SYMBOLISM, ARCHETYPES, AND PLOT PATTERNS
A. A is
B. A , , , or that
represents something beyond its literal meaning to the story
A. A recurring found in the mythology, religion, and stories of
cultures and .
B. These patterns can be found in , , ,
C. Why are they important?
i. Archetypes help us realize that we have that we share
with others outside our culture.
ii. Since archetypes are and , the help us interpret
and that might be quite different from ourselves.
III. SOME COMMONLY USED ARCHETYPES
A. The Mother
ii. The and of life
B. The Father
ii. Often acts as a or
i. Most commonly represent and
ii. It also serves as a symbol for , , ,
D. The Color Black
i. Can represent
E. The Color Red
i. Most commonly use to represent
ii. Can also be a symbol for
F. The Rising Sun
G. The Setting Sun
i. Often represents
ii. Can also be used to represent the move towards the , ,
H. The Cave or Hut
i. Used to represent
IV. THE HERO ARCHETYPE
A. Usually the hero is from a , born under
, or born in
B. Often they are set apart from others or
feel like it
C. Has an attitude
E. Goes on a
V. WHY DO WE HAVE A NEED FOR HEROES?
A. - we want to strive to be like someone better
B. Want someone to for all of us – someone to “break
C. Someone to make the world at an unsafe or uncertain time.
VI. PLOT PATTERNS IN LITERATURE
A. Throughout and , certain of
B. These patterns contain a specific of that drive the story,
its central , and
C. Freytag’s Pyramid
i. Gustav Freytag was a Nineteenth Century who saw
common patterns in the plots of stories and novels.
ii. In , he wrote Die Technik des Dramas in which he developed a
to analyze these stories and novels.
iii. He diagrammed the using a .
iv. Stages on Freytag’s Pyramid
i. Exposition: setting the scene. The writer introduces the characters and setting, providing
description and background.
ii. Inciting Incident: something happens to begin the action; usually signals the beginning of the
main conflict; is sometimes called 'the complication'. The “spark” (1 event)
iii. Rising Action: events as the story builds; moving towards the major climax or struggle
iv. Climax: the moment of greatest tension in a story. This is often the most exciting event. It is
the event that the rising action builds up to and that the falling action follows. (1 event)
v. Falling Action: events happen as a result of the climax and we know that the story will soon
end. (multiple events)
vi. Resolution: the character solves the main problem/conflict or someone solves it for him or
her. (1 event)
vii. Dénouement: (pronounced: day-noo-moh) the ending. The ending where any secrets,
questions or mysteries which remain after the resolution are solved by the characters or
explained by the author. Sometimes the author leaves us to think about the THEME or future
possibilities for the characters.
D. The Hero’s Journey
i. Joseph Campbell was a in the who began to study
ii. He found a that spanned all cultures and all ages, which he developed
his of “The Hero’s Journey.”
iii. It models experience, describing the patterns of ,
, and .
iv. Parts of the Hero’s Journey
a. Stage One: Separation
1. Call to Adventure: the point at which the hero is summoned to leave his/her normal
surroundings and face the unknown
2. The call can have many forms:
Something is taken and the hero goes to reclaim it
Something is lacking and the hero goes in search of it
Save/restore the honor of a person, family, or community
Win a right for the people
b. Stage Two: Transformation
1. The threshold is the place between the known and the unknown
2. Threshold Guardians: prevent the hero from entering the unknown until fully prepared
3. Crossing the Threshold: The entering into the unknown – jumping off point of the
4. Shadow Realm: The unknown
5. Helpers: aid the hero throughout the journey –
sometimes have supernatural powers
Helpers may provide a talisman
Their main duty is to provide assistance and direction to help the hero grow
6. Tests: challenges the hero must overcome – usually strike at the hero’s greatest
Tests may be physical, moral, or psychological
Reveal our own fears, flaws, doubts and weaknesses
7. Supreme Test (Abyss): the ultimate challenge which the hero must face alone and
overcome his greatest fear
8. Transformation/Revelation: occurs once the hero has passed the supreme test – the
hero experiences a dramatic change in the way he views life – the hero becomes a
Moment of death/rebirth
Hero leaves behind dependency and irresponsibility
c. Stage Three: Return
1. Reward: a physical object or new knowledge that the hero brings back to the world.
2. Return: the hero returns to the place from which he was called