Summer Safety

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					Summer Safety/ First Aid

            Jean Digges
    Pediatric Nurse Practitioner
   Child Development Resources
           June 18, 2009
                           Fun in the Sun
•For Babies < 6 months
        Dress infants in lightweight long pants, long-sleeved shirts, and
        brimmed hats that shade the neck to prevent sunburn. Keep
        infants in shaded areas or place light weight blanket. Check child’s
        temp frequently when outdoors.
        Sunscreens generally not recommended for children < 6 mo.
•For Young Children > 6 months
        Apply sunscreen 30 minutes before going outdoors.
        Use sunscreen even on days that are cloudy
•For Older Children
        The first, and best, line of defense against the sun is covering up.
        Wear a hat with sunglasses (look for sunglasses that block 99-100%
        of ultraviolet rays), and cotton clothing with a tight weave.
            -- Stay in the shade whenever possible, and limit sun
            exposure during the peak intensity hours - between 10 a.m. and
            4 p.m.
            -- Use a sunscreen with an SPF of 30 or greater. Be sure to apply
            enough sunscreen - about one ounce per sitting for a young
            -- Reapply sunscreen every two hours, or after swimming or
            -- Use extra caution near water, snow, and sand as they reflect
            UV rays and may result in sunburn more quickly.
     Heat Stress in
   Exercising Children
• The intensity of activities that last 15 minutes or more should be
  reduced whenever high heat and humidity reach critical levels.
  -- Before prolonged physical activity, the child should be well-hydrated.
  During the activity, offer water or pedialyte every 20 minutes.

  -- Clothing should be light-colored and lightweight and limited to one
  layer of absorbent material to facilitate evaporation of sweat. Sweat-
  saturated shirts should be replaced by dry clothing.

  --Sweat glands do not mature until adolescents. Young children
  overheat quickly and easily.

  --First sign is flushed/ red cheeks
                Water Safety
 Drowning is the leading cause of unintentional injury
  in children ages 1 to 4 years
 Learn infant and child CPR and first aid
 Make sure you have rescue equipment, a telephone
  and emergency phone numbers nearby
 Make sure your child has a U.S. coast guard approved
  floatation device for boats (2 years and up)
              Pool Safety
•Install a fence at least four-feet high around
all four sides of the pool with no openings or
protrusions that a young child could use to get
over, under, or through.
--Make sure pool gates open out from the
pool, and self-close and self-latch at a height
children can't reach.
-- Never leave children alone in or near the
pool, even for a moment.
-- Keep rescue equipment and a portable
telephone near the pool.
-- Avoid inflatable swimming aids such as
"floaties." They are not a substitute for
approved life vests and can give children a
false sense of security.
-- Whenever infants or toddlers are in or
around water, an adult should be within arm's
length, providing "touch supervision."
                                Bug Safety
 Don't use scented soaps, perfumes or hair sprays on your child.
  -- Avoid areas where insects nest or congregate, such as stagnant pools of water,
  uncovered foods and gardens where flowers are in bloom.
  -- Avoid dressing your child in clothing with bright colors or flowery prints.
  -- To remove a visible stinger from skin, gently scrape it off horizontally with a credit card
  or your fingernail.
  -- Combination sunscreen/insect repellent products should be avoided because
  sunscreen needs to be reapplied every two hours, but the insect repellent should not be
  -- Insect repellents containing DEET are most effective against ticks, which can transmit
  Lyme Disease, and mosquitoes, which can transmit West Nile Virus and other viruses.
  -- The current CDC and AAP recommendation for children over 2 months of age is to use
  30 percent DEET. DEET should not be used on children under 2 months of age.
  -- The concentration of DEET in products may range from less than 10 percent to over 30
  percent. Ten percent DEET only protects for about 30 minutes – inadequate for most
  -- The concentration of DEET varies significantly from product to product, so read the
  label of any product you purchase. Children should wash off repellents when back
            Playground Safety
 Playgrounds should have loose-fill materials including rubber,
    sand, woodchips or bark to a depth of at least 9 inches which
    should be installed at least 6 feet from all equipment in all
   Swing seats should be made of soft materials such as rubber,
    plastic or canvas
   Make sure children cannot reach any moving parts that might
    pinch or trap any body part
   Make sure metal slides are cool to prevent children’s legs from
    getting burned
   Avoid home trampolines; Not recommended by AAP
   Supervise children on home playground equipment to maintain
                        Bicycle Safety
 Buy a helmet that meets the standards of the Consumer Product Safety
    Commission (CPSC)
      Check the inside label
   Bike helmets are very protective in head first falls at fairly high speeds and
    are light and well-ventilated for comfort
   Helmets meeting safety standards are available at bicycle shops, discount
    stores and toy stores in adult, children’s and toddler sizes
   Hard shell helmets are better than soft shell because they have a hard outer
    shell of plastic and fiberglass providing a shield against penetration of
    sharp objects
   Helmets and bike traveling are not recommended for infants < 1 year since
    they have a relatively weak neck structure and are not a good fit for a
   A helmet that has been through a serious crash should no longer be used;
    If you are unsure it is usable throw it away
                 Insect Stings
 Wrap ice in a cloth and apply to skin to decrease
 Use calamine lotion for itching (Consult with MD
  before using antihistamine creams such as Benadryl
  and Cortaid on children)
 ER visit if hives or spreading rash
 Call 911 if child starts coughing or tongue and lips
  begin to swell
 Run burn under cool water to bring temp of skin down– skin can keep
   Cover with clean, dry gauze and bandage
   Use infant’s or children’s acetaminophen or ibuprofen for pain
   Consult with MD for any burns > 2 inches in diameter
   Seek medical attention for burns involving mouth, nose or airway.
   DO NOT put butter or vasoline on burn—could introduce bacteria or
    seal in heat
   DO NOT break open blisters– can lead to infection
   DO NOT put ice on a burn– can decrease blood flow and cause >
 If your child ingests something questionable and is
  awake and alert call 1-800-222-1222
 If you do not know what your child ingested or if pills
  are missing from a bottle, bring pill bottle or any
  remnants with you to hospital.
 Call 911 if your child is unconscious, seizing or having
  difficulty breathing
 Don’t give Ipecac syrup or activated charcoal– No
  longer recommended by AAP
                Head Injuries
 Apply an ice pack wrapped in a cloth
 Call MD if child is inconsolable, loses consciousness,
  cannot keep her balance or seems “off”.
 Go to E.R. if child vomits, has unequal or fixed pupils,
  or is lethargic.
 Don’t move your child if he falls and goes unconscious.
  If there is a spine injury this may cause more damage.
                  Works Cited
 “Summer Safety Tips.” 1 June 2009. Available:
 “About Bicycle Helmets: The Injury Prevention Program
  (TIPP).” 1 June 2009.
 “Prepare for a safe summer.” 1 June 2009. Available:
 “Emergency First Aid for Babies and Toddlers.” 18 June

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