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Contemporary Irish History War of Independence (1916) and The Troubles By Chrissi Potts, Desirae Alverez, Olivia Whitener, and Veronica Campbell Easter Rising (1916) Aliases: Rising of 1916; Easter Rebellion; Easter Uprising by Veronica Campbell Overview Irish Nationalists vs. Great Britain Place of Conflict......................................Dublin, The General Post Office Issues......................................Not a popular revolt. Poor odds of winning Armed men................ approx. 1,760 Irish rebels vs 20,000 British troops Winner.......................British. Commander ordered executing participants Casualties.................................450 dead (mostly British) 2,614 wounded Time Span..................................................April 24, 1916 - April 29, 1916 Sparking Events Britain's Liberal Party - H.H. Asquith Irish Home Rule → mild form of Home Rule1911 Parliament reduced power of the Lords Irish Unionists form the Ulster Volunteer Force How it Played Out Quiet, few onlookers Many Dubliners at the races (holiday) Very open about being exposed. Proudly marched Patrick Pearse declares independence from Britain from the General Post Office Irish made intense advances initially British came Thursday, capturing strong points and shelled the General Post Office Saturday, Pearse surrenders British Commander accepted no deals → unconditional surrender. May 12th, 2000 rebels imprisoned. IRB leaders Patrick Pearse and James Connolly executed. De Valera and “The Troubles” By Desirae Alvarez What are “The Troubles?” Ireland now holding a grudge and resenting England for the inequality they have shown to them It all began with the Easter Week Rebellion in Dublin, killing 15 rebel leaders To really show they’re hatred towards the British, Eamon de Valera was elected to British Parliament in the County of Clare, taking John Dillion’s seat (House of Commons, Head of Irish Delegations) Politically Divided Ireland All factions came together to rebel against the British de Valera’s Sinn Fein movement helped with their independence from England, Easter Week Rebellion also helped with the independence Begins huge armed revolt Irish Ulster (Anglicans with leader Edward Carson) do not want to be governed by Catholics, do not support these movements Irish nationalists create militia More on the militia Creating this militia because many of the Irish helped the British in their war against Germany Many people from Sinn Fein were in it “England’s misfortune is Ireland’s opportunity” Many rebellions established by the militia and other volunteers, but all basically fail due to miscommunication Irish Republican Army The government posts a flag on top of the Dublin Post Office while commander, Patrick Pearse, announced his feelings and plans for the new IRA British bring their army with guns to stop this 272 people dead or wounded in fighting Many rebel leaders sentenced to death Sinn Fein Movement “We Ourselves” Oldest Political Movement in Ireland Fighting for independence from British Rule Sought equality through economical and societal means Originally founded in 1905-Arthur Griffin Arthur Griffith and de Valera now the only two alive (rebel leaders) spent time in interment camps Nominating a Sinn Fein Once released from prison, they wish to make de Valera apart of the House of Commons in East Clare Must be sworn in by King, they reject this Still entered election contests to go against Parliament Made the group stronger reading the very same manifesto read on the Post Office Steps in Dublin wins election 2 to 1 New Sinn Fein Leader Does not promote armed violence against the British during the war “Passive Resistance” instead of another Easter Week (due to the possibility of a draft) strike stopping all transportation instead Campaigns against a draft British Government hears of this and de Valera is sent to jail, charges for arranging a conspiracy between the Germanys and his group De Valera and 73 others sent to jail, no trial, in England De Valera and the IRA D.V. still in jail when war is over Collins, a terrorist, was working with the IRA, killed 14 secret agents (British) in Dublin the day after Bloody Sunday Sent a cake to D.V. in jail with a key to his cell inside Collins redirects Republican Army during the Troubles D.V. , not a violent person, goes to America to ask for help Collins and the treaty Collins now has the help of the entire IRA, splitting men into groups to have “hit and run” attacks on the British Collins begins sneak attacks on the British and leaves them wondering what hit them Raids, beginning of a larger revolution King George V hopes for a treaty, tells de Valera, but he was not present at the conference TREASON! The delegates from Ireland were afraid of a war and signed the treaty, agreeing to partition IRA leaders mad, say that the delegates should be charged with treason, some happy for peace Free state in British commonwealth British troops evacuate, CIVIL WAR breaks out! The Irish Civil War By Chrissi Potts Anglo-Irish Treaty In 1921, Ireland made a treaty with England to end two years of fighting between the British government and the Irish Republican Army (IRA). The IRA was a guerrilla volunteer force dedicated to establishing an Irish republic. After the treaty signed in July of 1921, an Irish self- government was established with three major leaders: Eamon de Valera (president of Sinn Fein), Arthur Griffith (VP), and Michael Collins (leader of IRA). Anglo-Irish Treaty (continued) In December, Griffith and Collins signed a compromise with the British in London. Its terms were that British troops would withdraw from Southern Ireland (the 26 southern counties were the Irish Free State and declared a part of the Dominion of England with some self-government). The parliament of the 6 counties of Northern Ireland were allowed to disassociate themselves with the Irish Free State and remain tied to the United Kingdom (they did so immediately). Britain retained some naval bases in Southern Ireland, and the right to demand more facilities in time of war. Divisions A Boundary Commission established a formal border between Northern and Southern Ireland. Northern Ireland was much smaller than Southern Ireland and many feared that the counties of the North would be forced to join the Free State in the South. Tensions The primary cause of the war was the oath that the members of the Parliament of the Free State were required to make as part of the Commonwealth. This treaty was made with the King of England. The king planted a governor general as his representative in Irish government. This upset the IRA because they did not have the freedom of a republic for which they had so long fought. This treaty split the parliament. The treaty was passed in 1922. Collins lead a new provisional government with Griffith’s help while de Valera led the antitreaty minority. Outbreak De Valera quickly lost control of the anti-treaty IRA to Rory O’Connor, and this group went on to seize the Four Courts in Dublin that April. Field Marshal Sir Henry Wilson was assassinated by the IRA in June of 1922. He was associated with the Ulster Unionists, those who desired strong ties to the United Kingdom. This group was engaged in conflict with the Nationalists, who wished to reunite Northern and Southern Ireland. One of Collins’ senior officers was kidnapped and shortly after, Collins ordered an attack on the Four Courts. Continued Fighting O’Connor surrendered after 3 days of fighting. The anti-treaty forces were forced out of Dublin soon after. Over the next month, the main cities of Cork, Limerick, and Waterford were seized by government forces. By August of 1922, the anti-treaty forces retreated into the countryside and used guerrilla warfare. They were soon crushed by the much bigger government army. Consequences Collins died that August. His successor, Cosgrave, had no mercy for his opponents. He was notorious for executing prisoners after their trials in military court. Most notably, he ordered the execution of Robert Erskine Childers, director of publicity for the anti-treaty forces. Many more prisoners (77) were executed over the course of the war. Final Days of Fighting In fighting that was catastrophic for both sides, the anti-treaty forces (“The Irregulars”) were eventually brought down by the government troops. On April 27, 1923, the Irregulars announced a “suspension of conflict;” they never gave a formal surrender. De Valera and many more Irregulars were imprisoned afterwards. The Boundary Commission made little change to the border between Northern and Southern Ireland. Belfast Good Friday Agreement April 10, 1998 Enforced starting in December 1999 Marks end to the Troubles, although violence still continues Established the Northern Ireland Assembly Created North-South Ministerial Council and a British-Irish Council (regional) 1998 Nobel Peace Prize: John Hume and David Trimble for their efforts Meanwhile in Southern Ireland Southern Ireland was becoming prosperous Social and cultural change Progress in 1970s downturn in 1980s turnaround in 1990s No major conflict like in the North Bloody Sunday (1972) January 30, 1972 Londonderry 13 marchers killed; 16 wounded British troops fired on Civil Rights marchers Marching against policy of internment without trial of members of the IRA The Troubles 1960s through 1998 Marked by conflict in Northern Ireland (Ulster) - violence - political turmoil - Protestant Unionists vs. Catholic Nationalists 3,000 civilian deaths Unemployment rises to 20% by the late 1980s Peace treaties attempted, but nothing lasting until the Belfast Good Friday Agreement Works Cited Irish Republican News. "Provisional Sinn Fein." Sinn Féin. Irish Republican News, 27 Mar. 2011. Web. 28 Mar. 2011. <http://www.sinnfein.org/index2.html>. McCarthy, Joe, and The Editors of LIFE. "The Troubles." Ireland. New York: Time, 1964. 61-68. Print. State, Paul F. "sectarian clash in 20th-century Ireland." A Brief History of Ireland, Brief History. New York: Facts On File, Inc., 2009. Modern World History Online, Facts On File, Inc. http://www.fofweb.com/activelink2.asp? ItemID=WE53&iPin=BHIRE11&SingleRecord=True (accessed March 28, 2011). "History - Northern Ireland." UK COUNTRIES - Great Britain, England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom... Web. 28 Mar. 2011. <http://www.uk.filo.pl/ireland_history.htm>. Work Cited (cont.) "Northern Ireland - An Overview | Transitional Justice." Facing History and Ourselves. 2011. Web. 28 Mar. 2011. <http://tj.facinghistory.org/readings/northernireland/overview>. "British History Timeline." BBC - Homepage. 2011. Web. 28 Mar. 2011. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/interactive/timelines/british/index_embed.s html>. Phillips, Charles, and Alan Axelrod. "Easter Rising." Encyclopedia of Wars, vol. 1. New York: Facts On File, Inc., 2005. Modern World History Online. Facts On File, Inc. http://www.fofweb.com/activelink2.asp? ItemID=WE53&iPin=EWAR0523&SingleRecord=True (accessed March 27, 2011). Image Work Cited http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_VKUoAMdYTg0/Sd- cY1CwraI/AAAAAAAACgM/BE9rS8aXgrE/s400/bono2.jpg http://www.impawards.com/2002/posters/bloody_sunday_ver3.jpg http://www.doyle.com.au/images/angl_irish2.jpg.
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