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									Contemporary Irish History
     War of Independence (1916) and The Troubles




By Chrissi Potts, Desirae Alverez, Olivia Whitener, and Veronica Campbell
                            Easter Rising (1916)
                          Aliases: Rising of 1916; Easter Rebellion; Easter Uprising
                                                             by Veronica Campbell
                               Overview
             Irish Nationalists vs. Great Britain

Place of Conflict......................................Dublin, The General Post
Office
Issues......................................Not a popular revolt. Poor odds of
winning
Armed men................ approx. 1,760 Irish rebels vs 20,000 British
troops
Winner.......................British. Commander ordered executing
participants
Casualties.................................450 dead (mostly British) 2,614
wounded
Time Span..................................................April 24, 1916 - April
29, 1916
                    Sparking Events

   Britain's Liberal Party - H.H. Asquith
    Irish Home Rule → mild form of Home
                     Rule1911
    Parliament reduced power of the Lords
Irish Unionists form the Ulster Volunteer

                    Force
                        How it Played Out
Quiet, few onlookers
Many Dubliners at the races (holiday)

Very open about being exposed. Proudly marched

Patrick Pearse declares independence from Britain from the

General Post Office
Irish made intense advances initially

British came Thursday, capturing strong points and shelled

the General Post Office
Saturday, Pearse surrenders

British Commander accepted no deals → unconditional

surrender.
May 12th, 2000 rebels imprisoned. IRB leaders Patrick

Pearse and James Connolly executed.
  De Valera and “The
           Troubles”
By Desirae Alvarez
     What are “The Troubles?”
   Ireland now holding a grudge and resenting
    England for the inequality they have shown
    to them
   It all began with the Easter Week Rebellion
    in Dublin, killing 15 rebel leaders
   To really show they’re hatred towards the
    British, Eamon de Valera was elected to
    British Parliament in the County of Clare,
    taking John Dillion’s seat (House of
    Commons, Head of Irish Delegations)
      Politically Divided Ireland
   All factions came together to rebel against
    the British
   de Valera’s Sinn Fein movement helped with
    their independence from England, Easter
    Week Rebellion also helped with the
    independence
   Begins huge armed revolt
   Irish Ulster (Anglicans with leader Edward
    Carson) do not want to be governed by
    Catholics, do not support these movements
   Irish nationalists create militia
                   More on the militia
   Creating this militia because many of
    the Irish helped the British in their war
    against Germany
       Many people from Sinn Fein were in it
       “England’s misfortune is Ireland’s
        opportunity”
   Many rebellions established by the
    militia and other volunteers, but all
    basically fail due to miscommunication
           Irish Republican Army
   The government posts a flag on top of
    the Dublin Post Office while
    commander, Patrick Pearse,
    announced his feelings and plans for
    the new IRA
   British bring their army with guns to
    stop this
   272 people dead or wounded in fighting
   Many rebel leaders sentenced to death
               Sinn Fein Movement
                   “We Ourselves”
   Oldest Political Movement in Ireland
   Fighting for independence from British Rule
   Sought equality through economical and
    societal means
   Originally founded in 1905-Arthur Griffin
   Arthur Griffith and de Valera now the only
    two alive (rebel leaders)
   spent time in interment camps
          Nominating a Sinn Fein
   Once released from prison, they wish to
    make de Valera apart of the House of
    Commons in East Clare
   Must be sworn in by King, they reject this
   Still entered election contests to go against
    Parliament
   Made the group stronger reading the very
    same manifesto read on the Post Office
    Steps in Dublin
   wins election 2 to 1
             New Sinn Fein Leader
   Does not promote armed violence against the
    British during the war
   “Passive Resistance” instead of another Easter
    Week (due to the possibility of a draft) strike
    stopping all transportation instead
   Campaigns against a draft
   British Government hears of this and de Valera
    is sent to jail, charges for arranging a conspiracy
    between the Germanys and his group
   De Valera and 73 others sent to jail, no trial, in
    England
             De Valera and the IRA
   D.V. still in jail when war is over
   Collins, a terrorist, was working with the IRA,
    killed 14 secret agents (British) in Dublin the
    day after Bloody Sunday
   Sent a cake to D.V. in jail with a key to his
    cell inside
   Collins redirects Republican Army during the
    Troubles
   D.V. , not a violent person, goes to America
    to ask for help
             Collins and the treaty
   Collins now has the help of the entire IRA,
    splitting men into groups to have “hit and run”
    attacks on the British
   Collins begins sneak attacks on the British
    and leaves them wondering what hit them
   Raids, beginning of a larger revolution
   King George V hopes for a treaty, tells de
    Valera, but he was not present at the
    conference
                           TREASON!
   The delegates from Ireland were afraid
    of a war and signed the treaty, agreeing
    to partition
   IRA leaders mad, say that the
    delegates should be charged with
    treason, some happy for peace
   Free state in British commonwealth
   British troops evacuate, CIVIL WAR
    breaks out!
 The Irish Civil War
By Chrissi Potts
                           Anglo-Irish Treaty

   In 1921, Ireland made a treaty with England to end
    two years of fighting between the British government
    and the Irish Republican Army (IRA).
        The IRA was a guerrilla volunteer force dedicated to
         establishing an Irish republic.

   After the treaty signed in July of 1921, an Irish self-
    government was established with three major leaders:
    Eamon de Valera (president of Sinn Fein), Arthur
    Griffith (VP), and Michael Collins (leader of IRA).
                           Anglo-Irish Treaty
                                 (continued)
   In December, Griffith and Collins signed a
    compromise with the British in London. Its terms were
    that
        British troops would withdraw from Southern Ireland (the 26
         southern counties were the Irish Free State and declared a
         part of the Dominion of England with some self-government).
        The parliament of the 6 counties of Northern Ireland were
         allowed to disassociate themselves with the Irish Free State
         and remain tied to the United Kingdom (they did so
         immediately).
        Britain retained some naval bases in Southern Ireland, and
         the right to demand more facilities in time of war.
                                   Divisions


   A Boundary Commission established a formal
    border between Northern and Southern
    Ireland.
   Northern Ireland was much smaller than
    Southern Ireland and many feared that the
    counties of the North would be forced to join
    the Free State in the South.
                                        Tensions

   The primary cause of the war was the oath that the
    members of the Parliament of the Free State were
    required to make as part of the Commonwealth. This
    treaty was made with the King of England.
   The king planted a governor general as his
    representative in Irish government. This upset the IRA
    because they did not have the freedom of a republic
    for which they had so long fought.
   This treaty split the parliament. The treaty was passed
    in 1922. Collins lead a new provisional government
    with Griffith’s help while de Valera led the antitreaty
    minority.
                                                Outbreak

   De Valera quickly lost control of the anti-treaty IRA to Rory
    O’Connor, and this group went on to seize the Four Courts in
    Dublin that April.

   Field Marshal Sir Henry Wilson was assassinated by the IRA in
    June of 1922. He was associated with the Ulster Unionists, those
    who desired strong ties to the United Kingdom.

   This group was engaged in conflict with the Nationalists, who
    wished to reunite Northern and Southern Ireland.

   One of Collins’ senior officers was kidnapped and shortly after,
    Collins ordered an attack on the Four Courts.
                    Continued Fighting

   O’Connor surrendered after 3 days of fighting.
   The anti-treaty forces were forced out of Dublin soon
    after.
   Over the next month, the main cities of Cork, Limerick,
    and Waterford were seized by government forces.
   By August of 1922, the anti-treaty forces retreated into
    the countryside and used guerrilla warfare.
   They were soon crushed by the much bigger
    government army.
                          Consequences

   Collins died that August. His successor,
    Cosgrave, had no mercy for his opponents.
    He was notorious for executing prisoners after
    their trials in military court.
   Most notably, he ordered the execution of
    Robert Erskine Childers, director of publicity
    for the anti-treaty forces.
   Many more prisoners (77) were executed over
    the course of the war.
               Final Days of Fighting

   In fighting that was catastrophic for both sides, the
    anti-treaty forces (“The Irregulars”) were eventually
    brought down by the government troops.
   On April 27, 1923, the Irregulars announced a
    “suspension of conflict;” they never gave a formal
    surrender.
   De Valera and many more Irregulars were imprisoned
    afterwards.
   The Boundary Commission made little change to the
    border between Northern and Southern Ireland.
                 Belfast Good Friday
                          Agreement
   April 10, 1998
   Enforced starting in December 1999
   Marks end to the Troubles, although violence
    still continues
   Established the Northern Ireland Assembly
   Created North-South Ministerial Council and
    a British-Irish Council (regional)
   1998 Nobel Peace Prize: John Hume and
    David Trimble for their efforts
           Meanwhile in Southern
                          Ireland
   Southern Ireland was becoming
    prosperous
   Social and cultural change
   Progress in 1970s  downturn in 1980s
     turnaround in 1990s
   No major conflict like in the North
              Bloody Sunday (1972)
   January 30, 1972
   Londonderry
   13 marchers killed; 16
    wounded
   British troops fired on
    Civil Rights marchers
   Marching against policy
    of internment without
    trial of members of the
    IRA
                                The Troubles
   1960s through 1998
   Marked by conflict in Northern Ireland (Ulster)
    - violence - political turmoil
    - Protestant Unionists vs. Catholic Nationalists
   3,000 civilian deaths
   Unemployment rises to 20% by the late 1980s
   Peace treaties attempted, but nothing lasting until
    the Belfast Good Friday Agreement
                                               Works Cited
   Irish Republican News. "Provisional Sinn              Fein." Sinn Féin. Irish
    Republican                          News, 27 Mar. 2011. Web. 28 Mar.
                    2011.

          <http://www.sinnfein.org/index2.html>.
   McCarthy, Joe, and The Editors of LIFE.                    "The Troubles."
    Ireland. New York:                    Time, 1964. 61-68. Print.
   State, Paul F. "sectarian clash in 20th-century Ireland." A Brief History of
    Ireland, Brief History.
   New York: Facts On File, Inc., 2009. Modern World History Online, Facts On
    File,
   Inc. http://www.fofweb.com/activelink2.asp?
    ItemID=WE53&iPin=BHIRE11&SingleRecord=True (accessed
    March 28, 2011).
   "History - Northern Ireland." UK COUNTRIES - Great Britain, England,
    Scotland, Wales,
   Northern Ireland, United Kingdom... Web. 28 Mar. 2011.
    <http://www.uk.filo.pl/ireland_history.htm>.
                                  Work Cited (cont.)
   "Northern Ireland - An Overview | Transitional Justice." Facing History
    and Ourselves. 2011.

   Web. 28 Mar. 2011.
    <http://tj.facinghistory.org/readings/northernireland/overview>.



   "British History Timeline." BBC - Homepage. 2011. Web. 28 Mar. 2011.

   <http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/interactive/timelines/british/index_embed.s
    html>.

   Phillips, Charles, and Alan Axelrod. "Easter Rising." Encyclopedia of
    Wars, vol. 1. New York: Facts On File, Inc., 2005. Modern World History
    Online. Facts On File, Inc. http://www.fofweb.com/activelink2.asp?

   ItemID=WE53&iPin=EWAR0523&SingleRecord=True (accessed March
    27, 2011).
                        Image Work Cited
   http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_VKUoAMdYTg0/Sd-
    cY1CwraI/AAAAAAAACgM/BE9rS8aXgrE/s400/bono2.jpg

   http://www.impawards.com/2002/posters/bloody_sunday_ver3.jpg
   http://www.doyle.com.au/images/angl_irish2.jpg.

								
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