – 11 February 2003, which identified several critical issues with regard to HIV in
Romania:
 There is not enough information about the behaviours and sero-prevalence among
     vulnerable groups, especially the IDU, commercial sex workers (CSW) and rroma
     communities;
 There is an increasing need to develop and diversify the existing harm-reduction
     programmes (especially syringe exchange programmes) addressing IDU, and the
     treatment programmes.
 Outreach programmes focusing on the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases,
     on counselling and voluntary testing and on reproductive health should address
     commercial sex workers.


                                                                                         27
2.2.5. Drug use estimates in Romania
        At the end of 2002, Romanian Harm Reduction Network (RHRN) performed a
qualitative research aimed at identifying and describing risk behaviours among IDU in
Bucharest and Constanta - cities considered to register a higher prevalence of drug use.
130 interviews with drug users were done and the most common risk behaviours were
sharing injecting equipment and unprotected sex - several times and with different
partners.
       During 2004, based on the findings of the 2002 qualitative research, the Romanian
Harm Reduction Network conducted a quantitative research, on a sample of 501
injecting drug users recruited from syringe exchange programmes conducted in
Bucharest. The research regarded their behaviour and attitude towards drugs use and
abuse. In order to obtain data on risk behaviours, the questionnaire included questions
regarding the main drug of abuse, the duration of drug use, administration route,
frequency of drug use and sexual behaviours. Thus, 72,5% of the respondents admitted
that before their last injection, the syringe was used by somebody else, and 67% of the
respondents declared they “gave, borrowed or sold” their already used syringes to an
average of 2,89 different persons.
       The national survey on tobacco, alcohol and drug abuse ESPAD – 2003, is
conducted every fourth year, in over 30 European countries, and targets on 16 year olds,
in high schools. The study revealed that in 2003 injecting heroin abuse increased by
50% as compared with 1999 (the year of the previous ESPAD).
       The Rapid Assessment Evaluation performed by the National Anti-drug Agency
together with UNAIDS Romania, based on the data collected from NGOs involved in
harm reduction activities as well as from the General Directorate for Countering
Organized Crime and Drugs, estimated a number of 24.000 heroin injecting users in
Bucharest, in 2003 (1% of the capital`s population).
       The national survey regarding knowledge, attitudes, practices about drug
abuse, performed in 2004 by the National Anti-drug Agency and Operations Research,
revealed a prevalence of heroin use of 1% of Bucharest`s population.


2.2.6. Drug users in the penitentiary system
        The number of self-declared drug users among inmates was on an ascending
trend since 2001 onwards. As such, in December 2004 a number of 2,013 former drug
users were registered in the penitentiary system.

                     Self-declared drug users in penitentiaries

                                        2001       2002       2003           2004

         Number of inmates             50,035     50,156     46,224         39,265
     Drug users (admitting having       1,065     1,131       1,504          2,013
    used drugs before the arrest)
   Drug abuse prevalence (per one      21,29‰    22,55‰      32,54‰        51,26‰
         thousand inmates)
                                                   Source: General Penitentiary Directorate

      Of these, 2,08% (42) were aged 15-19, 20,66% (416) between 20-24 years,
61,05% (1229) between 25-29 years and 16,19% (326) over 30 years. Only 8,6% were


                                                                                        28
women, the rest (91,4%) men, and according to the drug used 86,19% were heroin
users, 2,83% cocaine users, 3,57% ecstasy users, 0,15% LSD users, 0,54% different
medicines and 6,7% other substances (cannabis, solvents etc.).

2.2.7. Drug related mortality
       Drug related death cases are a significant indicator of the extent of the drug
abuse phenomenon. According to the National Institute of Forensic Medicine “Mina
Minovici” Bucharest, there were 28 drug related death cases in 2001, 22 in 2002 and
23 in 2003, with a sex ratio almost equal to one.

                         Drug related death cases, sex ratio:

                                         2001        2002        2003            2004
                 Men                      15           9           12               6
                Women                     13          13           11               8
                 Total                    28          22           23              14
                                                       Source: National Institute for Statistics
                                     *National Institute for Forensic Medicine “Mina Minovici”

       The age distribution revealed that most of the cases were persons under 30
years old. Due to some obscurity in reporting procedures, some cases of people over 70
who died because of medicament abuse were also reported in 2004, as in the following
table.

                         Drug related death, age distribution:

                                         2001        2002        2003           2004
                 15-20                     2          2           1               2
                 21-25                     6          2           5               1
                 26-30                     3          1           2               0
                 31-35                     2          1           2               0
                 36-40                     1          2           0               0
                 41-45                     2          4           1               1
                 46-50                     2          2           4               1
                                         2001        2002        2003           2004
                 51-60                     1          3           2               0
                 61-70                     3          2           1               1
                 71-80                     4          0           2               7
                 81-90                     2          3           3               1
                 Total                    28          22          23             14
                                                       Source: National Institute for Statistics
                                     *National Institute for Forensic Medicine “Mina Minovici”




                                                                                             29
2.3. Implementing the National Anti-drug Strategy 2003-2004 for drug demand
reduction
The National Anti-drug Strategy 2003-2004 has a number of 63 objectives in the Drug
Demand Reduction Chapter, involving the Ministry of Education and Research, the
Ministry of Health, The Ministry of Justice- the General Penitentiary Department,
the Ministry of Administration and Interior and the National Authority for Youth.
The Ministry of Labor, Social Solidarity and Family took the objectives from the former
Ministry of Health and Family but did not engage in support activities for the families of
drug addicts in Romania.

     • Ministry of Education and Research
         Most of the prevention activities implemented by the Ministry of Education and
Research as stipulated by the National Anti-drug Strategy 2003-2004 were achieved in
partnership with other institutions.
         The drug prevention activities were developed through a directorate called
“Programmes for Youth” with only two employees and through a General Directorate
“Evaluation, Prognosis, Strategies and Programmes for Pre-University Education”. At
local level, the activities are implemented through County Education Inspectorates (one
employee for prevention activities in each county) and through County Centres for
Psycho-pedagogic Assistance and Education Staff Centres (160 counsellors).
         The Ministry of Education and Research, even if underfinanced, had to achieve a
number of 15 activities, joined in seven objectives, such as: setting up and developing a
proper curriculum, Professional training of teachers involved in implementing the
curriculum, School engagement in community programmes, Development of alternative
extra-curricular programmes through the Programmeme regarding the creation and
development of a network of youth centres, Preparation of textbooks and organization of
professional training courses necessary for use thereof, Organization of actions specific
for groups in risk situations.
         During 2003-2004, twelve activities were achieved and three activities were only
partially achieved.
         During 2002-2003, the ″Health Education in Romanian schools″ pilot programme
was implemented in Bucharest and in 15 counties within the country and was carried out
in 123 schools, with 120 teachers and 3,500 pupils as direct beneficiaries. This
programme implies the presentation, during classes, of seven topics related to health
education, one of these including prevention of narcotics and psychotropic substance
use and abuse.
         During the school year 2003-2004, the programme was implemented in about
8,000 schools that optionally chose this field of study, for the first, the fifth and the nineth
grade, and in it participated almost 11,000 teachers and 300,000 pupils.
         The Teachers’ Guide and the syllabi for the „Health education” subject were
drawn up and completed within the ″Health Education in Romanian schools″
programme.
         The „New Benchmarks of the Educational Activity” guide within the „Values
Education” component in the „Health Education” sub-component during two hours of
class management was considered a promising activity, and was followed by its
enclosure as well within the sub-component „Legal education, the Prevention of Juvenile
Delinquency and Human Trafficking”.
         The training for teachers involved in curriculum implementation was partially
achieved during 2002-2003 and 2003-2004, but without a centralized and uniform



                                                                                             30
pattern. The drugs issue in schools was also approached by county centres for psycho-
pedagogic assistance and by county staff education centres, through seminars, round
tables, training courses etc. Once more, it was stated that proper standards should be
created to help teachers disseminate prevention concepts with greater impact on the
children.
        School involvement in communitarian programmes resulted in yielding, together
with prevention and anti-drug county centre, common strategies addressing the
students. In addition, action plans for preventing illicit drug use were developed, in
partnership with governmental and non-guvernmental organizations working in the field.
In compliance with the strategies of the county counselling centres specific activities
were carried out on the topic of drug use prevention in youth such as: round tables,
meetings with the youth organaizations` leaders, courses for the teachers, information
coursese for the pupils on the nature and effects of toxic substances on the human
body.
        Monitoring the drug phenomenon in schools by conducting sociologic
studies to assess its scope -such studies were conducted in Bucharest and in eight
other counties (Botosani, Harghita, Mehedinti, Hunedoara, Caras Severin, Mures,
Calarasi, Covasna), the possibility of conducting a similar nationwide study being
currently under analysis. Within ”The European School Survey Project on Alcohol and
other Drugs” (ESPAD) European project, concerning 16 year olds, the results of the
2003 evaluation for Romania revealed that marijuana abuse doubled as compared to
1999, the abuse of LSD/hallucinogens and anabolic steroids increased by 40-50%, as
compared to the same year, abuse of injecting drugs and hallucinogen mushrooms
increased by 50-60% and amphetamine abuse increased by 85%.
        Local drug abuse prevention campaigns addressing pupils, teachers and local
communities were organized and carried out by the county school inspectorates. On this
occasion, informational-preventive materials were published and information boards
were set up in schools. Additionally, articles on drug abuse prevention were published in
the print media and programmes were broadcast on the local radio and television
channels in Bucharest, Bacau, Mures, Tulcea, Galati, Valcea, Olt and Cluj. Children
clubs and palaces hosted 11 contests on anti-drug topics (in Bucharest, Cluj, Arges,
Botosani, Vaslui, Tulcea, Ilfov, Constanta), 3 sports competitions (cross-county races –
in Constanta, Bucharest, Calarasi), 4 exhibitions (in Timis, Vaslui, Bucharest, Mures), 3
shows (in Calarasi, Cluj, Vaslui) and various other prevention activities within school
camps in the county of Bistrita Nasaud.
        In addition, festivals, contests, specialized camps were included in the extra-
curricular activities schedule, in which participated approximately 150,000 students.
        Specific extra-curricular activities were developed and carried out within technical
application and scientific clubs, cultural-artistic and sports-travel circles of the 42 children
palaces and 208 children clubs, including the participation of approximately 400,000
children at least 2 hours a week.
        As part of the national education system, starting with 2003-2004 university year,
a specialized module for addiction was developed and included in the Sociology
University’s curricula, together with a master in “Fight against Drug Addiction”. Beginning
with school year 2004-2005, the master benefits from support of “De Hoop” Foundation
from Netherlands, and a number of eight students were invited to attend training
sessions in the Netherlands.
        Following an initiative of certain non-governmental organizations, researches
aiming to identify both the abuse level in school population and a possible profile of the
young drug user were conducted in a few counties (Mures, Covasna, Constanta and



                                                                                             31
Brasov). A proposal to conduct a nationwide research project focusing on identifying the
psychological and social demographic profiles of the risk groups was also submitted.
        The three objectives achieved only partially had a general character and were
mainly linked with changes in the current law regulations, as it follows:
        - Objective a.3 “developing an informative system by including specific
information about drugs in some students’ curricula” will be achieved by establishing the
internal legislation in the ministry;
        - Objective d.2. “Setting up social educational centres”: a draft regulation is
currently under preparation, and meetings were organized with the representatives of
the institutions responsible for the establishment of these centres.
        - Objective f.1 regarding the development of an accrediting system for the studies
in the field translated into the establishment of an Accreditation Centre in the National
Anti-drug Agency, which will acknowledge the distinct abilities in preventing the illicit
drug trafficking, and use.
        Within the Ministry of Education and Research, the activity in the drug demand
reduction area focused on interactive courses including specific anti-drug programmes
for pupils in the primary school education.


    • Ministry of Health
        According to the National Anti-drug Strategy 2003-2004, the Ministry of Health is
responsible for a number of operational objectives concerning drug abuse prevention,
health care and psychological care, rehabilitation and social reintegration of drug
addicts.
        During 2003, the General Directorate for Public Health inside the Ministry of
Health coordinated the drug use prevention and treatment activities.
        Since 2004, the drug related activities (drug use prevention and treatment) were
extending to other two directorates inside the Ministry of Health, namely the General
Pharmaceutical and Medical Equipment Directorate and the General Directorate
for Medical Care. These three directorates coordinate the county public health
directorates and the treatment centres financed from the public budget.

       I.     Primary drug use prevention included 15 objectives of which 14
              were achieved.
         Of these activities, the ones referring to the promotion of health and education,
financed from the state budget were included in the Subprogramme for Public Health 1.5
“Promotion of health and education for health”, approved by the minister of health.
         The data supplied by the General Directorate for Medical Care revealed that
during 2003, the drug prevention and treatment activities were coordinated through the
General Directorate for Public Health, and financed with about 16.289.100.000 ROL, of
which 14.189.160.000 ROL for treatment and 2.018.910.000 ROL for prevention
activities.
         The training and accreditation programmes for professionals working in the drug
use and abuse prevention were parts of the National Network for Health Promotion and
assigning Competences for Health and Education Promotion as stated by the minister of
health order 497/ 1999. Four professionals working in health promotion were involved in
training and examining modules.
            Up until now, health mediators within Roma communities have been trained
and employed by the public health departments in 37 counties, in accordance with the
Order of the Minister of Family and Health no. 619 of August 14th, 2002 for authorizing


                                                                                       32
operation of the health mediator profession and approving the technical regulations
concerning operation and financing of the health mediators’ activity in 2002. The
„Romani Criss” organization as a response to the needs identified in the rroma
communities financed the training courses. In 2003 also, 30 training workshops for
school principals within the school network, physicians and health mediators were
organized through eight county health promotion departments.
      During 2004, upon the identified needs in the local communities, training courses
were organized in 11 counties and in Bucharest with at least one informing and
education campaign, for staff working in health promotion and health education areas,
with a total cost of about 65.000.000 ROL.
        From July 28, to August 2, 2003, the Ministry for Health, Research and Youth,
through the National Post-Graduate Physicians’ and Pharmacists’ Training Centre, Other
Highly Qualified Personnel and Registered Nurses, organized a training course for
trainers, the first of this kind accredited according to the new methodology in the field. In
November 2003, the graduating trainees took the accreditation exam conferring the right
to become nationwide acknowledged trainers in the drug abuse prevention. The
graduates received diplomas acknowledged by the Ministry for Education, Research and
Youth and by the Ministry of Health. The health promotion and education programme
offices within the county public health departments organized training programmes for
other professionals. The health promotion and education competence course is
accredited by the National Post-Graduate Physicians’ and Pharmacists’ Training Centre.
        Trainer for trainers activities were also organized for teachers and scholar
counsellors during short term modules in 12 counties and in Bucharest area.
        Through the Global Fund financed programmes “Strengthening the monitoring
and surveillance system for drug abuse and drug use prevention in order to reduce HIV
and VHB/VHC transmission” and “Developing and strengthening health system and
psychosocial support system for drug addicts” training courses for training of trainers
and for streamlining management programmes were organized.
        These actions were carried out in cooperation with the representatives of the
county police inspectorates, of the drug prevention and counselling centres and with the
representatives of non-governmental organizations. Still, these actions were not followed
by evaluations; therefore, it is difficult to estimate their impact.
        Information, education and awareness raising campaigns were conducted to
celebrate the 31st of May – the World Anti-tobacco Day, the 26th of June – the World
Day against Illegal Drugs Abuse and Trafficking (42 campaigns: 1 campaign/county).
Teenagers, young people, parents and teachers were the target group of the campaigns.
The campaigns respected the law on advertising and legal measures for countering
alcohol and tobacco use, especially as the Order of the Minister of Family and Health
and of the President of the National Health Insurance House no. 248/149/2003 for
adopting health sub-programmes makes it compulsory.
      Thus, under the logo “Drugs – the treatment yields results” these activities
occasioned the release of a number of: 163,700 pamphlets and bills, 24,230 bills and
posters, 9,000 leaflets and stickers, 12,537 other materials such as T-shirts, pens, caps,
bands; 2 billboards; 8 videos and audio-video advertisements; 4 banners. In the county
of Mehedinti, a specialized book for physicians was drawn up, subsequently printed in
3,000 copies, and in Braila anti-drug guide was promoted, both of them being used in
other drug abuse promotion actions carried out during the year. The total estimated cost
for these activities was of about 1,050,000,000 ROL.
        As a common feature, in all counties, the local authorities, the City Hall and the
Prefecture as well as the drug prevention and counselling centres were involved.
Additionally, we should mention the cooperation with the family doctors, pharmacists,


                                                                                          33
physicians in hospitals and health centres, as well as with education facilities, involved in
the preparation and distribution of information material. The cooperation with the print
media contributed to all of the above, at least two of the local newspapers being involved
in all the counties, and the local radio and television stations were involved in more than
80% of the counties.
         The cooperation with governmental and non-governmental organizations,
involving drug abuse prevention programmes, supporting programmes for these with a
view to adopting and developing drug consumption prevention measures was achieved
under Governmental Order no. 97/2003 (the Criteria for the selection of non-
governmental organizations and of other legal entities that may participate in the
development, jointly with the ministries and public institutions, of activities or
programmes in the public health and family protection sector, as well as the means of
financing thereof). In the absence of the necessary financial resources to fund the
projects of non-governmental organizations, the plan of cooperation with non-
governmental organizations translated only into supporting partnership programmes with
NGOs.
        The development of a regular monitoring system regarding health damaging
knowledge, attitudes and behaviours (smoking, alcohol use, illegal drugs use) and the
assessment of the efficiency of prevention programmes were achieved in 2003, through
the second ESPAD (The European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs)
research study was conducted among 16-year old students through the health promotion
and health education offices, and the findings were made public in February 2004. The
cost of the study was of ROL 600,000,000, and the data obtained are similar to those of
the European Union Member Countries, thus ensuring regular monitoring and the
outlining of trends in alcohol, tobacco and other drugs abuse by comparison with the
data recorded within the same study conducted in 1999.
        November 4th, 2003 is the launching date for the media campaign for promoting a
healthy life style, including activities focused on tobacco, alcohol and illegal drug abuse
prevention. The first part of the campaign included weekly broadcasts of radio
programmes called „10 pentru sănătate” (“An A for health”). The programme was
broadcast every Tuesday at 11:00 o’clock on the „România Actualităţi” radio station. In
addition, the website www.viatasanatoasa.ro was designed, supplying information on
health positive behaviours, as well as on health promotion offices. The campaign
continued in 2004 with other activities as well: distribution of leaflets, posters and CDs
with the theme image of the campaign, with a view to ensuring the enduring character of
the campaign message and accomplishment of the objective of forming health positive
attitudes.
        For schoolchildren under 13, the staff from the health promotion departments
developed and implemented information and education activities in schools in 30
counties, with a total cost of about 180,000,000 ROL.
        A campaign for promoting legal measures banning tobacco use in all public
areas as well as any form of advertising for tobacco and alcohol shall begin in 2005 after
the adoption of the regulations for harmonizing with the Directive no. 2003/33/ EC of the
European Council Parliament on the legislative measures of Member States concerning
advertising and sponsorship for tobacco products. By the law no. 275/2003, the
Government Order no. 13/2003 was adopted regarding the revision and completion of
Law no. 349/2002 on preventing and countering the effects of tobacco products, and
creating the necessary legal framework for fighting tobacco use. The Ministry of Health




                                                                                          34
finalized the law project on advertising and sponsorship for tobacco products and drafted
the Memorandum for the signing of the Cover Covenant for Tobacco Control.
        During 2004, the health promotion services from 30 counties implemented
specific programmes to fight against self-medication and psychotropic substance abuse,
the total costs being about 120.000.000 ROL. Nevertheless, a common programme to
implement such campaigns at national level was not yet developed.
        Population information and education campaign, mainly addressing the parents
with a view to raise the awareness on their role in children education and in drug abuse
prevention among young people were developed in some counties. Again, we should
stress the lack of a common programme and a common methodology at national level in
order to have a unique approach on this issue.
        Objective e.1 “decrease tobacco abuse by 5% and alcohol abuse by 2% -as
compared with 2002” was quite difficult to quantify, thus further evaluations are
necessary.

        II. Objectives concerning health care, psychological care, rehabilitation and
social reinsertion of drug users were in custody of the Ministry of Health, and most of
them were not achieved, mainly because of legislative and administrative changes and
the social policies into force.
        Thus, out of twelve objectives, during 2003-2004, only four were achieved, four
were assessed as incomplete, one was evaluated as not achieved and for the other
three no data were available.
        The objectives reported as realized regarded mainly harm reduction
programmes, namely streamlining methadone maintenance programmes and training of
trainers.
        The Order of the Minister of Family and Health no.187/2002 defines the types of
health facilities offering services to drug addicts as well as the non-governmental
organizations carrying out activities to prevent drug related infectious diseases among
injecting drug users. The treatment centres enumerated in this Order are:
       - Psychiatry hospital „Al. Obregia” (Bucharest), two detoxification centres
       - Mental health laboratory no. 4 Berceni (Bucharest), methadone maintenance
       - Psychiatry hospital „Socola” (Iaşi), detoxification and after-care centres
       - Psychiatry hospital Bălăceanca, after-care
       - Psychiatry hospital “Sf. Stelian” (Bucharest) for detoxification and methadone
           maintenance
       - Psychiatry hospital Jebel, treatment centre and special safe areas
       - All emergency rooms of county hospitals (one in each county) that do treat
           acute intoxications
During 2003-2004, all drug treatment centres were coordinated by the Ministry of Health,
and offered the following services:
       - Diagnosis and treatment of acute intoxications and of withdrawal syndrome
       - Diagnosis and treatment for detoxification
       - Diagnosis and treatment for methadone maintenance treatment (inpatient or
           outpatient)
       - Aftercare and other support treatments
       Drug addiction treatment programmes were implemented according to the common
Order 172/113/2004 of the Minister of Health and of the President of the National Health


                                                                                      35
Insurance House. The total cost was of about 10.000.000.000 ROL, plus other daily
costs varying from one centre to another.
      The main results of the “harm reduction” programmes implemented through RHRN
were syringe exchange, free tests for HIV for injecting drug users (IDU) and counselling
for drug users.
        Beginning with 2004, free tests were offered for HIV, VHB and VHC for IDU in
treatment centres and counselling for preventing the transmission of the mentioned
deseases. This process was financed through the Global Fund to Fight against AIDS,
Tbc and Malaria, with a total value of 60.000 USD.
        The improvement of the methadone treatment in terms of public health benefits
was reported as achieved, through both an increased control of the methadone
deliveries and a card for each person included in a methadone programme.
        Training in the treatment of drug addictions is designed only for psychiatrists (the
Order of the Minister of Family and Health no. 923/2001 approving the Schedule of
Medical and Pharmaceutical Specialties), over-qualifications and competences for the
health care network, but no effective steps in the field were taken. Rehabilitation and
cognitive-behavioural therapy courses were organized to train the personnel in
cooperation with different non-governmental organizations in the field.
        University post-graduate training systems and the continuous training of
professionals in the field of drug use prevention were completed by updating the
university syllabus for medical students regarding treatment and rehabilitation of drug
addicted people and M.A. programmes organized by the National Anti-drug Agency.
        Definition of the types of structures and services for drug addicts, on the basis of
a series of criteria defined by the Ministry of Health, support of training and professional
reintegration programmes, promotion of programmes designed for treatment resisting
patients, all are objectives that will be achieved by updating the existing legislation (Law
no. 143/2000 ) through law 522/2004.
        Similarly, the implementation of a unique coding system for addicts accessing
treatment centres is an objective under completion, as personal computers and software
programmes already distributed in all Bucharest treatment centres.
        The setting up of cross-disciplinary treatment facilities was not achieved, mainly
because the budget allocated to the Ministry of Health for 2004 was lower than that for
2003.
        The Ministry of Health did not supply data concerning the progress stage of the
objectives Setting up a commission for establishing a protocol between the Ministry of
Health and the National Health Insurance and Development of programmes concerning
self-medication and the fight against psychotropic substances abuse , in order to reduce
harmful effects thereof and to strictly observe the specific laws in the field.

    • Ministry of Justice – the National Penitentiary Administration
         The objectives this ministry is responsible for, in the drug demand reduction field,
concern health care and psychological care, rehabilitation and social reinsertion services
in prisons. From four main objectives within the National Anti-drug Strategy 2002-2004,
only one objective was achieved, the other three remaining to be completed after the
law 522/204 updates the existing legislation (Law 143/2000 on countering illicit drug
trafficking and use).
         In 2003, in Pitesti, based on a protocol concluded within the Ministry of Justice,
between the General Penitentiary Department and the Social Reintegration and
Surveillance Department, a Social Reinsertion and Post-criminal Assistance Centre


                                                                                          36
was opened. This is the first experimental centre of this type, and others are to be
established in the future. Services of information, beneficiary status evaluation,
psychological and social counselling, vocational counselling and job finding support,
family counselling, mediation of the beneficiary’s relationship with the institutions whose
services he/she needs, are provided within the centre. Under these circumstances, the
Centre may operate as the final link of the drug addicts’ treatment network.
        The social reintegration and surveillance services develop their activities in
cooperation with local authorities, but according to current data, few drug addicts were
really supported by effective after-care services, with a view to their rehabilitation. On
this point, the updated law 143/2000 introduces a number of provisions in order for the
addict to follow a complete rehabilitation chain, with support from local drug prevention
and counselling centres.
        Outpatient detoxification activities, within the penitentiary facilities and institutions
authorized by the Ministry of Health could not be performed in 2004 since the current
legal framework does not allow the conduct thereof in ambulatory conditions. On the
other hand, special funds and appropriate measures are necessary for such services to
be performed.
        The programmes and projects developed in 2004 by the Ministry of Justice- the
National Penitentiary Administration were the following:
      - a Pilot Post-cure Centre necessary to ensure the continuity of the treatment
          established within the Jilava Penitentiary Hospital, of total cost 1,250,000 Euro
          (PHARE funds, Global Fund).
      - Within the Project “Support for improving the penitentiary’s system activity”
          PHARE 2003, special equipment for drug analyses in blood, saliva or urine
          samples will be purchased. The activities began in September 2004, and the
          public sale will follow in 2005, with a total amount of two million Euros
          estimated funds. In addition, a Strategy to prevent drug use and drug trafficking
          in penitentiaries will be drafted, with an estimated cost of 250,000 Euro, and
          training courses for medical, educational and surveillance for the staff working
          in penitentiaries will be held with an estimated cost of about 300,000 Euros.
      - The project „We care... do you?” developed by the General Penitentiary
          Department, financed by the International Harm Reduction Development –
          Open Society Institute, New York. This USD 24,098 worth project focused on
          in-depth prevention and education for risk behaviours and peer-to-peer
          education learning targeted the pyramidal development of trainer of trainers,
          with four units selected in this respect.
      - “Prevention of HIV/AIDS in penitentiaries” in cooperation with the Romanian
          Association Against AIDS (ARAS) NGO, financed with 43,885 EURO form
          PHARE funds, 2,700 EURO granted by the Romanian Association against
          AIDS and 4,650 EURO granted by the General Penitentiary Directorate. The
          total costs were 51,145 Euro.
      - Beginning with October 2003, the programme “Preventing HIV among
          prisoners” was developed in cooperation with ARAS, financed by “John Snow
          Institute” with 38,000 USD, GDP with 26,000 USD, accounting for a total of
          more than 63,000USD.
Although the National Penitentiary Administration did not achieve all the objectives
assigned by the National Anti-drug Strategy 2002-2004, significant efforts were done in
order to update the existing legislation and to implement prevention and information
programmes in penitentiaries.




                                                                                              37
    • The Ministry of Administration and Interior


         The Ministry of Administration and Interior was responsible for fifteen objectives
in the drug prevention area, as stipulated in the National Anti-drug Strategy 2002-2004,
of which fourteen were reported as achieved. Still, most of the objectives had a general
character, without clear indicators to evaluate or measure the progress stages of the
objectives. Therefore, even if these objectives were assessed as achieved, the studies
performed on the prevalence of drug use did not indicate any decrease revealed by the
indicators monitoring the drug phenomenon.
         The Ministry of Administration and Interior was responsible for training the
officers, streamlining specific measures, developing community programmes and social
partnership, identifying risk factors, raising the confidence of the general population in
the Police, creating a flow supplying necessary data for the assessment of drug abuse
and trafficking prevention.
       Training courses for police officers involved in drug abuse and drug trafficking
prevention were organized within the Ministry’s training and qualification institutions (The
Post –Graduate Education Centre in Bucharest organized 1 course for officers active in
the anti-drug field -5 days x 2 groups x 25 police officers and a qualification course for
drug-related information analysis for 10 days involving 15 police officers; “Avram Iancu”
Training School for Border Police Officers in Oradea organized a qualification course in
the field of drugs for 20 police officers; ,,Nicolae Golescu” Centre for Training and
Improvement of Police Officers in Slatina organized qualification courses in the field of
illegal drug trafficking and abuse prevention for 81 police officers). Specific drug related
topics were introduced in the syllabus of school facilities within the Ministry of
Administration and Interior (,,Vasile Lascar” School for Police Officers in Campina– 9
topics under various subjects and creation of two special anti-drug majoring classes;
Post –Graduate Education Centre in Bucharest, “Constantin Brancoveanu” Military High-
School in Ploiesti, School for Trainers’ Instruction, Breed and Training of Service Dogs in
Sibiu and “Avram Iancu” Training School for Border Police Officers in Oradea– 2 topics
each).
       The ,,Mihai Viteazul” Application School for Officers in Bucharest possesses a
modern a efficient training system, within a module called “Training for anti-drug network
nods trainers”, lead by two specialist of the French Gendarmerie, and also by a fully set
of teaching materials (books, movies, leaflets, maps etc).
         Education and information activities were organized in partnership with NGOs
developing activities in the field, mainly in schools and high schools, summer camps etc.
      Criminology studies addressing complex data on drug dealers and addicts were
implemented only partially, through questionnaires in order to evaluate people’s
perception on drugs.
      In order to discourage criminal elements and to protect the population, fix or mobile
devices were set up in places and environments suited for drug abuse and trafficking in
order to identify perpetrators and protect the victims; police actions and controls took
place in education institutions and in the venues nearby (bars, night clubs); routine
checks and controls were conducted in pharmacies; a specialized body was set up
within the General Police Department of Bucharest and in districts for catching drug
dealers in the act; analysis of data and information obtained from various sources to
draw up crime conducive maps etc.



                                                                                         38
      The objective b2 “producting materials containing the police officer’s conduct
standards in the relationship with people involved in drug abuse” was not realized, no
data being available.

    • The National Youth Authority
       Beginning with July 2003, the Directorate for Youth from the Ministry of Youth and
Sports was relocated to the Ministry of Education, Research and Youth- Directorate
Programmes for Youth, and since March 2004 was assigned to its present location-
National Youth Authority.
         During 2004, the objective – “Support and financing of drug use and abuse
prevention programmes/projects with a view to reducing the number of young people
engaging in drug use/abuse” involved 102 activities at local level, mainly in prevention
and risk education factors management, in order to decrease the number of youth at
risk. A number of 70,190 youths, aged 14 to 29 benefited from this programme, financed
with 4,335,395,000 ROL.
         In addition, as part of the objective – “Development of alternative extra-curricular
programmes through the Programme regarding creation and development of a network
of youth centres” a number of 29 centres were opened as an alternative for education
and leisure time. In these centres, a number of 1,954 activities were organized
(information, education, counselling, consultancy, physical education and technical
activities etc.), 165.249 young people benefiting from these activities. The total
estimated cost was 7.150.000.000 ROL.
         Since its launching, the National Youth Authority participated in the
implementation of the objectives stipulated in the National Anti-drug Strategy 2003-2004,
especially with regard to the attitudes and behaviours of the youth.

              The Ministry of Labour, Social Solidarity and Family

        Beginning with July 2003, through a Governmental Decision, the “Family
Directorate” from the Ministry of Health and Family was relocated to the Ministry of Labor
and Social Solidarity.
        This Minister developed several projects for social protection of drug addicts, as
part of the project “RO4616 Developing social sector”- named “Be sure you can,
too”, basically a daily centre for young drug addicts, under the coordination of the
General Directorate for Social Assistance, the 1st District Bucharest and other named
“Counselling and Rehabilitation Centre for Alcohol and Drug Addiction” in Iasi.


    • Anti-drug Prevention and Counselling Centres

        These centres were designated to coordinate prevention activities in the illicit
drug abuse area, at a central level. The network of anti-drug centres was developed in
2001, through a Common Order in September 5 on the prevention of drug abuse, by
establishing one centre in each county and in Bucharest’s six districts.
        Since 2002, once the National Anti-drug Agency was set up, the centres passed
under the coordination of the Agency, with the intention to enhance the coordination of
prevention activities at national level. In 2004, through the Government Decision
no.1093 on the revision and completion of the GD 1.489/2002, the Anti-drug Prevention
and Counselling Centres became Anti-drug Prevention, Evaluation and Counselling
Centres as part of the Agency’s territorial structure.


                                                                                          39
    The activities carried out by these centres during 2002-2004 were integrated in the
action plans of the National Anti-drug Strategy and had as key objectives:
     Organizing and setting up a local preventive network by intensive courses
    designed for teachers, physicians, social workers, psychologists, police officers etc.;
     Organizing public debates on appropriate topics;
     Individual or group counselling;
     Family counselling;
     Cooperation with mass-media and other institutions etc
        The activities implemented by the Centres were initially according to the action
plan of the former Interministerial Commission against Drugs. Afterwards, the action plan
was changed according to the National Anti-drug Strategy 2003-2004, with the above-
mentioned objectives. Currently, there are a number of 346 persons working in the
centres, in multidisciplinary teams composed by police officers, physicians, professors,
social workers, psychologists, engineers, pharmacists, students, volunteers etc.

        a. Training activities
        229 intensive training courses were developed in the above-mentioned period,
in order to organize and set up local prevention networks.

       With regard to intensive training courses we should stress the fact that, in the
context of the low involvement of the local authorities, the number of training courses
decreased in 2004 as compared to 2003 (126 in 2003 - 103 in 2004).



                      Trainings and courses at local level, 2003 - 2004




           2004                                            103




           2003                                                  126



                  0     20        40       60       80       100       120    140

                                                      Source: National Anti-drug Agency, 2004


       b. Counselling, informing and guiding activities
        During 2003-2004, Anti-drug Prevention, Evaluation and Counselling Centres
offered support to a number of 29,459 persons.
        Generally, the number of people benefiting from counselling services provided by
the centres increased by 20,7% in 2004, as compared to 2003.




                                                                                          40
         Total number of people counseled by the Antidrug Prevention, Evaluation
                                 and Counseling Centers

            13343                                                         16116




                    2003                                            2004
                                                         Source: National Anti-drug Agency, 2004

       The services offered by the Anti-drug Prevention, Evaluation and Counselling
Centres could be divided in two main categories:
     - Specialized services for counselling/guidance, ensured by the specialists
         working in the centres, upon requests from any person and ensuring the
         confidentiality about personal data. Usually, these services are accessed by people
         faced with a drug related problem, which benefit from counselling and information
         about the available medical units, which provide therapy.


                                Counseling activities2003-2004
                       2500

                                  2429
                       2000

                                                                   1884
                       1500
                                         1482
                       1000                                               1258

                                                947
                        500                                                      626

                           0
                                         2003                             2004

                                            total     individual    group


                                                      Source: National Anti-drug Agency 2004


       The analysis of the number of beneficiaries in the centres resulted in a decrease
in the number of counselling offered in 2004, as compared to 2003 (1,884 persons in
2004, 2,429 persons in 2003). According to the type of counselling, in 2003, 1,482
persons benefited from individual counselling and 947 persons form group counselling
as compared to 2004 when 1,258 persons were provided with individual counselling and
626 with group counselling.




                                                                                               41
       In parallel with the decrease of the number of counselling at the centres offices,
there was a diversification of counselling at community level, in summer camps, schools,
workplaces, universities etc.

        - Specialized services of information and drug use prevention, representing
the core of the activity of the centres, consisted in the following specific activities:
general prevention activities (local campaigns, mass media campaigns); informative
and educational activities (meetings, interactive groups, contests, seminars, round
tables, colloquiums ); leisure time activities (concerts, shows, sport contests,
exhibitions etc); in-service and training activities (courses, experience exchange,
guides).


                  Persons benefiting from informing and prevention activities
                                          2003-2004

               20000
               18000
               16000
               14000
               12000
               10000                                        18.866
                8000
                6000            10914
                4000
                2000
                   0
                                 2003                        2004

                                                        Source: National Anti-drug Agency 2004

        In 2004, the number of people attending information and prevention activities
increased with 72,8% as compared to 2003.
        From the total number of persons benefiting in 2003 from services of information
and prevention, about 75% (8.565) belonged to the age group 12-30 of which 35%
(3.097) were aged 16 to18.
        In 2004, 81,4% (15.372) of the total number of people benefiting from this type of
services were between 12-30 years, with 41% (7.753) between 16-18 years.
        In 2003, 2,269 people (20%) belonging to other categories - parents, relatives,
teachers etc sought information and prevention services provided by the centres; in 2004
their number decreased to 1.758 (9,3%).

Other persons benefiting from information / prevention services in the centres


                       CATEGORY                                 2003            2004

                   Parents, relatives                           960             431

                        Teachers                                1262            1170

                        Others                                   47             157

                        TOTAL                                  2.269            1.758


                                                                                           42
       c. Education and information activities

        As to the evolution of the prevention activities in the drug field is should be
mentioned that they decreased in 2004 by almost 20% as compared to 2003.
        Thus, a number of 5.922 interactive meetings were organized in schools,
special centres, children’s palaces or clubs, and 1.564 meetings in 2004.



      Complementary information and education activities during 2003-2004

         Educational and promotion materials:                                        2003       2004
                                                                                     231         179
    Complementary activities for education and drug                                10.137       6.840
                  use prevention
           Cooperation with mass-media                                             2.653        3.168
    Joint activities with other institutions and NGOs                              1.073        1.051

                               TOTAL                                               14094        11.238
                                                                     Source: National Anti-drug Agency 2004

         Although the Centres did not benefit from own budgets, most of their activities
were financed by the institutions represented in the centres, while in a single case
(Hunedoara County) the European Union, as part of a project, granted the necessary
funds.
         Because of the lack of sufficient financial resources, the number of specific
activities implemented in 2004 decreased, as compared to 2003. This situation is
presented below.


                  Activities in the Antidrug Prevention, Evaluation and Counseling Centers


           5000
           4500                          4358

           4000
           3500
           3000
                                                                         2085
           2500                 2146
           2000
           1500                                                               1426

           1000
                                   203
           500                                                        187
                                                                              91
              0                   102
                                  2003                                2004

                          legislation       interactive   sports activities          cultural


                                                                     Source: National Anti-drug Agency 2004



                                                                                                         43
       d. Local strategies and prevention programmes
        In the above-mentioned period, at local level a number of 90 strategies and 440
local prevention programmes were developed and implemented (alone or in partnership
with different institutions and NGOs). Again, because of the underprovided financial
resources, logistics and staff, the number of activities implemented in 2004 decreased
compared with 2003.

                    Local strategies and prevention programmes, 2003-2004



              200

              150       167

              100                                       108
                              83                               82
               50
                                   48                                    42
                0
                           2003                            2004

                         own programmes   partnership   own strategies


                                               Source: National Anti-drug Agency 2004


       With regard to drafting, organizating and implementing local programmes and
campaigns for drug abuse prevention, in 2004 190 local programmes were developed,
representing 24 % less than in 2003, when 250 such programmes were implemented.

       Local prevention programmes for drug abuse:
        Programme „My Anti-drug Message!” (CENTRE: Călăraşi, Tulcea, Mureş,
       Alba, Iaşi);
        Programme „Stop! Drugs- a danger” (CENTRE Călăraşi);
        Programme „ Against white death” (CENTRE: Galaţi, Călăraşi);
        Programme „Together with you!” (CENTRE Călăraşi in partnership with
       „Adolescentul” NGO);
        Programme „Education for health” (CENTRE Galaţi);
        Programme for anti-drug education and behaviour changes (CENTRE
       Galaţi together with Galaţi Public Health Department);
        Programme for anti-drug education in schools and high schools (CENTRE
       Galaţi together with Galaţi County Education Directorate);
        Programme „Together we can make it!” (CENTRE Galaţi together with
       Galaţi County Directorate for Child Protection);
        Programme „Sport and fun without drugs” (CENTRE Galaţi together with
       Galaţi Directorate for Youth and Sport);
        Programmes „Through education towards health” and „Say No to drugs!”
       (CENTRE Olt);
        Programme „Learn to say NO, learn to live!” (CENTRE Dolj);
        Programme „Together for a better future”, in partnership with „ Free youth


                                                                                        44
       centre” Vidin;
        Programme „ You can also without tobacco!” (CENTRE Mureş);
        Programmes „ Youth without drugs!” „Parents` school”, „Say no to alcohol
       abuse!” (CENTRE Prahova);
        Programme „ Be independent!” ( CENTRE Arad);
        Programmes „ Let’s talk about drugs!” and „Teenage without delinquency”
       (CENTRE Dâmboviţa);
        Programme „ Choose independence, addiction kills!” (CENTRE Giurgiu);
        Programme „Youth against drugs” (CENTRE Botoşani);
        Programme „Drugs- illusion and emptiness!”;
        Programmes „Truth about drugs” „Youth without drugs” (CENTRE
       Harghita);
        Programme „Power without powders!” (CENTRE Vaslui);
        Programme „An open gate towards health” (CENTRE Vaslui).

        For the timeframe (2003-2004), the activity in the Centres encountered a series
of problems, as follows:
        - limited financial resources – the lack of budgets did not allow the
           implementation of specific prevention activities;
        - lack of juridical personality, meaning that the Centres could not apply for
           funds;
        - low quality management, mostly because of high mobility of the staff, lack of
           motivation, working with volunteers;
        - a high rate of staff fluctuation– more than 50% of the initial staff quitted the
           Centres until now;
        - lack of a real support from the ministries – resulting in a small number of
           activities and malfunctions in the existing ones;
        - lack of adequate offices - some Centres do not have even today an office;
        - lack of equipment: personal computers, internet access, phone lines.
        Because of all these, the Centres will not be able to implement their activities at
full parameters, until the identified problems are solved.


              The development of the Civil Society structures

         Currently, in Romania there are 32 nongovernmental organizations implementing
prevention programmes on illicit drug abuse.
         The Objective “Involving the Civil Society” stipulated in the National Anti-Drug
Strategy (2003-2004) was implemented by conducting activities centred on developing
social partnership and extending partnership with governmental institutions and N.G.O.
active in the field.
         A significantly low number of N.G.O.s. supported Primary prevention activities,
focused on preventing the onset of drug abuse phenomenon, by promoting educative,
social and legislative measures for the general population. These organizations have
organized coherent, unitary and high quality Awareness and Appealing Campaigns,
according to the European standards.
         The “Save the Children” organization conceived and implemented, between
March-June 2003, the informing and appealing campaign “Drugs cut down your wings”
in 7 cities (Bucharest, Vaslui, Galati, Mangalia, Resita, Suceava and Craiova), having a




                                                                                        45
number of 10 000 campaign’s beneficiaries in the 42 schools and 20 high schools were
these events took place.
         Besides, the International Federation of Educational Communities from Romania
(F.I.C.E. – Romania), which represents an active nongovernmental structure in the field
of primary prevention since 1998, implemented by several PHARE programmes projects
aiming to forming young volunteers in the field.
         Secondary prevention activities (harm reduction) are targeting the reduction
of drug abuse associated risks and are performed by the organisations belonging to the
“Romanian Harm Reduction Network - R.H.R.N”.
         The Romanian Harm Reduction Network encompasses the following
associations/foundations: "Armonia" (Timişoara), "Adolescentul" (Constanţa); "ALIAT"
(Bucureşti), ARAS (Bucharest), "Open Doors" (Bucharesti), „Save the Children ”, "Stay
Alive" (Constanţa) şi "Timisiensis XXI" Timişoara and a governmental structure, the
Independent Medical Service from the Penitentiary General Directorate.
         In 2003-2004, R.H.R.N implemented a succession of projects, which contributed
significantly to the awareness of the dynamics of the phenomenon, and the governmental
and nongovernmental institutional resources focused on the reduction of drugs demand.

         Tertiary prevention activities which imply therapeutic programmes centred on
the reduction of the symptoms of the abuse associated disorders, programmes of social
rehabilitation and relapses prevention, passed through a pioneer stage in the field of
drug addicts assistance and treatment, based on foreign knowledge.
         The “Save the Children” N.G.O., by the Counselling Centre for adolescents and
youths from the Emergency Hospital “Floreasca”, offers psychological counselling,
individual and group psychotherapy services to its beneficiaries and, the Foundation
“Open Doors” offers psychological counselling and psychotherapy services for drug
users.
         The “CRUCEA ALBASTRĂ” association from Sibiu – a Christian humanitarian
association, with an ecumenist orientation, established in 1990, by the wish of several
Lutheran and orthodox clerics, has performed specific activities of counselling for alcohol
and illicit drugs addicts and for their families, in ambulatory system, specialised recovery
programmes in stationary integrated treatment centres, set up support groups for the
assisted addicts, conceived and published several books, flyers, press articles, organized
conferences, seminars and programmes for the professional training of experts in the drug
addiction field and forming volunteers. The objectives of the two stationary centres
(therapeutic community) are re-establishing the psychical and physical health status, the
recognition of the disorder and the profound assessment of the risk factors and of addiction
evolution, based on anamnesis data, emotional growth of the addict’s personality, the
capacity of bearing the stress and daily challenges without appealing to drugs, to acquire
new aptitudes and techniques for overcoming crisis situations, optimal introspection and
emotional extroversion capacities, the establishment of a supportive moral values system.
The success rate of the experimented therapy by this association was considered
encouraging: 40 % from the assisted patients reaching stable abstinence after the first cure,
30 % have had short-term relapses and 30% of the cases were ameliorated after the period
of hospitalisation.
         It should be mentioned that the medical and psychosocial services offered by the
N.G.Os performing specialised programmes had not benefited from budget funds allocated
by the Health Ministry in the National programmeme for addictions’ framework.
         The involvement of a growing number of N.G.O.s in prevention, assistance and
treatment of drug abuse activities has represented a priority of the National Anti-Drug
Agency, which performed several efforts to this end.



                                                                                          46
2.4. Conclusions

        75% of the objectives stipulated in the National Anti-Drug Strategy (2003-2004)
for the institutions involved in the reduction of drugs demand (63), were achieved (47 of
them) while 11 were partially achieved and five of them are not implemented yet.

                            Total      Achieved              Partially  Unachieved
                            number of objectives             achieved   objectives
                            objectives                       objectives
  The Ministry of Education 15         12                    3          -
  and Research
  Ministry of Health        27         18                    5             4
  Ministry of Justice       4          1                     3             -
  Ministry of Interior and 15          14                    -             1
  Administration
  National Youth Authority  2          2                     -             -


        The evaluation of the objectives was done based on the informing notes
delivered by the qualified institutions. This information, following repeated requests had
hardly reached the National Anti-Drug Agency and had not always been of relevance. In
addition, the responsibilities of the designated specialists to ensure the communication
with the National Anti-Drug Agency overlapped on the current activities’ responsibilities
from their institutions, which diminished the coherence of these activities. The
monitoring, coordination of the drugs demand reduction activity and the centralisation of
the results by the National Anti-Drug Agency are still difficult to accomplish because of
the partial involvement of the representatives of partner ministries in managing
responsibilities.
        The reserved results obtained in the reduction of drug demand were determined
also by the fact that some of the public institutions have not recognised the priority
character of that activity. In addition, we may consider the reorganisation and random
restructuring processes of a couple of these public institutions, at the same time with
unassuming of specific attribution in the drug field by these new structures.
        In the field of medical and psychological care, rehabilitation and social
reintegration, has been noticed the absence of a centralised plan and the lack of a
professional therapeutic network, capable to offer an adequate response for drug
addicts. In addition, the shortage of specialists was noticed in the primary prevention of
drug abuse field and in the assistance and social reinsertion. The diminishing funds
allocated by the Health Ministry for the information, education and formation activities or
the inefficient management of these funds is generating a blockage in the system of
prevention and assistance, essential in the reduction of drugs demand.
        The National Anti-Drug Agency cannot develop projects regarding the reduction
of the drugs demand because of the lack of financial resources. Consequently, the
agency has frequently raised the problem of effective support in drafting and
implementing the programmes in the inter-agency groups meetings. From the same
reason, the County Centres for Anti-Drug Prevention, Evaluation and Counselling and
the Bucharest sectors centres cannot perform their specific activities of preventing drugs
abuse.
        Through the establishment of the National Anti-Drug Agency and the adoption of
the National Anti-Drug Strategy began the process of establishing and developing a



                                                                                        47
unitary and integrated system of awareness, monitoring and connecting the public
institutions and the N.G.O.s involved in drug demand reduction.
         A positive aspect is confirmed by the awareness of the need to involve the civil
society in the drug demand reduction process, position exposed by the growing number
of these dedicated N.G.Os and also by the preoccupation of the public institutions in
developing a diverse range of programmes.
         In the Romanian society, the establishing of the National Anti-Drug Agency and
the elaboration of the National Anti-Drug Strategy in the field for 2003-2004 brought
about stimulation of prevention activities, standardization and coherence of the statistical
data collection on drug, alcohol and tobacco abuse, the revival of the activity of
Prevention, Evaluation and Counselling Anti-Drug Centres, expressed by the growing
number of persons benefiting from counselling, of the number of N.G.O.s, especially in
the field of secondary prevention, of the number of professionals trained for specific
medical care, a larger reception in mass-media regarding the interest and efforts made
by the Romanian state in countering the drug, alcohol and tobacco abuse growth as
well as in the civil society’s polarisation in front of this tough challenge.




                                                                                         48
CHAPTER 3

                          DRUG SUPPLY REDUCTION

3.1. General overview

         Beginning with 1990, because of its geographic setting, the opening of the
borders and, last but not least, the military conflicts in Irak, Afghanistan and former
Yugoslavia, Romania became an active section of the Balkan Route for trafficking in
drugs and precursors and a drug market as well.
         The most important heroin and opium trafficking routes in South-west Asia are
the following:
- “The Silk Road” which includes Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kazakstan, Tadjikistan,
     Kirgikstan, Iran and Pakistan;
- “The Balkan Route” including Turkey, Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary, Austria,
     Germany, Holland and England.
       In order to appraise correctly Romania`s place in the drug trafficking network one
has to keep in mind that 80% of the opiates supplying the European drug market are
trafficked across the Balkan Route. Moreover, during 2003 5.274 kg of heroin were
seized off the “Balkan Route” and 8.568 kg off the “Silk Road”.
       At present, there is another drug Balkan Route transiting Romania westwards,
starting in Turkey, crossing Bulgaria and entering Romania through the south border
(Negru Voda, Vama Veche, Giurgiu, and Bechet). The route crosses the Romanian
territory, enters Hungary through Nadlag, Bors, and Petea and continues towards
Germany and Holland after transiting Slovakia and the the Czech Republic.
       Another variant of the second “Balkan Route” including a waterway section is
Istambul - Constanta (at the Black Sea) – Bucharest, after which the route inscribes in
the above-mentioned itinerary.
       Experience showed that from the second “Balkan Route” stems another variant
that crosses the Romanian eastern territory, enters Ucraine and splits into one route
crossing Poland and another the Czech Republic and Slovakia towards Germany.
       The first “Balkan Route” going around Romania has the following itinerary Turkey-
Bulgaria-Serbia-Hungary while Budapest is practically a part of the second “Balkan
Route”.
       The relatively stable character of drug transit routes does not rule out the
emergence of other variants. The identification of these new variants depends on the
capacity of the institutions involved in countering illicit drug trafficking and use and on the
way in which they cooperate in the area.
       Recent experience confirmed the existence of emerging synthetic drugs routes
(amphetamines, MDMA, LSD and others) from the west (Holland, Belgium, Germany)
and the east (Romania), but also from the north (the Baltic Countries, Ucraine) that
would become active on the Romanian territory, also.
         Analyses show that our country is mainly a drug transit area, only small
quantities of the transited drugs stay in Romania and are destined to the local market. At
the same time, Romania became a drug storage area particularly for drugs entering our
country through the south. The drugs stay in for different periods and are later
redistributed to Western Europe countries.


                                                                                            49
         The escalating drug related criminality became obvious after the `90s and more
worrisome after 2001. The analysis of the 2001-2004 interval yielding relevant results
should make authorities adopt a new approach in countering illicit drug trafficking and
use, within a new strategic vision.
         In order to better appraise the extent and forms of the drug phenomenon and to
elaborate a proper response in the field of drug supply and demand reduction, the
statistical drug phenomenon situation in Romania should be taken into account.

3.2. The dynamics of the illicit drug trafficking and abuse
       During 2001-2004, the number of drug related offences increased significantly,
making qualified institutions adopt strategies to prevent and counter them. The ever-
increasing number of drug related offences indicates that a great part of the measures
taken by institutions qualified in combating illicit drug traffic and use are adequate and
decisive.
       The dynamics of the illicit drug trafficking and use shows an increase from 670 in
2001, 1,291 in 2002, and 1,462 in 2003 to 2,169 in 2004.


                    The dynamics of drug related offences during 2001-2004



                 2500



                 2000
                                                                    2169


                 1500


                                                      1462
                 1000
                                         1291


                  500
                            670


                    0
                          2001         2002         2003          2004

                                          Source: The General Romanian Police Inspectorate,
                                  The Directorate for Statistics, Judicial and Operation Records

         In percentages, in 2004, there was a constant increase of drug related crimes by
223,7% compared to 2001, 68% compared to 2002 and 48,3% compared to 2003.
         Of the offences under Law no.143/2000 a relatively large and constant number of
drug offences consist of drug sale, distribution, purchase and illegal possession
(trafficking), in an average of 53%, while illegal drug cultivation, production, manufacture,
experimentation, extraction, preparation, processing, purchasing or possessing for
personal use, stipulated under aticle 4, amount to almost 38,4%.




                                                                                             50
        Other statistical data reveal that a great part of the drug offences relates to illegal
sale and possession of small quantities for personal use (hashish, cannabis, heroin and
ecstasy pills). In other words, the main form of drug related offences in Romania is
related to possessing small quantities for personal use or drug buy-sell transactions.

                             Offences under Law no.143/2000
                        on countering illicit drug trafficking and use


                                                             2001   2002    2003    2004

   Art. 2 – Cultivation, production, manufacture,
   experimentation,         extraction,      preparation,
   transformation, supply, sale, distribution, delivery      50,9   55,9     53,7    54,1
   under any pretences, shipment, transport,                  %      %        %       %
   acquisition, purchase, possession or other illegal
   operations with risk and high-risk drugs
   Art. 3 – The act of illegally introducing or
   extracting from the country, as well as illegal           3,6%   4,8%    5,1%     3,1%
   import ori export of risk and high-risk drugs
   Art. 4 – Illegal cultivation, production,
   manufacture,          experimentation,      extraction,   42,4   33,9     37,4    38,6
   preparation,       transformation,     purchase      or    %      %        %       %
   possession of drugs for personal use
   Art. 5 – Knowingly making available, under any
   pretences, a place, a house or any other location,
                                                             1,4%   0,8%    0,9%     1,1%
   accessible to the public, for illicit drug use or
   allowing illict drug use in such places
   Art. 6 – Deliberately prescribing as doctor high-risk
   drugs, without medical justification, willingly issuing
   or obtaining high-risk drugs by medical prescription,     0,4%   0,9%    0,7%     0,6%
   when it is given in the above circumstances or
   when counterfeit prescriptions are used.
   Art. 7 – Giving high-risk drugs to somebody, in
                                                             0,3%     -     0,1%     0,1%
   situations exceeding legal circumstances.
   Art. 8 – Giving drugs or chemical inhalants to a                 0,01
                                                             0,3%             -        -
   minor, for his use.                                               %
   Art. 9 – The production, manufacture, import,
   export, supply, sale, transport, delivery under any
   pretences, transmission, purchase, buy or
                                                             0,2%   2,6%    1,1%     0,3%
   possession of precursors or of equipments or
   materials to be used in cultivating, producing or
   illicit production of high-risk drugs.
   Art. 10 – Organizing, leading or financing any of
                                                              -       -     0,2%       -
   the actions stipulated in articles 2-9.
   Art. 11 – Enticing to drug use, by any means, if it
                                                             0,3%   0,4%    0,7%     0,2%
   generates the actual drug use.
   Art. 13 – Attempted offences stipulated in art.2-7,
                                                              -     0,5%    0,2%     0,1%
   9 and 10 are legally sanctioned
                                          Source: The General Romanian Police Inspectorate,
                             The General Directorate for Combating Organized Crime and Drugs




                                                                                            51
3.2.1. Drug related crime in the territory

        The performed analysis shows that during 2001-2004 the rate of drug related
crime in urban areas is constantly high (91,1%), confirming that large cities are a
favourable environment for illicit drug trafficking and use.
        Regarding the dynamics of the territorial distribution of drugs related crime,
analyses show that in 2001 only 11 counties reported such cases while in the following
period the number increased and included counties on the entire Romanian territory.
        Moreover, apart from cities in which drug related crime registered frequently over
the years (Bucharest, Iasi, Timisoara, Galati, Dolj, Constanta, Sibiu, Mehedinti), such
crimes appeared in other counties like Arges, Bacau, Bistriţa Năsăud, Cluj, Covasna,
Gorj, Hunedoara, Prahova. This argues for the expansion of the drug phenomenon at
national level.

             Statistical representation per county of drug related crime
   Judeţ               2001            2002           2003            2004
   Alba                0               30             16              21
   Arad                10              0              10              27
   Argeş               4               11             3               43
   Bacău               16              18             18              66
   Bihor               9               35             17              86
   Bistriţa-N          0               14             6               54
   Botoşani            2               8              17              17
   Braşov              1               4              28              45
   Brăila              19              3              2               8
   Buzău               9               2              16              18
   Caraş-Severin       0               2              6               11
   Călăraşi            0               0              1               1
   Cluj                3               13             13              42
   Constanţa           20              49             39              46
   Judeţ               2001            2002           2003            2004
   Covasna             4               6              3               46
   Dâmboviţa           0               29             25              44
   Dolj                7               18             39              43
   Galaţi              4               51             47              37
   Giurgiu             0               0              7               45
   Gorj                1               0              10              28
   Harghita            3               9              6               8
   Hunedoara           6               26             6               63
   Ialomiţa            0               0              2               15
   Iaşi                29              60             100             175
   Ilfov               0               2              11              24
   Maramureş           0               0              0               6
   Mehedinţi           17              2              31              42
   Mureş               7               14             30              17



                                                                                       52
   Neamţ               1              3                11               21
   Olt                 1              8                13               16
   Prahova             1              13               2                78
   Satu-Mare           12             58               27               5
   Sălaj               1              2                4                9
   Sibiu               13             11               35               42
   Suceava             2              32               24               41
   Teleorman           0              0                2                6
   Timiş               32             104              79               68
   Tulcea              0              2                2                24
   Vaslui              1              3                7                11
   Vâlcea              2              1                13               21
   Vrancea             1              13               6                20
   Bucharest           403            550              675              729
                                            Source: General Romanian Police Inspectorate,
                                The Directorate for Statistics, Judicial and Operation Records

     3.2.2. Drug offenders identified and investigated under law no.143/2000 on
combating illicit drug trafficking and abuse

         Regarding identified and investigated drug offenders, police records show that
their number doubled, so that from 723 investigated offenders in 2001 for illicit drug
trafficking and use the number increased by 96,4% in the following year and by 105,6%
in 2003. At the end of 2004 the number increased by 176,2%.




                                            Source: General Romanian Police Inspectorate,
                                The Directorate for Statistics, Judicial and Operation Records


       3.2.3. The dynamics of caught-in-act drug offenders

       Of the total number of drug offenders identified and investigated by the police,
the number of caught-in-the act offenders has a constantly high level (83,6% in 2001,
72,4% in 2002, 76,5% in 2003 and 61% in 2004).



                                                                                           53
                The dynamics of drug offenders caught in the act during 2001 - 2004


             1400
             1200
             1000                                                            1219
                                                           1139
             800                          1035
             600
             400           605
             200
               0
                       2001            2002             2003              2004


                                                   Source: General Romanian Police Inspectorate,
                                       The Directorate for Statistics, Judicial and Operation Records


         These data were provided by competent bodies involved in countering illicit drug
trafficking who used undercover investigators and had kept a large number of the
identified drug offenders under police surveillence (27,9% in 2001, 31,2% in 2002,
16,9% in 2003 and 20,5% in 2004).

                        The dynamics of the drug offenders under police
                                surveillance during 2001-2004

      500
                                         446
                                                                                    410
      400
      300
                                                               251
      200            202

      100
         0
                    2001                2002                  2003                  2004
                           2001         2002           2003           2004

                                                   Source: General Romanian Police Inspectorate,
                                       The Directorate for Statistics, Judicial and Operation Records


        Despite of the high average of the drug offenders caught in the act (71,6%) the
average of offenders investigated while in police custody is of only 35,7%. The fact that
the percentage of those investigated in liberty increased from 22, 7% in 2001 to 69, 4%
in 2004 can lead to two conclusions. On one hand, the main forms of drug related crime
in Romania consist of possession of small amounts of drugs for personal use and of
street drug sell-buy operations and on the other hand, the large traffickers groups were
not yet identified and annihilated by the police.




                                                                                                  54
      3.2.4. The dynamics of the investigated drug offenders by age, sex,
education, occupation, criminal record, origin and citizenship


      • By age

       The dynamics of the drug offenders investigated during 2001-2004 analyzed by
age points out the increasing trend in underage and young offenders, as follows:

-   people aged 21 to 29 have the highest percentages among the investigated drug
    offenders (49,1% in 2001, 43,9% in 2002, 46,3% in 2003 and 45,8% in 2004).

-   the number of the drug offenders over 30 dropped in 2003 (33,5%) and in 2004
    (31,4% )in comparison to the increase registered in 2002 (36%).

-   young aged 18 to 20 participate constantly in drug related offences (20,7% in 2001,
    13,7% in 2002, 13,6% in 2003 and 15,6% in 2004).

-   the percentage of legally liable minors investigated for drug related offences
    registered constant levels in the last four years (6,1% in 2001, 6% in 2002, 6,3% in
    2003 and 6,7% in 2004). It should be mentioned that in 2004, five minors under 14
    were involved in illicit drug trafficking, therefore indicating a certain tendency of drug
    traffickers in using such kind of category in drug trade.


                                The dynamics of investigated drug offenders
                                         by age during 2001-2004
              1000
                                                                                     916
               800                                            689
                                              628
                                                                                     628
               600                                  514
                              355                                 499
                                                                               313
               400
                                             196            203
                       174
               200              150                                                  139
                                                   86             95
                         44
                 0
                        2001                2002           2003               2004
                     14-17 years             21-29 years          over 30            18-20 years

                                                Source: General Romanian Police Inspectorate,
                                    The Directorate for Statistics, Judicial and Operation Records


      • By gender
       The analysis of the offences related to illicit drug trafficking and use, according to
the sex of the perpetrators, shows the massive participation of men (the average is
79,4%). Women`s participation in drug related offences has increased continuously,
mainly since the peak year 2002 (24,4%). Although men involving in drug related crimes
are more numerous (624 in 2001, 1,079 in 2002, 1,178 in 2003 and 1,595 in 2004), the
increasing number of women involving in drug related offences (99 in 2001, 349 in 2002,
309 in 2003 and 402 in 2004) can generate suppositions that women will participate
more in such offences, particularly in street drug trafficking.




                                                                                                   55
                       The dynamics of investigated drug offenders, by gender
                100%
                 90%       13,70%
                                             24,40%             20,80%           20.80%
                 80%
                 70%
                 60%
                 50%
                 40%        86,30%
                                             75,60%             79,20%           79,20%
                 30%
                 20%
                 10%
                  0%
                            2001               2002             2003              2004
          men      women


                                                 Source: General Romanian Police Inspectorate,
                                     The Directorate for Statistics, Judicial and Operation Records




     • By education


     According to education, it can be stated that of the total number of investigated
drug offenders who graduated gymnasium represent the highest number while
highschool graduates come next. A slight increase of the number of higher education
graduates involved in drug related offences is to be considered (5,2% in 2001, 9% in
2002, 8,5% in 2003 and 9,9% in 2004).



           Education levels             2001          2002        2003          2004

           Primary and                  413           679         813           904
           secondary school             (57,1%)       (47,5%)     (54,6%)       (45,3%)
                                        17            24          27            32
           Vocational school
                                        (2,3%)        (1,7%)      (1,8%)        (1,6%)
                                        218           468         395           680
           Gymnasium
                                        (30,9%)       (32,8%)     (26,5%)       (34,1%)
                                        38            129         126           181
           Higher education
                                        (5,2%)        (9%)        (8,5%)        (9,1%)

                                                 Source: General Romanian Police Inspectorate,
                                     The Directorate for Statistics, Judicial and Operation Records


     • Persons with criminal records
        The offenders with a prior criminal record, who are identified and investigated for
drug related offences, fall into a special category characterized by continuous growth.
What worries is that within this category the number of young offenders mentains at high
levels: 66,5% in 2001, 53,6% in 2002, 61,7% in 2003 and 70% in 2004.



                                                                                                56
                   Drug offenders with a criminal record during 2001 - 2004


                          2500


                          2000
        ofenders with
        criminal record                                                                     1997
                        1500
        investigated drug
        offenders
                        1000                                             1487
        young offenders                                1420
                                                                                     400
                          500                    220             248
                                 155      723                                              280
                                       103             118              153

                            0
                                   2001           2002               2003               2004

                                             Source: General Romanian Police Inspectorate,
                                 The Directorate for Statistics, Judicial and Operation Records

     • By occupation
      According to this indicator, analyses show that persons without occupation
represent the category most involved in illicit drug trafficking and use, reaching the peak
level of 64,8% in 2003.
      A significant data is that young people represent the greatest part of this category,
up to 75,2% in 2001, the peak year for the participation of young people without
occupation in drug related offences.


                                                2001          2002            2003         2004
      Persons without occupation - 455                        825             964          1106
      total                        (62,9%)                    (57,8%)         (64,8%)      (55,4%)
      Young without occupation     342                        526             644          804
                                   (75,2%)                    (63,8%)         (66,8%)      (72,6%)
      Persons with an occupation - 268                        603             523          891
      total                        (37,1%)                    (42,2%)         (35,2%)      (44,6%)

                                             Source: General Romanian Police Inspectorate,
                                 The Directorate for Statistics, Judicial and Operation Records


3.2.5. The dynamics of penal cases solved by the Prosecutor`s Office

          Records show an increasing number of penal cases and persons charged and
prosecuted by the Prosecutor`s offices confirming the upward trend in criminality related
to illicit drug trafficking and use. This number underwent relevant changes mainly until
2004 when, as compared to 2001, the number of cases increased as follows 46,1%
more in 2002, 33, 7% more in 2003 and 107% more in 2004.



                                                                                                     57
                     Penal cases conducted by the Prosecutor`s offices during 2001-2004




                                                                 395
    2004                1756                         441                 777




                                         123
    2003         1134             326                685




                                               316
    2002         1239               361                    562
                                                                                                     solved cases
                                                                                                     indictments
                                  137

    2001       848          379         332                                                          SUP 18/1
                                                                                                     SUP, NUP
           0    500        1000         1500         2000         2500   3000       3500     4000


                                           Source: The Prosecutor`s Office within the High Court of
                                             Justice and Cassation


        On the other hand, while the number of the solved penal cases resulting in
prosecution of the drug offenders mentains at the same levels, the court decisions to
drop charges, to abandon legal pursuit or to decline legal competence increased
constantly.
        The high level of the drug phenomenon in large urban centers is revealed by the
number of solved cases and the persons charged and prosecuted by the Prosecutor`s
offices with Courts of Appeal in Bucharest, Cluj, Timisoara, Pitesti, Ploiesti, Constanta,
Iasi.

      Territorial distribution of cases conducted by the Prosecutor`s Office

                                                                          Investigated
                      Registered                                                                     Prosecuted
                                               Solved cases                persons in
                        cases                                                                       drug offenders
      UNIT                                                                solved cases
                                  200
                     2003                      2003              2004      2003            2004     2003       2004
                                   4
   P.C.A. Alba        35          62            31                 54          67          76        16             8
     P.C.A.
                      28          58            22                 49          12          74        16         11
     Bacău
     P.C.A.
                      12          42                 7             33          37          47        2          25
     Braşov
     P.C.A.                       131
                      834                      534                999      755             1151     354         433
    Bucureşti                      7
     P.C.A.
                      130         132           61                100      109              9        19         28
   Constanţa



                                                                                                                        58
   P.C.A. Cluj          44      114          42        49             39            136                25     49
     P.C.A.
                        54      110          64        90             69            116                7      33
    Craiova
     P.C.A.
                        24       14          21        12             34             25                21     13
     Galaţi
   P.C.A. Iaşi          42       70          38        60           113             146                42     34
     P.C.A.
                        30       37          17        37             35             59                21     15
    Oradea
     P.C.A.
                        18       40          16        26             31             59                5      26
     Piteşti
     P.C.A.
                        50       66          42        66             67             91                15     27
     Ploieşti
     P.C.A.
                        48       53          46        43             50             53                4      12
    Suceava
   P.C.A. Tg.
                        37       16          37        22             49             29                13    138
     Mureş
     P.C.A.
                        51       85          42        48           103              80                42     31
   Timişoara
    DIJC OT             154      88         114        67           246             141            102       111
                                            1134     1756                                          704
                                230                                                                           864
        Total          1591                 (71.3    (76,2         1816            2307           (38,7
                                 4                                                                          (37,4%)
                                             %)       %)                                           %)
                Source: The Prosecutor`s Office with the High Court of Justice and Cassation


      3.2.6. The Dynamics of the offenders investigated and prosecuted by the
Prosecutor`s Office
        In the reference period, the number of offenders investigated by the Porsecutor`s
offices increased constantly as follows: 1,038 registered offenders in 2001, 1,495 in
2002, 1,816 in 2003, and 2,307 in 2004. Yet, despite this increase, the number of
prosecuted cases dropped from 55, 4% in 2001, 44, 5% in 2002, 38, 8% in 2003 to
37,4% in 2004.

                         Investigated and prosecuted drug offenders


 2004                  864 (37,4%)
                                                                                      2307

 2003      704 (38,8%)
                                                              1816

 2002     665 (44,5%)
                                                    1495

 2001    575 (55,4%)
                                     1038

                                                             investigated cases   prosecuted persons



                Source: The Prosecutor`s Office with the High Court of Justice and Cassation



                                                                                                                      59
       3.2.7. Drug convicts
       In the context of the increasing drug phenomenon, during 2001-2004, courts
passes ever-harsher sentences to an ever-higher number of drug related offenders.
Thus, if in 2001 courts convicted 268 suspects, in the following years the number
increased to 432 in 2002, 439 in 2003 and 508 in 2004. One of the aspects of great
concern is the significant number of minors convicted for drug trafficking, amounting to 3,
3% in 2001, 6% in 2002, 4% in 2003 and 4, 5% in 2004.



                          The dynamics of drug convictions during 2001-2004

                                         432                           439
           450                                                                                         508
                                                                       422
                                         406
           350    268                                                                                  485

           250    259

           150

            50        9                        26                          17                            23

           -50
             2001                        2002                          2003                             2004
                             convicted offenders    convicts of age          under age convicts


                                                                           Source: The Ministry of Justice

       3.2.8. Sentenced drug convicts

       The high social danger of the drug related crimes is reflected by the rising
percentage of sentences of imprisonment passed onto accused (62,3% in 2001, 62,9%
in 2002, 67,4% in 2003 and 75% in 2004), in comparison to other decisions taken by the
courts such as conditioned suspended sentence or suspended sentence under police
supervision.
                              Sentenced drug convicts during 2001-2004
                                                                                                  imprisonment



         500
         400                                                  296                            381conditioned
                                   272                                                            suspended
         300                                                                                      sentence
                 167
         200                             126                      107
                  85                                                                         93
         100
                 11                      24                           33                     34 suspended
                                                                                                  sentence under
           0
                                                                                                  supervision
            2001                    2002                      2003                            2004

                                                                  Source: The Ministry of Justice

       The unflinching attitude towards drug related crimes is demonstrated by the large
number of sentences of 5 to 10 years imprisonment passed by courts. The number
increased countinuously from 29 in 2001 to 141 in 2004 (16, 2% in 2001, 22, 1% in
2002, 25, 1% in 2003 and 37% in 2004).


                                                                                                                   60
       The year 2004 confirms this attitude by the number of sentences of over 10-year
imprisonment that increased two fold in comparison to 2001.



                    The dynamics of sentences for drug related crimes during 2001-2004


             400
             350
             300                        234
             250
                                                                               179
             200                                          152
                         116
             150                                                       50
                                                     40
                                   21
             100                                                                         >10 years

              50    24                              70                141                5-10 years
                                   74
               0          10 29           6                17                            < one year
                                                                                         1-5 years
                         2001           2002              2003              2004


                                                                 Source: The Ministry of Justice




3.2.9. Drugs and precursors seizures

        As a result of the specific activities accomplished by institutions qualified in
                                   preventing and countering illicit drug trafficking, in
                                   2001 the total amount of seized drugs was 25.220
                                   kg and 43.674 kg in 2002, which represents a radical
                                   change compared with the previous years. These
                                   numbers suggest the increasing efficiency of the
                                   special activities accomplished for countering illicit
                                   drug trafficking.
                                           The spectacular increase of drug seizures in
the above-mentioned years drew the attention by the National Anti-drug Agency that
evaluated the situation together with the General Directorate for Combating Organized
Crime and Drugs. The conclusions were that the statistical numbers regarding cannabis-
hashish (16,300.698 kg in 2001 and 14,895.3 kg in 2002) represent green mass of
industrial hemp gathered by the police, for which landowners didn`t possess approvals
under Romanian legislation.


       In the following period, drug seizures were established under European
standards and new figures were reported: 408, 36 kg in 2003 and 446, 1651 kg in 2004.




                                                                                                      61
                                 Drug seizures dynam ics during 2001-2004
                 100000


                     1000


                          10


                         0,1
                                     2001            2002           2003      2004

                total seizures      25220           43674           408,36    446,16

                heroin               33,45          202,18          320,7      65,4

                cannabis           16300,698        14895,3          72,1     298,31

                cocaine              2,751           2,726          12,68     24,57

                opium                2,04            0,794           0,57      4,9


                                              Source: The General Romanian Police Inspectorate,
                                 The General Directorate for Combating Organized Crime and Drugs


     • Cannabis
                                “Cannabis” is the generic name of vegetal products
                        obtained from the stem, leaves and inflorescence of the
                        Cannabis Sativa plant, which is under national and international
                        control, because of the effects of the psychoactive substance
                        THC (tetrahydrocanabinol). The concentration of this substance
                        is the basis in defining the vegetal
                        products, as follows: “cannabis” is
                        practically the female inflorescences of
                        the Cannabis Sativa plant, with or
without leaves, with a THC concentration ranging from 0,5% to
4%; “marijuana” is a vegetal product obtained from dried
Cannabis Sativa leaves and has a concentration ranging from
0,3% to 1%; “hashish” is obtained from the resin yielded by
glandular pores situated inward on the leaves and has a higher THC concentration (3-
40%). Drug dealers seeking high profits usually mix female inflorescences with large
quantities of leaves or stems (on the black market one cannabis or hashish cigarette
costs between 20,000-50,000 ROL (~0, 50-1, 30 EURO).
      Cases conducted by qualified institutions showed that the cannabis trafficking
route is Afghanistan – Pakistan – Azerbaidjan – Georgia – Ex-Soviet territory – The
Republic of Moldavia – Romania.
        As compared with 2001 and 2002, cannabis seizures were lower in 2003 (72,100
kg) and 2004 (298, 3154 kg). Thus, it can be stated that there is an obvious contradiction
between the level of cannabis seizures and the number of cannabis users.




                                                                                             62
                        Cannabis/hashish seizures in kg during 2001-2004


           34231.4658




                                16300.698


                                                                      298,3154
                                     14895.3
                                                         72.1

                    0
                         2001               2002         2003          2004

                                        Source: The General Romanian Police Inspectorate,
                           The General Directorate for Combating Organized Crime and Drugs

       • Opium
                            The opium is a natural product obtained through the
                            scarification of opim poppy capsules that haven`t yet
                            reached maturity (papaver somniferum album). The gross
                            opium is the latex obtained by the incision of the capsules.
                            Its processing, usually in a clandestine laboratory, yields
                            morphine. The gross opium is then purified and becomes
                            prepared opium or “chandoo” shaped as grey bricks or bars.
                            Opium producers obtain 1 to 33 kg of opium per hectare.
       Originally known as a “pleasure drug”, eating and drinking opium, as infusion,
were usual ways of using opium, but in the last 200 years, smoking opium is more
commom. Most of the opium production is now transformed into morphine, codeine and
heroin. Opium is used as such or extractive solution while prepared opium is usually
smoked with a pipe. Opium seizures registered during 2001-2004 remain low.
Discovered cases refer mainly to opium possession for personal use and there aren`t
any clear indications neither of a specific trafficking route nor of an opium market.


                                 Opium seizures (kg) in 2001-2004


   5                                                                                 4.9   1,2
   4                                                                                       1
                                                                                           0,8
   3             2,04
                                                                                           0,6
   2                               0,794                0,57                               0,4
   1                                                                                       0,2
   0                                                                                       0
             2001                 2002                  2003                  2004


                                        Source: The General Romanian Police Inspectorate,
                           The General Directorate for Combating Organized Crime and Drugs



                                                                                                 63
      • Heroin
                              Heroin use increased over the past years. Heroin is a
                        semisynthetic product, a morphine derivative scientifically known
                        as diacetylmorphine. The treatment of opium-extracted morphine
                        with acetic anhydride yields heroin base
                        (diacetylmorphine) and heroin chlorhydrate is
                        obtained by treatment with hydrochloric acid.
                              There are four types of heroin on the
illicit drug market classified according to purity “Heroin no.1”,
“Heroin no.2”, “Heroin no.3”, and “Heroin no.4”. The most common form of heroin is
“Heroin no.3” with an active substance concentration up to 45%, named by the drug
dealers “Brown Sugar”, “Hong Kong Rocks” or “Vogelfutter”. With a concentration of 60-
80% diacetylmorphine, “Heroin no.4” can appear on the illicit drug market as a white,
beige or brown pouder, and it can be supplied as such or mixed with diluting agents
(lactose, caffeine).
        Heroin is now produced in clandestine laboratories that are mainly located in
opium producing countries and the neighbouring ones. Heroin trafficking develops maily
on “Balkan routes” usually dissimulated in goods transited by land. The cases conducted
by the Police and the Prosecutor`s Office showed that heroin is trafficked fromn Turkey
to Romania, in trucks, trains, coaches, and is hidden in luggages or other goods subject
to import-export operations. The heroin stored on the Romanian territory for certain time
intervals is destined for land transportation to Germany, Holland, Great Britain.
        Although heroin seizures don`t indicate an increase of illicit heroin trafficking in
Romania, there is still a tendency of the inland heroin market to strengthen as confirmed
by the soaring number of heroin injecting users. This number was revealed by the rapid
assessments achieved in Bucharest during 2000-2004, which certified that almost 1% of
the capital population inject heroin.
        Heroin seizures reports were inconclusive. If in 2001 heroin seizures amounted to
33,45 kg in the next two years bigger seizures were registered: 202,18 kg in 2002 and
320,70 kg in 2003. In 2004, the total heroin seizures represented 65, 4067 kg.

                             Heroin seizures during 2001-2004 (kg)


        350                                          320.7

        300
        250
                                202.18
        200
        150
        100                                                          65.4067
         50      33.45

          0
                     2001            2002                    2003         2004

                                         Source: The General Romanian Police Inspectorate,
                            The General Directorate for Combating Organized Crime and Drugs



                                                                                         64
      • Cocaine
                           Cocaine is the final product in the process of obtaining
                           cocaine base or cocaine chlorhydrate out of coca bush
                           leaves. After repeated treatments with several chemical
                           substances the products obtained are cocaine paste, cocaine
                           basis and finally cocaine. It appears as delicate, white,
                           chrystalline pouder or as crack
                           (whitish or brown stones obtained by
                           mixture with sodium or ammonia
                       bicarbonate).
The specific cocaine route including Romania is Ecuador-
Venezuela-Holland-Germany. The drug is usually hidden in
parcels or transported by a carrier in or on his body. Small cocaine seizures (2,751 kg in
2001, 2,726 kg in 2002, 12,68 kg in 2003 and 24.5799 kg in 2004) can`t indicate a
developing inland cocaine market. On the other hand, the extremely high price of
cocaine on the illicit market (80-120 euro/gr) encourages its distribution to Western
Europe (Spain, Holland and Germany) and diminishes buying prospects in East-
European countries on the trafficking routes.


      • Synthetic drugs
                        Synthetic drugs are obtained by chemical synthesis, by
                        combination of substances in lab conditions. The best known
                        syntetic    drugs     are    amphetamines,       ecstasy, LDS,
                        benzodiazepine, barbiturates, etc. In the
                        context of the expanding drug trafficking
                        phenomenon in Romania, a rapid
                        evolution of synthetic drugs use and
                        trafficking was observed. On the local
      market the synthetic drug demand is on the rise especially
      among youngsters because of the prices lower than cocaine
      and heroin prices (on the black market one ecstasy pill is 200.000-500.000 ROL
      while 1gr of cocaine is 80-120 EURO and 1gr of heroine is 2-2,5 million ROL), of
      the low risks to which drug dealers expose during transportation and easy
      dissimulation and comsuption possibilities, even in public places.
                 The most frequently abused synthetic drug is Ecstasy, under different
      logos, followed by pouder amphetamine and LSD. As to the persons involved in
      illicit synthetic drug operations, apart from Israeli, Turkish, Holland citizens, the
      number of the Romanian participating in illicit trafficking augmented constantly
      within drug trafficking networks and in drug capitalization operations.
               Judicial call in the analyzed period regarding synthetic drug trafficking and
      seizures shows that our country is located on the following routes:
-   Holland – Romania – USA (via Frankfurt, Paris or London)
-   Holland – Germany – Romania – Israel – USA
-   Turkey – Romania – Saudi Arabia
-   Poland – Hungary – Romania
-   Holland – Hungary - Romania


                                                                                         65
The upward trend in illicit synthetic drug trafficking and use is also revealed by the
seizures of the last three years.

                             Seized amphetamine pills in 2001-2004




                         81939                           67210
                                                                         2001
                                         7924
                                                                         2002
                                                133517                   2003
                                                                         2004




                                         Source: The General Romanian Police Inspectorate,
                            The General Directorate for Combating Organized Crime and Drugs

      • Precursors and clandestine laboratories


        The precursors are those chemical substancies
mentioned in annex no.1 of the Law no.300/2002 on the
juridical regime of precursors used in illicit drug manufacture.
        Based on the new regulations antidrug police
structures took organization and operation measures, that
materialized in identifying offenses influencing directly the illicit
drug production, trafficking and use.
        Thus, in 2003, police officers identified 158 precursor related offences and
rendered unavailable with a view to confiscation 1.936,67 kg and 4.133,94 litres of such
substances. In 2004, 296 similar offences were identified and 312 offenders investigated.
Police work resulted in 15.575,2877 kg and 2.788,9542 litri of seized precursors.
        The analysis of the operative situation regarding precursors in Romania pointed
out the intention of foreign citizens to obtain basic substances for drug production, such
as:
        ** acetic anhydride used in heroin production, usually bought by Turkish
traffickers;
        ** ephedrine sought by traffickers form the ex-Soviet Union supplying the illicit
synthetic drug production;
        ** phenylacetone and phenylmethylcetone that interest Western Europe
traffickers, especially from Belgium and Holland, who possess mobile laboratories at the
border separating the two states.
        Although these substances aren`t produced in Romania, traffickers attempt to
                                           divert the legal circuit of legally imported
                                           precursors and use them in illicit drug
                                           production. In the prevention of such activities,
                                           the NDS Programme (National Drug Control
                                           System) proved to be a valuable asset in


                                                                                         66
monitoring import-export precursor operation. It was offered by the UNO International
Committee on Narcotics, started functioning this year and monitors precursor operations
and agents, establishes final holders, identifies possible societies using illicit substances
under control and analyzes precursor internal and international circuit.
         In 2001, relevant information regarding clandestine drug laboratories led to the
first discovery of an improvised laboratory in which captagon was being processed. In
2002, police discovered other three clandestine laboratories where ecstasy was
produced and in 2003 a clandestine heroin laboratory. The main features of the three
clandestine laboratories discovered in 2002 was the location in the south of the country,
within a unique production network where amphetamine paste was produced out of
BMK, on different processing segments, one for acetic anhydride, the other for BMK and
the third for amphetamine paste.




                 SIRINEASA                                             COPALAU
            (Vîlcea County) -2002                                    (Botos County)
                                                                  PREŞEDINTE
                                                                      Chestor
                                                                      principal
                                                                    VALEA CASELOR
                                                                   (Dîmboviţa County)-
                                                                         2002

                                                                  Prof. univ. dr.
                                                                       Pavel
                                                                    GHERMĂNEŞTI
                                                                     ABRAHAM
                                                                  (ILFOV County)-2002

                                                                       ani)-2003




                                                                      BRAGADIRU
                                                                  (ILFOV County)-2001




                                                 Source: The General Romanian Police Inspectorate,
                                    The General Directorate for Combating Organized Crime and Drugs

        After searching the premises of the five clandestine laboratories and of the
persons working in them the following quantities were discovered and confiscated: 12,53
kg of amphetamine; 120,4 litres of acetic anhydride; 29,45 litres of phenyl-2-
propanone; 47 litres of acetone; 10,9 litres of ether ethylic; 1,4 litres of sulphuric
acid; 4 litres of hydrochloric acid; 63,26 kg of heroine.
        The findings of the investigations were the following:
- the materials and essential chemical substances used in obtaining drugs were
   imported or of local origin;
- some Turkish citizens were involved in drug production networks;
- some drug traffickers wanted to relocate clandestine laboratories from Bulgaria to
   Romania;
- drug related crimes developed under the cover of trade companies that used
   installations and chemical substances for production purposes unsuspected by
   amateurs.


                                                                                                67
        Taking into account that the largest precursor quatities were seized from trade
companies and laboratories that hadn`t obtained in due time the necessary
authorizations for operating with such substances under national control, it can be stated
that there aren`t unusual cases regarding precursor traffic in Romania.

     • Illicit drug cultivations
                                              The crops of psychoactive content plants
                                     were a matter of serious concern for state
                                     authorities mainly in the first part of 2004 when
                                     inconsistence and clumsiness were showed in
                                     authorizing cultivations and in harvesting illegally
                                        cultivated
                                     plants.

        In this context, in 2002, 28 unauthorized
crops were identified (3 poppy crops and 25 hemp
crops), spreaded over 148.89 ha, off which 22,641
kg vegetal mass was seized and registered in
police records as cannabis seizure.
        In 2003, 29 cannabis cultures for which
there weren`t any legal authorizations were
monitored until ripeness and harvesting.
        This time, the activities of the anti-drug units had a preventive character, and
were aimed on one hand at preventing the diversion of these plants by drug traffickers
and on the other hand at convincing those who tradictionally cultivated hemp to obtain
the necessary authorizations.
        In 2004, 34 unauthorized cannabis cultivations were identified and monitored,
and in Covasna county 4 illicit opium poppy cultivations were discovered and 206.4 kg of
opium poppy were obtained off them.


     • Monitoring the legal circuit of medicine with narcotic active ingredients




                                            Medicine with narcotic active ingredients
                                   represent another element of interest for the police.
                                   In the field of the legal drugs circuit Police
                                   cooperated with specialists from the county
                                   farmaceutical directorates mainly in prevention
                                   activities. Checkings in farmaceutical units revealing
                                   offences under law 143/2000 on countering illicit drug
                                   trafficking and abuse resulted in 7,416 confiscated
                                   vials and 38,806 tablets with psychotropic content in
2003, while 514 vials and 84.419 similar tablets were confiscated in 2004.




                                                                                       68
                                           On the other hand, police discovered
                                    pharmacies without proper authorizations for
                                    operations with medicines with narcotic active
                                    ingredients, identified young people who used false
                                    medical prescriptions to obtain such medicines for
                                    personal use (300 false prescriptions in 2003 and
                                    152 in 2004), and discovered mutual associations
                                    that smuggled in such medicines and sold them on
                                    the local market.
       More serious is the discovery of cases in which medical personnel prescribed
medicines with narcotic active ingredients to under aged or young adults.

3.3. Modus operandi in illicit drug trafficking
        The last period`s analyses revealed a constant increase of the number of
Romanian involved in drug trafficking activities, and their growing importance as drug
carriers, middlemen, sellers or drug storage suppliers.
        The soaring drug demand on the inland market brought about the intensification
of the internal drug trafficking of which street trafficking reached alarming degrees mainly
in Bucharest.
         The categories most frequently involved in street trafficking within trade network-
like activities are former Roma and Romanian pickpockets and attackers who redirected
their attention to such kind of illicit activities generating fast money.
        The National Anti-drug Agency and police officers achieved in September 2004
an assessment of the street trafficking in illict drugs in Bucharest which yielded
conclusions that traffickers are mainly contacting young people known to have had
problems with the law, who come from shattered families or people known for their
violent behaviour, pimps, prostitutes and gamblers.
       To avoid legal liability drug dealers involve different drug users in selling drugs or
minors who aren`t legally liable and don`t know the heads of the drug networks.
       In order to make evidence unavailable and not to be caught red-handed street
drug dealers use a range of skilful methods aimed at:
- separating cashing from passing drugs by operating in different locations and
using different persons at different times of the day. During such transactions
money are usually given in a safe place and are immediately transfered to accomplices
in the area, while drugs are delivered after a couple of hours in another spot and at
different time intervals. A frequently used method in the last period is hiding heroin
doses outside of buildings while buyers are sent to pick them up.
- reducing the time of the drug sale and drug use by checking the value of the
goods and having the user consume the drug on the spot, on buying it. In order to
achieve this some distributors force the drug users to inject or consume the drug in their
presence, inside or in the street, according to transaction.
        Regarding drug distribution areas it can be stated that they are scattered almost
all over Bucharest, in all districts and quarters, especially in those populated by Roma
foreigners, and some Iranian, Turkish and Iraki citizens. Another reason for concern is
related to groups of young people who purchase in pharmacies medicines with narcotic
active ingredients by using false medical prescriptions or forged by scanning.


                                                                                          69
         Efficient prevention and countering of drug related crimes imply specific activities
accomplished simultanously on two fields – drug demand and drug supply – which
involves, on one hand, knowing the mechanism of production and illicit drug trafficking
activities, and on the other hand, keeping illicit drug use under control. This concept is
even more necessary as traffickers tend to organize in groups or structures of organized
crime reducing in this manner the risks of being discovered by law enforcing agencies.

3.4. Trends in illicit drug trafficking and abuse
        By analyzing the manifestation of drug related criminality, some future trends can
be outlined:
-   because of the harsh security measures at USA borders, the European market for
    psychotropic substances trafficked from the Far East (China, Birmany, Cambogia,
    Laos, Vietnam) will expand to the prejudice of the traditional one in the context. This
    development will certainly affect our country, too.
-   the increase of heroin demand and offer in Europe will bring about the extension of
    classical routes or the creation of new ones. Clothes and food-loaded trucks will
    continue to be the most frequent drug transportation means.
-   more active presence of members of crime networks who ensures the transit of
    significant quantities of precursor across Romania and attract precursor agents or
    accomplices from the underworld, establish second locations, storage and
    transportation.
-   in the context of a certain vulnerability in controlling the legal precursor circuit the
    interest of some Turkish, Duch, Israeli and Romanian drug traffickers in acetic
    anhydride and ephedrine is expected to grow, with a view to providing stocks for the
    clandestine laboratories in Turkey, where heroin is processed.
-   establishing in Romania new laboratories for synthetic drugs by traffickers in the
    Balkan area
-   within the general trend of progressively replacing opiates with synthetic drugs, illicit
    trafficking and use of such drugs is expected to grow, especially among youth.
-   drug money laundering will intensify because of specialists from the financial-bank
    field and corrupting civil servants attracted by trafficking organizors.
-   There is a possibility for the number of drug users to grow, especially among young
    and under-aged ones. At the same time, drug-injecting use, mainly among heroin
    users, could increase. This will be more relevant when recreational drug users
    become dependent drug users.
-   because of the drug users` need to obtain resources necessary for buying drugs,
    there is a high risk of amplifying drug related criminality as well as of greater
    involvement of drug users in drug trafficking.
   Irrespective of the predictability degree of such trends, we have to pay attention to
two marking factors:
- globalization of the drug markets and drug use, which translates into drug sales
   according to the risks of the illegal drug market;
- the immediate effects of Romania`s joining the European Union on Eastern borders
   security, perviousness of the Western borders, higher standards of living, and
   greater access to Dutch, Spanish, Greek, Italian drug markets.



                                                                                          70
     Moreover, the enlargement of the European space will bring about greater drug
issues and adequate measures should be taken.
     Thus, in the field of specific antidrug policies and judicial activities, existing
cooperation tools and unexploited capacities should be brought to use so that states
dealing with the same drug problems cooperate into finding the best solutions.
     It is undoubtedly necessary to aling to the positive European practices both in
approaching the drug user and in countering illicit drug and precursor production and
trafficking, but in order to unfold this process the penal judicial system should function as
a whole (Police – Prosecutor`s Offices – Courts – Penitentiaries – Probation) in close
connection to medical services.
     Changes are complex and not forced on us, which allows us to establish and build a
valid system responding to actual possibilities and realities, which could be later on
developed properly.


3.5. Implementing the National Anti-drug Strategy in the field of drug supply
reduction

       3.5.1. Institutional development of structures specialized in drug supply
reduction

        All institutions specialized in fighting illicit drug trafficking and use were
progressively and substantially involved in the field in 2001-2004. The special structures
within the Prosecutor`s Office with the High Court of Cassation and Justice, the General
Romanian Police Inspectorate, the National Customs Authority took important steps
towards renewal regarding institutional enforcement, forming and training qualified staff,
improving equipment and logistics and enhancing internal and international cooperation.
        a. In the field of institutional enforcement, above-mentioned authorities
            adapted and modified their structure under the pressure and tendency of the
            operative national and regional situation, according to the demands of the
            European integration process or the recommendations of the National Anti-
            drug Agency within regular evaluations of the reduction of drug supply and
            demand.
        b. A new Unit for Combating Organized Crime and Drugs, which includes the
            Service for Countering Illicit Drug Trafficking and Use, was established within
            the Prosecutor`s Office with the High Court of Cassation and Justice.

        The special character of penal drugs and precursor’s related cases raised the
need of special trainings for seven prosecutors and the division of the Service into the
Office for countering internal illicit drug trafficking and abuse and the Office for
countering drug transborder trafficking, laboratories and cultivations.
        In the territory, the unit has specialized structures, both in the Prosecutor`s
Offices with the Courts of Appeal (15) and in the Prosecutor`s Offices with tribunals.
        These structures perform the legal pursuit in cases of drug use or trafficking
related offences committed by organized groups and lead and control specific activities
in the field carried out by the General Directorate for Combating Organized Crime and
Drugs of the General Romanian Police Inspectorate. The total number of prosecutors
working in the field is 125.
         Within the General Directorate for Combating Organized Crime and
Drugs, there is a functional Anti-drug Directorate as a special central unit that leads,
coordinates, guides and controls the anti-drug activity both locally and nationally. It


                                                                                          71
comprises of specialized services for Countering the trafficking in synthetic drugs,
hashish and derivatives, for Countering the trafficking in heroin, opium and derivatives
and for Precursors, clandestine laboratories and cultivations.
         The Anti-drug Directorate, with a total staff of 26 police officers, benefits from the
support of the technical structures within the Operation Directorate as well as of other
services, in applying strategies and action plans. The Anti-drug Directorate includes 15
Zonal Centers, organized under the pattern of jurisdiction areas of the Courts of Appeal,
with a staff of 177 police officers. These Zonal Centres coordinate the activity of 42
county services and 6 other services for combating organized crime and drugs in
Bucharest districts (224 police officers).
         The steps taken by the Anti-drug Directorate to increase the capacity of
intervention and reply to the new forms of manifestation of illicit drug trafficking and use
let to the establishment of drug prevention and countering structures in all county police
inspectorates and police districts in Bucharest. Seven territorial departments were
established to analyze data obtained from specific anti-drug activities, English experts
trained qualified staff and in Cluj-Napoca, a laboratory for physico-chemical drug
analyses was created and equipped by external financial support.

          Under the law in force, the Romanian Border Police is the specialized
institution responsible with supervising and controlling state border crossing, with the
preventing and countering illegal migration and specific transborder criminality. Within
the Directorate for Countering Transborder Criminality of the General Romanian Police
Inspectorate, there is a Service for Countering Prohibitted Substances Trafficking. This
service was established at central level, at the proposal of the National Anti-drug
Agency, has a staff of nine police officers and other 36 working in 6 directorates of the
Border Police. The other 21 county inspectorates of the Border Police have 58 police
officers. At border crossing points there are over 106 agents with drug dogs.
          The organizational chart of the Customs Surveillence Directorate in the
National Customs Authority includes the Service for Countering Trafficking in
Drugs and Special Regime Products.
             According to the Regulations for applying the Customs Code, in order to
abide by the customs regulations, the National Customs Authority accomplishes its tasks
in the territory through the customs offices at the border, within borders and in harbours.
In order to increase the action capacity of the Service, the Anti-drug Department and the
Anti-drug Information Management Department were set up in July 2004.
         The staff of the national Customs Authority numbers 537 anti-drug customs
servants (10 working in the Service for countering trafficking in drugs and special regime
products and 527 working in regional anti-drug control departments). Due to its customs
workers specialized in countering drug related crimes, the National Customs Authority
plays successfully an important role in reducing drug supply by specific surveillance
activities, controlling and monitoring customs points and cooperating with other
institutions involved in countering illicit drug trafficking and abuse.

        b. Regarding internal and international cooperation on the reduction of drug
supply, Romanian institutions showed genuine openness towards partner institutions in
other states and the international bodies monitoring and controlling drugs started to
participate actively in the field. Thus, prosecutors from the Service for countering illicit
drug trafficking and use participated in the seminary organized by EUROCUSTOMS in
several sessions, in Prague, from October 2002 to June 2004, within the Regional
Programme on Drugs “Enhancing cooperation between drug enforcement agencies”
both internally and regionally.


                                                                                            72
         Within specific activities for countering transborder trafficking in drugs and
precursors and for instrumenting penal cases, the Service cooperated with similar
institutions from abroad, as the Drug Enforcement Agency – U.S.A., Bundeskriminalamt
- Germany, and Direzione Nazionale Antimafia – Italy.
         The Anti-drug Directorate cooperated permanently with anti-drug bodies from
abroad and integrated in this manner Romania in the European effort to counter
transborder drug and precursor trafficking.
         This structure fulfills tasks in the drug supply reduction field in cooperation with
other structures of the Romanian Police, with special units of the Ministry of
Administration and Interior (The General Directorate for Information and Internal
Protection, the National Focal Point S.E.C.I., the General Border Police Inspectorate,
Passport Directorate, the Directorate for Foreigners and Migration) as well as with the
Romanian Intelligence Service, Foreign Intelligence Service and the National Customs
Authority.
         International cooperation developed within programmes and subprogrammes
such as: PHARE Programmes (regarding Institutional Twinning; The Fight against
Drugs; The Precursors Project; The Synthetic Drugs Project – future objectives), Central
European Initiative (I.C.E) and more complex programmes of the South-East European
Cooperation Initiative (S.E.C.I), aimed at preventing and countering transborder
criminality.
         On the other hand, the Border Police keeps improving its cooperation capacities
both nationally and internationally. Within the Institutional Twinning Covenant
RO2002/JH-01 on “Increasing the capacity of the Romanian Border Police to fight
against transborder trafficking in drugs and human beings”, it improves its internal
regulations in order to enable the fight against drug trafficking.

        c. Regarding training and specializing professionals involved in reducing
drug supply, it has to be stated that all institutions involved in this field manifested
preoccupation and interest. Thus, specialists from the Ministry of Justice and the Public
Ministry took part in the seminaries organized by the TAIEX Office within the European
Commission, on the theme of good practices in judicial cooperation in penal matters,
extradition, European warrant of arrest, countering organized criminality.
        In the National Magistracy Institute, training courses and seminaries were
organized for the magistrates regarding judicial cooperation in penal matters, at regional
and international level, for combating organized criminality and drug trafficking. Other
training activities for magistrates within the Twinning Covenant RO/IB/2003/JA/10 are
the object of a specific programme initiated in December 2003 with the support of the
Dutch Government and the participation of The School of Magistracy in Bordeaux.
        Antidrug police officers were trained in sessions, preparatory couses and
experience exchange with other law enforcement agencies, in country and abroad.
        In Romania, during 2001-2004, police officers specially trained in the field of
preventing and combating organized crime attended several training courses organized
by the Police Academy “Alexandru Ioan Cuza”.
        Abroad, many training courses were organized within the PHARE Programme –
“The Fight against Drugs” with the support of different law enforcement agencies in
Germany, France, USA, Italy and Great Britain.
        Moreover, the staff of the data analysis service in the General Directorate for
Combating Organized Crime and Drugs was trained within two programmes ( UNODC
programme AD/RER/01/F35 and REFLEX Project Romania) in the field of anti/drug data
analysis and anayzing data on human trafficking. Training courses were held in



                                                                                          73
Romania, Bulgaria and Great Britain and were delivered by specialists in data analysis
from West Yorkshire Police.
        Within the “Vasile Lascar” Training centre for police agents in Campina, 100
police agents were trained in 2003, in the field of organized crime and anti-drug and in
the Bucharest Postuniversity Centre 12 training courses were held for anti-drug officers
from zonal centres and county services for combating organized crime and drugs.
        For the latter category of officers, courses were held in the “Nicolae Golescu”
Training centre for police agents, in Slatina.
         Border police officers involved in anti-drug activities participated in
preparatory sessions in order to acquire the best practices of the EU member states
within 41 specific activities within the Institutional Twinning Covenant RO2002/JH-01 on
“Increasing the capacity of the Romanian Border Police in fighting transborder trafficking
in drugs and human beings”.
        The National Customs Authority staff involved in anti-drug activities
participated in over 50 training sessions, meetings, national and international seminaries
of which the most important were: within the PHARE Regional Programme customs
inspectors, together and police officers from the Anti-drug Directorate and Border Police
were trained in special investigation techniques; two workshops within the project
PHARE EUROPEAID/11338883/D/SV/RO “Enabling Danube border crossing”;
seminaries on “drug hiding places” organized by Drug Enforcement Agency (USA) and
“Developing methods for countering drug trafficking”, together with specialists from the
National Customs Authority, the General Border Police Inspectorate, the General
Directorate for Combating Organized Crime and Drugs and the Public Ministry; training
course on using busters; a seminary on precursors and essential chemical substances
organized by the National Anti-drug Agency.

         c. Regarding equipment and logistics, specialized structures requested
constantly over the analyzed period modern technical equipment and performance
control and investigation means but the necessary logistics for surveilling drug
traffickers, controlled drug shipments, equipping with drug testing kits and technical
equipments for the identification of drugs dissimulated in transportation means and
containers was ensured only partially.

       3.5.2. The accomplishment of the objectives of the National Anti-drug
Strategy in the field of drug supply reduction

        The Romanian Government declared the fight of the state institutions in preveting
and combating criminality as one of the top priorities in 2001-2004. The adoption of the
National Anti-drug Strategy for 2003-2004 was the main short-term coordination tool
used on in this field.
        Regular evaluations of how the National Anti-drug Strategy is implemented and
monitoring the results obtained by each institution involved in fighting drugs led to a
global image of the drug phenomenon, to projecting efficient tools and action methods
and to a better apportion of resources to the risk areas.
        Competent authorities and the public disposed of extremely useful data sources
such as the evaluation reports on the implementation of the National Anti-drug Strategy,
drown up by the National Anti-drug Agency, the presentation of trends and
manifestations of the drug phenomenon both at European and international level and
presentations of the trends and features of the illicit drug trafficking and use in Romania.




                                                                                         74
         The initial views on how to keep drug supply under control led to some objectives
stipulated in the National Anti-drug Strategy 2003-2004 that proved to be unrealistic,
because they weren`t based on a deep analysis of the trends in drug supply in Romania.
         The specific objectives, for the fulfillment of which concrete actions had been
taken by the structures qualified in countering illicit drug trafficking and abuse,
represented the main pillars of these structures` activity.
         In order to establish the efficiency of strategic conceps regarding the reduction of
drug supply in the light of the drug phenomenon in Romania, the analysis of how
measures stipulated in the application plan had been implemented should take into
account the changes brought about by these activities in this field.
         The lack of this kind of work mechanism in setting objectives was the root cause
for planning objectives that provesd to be unrealistic and sometimes totally contrary to
the trends in illicit drug and precursors trafficking and use.
         The strategic objective “reducing drug supply bu 30% in the next two years” is
one of the objectives described above.
         In other words, of the ten specific measures established for fulfilling objectives in
the field of drug supply reduction only six were taken, with the massive contribution of
the National Anti-drug Agency.
         Fulfilled objectives referred to tailoring the legislative framework to the trends in
the drug phenomenon and the communataire aquis, to strengthening cooperation and
enabling information flows towards state authorities qualified in the field, between them
and the international ones, as well as to mutual programmes for a more efficient fight
against drugs.
         The objective regarding the creation of a special fund of goods confiscated from
illegal drug trafficking, precursor trafficking and drug related crimes, was accomplished
once the Law no.381/2004 on financial measures in the field of prevention and
combating illicit drug trafficking and abuse was adopted. In this manner, a legal
framework was created to ensure supplementary financial sources for the fight against
drugs, which should make a positive change in the field.
         A new destination was established for the amounts obtained by capitalization of
goods confiscated in drug or precursor related crimes and for finances assigned to
programmes and projects of reducing drug supply and demand. This destination will
bring about the concrete and measurable effect of bigger funds allocated to the fight
against drugs, and will be an incentive for operative activities, including indentification,
making unavailable and confiscating resources used in committing drug related crimes
         The law project on the judicial regime of products and substances with narcotic
and psychotropic active ingredients was completed during the PHARE project “Fighting
against Drugs Trafficking and Abuse” by specialists of the Ministry of Health, the Ministry
of Agriculture and Environment, the Ministry of Public Finances and the National Anti-
drug Agency, supported by Spanish and French experts.
         The adoption of the specific legislation on countering illicit drug trafficking and
abuse contributed to the creation of an adequate legal framework allowing the Anti-drug
Brigade and other institutions involved in fighting drugs to access the public and private
database during anti-drug investigations. Another important contribution to the legal
framework was made by interconnection on-line of the General Directorate for
Combating Organizeg Crime and Drugs, the Population Evidence Directorate, the
General Border Police Inspectorate and Passport Directorate.
         Moreover, the General Directorate for Combating Organized Crime and Drugs
signed a collaboration protocol in order to regulate the access to the National Office of
the Register of Commerce.



                                                                                           75
         The investigations regarding drug money laundering are enabled and
coordinated according to the Law no.656 / 07.12.2002 on preventing and sanctioning
money laudering.
         The General Assembly of the National Office for Preventing and Countering
Money Laundering coordinates money laudering investigations. The Assembly is a
decision-making structure formed by members elected by Governmental Decision on a
five-year term who represent the Ministry of Public Finances, the Ministry of Justice, the
Ministry of Administration and the Interior, the Prosecutor`s Office with the High Court of
Cassation and Justice, National Bank of Romania, the Court of Accounts and the
Romanian Bank Association.
         According to chapter no.4 (Drug Supply Reduction) of the National Anti-drug
Strategy 2003-2004, the National Office for Preventing and Countering Money
Laundering signed partnership protocols with the Ministry of Public Finances, the Genral
Romanian Police Inspectorate, and the Romanian Court of Accounts, the National Office
of the Register of Commerce, the National Customs Authority and The National Anti-
drug Agency.
         The operative agreement with the EUROPOL initialized in Hag, on May 13, 2003,
was signed in Bucharest on November 25, 2003 by the director of this European
institution and the minister of Administration and Interior. By the Law no.197/25.05.2004
this agreement was ratified.
         The institutional construction began once a EUROPOL unit was set up inside the
National Focal Point of the Ministry of Administration and Interior, opening in this manner
data and information channels to the European Police Office. This cooperation body will
ensure relevant opportunities for a more efficient activity of the Romanian qualified
structures with a view to creating the necessary framework for coordinating
investigations and specific operations at European level.
          The process of drafting the Great Anti-drug Romanian Alliance Programme by
the National Anti-drug Agency fundamented on operation plans of each institution by
which the drug phenomenon dimension was established and risk elements in reducing
drug supply were identified.
         In May 2003, the Anti-drug Directorate of the General Directorate for Combating
Organized Crime and Drugs began specific activities to implement the Action
Programme “Against white death”, aimed at expanding and diversifying police activities
of countering illict drug trafficking and abuse bot also in preventing the use of
substancies with narcotic active ingredients or psychotropic substances.
         In order to make more efficient the activities of interception of drug and
precursors transports at Romanian borders, the General Romanian Police Inspectorate
drew up a methodology regulating the tasks of the specialized personnel and setting up
unitary work procedures.
         Apart form the objectives accomplished and mentioned above, other four
activities for implementing the objectives regarding drug supply reduction are partially
achieved or in progress. Delays are caused mostly by the lack of financial resources and
technical equipment.
         The capacity of the Anti-drug Brigade to analyze and process data could have
been strengthened and increased by a system for collecting data and by establishing a
statistical pattern according to the one the EUROPOL was using. The process was
supposed to include the General Romanian Police Inspectorate, the General Border
Police Inspectorate, the General Customs Directorate, the General Directorate for
Information and Internal Protection of the Ministry of Administration and Interior and
other specialized institutions The Regional Centre for Combatting Transborder
Criminality in the South-East of Europe (SECI), the National Focal Point of the Ministry


                                                                                        76
of Administration and Interior. The activity was achieved only partially at the level of the
General Directorate for Countering Organized Crime and Drugs, which created the
application “The Operation register” as a sectorial analysis tool. The application included
informative-operative activities in progress at the structures for combating organized
crime and drugs.
         The Directorate is now collecting data on drugs, essential chemical substances,
precursors and toxic inhalants from all data supplying institutions under the Law
no.143/2000 on countering illicit drug trafficking and abuse and the Governmental
Decision 1359/2000 for the approval of the Regulation for putting into force the
provisions stipulated under Law no.143/2000 and cooperation protocols with several
institutions: the General Romanian Police Inspectorate, the General Directorate for
Information and Internal Protection, Foreign Intelligence Service, the National Office for
Reffugees, the General Directorate for Personal Data Record and the National Customs
Authority.
         The data collecting system in use is a data collector which doesn`t ensure data
transmission in due time in order to be use in operative activities when crimes are in
progress.
         In order to create a drug database the National Anti-drug Agency concluded
collaboration protocols with several authorities such as the National Customs Authority,
the General Border Police Inspectorate, the National Office for Preventing and
Countering Money Laundering, the Romanian Information Service, the Ministry of
Justice, the Ministry of Economy and Commerce.
         The database is more functional in concept then in practice, because of the
rudimentary means of data transmission and implementation and the data flow is
generated only by request of the National Anti-drug Agency.
         “The establishment of a new Central Register for investigations of drug related
crimes which includes all operations completed or to be initiated by the General
Romanian Police Inspectorate, the General Border Police Inspectorate and National
Customs Authority” is another activity for fulfilling the objective “ strengthening and
increasing the capacity of the Anti-drug Brigade to analyze and process data”.
         The Investigation Register wasn`t created because of insufficient funds to
purchase the elements of an adequate IT system and because of the prevalent police
mentality to use operative data for the benefit of their institution, while zelously protecting
them, and set the importance of an efficient fight against drugs on a second plan.
         Following the Spanish pattern that proved to be highly efficient over the last ten
years, the National Anti-drug Agency coordinates the activity of the institutions involved
in preventing and countering illicit drug trafficking and use. This main task could be
accomplished by using the mentioned register, which could ensure the proper use of
resources of the institutions involved in fighting drugs and rend anti-drug actions more
efficient.
         The objective “drafting a plan for technological modernisation including the best
laboratory equipment for physico-chemical analysis of drug as well as obtaining
equipments for surveilling, pursuing and detecting drugs in different means of transport”
is in progress. The plan established only the needs for modern technology without
getting to the necessary technical equipment.
         The territorial laboratories for physical and chemical drug analyses in Iasi,
Timisoara and Constanta weren`t brought into function, nor was the central physical and
chemical drug analyses laboratory in the General Directorate for Countering Organized
Crime and Drugs properly equipped. The exception to the rule is the Zonal Centre in Cluj
which received spaces for a laboratory for chemical and physical drug analyses,
personnel and a part of the necessary equipment within an assistance programme of the


                                                                                            77
US Embassy in Bucharest. The rest of the equipment will be supplied through a 2003
PHARE Programme “The Fight against Drug Trafficking and Abuse”.
        Another objective regarding “making up mixed control teams to operate in
airports and harbours, an electronic research team for external customs etc., in order to
strengthen the capacity to counter organized criminality” is now under completion and
benefits from the financial and technical support of Spain within an Institutional Twinning
Programme.
        In 2001, the Risk Analysis and Assessment Unit was set up in Constanta harbour
including both border police officers and customs workers. In airports mixed teams made
up of a border police officer and a customs worker are in charge with drug control.

3.5.3. Conclusions


   Regarding drug trafficking, Romania is still a part of the “Balkan Route”, mainly the
    northen branch which includes Afghanistan, Iran, Turkey, Bulgaria, Romania,
    Hungary, Slovak, Czech, Germany and Holland. It is expected for this route form
    Turkey to Romania to divert and shorten, across the Black Sea.
   Romania is on the synthetic drug trafficking routes that start developping eastwards
    from the West (Holland, Belgium and Germany).
   Drug related crimes increased constantly year after year, since 1989 (in comparison
    to it, drug related crimes in 2004 increased 180 times) and will continue so in the
    next period.
   The fact that only 54% of the offences under Law 143/2000 are related to drug
    trafficking indicates the on-going preoccupation of the qualified institutions to
    contribute to fighting drugs by drug seizures and less by anihilating large traffickers`
    groups.
   Drug related offenders are aged 21 to 29, mainly male (79%), secondary school
    graduates (almost 50%), with criminal records (over 65%) and without occupation
    (about 60%).
   The contribution of the Border Police and especially of the National Customs Authority
    to drug seizures is low. In airports drug related discoveries are insignificant while in
    Constanta Harbour they are totally missing.
   In comparison to the number of cases sent to the Prosecutor`s Offices for approving
    legal pursuit, the number of solved cases is relatively low, which could lead to thinking
    that the number of drug specialized prosecuros is below real needs.
   At the beginning, the National Anti-drug Agency had problems in collecting drug related
    data because the institutions active in fighting drugs, especially the Prosecutor`s Office
    and the Police, were reluctant in providing data and feared losing their autonomy and
    functional independence. The reason they mentioned for not providing data was the
    lack of a proper legislation allowing NAA to collect such data.
   Mainly because of the lack of funds, the Agency didn`t manage neither to create a
    database on drugs nor to connect with the IT systems of the institutions involved in
    reducing drug supply (even drug demand).
   Although collaboration protocols were concluded between the institutions involved in
    reducing drug supply, the cooperation was inconsistent and resulted only in mutual
    assistance during investigations, mainly at border crossing points.


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    The stipulations of the National Anti-drug Strategy 2003-2004 regarding the reduction of
     drug supply were general stipulations, and the plan for putting the Strategy into force
     didn`t manage to direct the energies of the institutions towards efficiently countering
     drug trafficking and abuse.
    Most of the objectives included in the plan for putting the Strategy into force were
     fulfilled except for those drawn up wrongly (ex: the general objective to reduce drug
     supply by 30% in the next two years) or obscurely (ex: the objective to establish a
     central investigation register for drug related crimes in which all operations completed
     or to be initiated by the General Romanian Police Inspectorate, the General Border
     Police Inspectorate and the National Customs Authority should be included). These
     objective weren`t fulfilled because the Strategy didn`t stipulate a location for it and
     others because they implied great financial resources to be engaged in modern
     equipment, and these resources were unavailable.



Chapter 4


                      INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION



4.1. General overview

         In the last few years, Romania’s increasing efforts in the field of foreign affairs
facilitated the achievement of the full membership status in the North Atlantic Treaty
Organization and the forthcoming accession of the European Union.
         Following the same trend, the international cooperation in the area of the fight
against drugs pursued a leading thread by the active participation of the Romanian
institutions to the global efforts of reducing drug demand and supply.
         The relationship with European Union attained a special focus mainly, once
Romania became a candidate-state and expressed its wish to gain full membership. It
manifested primarily in the harmonization of the intervention policies and strategies with
the ones of the European Union, the implementation of the aquis communautaire in the
field of drugs, and technical and financial assistance within PHARE programmes. The
Romanian qualified institutions have developed together with various partners from the
European Union, a significant number of joint activities focusing the fight against
international drug trafficking. In the same time, the transfer of know how intensified in the
fields of drug use prevention, of the treatment and social reinsertion of drug addicted
persons.
         The enter into force of the Cooperation Agreement with Europol, signed in
November 2003, and initialised in April 2004, of the Agreement on Romania’s
involvement in the activities of the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug
Addiction created the premises for developing the cooperation process in this field.
         In its relation with other countries, Romania struggled to apply the United
Nation’s conventions on drugs, to increase the cooperation in the reduction of illicit drugs
trafficking and use and their consequences.




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         At its request, the United Nation Commission on Drugs (C.N.D.) in Viena
received statistical data regarding the implementation of the United Nation’s Convention
from 1988 and of other international conventions in which Romania is a signing party.
         The participation of Romanian representatives to the proceedings of various
international bodies enabled the opportunity to exchange ideas and to set several useful
contacts with other representatives, both from international structures involved in the
fight against drugs (the United Nation Commission on Drugs, the United Nation Office
on Drugs and Crime, the European Centre for Monitoring Drugs and Drug Addiction,
Interpol, Europol, Eurocustoms and others) and from the leading structures of similar
institutions in other countries.


4.2. International Cooperation activities developed by the institutions involved in
the fight against drugs


       The Institutions involved in the implementation of the National Anti-Drug Strategy
2003-2004 benefited from the support given by bodies dealing with drug incidence within
the European Union, United Nation, regional and zone organizations. In 2004 only, they
were involved in 83 international cooperation events organized abroad, represented by
128 experts and in 67 international cooperation events organized in Romania, where
362 experts participated.
        The various forms of the international cooperation allowed the institutions
specialized in preventing and combating the illicit drug trafficking and use in Romania, to
find out the proccupations of other member states, the policies developed and the
methods and proceedings used in fighting drugs. Furthermore, the Romanian institutions
were interested in the study, forming and training activities organized and led by the
European designated bodies, like Europol, Eurojust, Eurocustoms, which support and
encourage in specific programme framework the adoption of the European Union’s
standards and procedures in fighting illicit drug trafficking and use.
        In this period, a series of events enable the interconnection of the Romanian
concerns in preventing and combating the drug phenomenon with the ones of other
states from around the globe. We should mention: The Ministerial Conference of the
Pompidou Group ( Dublin – Ireland), the 46th Conference of the International Council on
Alcohol Addiction (ICAA) and the First Round Table concerning the research, prevention
and intervention in addictions (Toronto-Canada), the 46th Session of the United Nation’s
Commission for Drugs (Viena – Austria), the Conference concerning the establishment
of a collective system in the area of drug abuse for South-East European countries
(Dubrovnik – Croatia), The Reunions of the Subcommittee no.8 European Union-
Romania “Customs, Taxation, Drugs, Money Laundering” (Bruxelles, 2003, Bucharest
2004), the 16th Congress of the European College of Neuro-Psycho-Pharmacology
(Prague- Czech Republic), European Union’s Work Reunion regarding the assessment
of the impact different policies have on health (Luxemburg 2003), and others.
        If in 2003, the international activities in the process of implementation of the
strategy targeted mainly the setting of contacts and agreements with specialized
European institutions and organizations, in 2004 a qualitative leap was noticed, once
Romanian institutions started participating actively in international activities regarding the
fight against drugs as follows:




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     • The Prosecutor’s Office with the High Court of Cassation and Justice
        In the examined period, five prosecutors from the Prosecutor’s Office with the High
Court of Cassation and Justice took part in five international reunions focused on the
drug phenomenon, two of which took place in the Czech Republic and the other ones in
the Republic of Moldavia, Turkey and Hungary. Representatives of the European Union
and Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) also participated in the meetings. The
Reunions were dedicated to enforcing the cooperation between agencies in combating
illicit drug trafficking and to the final evaluation of the regional PHARE programme on
drugs.


     • General Romanian Police Inspectorate

       During 2004, this institution, by the representatives of General Directorate for
Combating Organized Crime and Drugs and of its territorial structures took part in 27
international cooperation events, developed in 14 countries: Italy, Hungary and Turkey
(4 in each one) Czech Republic (3), Serbia and Montenegro (2), Spain (2), Austria,
Belgium, Croatia, France, Israel, Moldavia, Slovakia and Uzbekistan. In these activities
were involved 50 police officers from the General Directorate for Combating Organized
Crime and Drugs or the regional Centres, as well as representatives from international
bodies such as Europol, Eurocustoms, Interpol, OSCE, DEA, the regional Centre
SECI, the Pompidou Group of the European Council, the South East Europe Stability
Pact, The United Nation Office on Drugs and Crime, the French-Austrian Centre,
besides representative countries concerned with the drug phenomenon, such as Great
Britain, U.S.A. and the European Union member states.
         Seven of the international cooperation events approached tangible cases of
investigation and discovery of illicit drug trafficking such as the ones under the code
name “FOG”, ”DOUBLE FACE” and “CONTAINMENT”. Moreover, two supervised drug
deliveries were operated together with representatives of Germany, Italy, Great Britain,
Hungary, Bulgaria, Slovakia, Turkish Police and experts from Europol, DEA Viena and
the regional centre SECI.
         Three events were performed within the PHARE programme framework, a
seminary was organized as a part of the European Union 2003 AGIS Programme, and
two seminaries as part of the United Nation’s Turkish International Academy against
Drugs and Organized Crime (TADOC).
         Among other international cooperation activities attended by the Romanian
Police representatives we should mention: The Reunion of the leaders of anti-drug units
South-East Europe countries (Croatia 22nd-23rd of April), the third experts` Reunion in the
Initiative of the Paris Pact (Uzbekistan, 25th-29th of April), the annual meeting of the
Cooperation Group on anti-drugs control on European airports organized by the
European Council Pompidou Group (Belgium, 16th-18th of June, the second international
Interpol conference on drugs and organized crime (Italy, 27th of June – 2nd of July), the
International Conference organized by French- Austrian Centre on the topic “Citizen
security within an enlarged Europe”, (Slovakia, 28th-29th of June), and others.
         Regarding international cooperation activities in our country, in the mentioned
period a number of 184 representatives of the Romanian Police took part in 35 events
together with police representatives and experts from Austria, Germany, Spain,
Hungary, France, USA, Holland, Israel, Great Britain, Belgium, Canada, the European
Union, the European Council, Europol, Eurocustoms, DEA, Hanns Seidel Foundation
and the Stability Pact Initiative to fight Organized Crime (SPOC).


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        These events focused on training Romanian police officers involved in fighting
drugs in order to identify the latest trends in drug dealers` modus operandi, the new drug
transport routes and establish efficient bilateral and multilateral cooperation. At the same
time, these events enabled several successful experience and information exchanges.


     • The General Border Police Inspectorate

       Border police officers took part in 13 international cooperation events, six of which
were held abroad and 7 in our country. Thus, 17 border police officers took place in joint
activities abroad, in five countries (the Czech Republic, Spain, USA, Turkey and
Hungary), while 42 attended activities organized in our country. Of these activities, we
should mention the seminary on the “Supervised drug deliveries and the EU handbook
regarding supervised drug deliveries” in the Czech Republic, the seminary on “Practical
instruction in the process of current investigation procedures in the field of drugs
trafficking” held in Spain. Of the ones held in Romania, we should mention the three
training seminaries organized as a part of the Institutional Twinning Covenant with Spain
and Germany.

     • The National Customs Authority

       Representatives of this institution and experts from Bulgaria Poland, Europol and
Eurocustoms attended seven international cooperation activities performed in five
countries (the Czech Republic, Spain, USA, Turkey and Hungary). The 17
representatives of the Romanian Customs Authority were trained on the subject of
strengthening inter-institutional cooperation in fighting drugs, the management of the
European and international drugs databases, on countering transborder crime on border
air and land crossing points, on knowing different data coordination and analysis
systems and the assembly of a customs special laboratory etc.
         In the same period, a number of 34 customs experts joined 11 international
cooperation events held in Romania together with experts from France, Germany, Great
Britain, Spain, Ukraine and representatives of Europol and Eurocustoms. The events
aimed at training the participants in approaching the fight against transborder drug
trafficking, the European and international drugs data bases management, the
evaluation of the anti-drug activity in airports, the bilateral cooperation between two
neighbouring countries, risk analysis, the role of the contact centres in international
bilateral cooperation. At the same time, the evaluations of the development of the
Containment III – SAFE HAVEN operations were achieved together with SECI experts
from Great Britain and U.S.A.
         It should be noticed that eight of these international cooperation activities
performed in our country and abroad, were achieved as part of PHARE programmes.


     • The National Sports Agency

     In 2004, twelve experts of this institution attended six international events on
doping in sports, performed in France (5) and Germany, and two UNESCO’s sessions
debating the draft project “International Convention Against Doping in Sports”, two
reunions of the Doping Monitoring Group of the European Convention against doping,


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the reunion of the coordination Forum for World Anti-Doping Agency and one anti-doping
workshop. In our country, a symposium, in which participated 70 persons and several
experts from Belgium and Turkey, was held on the role of the anti-doping laboratory.


     • The Ministry of Health

       The Ministry of Health, through the General Medical Care Directorate, sent to the
U.N. the necessary data for the Romanian annual national report on the trends in drug
use and the monitoring of the treatment activities in this field.
       In June 2004, the Ministry of Health was represented in two workshops
organized by the Anti-Drug Committee for South East Europe, in Dubrovnik and Zagreb,
on setting up a unitary European system for reducing drug supply and demand by
improving prevention and treatment activities for drugs users.


4.3. The Implementation of the National Anti-Drug Strategy 2003-2004


         The efforts made to fulfil the objectives regarding international cooperation were
encompassed in the entire society’s concerted action to accelerate the adjustment of the
legislative framework according to the aquis communautaire and to fulfil the
commitments took by our country regarding the completion of the negotiation process
view to joining the European Union, by the end of 2004.
       Since the establishment of the National Anti-Drug Agency, through the steps
taken by it towards coordinating the international cooperation of specialized institutions
and by accomplishing the objectives of the National Anti-Drug Strategy, Romania proved
to be a credible and important partner in the fight against drugs. This was
acknowledged during international events and resulted from the evaluations performed
by EU bodies active in the drug field.
        Of the 13 objectives stipulated in the National Anti-Drug Strategy regarding
international cooperation, 10 of them were fulfilled, and the others are on their way.
        On November 25, 2003 negotiations were completed and the Cooperation
Agreement between Romania and Europol was signed. This document will allow an
information exchange on the prevention and combating of the drug phenomenon.
        On November 25, 2003 at the Agency’s headquarters took place a reunion of
liaison officers of the Regional Centre for Cooperation Initiative in South-East
Europe on Countering Transborder Criminality (S.E.C.I.). On this occasion, were
presented both the National Anti-Drug Agency, the strategy adopted and its role in
preventing and combating the illicit drug trafficking and use, and the activities
accomplished in the anti-drug field. At the same time, the connections with the National
Focal Point of the Ministry of Interior and Administration were maintained ensuring the
participation of specialized institutions representatives in activities regarding the drug
phenomenon, organized by the S.E.C.I. Centre.
        According to the action plan stipulated by the National Anti-Drug Strategy 2003-
2004, the documentation necessary to support Romania’s accession proposal to the
European Council Pompidou Group was completed. The law project on Romania
participating as a full member state to the activities of the European Council Pompidou
Group was forwarded on December 16, 2004 to the Romanian Government.


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         The negotiations between Romania and European Union regarding the
participation of our country to the activities of the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs
and Drug Addiction were completed, and on April 5, 2004. The text of the Agreement
was initialized by the minister of Interior and Administration and by the chief of the
European Commission delegation.
         The activity of the Romanian Observatory on Drugs and Drug Addiction
developed according to European specific standards, implied the participation of its
personnel in organized events, aimed at training the staff on the operating methodology
of some E.M.C.D.D.A. indicators used in monitoring the drug phenomenon in the EU
member and candidate states.
          The opportunity offered by the European Commission within the assistance
PHARE programmes on drugs, respectively: PHARE- Multi-beneficiaries and PHARE
Twinning were turned into account by Romania trough the active involvement in
developing and implementing several regional projects. Thus, the PHARE Regional
project on drugs within the PHARE- Multi-beneficiaries programme targeted: the
strengthening of the cooperation between Police, Customs and the Border Police in
fighting illicit drug trafficking; an efficient information exchange between the above
mentioned institutions with a view to discover and annihilate new drug traffickers`
networks; establishing necessary conditions for supervised drug deliveries, extending
the anti-drug cooperation at regional level, with similar institutions from the European
Union member and candidate states; strengthening border control; harmonizing the
national legislation with the European Union guidelines on combating illicit trafficking in
drugs, essential chemical substances and precursors; training some experts from the
project’s beneficiary institutions in areas of the fight against drugs. Moreover, the
PHARE project “Synthetic Drugs and Precursors” (PSD II), within the PHARE- Multi-
beneficiaries Programme developed on a two-year period (2002-2003), in ten E.U
candidate countries. Within the programme, the necessary equipments for the
annihilation of illicit drug laboratories were supplied to the qualified institutions and
training activities were organized for the experts of the National Anti-drug Agency,
“Alexandru Ioan Cuza” Police Academy and the General Directorate for Combating
Organized Crime and Drugs.
         The Romanian annual report on drugs was submitted to the E.M.C.D.D.A. within
the terms established by this European organization.
         The contacts with the representatives of the U.N. Programme for Drugs Control
and Identification in Romania and the U.N. Office on Drugs and Crime in Viena focused
on identifying funding opportunities for our country and benefiting form assistance and
cooperation programmes. These contacts resulted in a set of proposals, which are to be
evaluated in terms of efficiency.
         Based on the objectives included in the National Anti-Drug Strategy, efforts were
made by the Agency’s leadership to establish and extend the cooperation with similar
institutions from other countries and international bodies involved in fighting drugs. The
National Anti-drug Agency wrote and sent letters to the ambassadors of the EU member
states, as well as to other states involved in the fight against drugs, through which it
stated its interest in cooperating with similar structures from the represented states.
         The list of the countries with which Romania concluded cooperation agreements
in the field of the fight against drugs was updated and started activities preparing
dialogues that would take place with a view to signing bilateral cooperation protocols
with similar structures, mainly in neighbouring countries.
         At the same time, according to the tasks established in the Priority Measures
Plan for Romania’s accession to the European Union, December 2003-December 2004,
the proposals of the Ministry of Interior and Administration on the negotiation of a


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number of cooperation protocols with similar agencies from the People’s Republic of
China, Israel, and the Russian Federation were approved by the Prime Minister of the
Government. The diplomatic representations in Romania forwarded the texts of these
documents to the above-mentioned countries.

4.4.   Conclusions

          Multiple international contacts of the representatives of the Romanian
           institutions involved in the implementation of the National Anti-Drug Strategy
           illustrated that our country is more and more considered a trustworthy
           partner, known by its capacity and determination to act resolutely against the
           drug phenomenon, both at national and international level, in close
           cooperation with the international bodies and countries concerned by the
           drug issue.
          Our country concluded until now many bilateral agreements, (32 cooperation
           agreements on countering illicit drug trafficking and 22 in the wider field of
           combating organized crime, including the drug related one), or is a party of
           multilateral agreements on preventing and combating the transnational crime
           (OCEMN, SECI). In spite of this, many of the above-mentioned agreements
           did not turn efficiently to account, in terms of making joint activities with
           similar institutions from the signing countries on the prevention and
           combating of the drug phenomenon. Such deficiencies manifested specially
           in the field of drug demand reduction.
          The National Anti-Drug Agency took steps for the conclusion of some
           cooperation agreements with the neighbouring countries, informed all the
           embassies of these countries about its establishment and objectives, and
           proposed that work meetings should be organized to evaluate actual
           collaboration opportunities. Unfortunately, the steps taken by the National
           Anti-drug Agency were not as successful as expected, and the projects
           remained in initial stage. Better results were obtained in relation with
           Bulgaria, Hungary and Slovakia.
          The accredited diplomatic representative offices in Romania and the
           international bodies involved in the fight against drugs should be regularly
           and accurately notified (in terms of statistical data) on the activity performed
           by the institutions involved in implementing the National Anti-Drug Strategy.




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CHAPTER 5


      THE ROLE OF THE NATIONAL ANTI-DRUG AGENCY IN
     IMPLEMENTING THE NATIONAL ANTI-DRUG STRATEGY

                                        2003-2004


          The establishment of the National Anti-drug Agency, a prerequisite of Romania`s
alignment to the standards of similar structures in the European Union member states,
brought about an intense activity of the institutions and the social society in preventing
and coutering illicit drug use and trafficking. Coordinated efforts have been also made to
fulfill the objectives and measures set by the National Anti-drug Strategy.
          The analysis of the Agency`s role in implementing the objectives set by the
National Anti-drug Strategy must have as a strating point the activities deployed for the
institutional enforcement of the Agency, with limited resources.


5.1. The institutional enforcement activity
        The main steps taken with great efforts and abnegation by the leaders of the
National Anti-drug Agency were finding and arranging proper headquarters, creating the
normative and organizational framework necessary for an efficient activity in adequate
conditions and assuring financial resources, even if limited.
        The number of 40 work places (except for the President), included initially in the
structure of the Agency, proved insufficient as the tasks and duties of the Agency
became more and more complex.
        By Governmental Decision no. 1093/15.07.2004 modifying G.D. no.1489/2002, a
regulatory act initiated by the National Anti-drug Agency, the Agency`s staff list was
extended to 321 positions, of which 235 belonged to the territorial Centers for Anti-drug
Prevention, Evaluation and Couselling.
        This measure was the first step towards creating a territorial network of the
National Anti-drug Agency in order to achieve primary evaluation of drug users, to
monitor the level of drug use and to realize the connection betwen all the institutions for
treatment and social reinsertion of drug users. The second and most important step that
will be made by the end of February 2005 is reorganizing and putting these centers into
function.
        With a view to a better function, the National Anti-drug Agency created in 2003
the Center for Information and Documentation, which has an archive of more than 1,000
documents on specific topics and foto albums. The documentary fund is continuously
growing with new materials sent by similar foreign institutions as well as by international
bodies for drug control.
        The human resources management was accomplished according to legal
provisions and specific orders.
        The personnel of the National Anti-drug Agency, structured by education and
specialties, reflects its high qualification and the diversity of the fields in which it carries
out its activity. Of the 39 employees of the Agency, there is one vacancy and 38
university gratuates in the following fileds: 18 juridical, 8 psychology, 5 medicine and



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pharmacy, 3 economy, 2 chemistry and 2 others. Of them, 6 have doctor scientific titles,
6 are preparing their doctor`s degree, 17 finished postuniversity or postacademy
courses, 4 attend master courses at the Faculty of Sociology and Social Assistance
within the University of Bucharest and 5 the master course at the “Alexandru Ioan Cuza”
Police Academy.
         The need to complete its staff made the Agency accept volunteers. Across
Romania, the National Anti-drug Agency has over 800 anti-drug voluteers and 40 at the
headquarters.
         The preparatory activity for the staff consisted of training sessions for
professional improvement within programmes for on-going preparation – seminaries,
probational period in country and abroad, master and doctor`s courses. There were also
information and coordination activities in the field of drugs from which benefited
representatives of the institutions resposable with the implementation of the National
Anti-drug Agency. This activity translated into didactic activities in several learning units,
anti-drug theses delivered during communication sessions and joint symposia. Thus, we
should mention the courses on special topics delivered by members of the Agency within
master courses at the Faculty of Sociology and Social Assistance – the University of
Bucharest, at the “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” Police Academy destined to future police
officers and soldiers and in other institutions of the Ministry of Interior and
Administration. Other activities were a basic course for operational information analysis
held in Constanta, in September 2004, within the Institutional Twinning Programme with
Spain and the PHARE Programme “The fight against drug trafficking and abuse”. The
preparatory activities also included study visits in Spain, in October and December 2004,
at the National Plan on Drugs and the General Police Directorate, where participated
representatives of the Agency, of the Police, the Border Police, and Customs etc.
         Regarding financial resources, it should be mentioned that the National Anti-
drug Agency is a third credit administrator and accomplishes its activity based on the
budget allocated by the main credit administrator that is the Ministry of Interior and
Administration.
         In 2003, funds were allocated from a limited budget destined to fulfilling duties
stipulated by law, of which 52% represented personnel costs and 48% assets
expenditures, but there weren`t any available financial resources for the
implementation of the National Anti-drug Strategy. Because of the austerity budget,
the situation remained the same in 2004, when specific activities were not financed.
         In this context, the National Anti-drug Agency`s main concern regarded finding
external financial resources to ensure necessary funds for all institutions involved in
fighting drugs, to draft projects and develop programmes to fulfil the objectives of the
National Anti-drug Strategy. Due to the Institutional Twinnig Covenant RO03/IB-JH-05
“The fight against drug trafficking and abuse”, Romania benefited from the financial
support of the European Union, within the PHARE Programme. A part of the budget
allocated to this covenant, of which 1.650.000 euro by the European Union, was used by
the Agency in the establishment of a national resource center for the management of the
drug issue, and in a national campaign for the prevention of drug use. The General
Directorate for Combating Organized Crime and Drugs used another part of the budget
in order to equip two drug analysis laboratories and train their personnel, while
institutions like The General Inspectorate of the Border Police and the National Customs
Authority used parts of the total budget for training courses destined to their staff on the
reduction of drug supply,. The Ministry of Health also benefited from this budget, which
was employed in the review of the legislation in the field of psychotropic drugs circuit.
         Within the 2004 PHARE fiche “Enforcing institutional capacity of the Romanian
agencies involved in drug supply reduction” applied to the European Commission, the


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institutions involved in reducing drug supply are to benefit from about 2.720.000 euro
allocated by the European Union. The funds are destined to the following projects:
    - the consolidation and integration of the Centers for Anti-drug Prevention and
         Councelling;
    - establishing a Center for Evaluation and Study on Drugs;
    - the implementation of the key-indicators of the European Center for Drugs and
         Drug Addiction;
    - professional training of the staff of the institutions involved in drug supply
         reduction;
    - revising the institutional framework of legal medicine as a support to the penal
         justice system,
    - improving the capacity of legal medicine to make assays on body fluids in order
         to identify the level of drug use.
         On signing the Agreement between the National anti-drug Agency and the
Ministry of Health – The Unity for Management of the Global Fund Project and of the
World Bank for “Combating AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria” external non-reimbursable
funds were given in order to support two projects aimed at “Fighting HIV/AIDS – a
coordinated and multisectorial answer in Romania”.
         Thus, 48.318 USD were allocated to the activity 14.1 enforcing the management
of the national anti-drug programmes within objective no.2 of the general project
Enforcing the national system for medical care and psychosocial support with a view to
reducing the HIV/AIDS impact on infected, affected and vulnerable persons – which
refers to creating and developing national standards of therapeutical practice applied on
drug users.
         Another amount of 147.900 USD was allocated to the activity no.20 developing
monitoring and surveillance of the level of drug use, within the objective no.3 enforcing
the system for monitoring and surveillance of HIV/AIDS infections and associated risky
behaviours. In order to achieve this objective an infrastructure has to be created in order
to give the National Anti-drug Agency independence in collecting data on drug users
seeking treatment, in setting a data base and in interpreting data in a professional
manner, according to European standards. On the other hand, the National Anti-drug
Agency should be able to make a general population survey in order to estimate the
level of awareness, practices and attitudes of the general population towards the
complex issue of drugs.
         Regarding logistics, the National Anti-drug Agency didn`t benefit from serviceable
equipment which led to the impossibility to create and properly secure the information
network and to outline a proper and coherent concept for its development. Moreover, the
Agency is technically underequipped and the existing equipment is obtained mainly
through sponsorship. It is necessary for the National Anti-drug Agency to make its own
database on the drugs phenomenon that should be supplied with data through a network
including the main institutions involved in the field of drugs.
         In this context, a step towards a better communication and information of the
structures of the Agency and of the lay public was the connection to the INTERNET and
the design of the Agency`s Web page, at present not supervised by a network
administrator.

5.2. Coordinating the implementation of the National Anti-drug Stategy.
       Result assessment.

      As stipulated by the Guvernmental decision no.1489/2002, The National Anti-
drug Agency plays the role of a national coordinator in the field of prevention and


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countering illicit drug trafficking and abuse by establishing a unique concept and
unitary strategic guidelines in approaching the drug phenomenon. Competent state
authorities and other non-guvernmental institutions and organizations active in the anti-
drug field should apply them. Coordination implies the establishment of the indicators
and unique criteria of estimation of the drug phenomenon. Another side of the
coordination conducted by the Agency is approving the creation of non-guvrenmental
bodies, which are involved in complementary activities of prevention of the illicit drug
trafficking and abuse.
         In this field, the coordination in drafting the National Anti-drug Strategy, the action
plans and the observation of how they are brought into force are targeted onto:
     - the activity of the centers for anti-drug prevention, evaluation and councelling;
     - the collection, analysis and dissemination of data and information on drugs and
         drug addiction, respecting confidentiality;
     - monitoring national programmes for countering illicit drug production and
         trafficking and drug money laundering;
     - programmes for the prevention of the illicit drug use.
     Within its coordination activity, the National Anti-drug Agency helped bring about and
improve the collaboration between all the institutions involved in the reduction of drug
demand and supply.

       5.2.1. Coordination in the field of drug supply reduction
        Marking the International Day of the Fight against Smoking – May 31, 2003 and
of the International Day of the Fight against Illicit Drug Trafficking and Abuse – June 26,
2003 were some of the debut activities in the field of illicit drug use prevention. Later on
action was taken to connect and set up relationship with the institutions that should fulfil
the objectives related to drug supply reduction stipulated by the National Anti-drug
Strategy. Thus, contacts were established with the staff of the Centers for Anti-drug
Prevention, Evaluation and Councelling in different counties and districts of Bucharest,
as well as with NGOs known for their activity in the field. Thus, for a more efficient
activity in preventing and countering illicit drug use, the National Anti-drug Agency
concluded collaboration protocols with the Ministry of Education and Research, the
Ministry of Health, the National Authority for Youth, the National Office for the
Consumer`s Protection and the National Agency for Youth Initiative Support.
       At the same time, the Agency started to estimate the drug use level and to verify
the terms of granting medical care as well as to coordinate programmes and prevention
campaigns, as follows:
        ** a National Campaign for Preventing Alcohol Abuse – “Children do what
they see” for school and family, unfolded during November-December 2003, in
partnership with the Ministry of Health – The General Directorate for Public Health, the
Ministry of Education, Research and Youth – The General Directorate for Evaluation,
Prognosis, Strategies and Programmes in the Preuniversity Education and its units in
the territory, with district Town Halls in Bucharest and other county municipalities, the
County Police Inspectorate and the General Police Directorate of Bucharest and finally,
with the Centers for Anti-drug Prevention, Evaluation and Councelling.
       A symposium titled “Partners in preventing drug use – present and
perspectives” was organized with the support of the General Directorate for
Preuniversity Education in the Ministry of Education and Research, in which participated
representatives of the school inspectorates in 20 counties and Bucharest.




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        ● In universities, the National Anti-drug Agency coordinated the „Programme for
the prevention of drug use in universities” targeting the Universities in Bucharest, which
included the following activities:
        *** signing 5 collaboration protocols with the main beneficiaries of the
programme: the University of Agronomy and Veterinary Medicine in Bucharest, the
Academy for Economic Studies in Bucharest, the University in Bucharest, the
Polytechnic University and the Technical Construction University in Bucharest.
        *** the „The 2004 Anti-drug Summer Camp”, a project conducted in
partnership with the National Academy for Physical Training and Sports (A.N.E.F.S), the
Students` Association in A.N.E.F.S. and the Federation Youth University Allience in
Bucharest. The project consisted in organizing an anti-drug camp on the A.N.E.F.S.
sports field in Eforie Nord resort to which participated, as main beneficiaries, 100
A.N.E.F.S. students and 2000 young turists in Eforie and Constanta resorts.
        *** a prevention Campaign „A CLEAN Campus!” was organized in partnership
with the National University of Agriculture Sciences and Veterinary medicine
(U.N.S.A.M.V.) and the Student Association in U.N.S.A.M.V. The campaign consisted of
three interactive meetings with almost 300 the students and an „Anti-drug Prom” where
teachers and students received diplomas and awards in recognition of their support to
the campaign or their learning results.

    ● Among the activities in the drug supply reduction field organized,
coordinated and developed by the National Anti-drug Agency, one of the most
important was the project “My anti-drug message” consisting in a contest among
teenagers and students who expressed in an artistic manner their own vision on drug
related risks.
   During April-May 2004 a National Campaign marked the International Day without
Tabacco “Give health to your your child”, with a view to raising the awarness of the
family of the measures that should be taken to reduce the present dimensions of
tobacco use. The campaign ended with the “Bucharest declaration” signed by 7
governmental authorities and 14 non-guvernmental organizations.
    On the International Day against Illicit Drug Use and Trafficking, June 26, 2004, the
National Anti-drug Agency organized a programme of scientific, sport and cultural events
conveying an anti-drug message, which included several activities such as the
inauguration of a painting exhibition and an anti-drug message poster “Another way!
Choose life!”, theatre play staged in collaboration with students of the Film and Theatre
University in Bucharest, the international scientific session held on an anti-drug topic and
a book release “Choose life. Drug is death!”. In collaboration with Dinamo Sports Club in
Bucharest and the National Children`s Palace, the Agency organized the “ANA
Children`s Football Cup” and the Anti-drug Cross “Run for your life!”, the second
edition, in partnership with the Directorate for Youth and Sport of the Municipality of
Bucharest. The Regie Students` Compound in Bucharest was the location of many
concerts and entertaining evenings with anti-drug message. Informative-prevention
materials on drugs (catalogues, fliers, brochures, posters) and short-films (Romania -
the National Anti-drug Agency – Choose life!) supported these events as well as
specialists of the National Anti-drug Agency who participated in radio-tv shows.
      The Fight against Drugs Campaign started June 25, 2004 with a concert given by
the most important bands in Romania (Iris, Sarmalele Reci, Hi-Q, Sexxy, Impact,
Emanuel, K-Pital, Dj Star) promoting the Agency`s message “Anti-Drug Night
Adventure”. The event had media partners B-24-Fun, Academia Catavencu, MTV



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Romania, Kiss FM, Popcorn and main partners Maxx Club and the International Council
on Alcohol and Addictions.

       ● Regarding local programmes for the prevention of drug use, 440 programmes
were organized during 2003-2004, of which 275 by the centers for anti-drug prevention
and councelling and 165 in partnership with other non-governmental institutions and
organizations. 299 intensive courses were delivered with a view to organizing and
preparing the local anti-drug prevention network.
       With great efforts mainly because of the lack of funds, the National Anti-drug
Agency succeeded in bringing into use on September 1, 2004 a free phone line
0808.700.700, within the project “Help-line” in partnership with Romtelecom.

         ● The cooperation with non-guvernmental organizations involved in drug use
prevention, which develop programmes for the reduction of drug supply, resulted in
collaboration protocols for the implementation of joint programmes for drug use
prevention (The “Save the Children” Organization, The International Fundation for
Children and Family) and for training professionals in the field of addictions. A
collaboration protocol with the Association “All for life” generated a programme in the
field of primary drug use prevention in the population exposed to risks. Together with the
Association “The Romanian Group for the Human Rights Protection – GRADO” a pilot
project for the prevention and treatment of addictions was implemented, and together
with the Association for Promoting Justice to Under aged “Jean Valjean” a programme
for preventing juvenile criminality and primary drug use was developed. Other projects
for primary and tertiary prevention of drug use and the foundation of several after-care
therapeutic community type centers were jointly implemented.
         The National Anti-drug Agency involved in drug demand reduction in the
penitentiary system, supporting in this manner the National Penitentiary Administration in
implementing statistical indicators and monitoring data on the prevention activities of
these institutions.
         The Agency established connections with specialists from the Dezintoxication
Unit of the Rahova Penitenciary in order to develop treatment programmes and with the
Cultural-Educating Service staff of the same penitenciary in order to implement a pilot
programme for primary prevention. At the same time, the Agency presented its concept
during seminaries organized by the Directorate for Rehabilitation and Social Reinsertion
of the Ministry of Justice on the ways of collaborating in the field of drug users’ social
reinsertion.
         The establishment of therapeutic communities in 2004 represented an ambitious
project of the Agency that requested many efforts. Up until now, efforts have been done
to find possible locations, finances, generous partners as well as volunteers to be sent to
trainings abroad. This resulted in new locations in Timisul de Jos (Brasov) and
Samburesti (Olt) found in partnership with The National Camp Agency and School
Tourism and with the Association for Communitary Safety and Anti-drug Olt. Efforts to
establish an after-care therapeutic community and a training center for professionals in
the treatment of drug addicts are still being made together with the University Hospital
Bucharest.

        ● The collaboration with the media was achieved due to the Agency`s own
specialists (for example the TV programme “ANA-Choose life!” broadcast weekly on the
national TV station and the programme “Toleration Zero” at Tele7 abc, OTV and
Realitatea TV) or locally, through the Centers for Anti-drug Prevention and Councelling.



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       The Agency presented the measures taken in the field of drug demand and
supply reduction and data from public polls during several events or monthly press
conferences.

       5.2.2. Coordination in drug supply reduction

         In order to create concrete cooperation instruments with the institutions involved
in drug supply reduction, with bodies and non-guvernmental organization of the civil
society, to rend the fight against illicit drug trafficking and abuse more efficient, the
National Anti-drug Agency concluded protocols with: the Romanian Intelligence Service,
the National Customs Authority, the National Agency on Substances and Dangerous
Chemical Products within the Ministry of Economy and Commerce, the National Office
for Preventing and Countering Money Loundering, the Ministry of Justice, the General
Inspectorate of Border Police, the General Inspectorate of Romanian Police, Foreign
Intelligence Service, the National Statistics Institute, the Romanian Association of
Precusors` Operators in the Ministry of Health.
         Generally, the object of cooperation consists of information, data and document
exchange, participating in joint activities according to each institution`s competence,
specialized assistance and training.
         The National Anti-drug Agency organized meetings focused on analyaing the
drug phenomenon, on establishing the necessary indicators and the work manner with
the representatives of these institutions for more efficient drug supply or demand
reduction activities.
         The National Anti-drug Agency`s database is the main tool in information and
operation coordination between all institutions involved in preventing and countering the
drug phenomenon. Its building started once the institution began functioning by
contacting competent bodies and creating a normative framework for collecting and
sending data. Up until now, the statistical data and information collected regarding
preventing and countering illicit drug trafficking and use served in the analysis, study,
and assessment of the drug phenomenon and its trends at national level and in the
schetching of a strategic reply of the competent institutions.
         In order to establish an efficient coordination, the National Anti-drug Agency, as
well as other similar European institutions, must consolidate certain operating
information related to operations deployed by qualified institutions (police, customs and
border police) and, in the case of overlapping data, must guide the institutions in their
efforts to efficiently complete their tasks, according to pre-established criteria. In this
way, the useless use of human, material and financial resources is avoided, the time
dedicated to investigations shortened, and the success guaranteed.

         Regarding evaluations, at the end of the first quarter of 2003, the Agency made
the first assessment of the implementation of the National Anti-drug Strategy. In this
report, the Agency analyzed the trends and dynamics of the drug phenomenon, of the
juridical and institutional framework, both local and international, as well as the activities
of prevention and countering illicit drug trafficking and use carried out in Romania, since
1990.
         The 2003 Evaluation Report represented the second assessment made by the
Agency and offered a more accurate analysis of the way and degree to which the
National Anti-drug Strategy 2003-2004 was implemented by institutions involved in
strategic objectives and based on the report conclusions were drown and measures
were taken for the improvement of their activity. The report was transmitted to all
institutions involved in drug supply and demand reduction and analyzed by the Supreme


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Romanian Councel of Defense that approved it. In order to acquaint the officialties with
its plans and achievements, the National Anti-drug Agency sent Evaluation Reports, in
English, to the embassies of the European Union states in Romania and gave them to
foreign dignitaries visiting our country.
                 The adjustment of the legislative framework is one of the most
important objectives of the National Anti-drug Strategy materialized in drafting proposals
for bringing the present legislation in the field into accord with the international
stipulations and the complexity of the national illicit drug trafficking and abuse
phenomenon. Updating the legislation is an important task of the National Anti-drug
Agency and a form of manifestation of its coordination function. Up until now, the
Agency has accomplished all its commitments in the field of legislative
harmonization. Thus, within the institutional enforcement process, the idea of creating a
central structure and a territorial network of the National Anti-drug Agency became more
concrete and this objective was achieved with the adoption of the Governmental
Decision no.1093/15 July 2004 on the amendment and conclusion of the Governmental
Decision no.1489/2002 on the establishment of the National Anti-drug Agency.
         At the same time, because the lack of funds caused some deficiencies,
legislative steps were taken to create supplementary finance resources for the
prevention activities and countering illicit drug trafficking and use. These steps led to the
adoption of the Law no.381/2004 on financial measures in the field of prevention and
countering illicit drug use. The act settles the exclusive destination of amounts resulted
from the capitalization of confiscated goods from drug and precursors related crimes,
and finances for programmes and projects of prevention and countering illicit drug
trafficking and abuse.
         At the same time, the control and monitoring mechanisms for operations with
precursors and to what extent the Romanian system is in consonance with European
stipulations were subject to reanalysis. Through the Law no.505/November 17, 2004 on
the amendment and conclusion of the Law no.300/2002 on the juridical regime of
precursors used in the illicit manufacture of drugs, some modifications were made
regarding the following issues:
     - redefinition of terms;
     - supplementing the list of precursors that can be possessed without authorization
         or approval;
     -    canceling the export licence for precursors;
     -    assigning the General Police Inspectorate competence to receive notifications
         regarding trade operations with precursors without physically entering the
         Romanian territory.
     Moreover, some competencies regarding the control and surveillance of operations
with precursors were redistributed to the qualified newly entitled authorities and a
cooperation mechanism for cooperation with the associations of precursor agents was
set up.
     Because of the growing drug use in Romania the legislative framework created by
the Law no.143/2000 on countering illicit drug trafficking and use had to be modified in
order to change the position towards drug users and to ensure them proper medical,
psyhological and social care. The amendment to this law, approved by law no.522 /
November 24, 2004, establishes the possibility for drug users to be included in the
integrated assistance chain, on their own will. It also stipulates that courts can postpone
or abandon the sentence if the drug user is attending the assistance programme. The
amendments mention that the term “drug addict” be replaced by “drug user” and
“dependent drug user”, introduce concepts such as “therapeutic chain”, “evaluation” etc.,



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emphasize the sanctions for drug users acoording to the risk category to which the drug
belongs and introduce specific tasks for the National Anti-drug Agency.
         The juridical regime of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances, established
by Law no.73/1969 is now under review of the Ministry of Health that, after joint
deliberations with the National Anti-drug Agency and the bodies involved, will draft the
law project regarding the juridical regime of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances
and products.
         Based on the implementation assessment of the National Anti-drug Strategy
2003-2004 and after consulting with other institutions involved in reducing illicit drug
trafficking and use (non-governmental, civil society, media, international and regional
bodies), the National Anti-drug Agency drafted a project called The Great Romanian
Anti-drug Allience Programme (Programul Marea Alianta Romana Antidrog –
M.A.R.A.). Its main five-year objective is creating and implementing the National
Integrated System for preventing and countering illicit drug trafficking and abuse. The
Romanian Supreme Council of Defence through the Decision S146 / June 23, 2004
approved the project. The estimated amount necessary for implementing the programme
is 92 mil. Euro, that will be ensured from the budget (25%) and from European Union`s
programmes and of other international bodies. Institutions such as the Ministry of Health,
Ministry of Education and Research, Ministry of Labour, Social Solidarity and Family, the
Ministry of Justice, the Public Ministry, the National Customs Authority, the civil society,
media, international and regional bodies will also benefit from this amount.
The main objectives of the M.A.R.A. programme are:
     - The implementation and development of the sectorial prevention programmes;
     - Bringing into function the centers for anti-drug prevention, evaluation and
         councelling;
     - Establishing complex services for drug users within the therapeutic chain;
     - Enforcing institutions involved in reducing drug supply;
     - Redimension the human, financial and material resources;
     - Trainings;
     - Initiating and intensifying collaboration with similar foreign institutions and
         international bodies controlling and monitoring drugs and the dynamics of illicit
         drug trafficking and use in Romania.
     Through analyses and studies, the National Anti-drug Agency informed on a
quarterly basis the Romanian Government on the trends in the drug phenomenon and
the measures taken according to the National Anti-drug Strategy 2003-2004 by all
institutions involved in reducing drug supply and demand or in countering illicit drug
trafficking and use.


5.2.3. In international cooperation

        In the context of Romania`s future accession in the European Union, the
National Anti-drug Agency coordinated the drafting of the sub-chapter Drugs, necessary
in the conclusion of the negotiations of Chapter 24 „Justice and inernal affairs”. Thus,
specific contributions were made to the Position Documents (2003, 2004),
Complementary Position Document II (2004), Supplementary Information Document II
(2004). The Agency also coordinated the drafting of the basic materials and presented
Romania`s official position in meetings of the Subcommittee 8 Romania-European Union
(Brussels, 2003 and Bucharest, 2004).
        At the request of the European Union, Romania revised the Action Plan of the
National Anti-drug Strategy 2003-2004 through the National Anti-drug Agency which


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conducted the work team. At the same time, supported by all institutions involved in
implementing the National Anti-drug Strategy 2003-2004 made the firts Interim
Implementation Report 2003-2004, highly appreciated by the representatives of the
European Union for „the clarity of data and honesty”. Both the revised Action Plan and
the Interim Evaluation Report were later on appraised by the European Union as positive
results of the Country Report 2004.
         The Romanian experts of the National Anti-drug Agency who participated in
several gatherings of the specialized structures of the European Union or other member
states established new contacts and facilitated information inflow.
         The Cooperation Agreement with Europol signed on November 25, 2003 and the
Agreement on Romania`s participating in the European Monitoring Center for Drugs and
Drug Addiction (EMCDDA), on April 5, 2004, represent the key elements in the
development of the Agency`s connections.
          New steps towards gaining the member status in the Council of Europe`s
Pompidou Group materialized in drafting a law project, by the Agency, on Romania`s
participating as a full member in the activities of the Group. The project was submitted to
the Romanian Parliament for approval.
         Within periodic meetings of the Dublin Group for the Balkan, organized by the
Greek Embassy, the Agency presented to liaison officers and internal affairs attaches of
the EU states embassies the national drug situation, the trends in the phenomenon, the
main achievements in the fight against drugs, priorities and future plans.
         Another contribution to the enfoecement of regional collaboration was the
meeting organized by the National Anti-drug Agency in the autumn of 2003 with liaison
officers working in the Center for Countering Transborder Criminality SECI.
         Within the drug demand reduction plan, relations with similar structures in Spain,
Hungary, Nepal, Moldavia, Austria, Germany, Netherlands, Italy, Portugal and Pakistan
were mentained in order to prepare and implement joint programmes.
         One of Romania`s priorities was making the most of the opportunities offered by
bilateral agreements with different states, especially regarding the expertise and good
practice exchange in illicit drug use prevention and social reintegration of drug users.
          Special stress was laid on developing bilateral relations with similar structures in
EU member states, USA, Canada, Israel, the Russian Federation, Bulgaria, Azerbajdjan,
the People`s Republic of China.
         The National Anti-drug Agency is actively participating in organizing and
unfolding activities within the 2003 PHARE Twinning Project (RO/2003/IB-JH-05) “The
fight against drug trafficking and abuse”. At the same time, on connecting with the
qualified institutions, the Agency supported their efforts in being better equipped from the
technical point of view.
         Within the Ministry of Health`s National Programme on Drugs, a proposal was
made concerning a National Guide on Clinical Management of the Drug User that is to
be used by professionals working in the treatment and psychological counselling of drug
dependent users.
         In order to enforce the monitoring activity of drug use and abuse, the proposed
activities are aimed at creating a national infrastructure necessary for the electronical
registration and collection of data on treatment demand. To this end, a unique
registration code for the patients seeking treatment will be introduced thus avoiding
double counting and the first study will be performed in the general population in order to
consider knowledge, attitudes and practices related to drug use and abuse.
         At the same time a 2004, PHARE Fiche Enforcing the institutional capacity of
Romanian public institutions in the drug demand reduction field was drafted and applied
to the European Union. It stipulates, among others, the joint training of specialists in


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state institutions and non-guvernmental organizations involved in drug demand
reduction, the revision of the national criminalistic services, developing the ability of the
legal medicine institute to identify drug metabolites in body fluids as well as creating a
Center for Studies and Evaluations on Drugs.


       5.2.4. The Romanian Monitoring Center on Drugs and Drug Addiction


        Some of the main activities of the RMCDDA were drafting the National Report on
the Drugs Situation, filling in the standard tables, and sending them to the EMCDDA. In
2003, the RMCDDA accomplished all its objectives. The EMCDDA uses the data
provided by the National Report in an Annual Report, which presents comparatively the
present situation on drugs in EU member and candidate states. In October 2003, the
National Antidrug Agency`s headquarters was the place of release of the “2003 Annual
Report on Drugs in Candidate Countries” and the “2003 Annual Report on the Drus
Situation in Member States”.
        One of the RMCDDA priorities is the implementation of the epidemiologic
indicators and of the key indicators. To this end, in the reference year, the RMCDDA
drafted a project which was granted finances from the World Bank – the Global Fund,
through the programme “Countering HIV/AIDS: a comprehensive, coordinated and
multisectorial answer in Romania”, amounting to 147,900 USD. The project, which can
be included in the objective no.3 Enforcing the system of surveillance, monitoring and
evaluation of HIV/AIDS and related risky behaviours, the activity no.20 developing the
monitoring and surveillance system for drug use and abuse, aims at implementing three
key epidemiologic indicators:
    - drug related treatment demand;
    - prevalence and drug use patterns in the population (general population survey);
    - prevalence and problem drug use in the population.
    The expected achievements include creating an infrastructure to ensure the Agency
independence in collecting data on the number of patients seeking medical services, the
creation of a database and performing data interpretation in a professional manner, to
the European standards. Another expectation regards conducting a survey in the
general population in order to evaluate the state of knowledge, practices and attitudes of
the general population towards the complex issue of drugs.
    Up until now, the following results have been achieved:
    - The implemention of a new monitoring system in Bucharest (the indicator “Drug
        related treatment demand”). Thus, in the Bucharest treatment centers under the
        Ministry oh Health and in medical units in the Rahova and Jilava penitentiaries
        under the Ministry of Justice computers have been distributed with a programme
        for electronic data registration. Trainings sessions were performed for the staff
        using the programme. At present, 200 cases have been transmitted to the
        Agency`s database.
    - A general population survey for the evaluation of knowledge, attitudes and
        practices in drug use (the indicator “Prevalence and drug use patterns in the
        population”). The activities conducted in order to accomplish this objective
        included drafting a questionnaire, applying it on a 3,500 people sample,
        collecting data, finalizing the database and performing prelimnary analysis.
    The technical conditions in Romania do not meet the needs to implement strategic
objective: the “Drug related mortality” indicator. The situation was examined on the field
and the result was a Collaboration Protocol concerning data exchange between the


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National Anti-drug Agency and the National Legal Medicine Institute “Mina Minovici” and
a similar Protocol with the National Statistics Institute.
    In 2004, a estimation study of the heroin drug users was performed in Bucharest in
collaboration with the United Nations HIV-AIDS Programme (UNAIDS) (the Prevalence
and problem drug use patterns indicator).
    On April 5, 2004 the Agreement on Romania`s participation in EMCDDA actions was
signed and forworded to the European Parliament and will later signed and ratified by
the Romanian Parliament as well.
    The international meetings and gatherings contributed to the strengthening of the
collaboration with the European bodies.
    Thus, the chief of the Romanian Monitoring Center for Drugs and Drugs Addiction
participated in two meetings of the coordinators of the national focal points in EU states
and candidate states, in Lisbon (Portugal) in February and in Warsaw (Poland) in May
2003.
    Experts of these directorates participated in several meetings organized by
EMCDDA: training session on the prevalence and drug use patterns indicator in Lisbon,
May 2003; seminar in Lublijana, in July 2003 on prevalence and problem drug use;
training session in Lisbon, in September 2003, on the treatment demand indicator.
    In order to develop joint programmes between RMCDDA and similar institutions in
other states, the National Anti-drug Agency received the visit of the coordinator of the
National Focal Point on Drugs in Greece and of the representative of the EMCDDA
Enlargement Department. The aim of this visit was to evaluate the situation of the drug
use monitoring system and to establish the premises of future collaboration.
        The RMCDDA engaged in two PHARE programmes “Synthetic drugs and
precursors” and “Drug Law Enforcement”.
    The activities developed in 2003 consisted of a conference held in Poiana Brasov for
the conclusion of the “Synthetic drugs and precursors” project. In this conference
participated a large number of European specialists, including representatives of the
EMCDDA.
    Within the second PHARE project, three seminars organized in Bucharest enabled
gatherings of specialists from around the world. The achievements of the seminar were
presented and evaluated during the PHARE Project conclusion conference held in
Prague, in June 2004.




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CHAPTER 6


                     CONCLUSIONS AND MEASURES



6.1. CONCLUSIONS

     6.1.1. Drug demand reduction in Romania

    • Right after its establishment, the National Anti-drug Agency began the process of
    creation and development of a unitary and integrated system for knowing,
    monitoring and coordinating the activity of state institutions and nongovernmental
    organizations working in the drug demand reduction field.
    • Despite the progress registered in the activity of prevention and countering illicit
    drug trafficking and use, the drug phenomenon intensified, as shown by the
    number of drug related offences and prosecuted offenders, which increased 180-
    fold in 2004 in comparison to 1989. The number of injecting heroin users
    amounting to 24.000, as shown by surveys and polls in drug users in Bucharest, is
    another worrying indicator of the growing drug phenomenon.
    • The insufficient finances allotted to the activity of prevention illicit drug use, the
    lack of correlation between funds and needs caused difficulties in monitoring costs,
    and evaluating achieved activities.
    • The National Anti-drug Agency has difficulties in monitoring, coordinating and
    consolidating the achievements in the drug demand field because of the insufficient
    involvement of the qualified ministries.
    • The issue of alcohol and tobacco use effects in the young has become an ever-
    greater concern in the context of its continuously increasing trends after 1989.
    • Mainly heroin users required treatment and medical care.
    • Drug users in demand of specialized services benefited from dezintoxication
    treatments, methadone substitutive treatment and, to some extent, from
    psychological and social programmes.
    • In the field of medical and psychological care, rehabilitation and social reinsertion
    difficulties are caused by the lack of a therapy chain providing drug users with a
    complete treatment and by the absence of specialists.
    • The decision of the Ministry of Health to countinuously cut down funds alloted to
    information, education and training activities encumbers the prevention and
    councelling system, essential in reducing drug demand.
    • Because of the lack of adequate financial resources, the National Anti-drug
    Agency was unable to develop far-reaching projects for reducing drug demand.

     6.1.2. Drug supply reduction in Romania

    • Romania is still a part of the drug trafficking “Balkan Route”, especially the
    northern side including Afghanistan, Iran, Turkey, Bulgaria, Hungary, the Slovak
    Republic, the Czech Republic, Germany and the Netherlands.
    • Romanian was also included in the synthetic drug trafficking routes developing
    eastwards form the West (the Netherlands, Belgium, and Germany).


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• Year after year, stating with 1989, drug related offences have been constantly
rising (in comparison to 1989, drug related crimes in 2004 increased 180 times).
• The fact that almost 54% of the ofences under Law no.143/2000 are related to
drug trafficking reveals the concern of the qualified institutions towards drug
seizures and less towards dismantling large traffickers’ networks.
• The most used drugs are heroin (a gram of heroin on the black market costs
almost 2-2, 5 million ROL), cannabis (one cigarette costs almost 50.000-100.000
ROL) and ecstasy (200.000-500.000 ROL a pill).
• There are discrepancies between the soaring number of heroin, cannabis and
synthetic drug users and the seizures of such drugs.
• Although the drug issue registers higher figures in Bucharest, the drug
phenomenon is generalizing in Romania.
• Mainly drug users and minors are involved in street drug trafficking.
• Drug related offenders are mainly aged 21 to 29, male (79,8%), secondary
school graduates (almost 50%), with prior offences (cca.65%) and without
occupation (almost 60%).
• The contribution of the Genral Border Police Inspectorate and especially of the
National Customs Authority is low. Moreover, in Constanta Harbour or in airports
the drug related data is unsignificant.
• In the causes solved by the Prosecutor`s Office the number of solution to sue at
law is constantly decreasing in comparison to the decisions of canceling the legal
pursuit.
• In spite of the growing number of the cases conducted by the Prosecutor`s
Office, court decisions to prosecute decreased constantly.
• The National Anti-drug Agency encountered difficulties in collecting and
consolidating data because some institutions (especially the Procesutor`s Office
and the Police) refered to the lack of a legislation asigning the National Antidrug
Agency the competence to collect data and to the lack of autonomy and functional
independence.
• Mainly because of the lack of funds the National Anti-drug Agency didn`t succeed
in creating a database regarding the drug phenomenon and didn`t succeed in
connecting with the information systems of the institutions involved in reducing
drug supply.
• Inspite of the collaboration protocols with the institutions involved in drug supply
reduction, collaboration limited to assistance during investigation especially at
border points.
• The majority of objectives of the National Anti-drug Strategy regarding drug
supply reduction were achieved, except for those implying significant financial
resources.
• Most of the objectives stipulated in the National Anti-drug Strategy on drug
supply reduction had been accomplished except for those laid out wrongly or
ambiguously. The objectives implying a great financial effort, such as purchasing
modern equipment, weren`t fulfilled either.
• Because of the lack of clear indicators for drug seizures there were cases of
double counting based on the data provided by Romanian institutions qualified in
reducing drug supply.




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     6.1.3. International cooperation

    • The feedback received after many contacts between Romanian representatives
    of the institutions involved in implementing the National Anti-drug Strategy and
    foreign specialists proved that Romania is considered a realible partener, with a
    great capacity in reducing the drug phenomenon, both nationally and abroad, in
    close connection with the international bodies.

    • The National Anti-drug Agency informed all embassies about its establishment
    and objectives and proposed organizing work meetings in order to conclude
    cooperation documents with the neighbouring countries. So far, the collaboration
    with Bulgaria, Hungary and the Slovak Republic yielded good results.


     6.1.4. Financial resources

    • The 2003-2004 National Anti-drug Strategy didn`t have an Action Plan stipulating
    the funds necessary for the achieving pursued objectives. Therefore qualified
    institutions couldn`t adapt their budgets to these expenses.
    • The accomplishment of the activitieslaid out in the Strategy was not done by
    specific programmes, but by formal involvement in pluridisciplinary programmes.
    • Because of the lack of financial coordination between the institutions qualified in
    reducing drug supply and demand, it was impossible to evaluate the financial
    efforts made by the Romanian state and the international bodies in preventing and
    countering illicit drug traffickg and use, in Romania.
    • Because of the lack of an efficient of the institutions involved in drug demand and
    supply reduction a accurate evaluation of the financial effort made by the
    Romanian state and the international bodies involved in fighting drugs couldn`t be
    provided.



6.2. MEASURES

    1. The implementation of the “Great Romanian Anti-drug Allience” („Marea Alianţă
        Română Antidrog” (MARA), which has as a general objective the
        implementation of the Integrated National System for Preventing and
        Countering Illicit Drug Trafficking and Abuse, with a view to Romanian`s
        access to the European Union.
               Duration: 2005-2009
               Qualified institutions: The National Anti-drug Agency and other
    institutions

    2. Launcing national programmes for the development of structures of the civil
    society to support the medical care, rehabilitation and social reinsertion of the drug
    users. An element of the programme regards assuring finances from the state
    budget.
              Dead line: 3rd quarter of 2005
              Qualified institutions: the National Anti-drug Agency, the Ministry of
    Health, the National Youth Authority, the Ministry of Labour, Social Solidarity and
    Family and the Ministry of Education and Research.


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3. Improving the activity of the structures involved in drug supply reduction by
interinstitutional cooperation, both internal and international, training staff and
assuring necessary material resources.
           Dead line: 4th quarter of 2006
           Qualified institutions: the National Anti-drug Agency and other qualified
institutions

  4. Setting up joint efficiency indicators for the police, border police and customs
      regarding drug seizures. Thus, the drug seizure situation will be unitarily
      reported to the international bodies.
           Dead line: March 2005
           Qualified institutions: the National Anti-drug Agency and other
institutions

 5. Diversifying police activities in countering and preventing drug related
    offences, based on aquiring information and investigating specific cases in
    urban locations.
        Duration: permanent
        Qualified institutions: all habilitated institutions

 6. Building up joint teams including specialists form the police, the border police
    and customs authority, which, bases on cooperation plans and risk analyses,
    should perform special checkings of containers, transportation means and
    suspects, using technical equipment for drugs and precursor detection.
        Deadline: 1st quarter 2005
        Qualified institutions: all qualified institutions

  7. Training and involving police officers and police soldiers from the public order
      system into specific prevention and countering of small drug trafficking as
      well as illicit drug use.
           Duration: permanent
           Qualified institutions: the National Anti-drug Agency and other
institutions

 8. Strenghtening cooperation with bodies specialized in the fight against illicit
     drug trafficking and use from the European Union, other member states and
     international structures.
          Deadline: 4th quarter 2005
          Qualified institutions: the National Anti-drug Agency and other
 institutions


 9. Drafting and developing training programmes based mainly on external
    financial resources for specialists working in the field of countering illicit drug
    trafficking and use.
         Duration: 2006-2007
         Qualified institutions: the National Anti-drug Agency and other
 habilitated institutions




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10. Developing the institutional and operational capacity of the National Anti-drug
    Agency and enforcing its role as a national coordinator of the fight against
    illicit drug trafficking and use.
          Duration: 2006
          Qualified institutions: habilitated institutions


11. Bringing into use the Centers for Anti-drug Prevention, Evaluation and
    Councelling and adopting quality standards for the accomplished specific
    activities.
        Deadline: March 2005
        Qualified institutions: the National Anti-drug Agency

12. Establishing a Scientific Research Council within the National Anti-drug
    Agency in order to gather Romanian or foreign personalities known for the
    accomplishments in fighting drugs.
       Deadline: 3rd quarter 2005
       Qualified institutions: the National Anti-drug Agency

13. Creating the Central drug investigation and research register and assuring
    the interconnection of the National Anti-drug Agency`s database and the
    General Romanian Police Inspectorate, the General Border Police
    Inspectorate, the Customs General Directorate, the Prosecutor`s Office with
    the High Court of Cassation and Justice, with a view to exchange data and
    efficiently coordinate the fight against drugs.
         Deadline: 3rd quarter 2005
         Qualified institutions: the National Anti-drug Agency and other
habilitated institutions

14. Improving the RMCDDA`s capacity of collecting and processing necessary
    data for the annual reports for the EMCDDA.
       Deadline: 3rd quarter 2005
       Qualified institutions: the National Anti-drug Agency

15. Thorough monitoring the use of the financial resources assigned to the
   institutions involved in fighting drugs and the programmes developed for
   efficient prevention activities.
        Duration: permanent
        Qualified institutions: the National Anti-drug Agency

16. Creating a Romanian donors` association and identifying international
    institutions and bodies interested in supporting financially the activities in the
    drug supply and demand field.
        Deadline: 2005
        Qualified institutions: the National Anti-drug Agency

17. Implementing a precursor monitoring system according to the UN statistics
    system, creating a monitoring system of the legal drugs circuit based on
    quantities of seized goods from drug and precursors related crimes as well as
    connecting the National Anti-drug Agency to the Metropolitan network.



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       Deadline: 2005
       Qualified institutions: the National Anti-drug Agency

18. Creating an adequate structure including qualified staff, necessary logistic
   equipment, a separate inspectors` group for guidance and control, within the
   Ministry of Health, to perform concrete check ups of the legal circuit of drugs,
   psychotropic substances and precurors.
       Deadline: 2005
       Qualified institutions: the Ministry of Health

19. Introducing the measures established in the Evaluation Report and
    unachieved tasks stipulated by the National Anti-drug Strategy 2003-2004 in
    the Action Plan regarding the implementation of the National Anti-drug
    Strategy 2005-2012.
        Deadline: March 30, 2005
        Qualified institutions: the National Anti-drug Agency


20. Financial assessment of the cost related to each objective of the Action Plan
    regarding the implementation of the National Anti-drug Strategy 2005-2012,
    in order to plan budgets and guarantee their proper implementation.
        Deadline: 1st quarter 2005
        Qualified institutions: the National Anti-drug Agency and other
habilitated institutions.




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